Article

Effects of Modulated VHF Fields on the Central Nervous System

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Abstract

Intracranial injection of Ca**2** plus or Mg**2** plus left bracket 20 mu 1, 40 mM right bracket in chronically implanted neonatal chicks resulted in an almost immediate synchronization of the hyperstriatal EEG, accompanied by behavioral depression. During successive testing days, the animals appeared to recover behaviorally but never showed any sustained EEG arousal. By contrast, animals treated with sodium chloride recovered completely within the first hour after the injection. The chick forebrain, being so highly sensitive to small perturbations of the extracellular concentrations of either divalent cations, was therefore chosen for investigating, in vitro, the possible interactions between extracellular weak voltage gradients, induced by vhf radiations, and ionic movements in cerebral tissue. In the present experiment, **4**5Ca**2** plus fluxes from irradiated brains are compared at various frequencies of amplitude modulation of the carrier wave.

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... In numerous cases of induced biological effects by complex RF EMFs modulated by ELFs, it has been found that the modulation (ELF) and not the carrier (RF) is responsible for the recorded effects. In addition, it has been repeatedly found that pulsing RF EMFs with ELF pulse-repetition rates are more active biologically than continuous (non-pulsed) fields of identical other parameters (1)(2)(3)(4)(5)44,45,47,(151)(152)(153)(154)(155)(156)(157)(158)(159). These findings are in direct agreement with the described mechanism. ...
... Pall (190), in a review of EMF-bioeffects studies with calcium channel blockers, noted a connection between voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) and NO • /ONOOoverproduction. This verified earlier observations of EMF-induced effects on intracellular calcium concentrations, and the unique role of VGCCs (1,(151)(152)(153)191,192). ...
... The information is always contained in the ELF signals that modulate the RF (4). Significant experimental evidence shows that the bioactive parameters in a complex signal are its ELF components, and that non-modulated and non-pulsed RF signals alone do not usually induce biological effects (4,44,45,(151)(152)(153)(154)(155)(156)(157)(158)(159), apart from heating when they possess high enough frequency and intensity (128,(168)(169)(170). Therefore, the present study suggests that the vast majority of non-thermal effects attributed till now to various types of RF EMF-exposure, are actually due to their ELF/ULF components. ...
Article
Full-text available
Exposure of animals/biological samples to human‑made electromagnetic fields (EMFs), especially in the extremely low frequency (ELF) band, and the microwave/radio frequency (RF) band which is always combined with ELF, may lead to DNA damage. DNA damage is connected with cell death, infertility and other pathologies, including cancer. ELF exposure from high‑voltage power lines and complex RF exposure from wireless communication antennas/devices are linked to increased cancer risk. Almost all human‑made RF EMFs include ELF components in the form of modulation, pulsing and random variability. Thus, in addition to polarization and coherence, the existence of ELFs is a common feature of almost all human‑made EMFs. The present study reviews the DNA damage and related effects induced by human‑made EMFs. The ion forced‑oscillation mechanism for irregular gating of voltage‑gated ion channels on cell membranes by polarized/coherent EMFs is extensively described. Dysfunction of ion channels disrupts intracellular ionic concentrations, which determine the cell's electrochemical balance and homeostasis. The present study shows how this can result in DNA damage through reactive oxygen species/free radical overproduction. Thus, a complete picture is provided of how human‑made EMF exposure may indeed lead to DNA damage and related pathologies, including cancer. Moreover, it is suggested that the non‑thermal biological effects attributed to RF EMFs are actually due to their ELF components.
... For example, Bawin et al. (1975) studied the efflux of 45 Ca 2+ ions from chicken brain tissue irradiated by an amplitude-modulated (AM) 0.5-35 Hz radiation of 147 MHz. The efflux increment peaked at 20 % at a modulation frequency of 16 Hz, as shown in Fig. 5.10. ...
... This prediction (Binhi, 1999c) can be verified experimentally. Figure 5.10 shows the experimental data (Bawin et al., 1975) that have not been interpreted in the literature. It also plots a calculation with the interference model. ...
... A qualitative agreement between theory and experiment is evident. (Bawin et al., 1975) on 45 Ca 2+ efflux from brain tissue and a theory describing the behavior of these ions in the field HDC = 50 µT, Ξ = ΩcT = 20. ...
Book
People are immersed in electromagnetic fields from such sources as power lines, domestic appliances, mobile phones, and even electrical storms. All living beings sense electric fields, but the physical origins of the phenomenon are still unclear. Magnetobiology considers the effects of electromagnetic fields on living organisms. It provides a comprehensive review of relevant experimental data and theoretical concepts, and discusses all major modern hypotheses on the physical nature of magnetobiological effects. It also highlights some problems that have yet to be solved and points out new avenues for research. Why do some people feel unwell during a lightning storm? Why is there a correlation between the level of electromagnetic background and the incidence of cancer? Why do so many medical centers use electromagnetic exposures to treat a wide variety of disorders in humans? The international scientific community is extremely interested in a theory of magnetobiology and the answers to these and other questions, as evidenced by the growing number of research associations in the United States, Europe, and other parts of the world. The World Health Organization (WHO) has named electromagnetic contamination in occupational and residential areas as a stress factor for human beings. This book stands out among recent texts on magnetobiology because it draws on a strong foundation of empirical and theoretical evidence to explain the various effects of magnetic fields on the human body. It contains the first comprehensive collection of experimental data bearing physical information, frequency and amplitude/power spectra, and original research data on how electromagnetic fields interfere with ions and molecules inside the proteins of living organisms. .Introduction is written so that it will be understandable to a wide scientific community regardless of their specialisation .First comprehensive collection of experimental data bearing physical information, frequency and amplitude/power spectra .Original theoretical research data on the interference of ions and molecules inside proteins .Appendix covers physical questions most relevant for magnetobiology. In particular there is an original exposition of the magnetic resonance basic principles
... It was supposed that the amplitude and frequency of an AC MF, or the shape and frequency of pulses for pulsed action, are in themselves sufficient to completely characterize the magnetic conditions involved. Studies of amplitude dependences were in turn restrained by our intuitive understanding of the resonance mechanism for MF reception by biological objects where the main parameter is the field frequency, although amplitude-frequency windows in EMF biological effects were observed by Bawin et al. (1975), Bawin and Adey (1976), and Blackman et al. (1979). Plekhanov (1990), who has reviewed the impressive body of experimental evidence due to the Tomsk group of magnetobiologists, also points to the existence of MF effectiveness windows. ...
... Kislovsky (1971) supposed that calcium plays an important role in biological effects of EMFs. The works of Bawin et al. (1975) and Bawin and Adey (1976) seem to have been the first assays to reveal a connection between EMF biological effects and calcium ions. They studied the rate of calcium ions efflux from brain tissues under low-frequency, RF, and microwave EMFs. ...
... Interestingly, the opposite effect of calcium efflux rate growth was observed by Bawin et al. (1975) upon exposure to a modulated EMF of high frequency, 147 MHz. An effectiveness window near a frequency of 16 Hz was registered at frequency modulation scanning in the low-frequency range. ...
Book
People are immersed in electromagnetic fields from such sources as power lines, domestic appliances, mobile phones, and even electrical storms. All living beings sense electric fields, but the physical origins of the phenomenon are still unclear. Magnetobiology considers the effects of electromagnetic fields on living organisms. It provides a comprehensive review of relevant experimental data and theoretical concepts, and discusses all major modern hypotheses on the physical nature of magnetobiological effects. It also highlights some problems that have yet to be solved and points out new avenues for research. Why do some people feel unwell during a lightning storm? Why is there a correlation between the level of electromagnetic background and the incidence of cancer? Why do so many medical centers use electromagnetic exposures to treat a wide variety of disorders in humans? The international scientific community is extremely interested in a theory of magnetobiology and the answers to these and other questions, as evidenced by the growing number of research associations in the United States, Europe, and other parts of the world. The World Health Organization (WHO) has named electromagnetic contamination in occupational and residential areas as a stress factor for human beings. This book stands out among recent texts on magnetobiology because it draws on a strong foundation of empirical and theoretical evidence to explain the various effects of magnetic fields on the human body. It contains the first comprehensive collection of experimental data bearing physical information, frequency and amplitude/power spectra, and original research data on how electromagnetic fields interfere with ions and molecules inside the proteins of living organisms. .Introduction is written so that it will be understandable to a wide scientific community regardless of their specialisation .First comprehensive collection of experimental data bearing physical information, frequency and amplitude/power spectra .Original theoretical research data on the interference of ions and molecules inside proteins .Appendix covers physical questions most relevant for magnetobiology. In particular there is an original exposition of the magnetic resonance basic principles
... It is important to note that except for the RF/microwave carrier frequency, Extremely Low Frequencies -ELFs (0-3000 Hz) are always present in all telecommunication EMFs in the form of pulsing and modulation. There is significant evidence indicating that the effects of telecommunication EMFs on living organisms are mainly due to the included ELFs [29,30,[85][86][87][88][89][90][91]. For example, Frei et al [87] found that a 2.8 GHz RF EMF pulsed on 500 Hz was significantly more effective in increasing heart rate in rats than the corresponding continuous wave (CW) (un-pulsed) RF 2.8 GHz EMF with the same average intensity and exposure duration. ...
... Moreover, ELF EMFs alone are found independently to be bioactive, as are RF EMFs modulated or pulsed by ELFs [92][93][94]. Bawin and Adey [92] found that the ELF sinusoidal signals used previously to modulate a RF carrier CW EMF [85,86] induced alone (without the RF carrier) alterations in Ca 2+ concentration in chicken and cat brain cells as did the modulated RF EMF, while the RF carrier alone (un-modulated) was ineffective. ...
... Comparison studies between different EMFs on the same biological model/endpoint under the same conditions and procedures are rare in the scientific literature, in spite of the fact that they can be very useful in drawing conclusions on the bioactivity of the different physical parameters between EMFs. Such studies are those already discussed above [29,30,[85][86][87][88][89][90][91] which suggested that the ELF pulsing and modulation is mainly responsible for the biological effects of the modulated (information carrying) RF EMFs and not the RF carrier itself. This observation is of great importance in terms of protection/safety especially in the case of modern types of microwave/RF telecommunication EMFs all of which increasingly employ ELF pulsing (and modulation) in order to increase the density/amount of transmitted information (see 4.3). ...
... Then a report appeared, by Bawin et al. [3], that an RF field, at intensities too low to cause heating in the biological sample, and only at certain amplitude modulation (AM) frequencies, could cause changes in calcium ion release from avian brain tissue exposed in a test tube. Further, they reported that there was a narrow range of radiation intensities that was effective. ...
... In our early studies using 147-MHz radiation, AM at ELF, to replicate the results of the Bawin et al. [3] study, we noticed but did not study the influence of sample spacing on the width of the power-density response-window [4]. When we studied the influence of 50-MHz radiation, using the same AM ELF frequencies, and also refined our system to examine the spacing of dielectrically equivalent samples around a four brain-sample configuration, we discovered experimentally [14] and theoretically demonstrated [15] that there can be unintentional interactions between closely spaced samples that can produce broadening of the widths of power-density windows as sample spacing narrowed. ...
... This paper has been cited 17 times, but it has had little if any impact on those scientists who doubt that the effect can occur without any discernable impact on doubters. My conclusion is the most scientifically useful way to resolve nonconfirmatory results is similar to the actions we took in our attempt to replicate the publication of Bawin et al. [3], described previously, combined with the suggestion made in Section 3.6. ...
... A number of biological effects induced by man-made (EMFs) and radiations of different frequencies including digital mobile telephony and microwave radiations, have already been reported and documented by many research groups. These include changes in intracellular ionic concentrations, changes in the synthesis rate of different biomolecules, changes in cell proliferation rates, changes in the reproductive capacity of animals, changes in gene expression and even DNA damage and cell death, , (Aitken et al 2005;Bawin and Adey 1976;Bawin et al. 1975;1978;Barteri et al 2005;Belyaev et al 2005;Blackman et al 1980;1989;Caraglia et al 2005;Diem et al 2005;Dutta et al 1984;Kwee and Raskmark 1998;Velizarov et al 1999;Magras and Xenos 2001;Xenos and Magras 2003;Panagopoulos et al 2004;2007a;2007b;Lai and Singh 1995;1996;Remondini et al 2006;Nylund and Leszczynski 2006;Diem et al 2005;Salford et al 2003). At the same time, some epidemiological studies are starting more and more to indicate a connection between the use Biological and Health Effects of Mobile Telephony Radiations 35 of cellular mobile phones and certain types of cancer, (Hardell et al 2007a;Kundi 2004). ...
... In those pioneer experiments, RF radiation with carrier frequencies 147 and 450 MHz, modulated by sinusoidal ELF signals 0-40 Hz, was found to decrease Ca 2+ concentration in chicken brain cells. The effect was found to become maximum at modulation frequencies 6-20 Hz and at intensities 0.6-1 mW/cm 2 , (Bawin et al 1975;1978). Non-modulated RF signals were not found to be as bioactive as modulated ones by ELFs and additionally, these effects were found to be non-linearly depended on radiation intensity and frequency, exhibiting "windows" within which the phenomena appeared and then disappeared for values outside, (Blackman et al, 1980;1989). ...
... Although intensity windows on the bio-effects of RF radiations have been recorded since many years, (Bawin et al 1975;1978;Blackman et al, 1980), there is still no widely accepted explanation for their existence. ...
... Finally, the dramatic decrease of the insect's reproductive capacity caused by the RF-GSM field in our experiments, seems to agree with the significant decreases in cell proliferation rate, [34], [62] and in the cytosolic concentration of Ca 2+ ions, [4], [6], [14], [10], found by other experimenters. ...
... These biochemical processes, are strongly affected, by changes in cytosolic calcium ion concentration and such changes can be induced by electromagnetic fields, [7], [43], [5], [38], [35], [52], [65], [4], [6], [10], [11], [14], [37]. ...
... Especially for the GSM field, it is shown that RF fields modulated by extremely low frequencies, (ELF), decrease cytosolic calcium ion concentration and in some experiments, this effect was maximum, for power densities between 0.6 and 1 mW/cm 2 , [4], [6]. GSM signals are RF carrier signals, pulsed on ELF and the measured power density in our experiments was within these values, (0.618  0.070 mW/cm 2 ). ...
... Calcium fluxes, which were observed in response to AMRF at 147 MHz, with low modulation frequencies around 16 Hz, were considered a key effect [14][15][16]. The various biological endpoints of electromagnetic radiation in the microwave range from mobile phones have also been investigated [17][18][19]. ...
... The existence of extraordinary modulation frequencies has been proposed by others in the past [10,11,14,15,[36][37][38] and might be the subject of future studies. In addition, further studies are required regarding the required number, duration, and interval of treatments to optimize the non-temperature-dependent anticancer effects. ...
Article
Full-text available
Non-temperature-induced effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF) have been controversial for decades. Here, we established measurement techniques to prove their existence by investigating energy deposition in tumor cells under RF exposure and upon adding amplitude modulation (AM) (AMRF). Using a preclinical device LabEHY-200 with a novel in vitro applicator, we analyzed the power deposition and system parameters for five human colorectal cancer cell lines and measured the apoptosis rates in vitro and tumor growth inhibition in vivo in comparison to water bath heating. We showed enhanced anticancer effects of RF and AMRF in vitro and in vivo and verified the non-temperature-induced origin of the effects. Furthermore, apoptotic enhancement by AM was correlated with cell membrane stiffness. Our findings not only provide a strategy to significantly enhance non-temperature-induced anticancer cell effects in vitro and in vivo but also provide a perspective for a potentially more effective tumor therapy.
... In this work, we operated with the following two main assumptions: the strength of the modulation of the interfering waveforms is the main driving mechanism for TIS, as postulated by [13], and that amplitude modulated EM waves can stimulate the neurons, as observed by [33][34][35]. However, further investigations are needed to fully understand the driving mechanisms for TIS [36] and EMvelop stimulation on neurons. ...
... For unmodulated EM waves the electric field intensities needed to excite the brain is very large [60], that are well-beyond the SAR and thermal limits in the IEEE standard [31], which supports our thesis since we do not want the high frequency EM waves generated by each individual antenna array to excite the brain. On the other hand, multiple references have pointed out that amplitude-modulated EM waves with a much lower field strength can influence the neural activities in animal brain models [33][34][35]. Additionally, we have found several examples in literature, mostly for pulsed-modulated EM waves to excite the animal brain models [81,82] as well as several works conducted on human subjects have also highlighted the effects of pulse width modulated cell phone radiations on the brain [77,[83][84][85][86][87][88][89][90][91][92][93][94]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: Recently, the temporal interference stimulation (TIS) technique for focal noninvasive deep brain stimulation (DBS) was reported. However, subsequent computational modeling studies on the human brain have shown that while TIS achieves higher focality of electric fields than state-of-the-art methods, further work is needed to improve the stimulation strength. Here, we investigate the idea of EMvelop stimulation, a minimally invasive DBS setup using temporally interfering gigahertz (GHz) electromagnetic (EM) waves. At GHz frequencies, we can create antenna arrays at the scale of a few centimeters or less that can be endocranially implanted to enable longitudinal stimulation and circumvent signal attenuation due to the scalp and skull. Furthermore, owing to the small wavelength of GHz EM waves, we can optimize both amplitudes and phases of the EM waves to achieve high intensity and focal stimulation at targeted regions within the safety limit for exposure to EM waves. Approach: We develop a simulation framework investigating the propagation of GHz EM waves generated by line current antenna elements and the corresponding heat generated in the brain tissue. We propose two optimization flows to identify antenna current amplitudes and phases for either maximal intensity or maximal focality transmission of the interfering electric fields with EM waves safety constraint. Main results: A representative result of our study is that with two endocranially implanted arrays of size 4.2 cm × 4.7 cm each, we can achieve an intensity of 12 V/m with a focality of 3.6 cm at a target deep in the brain tissue. Significance: In this proof-of-principle study, we show that the idea of EMvelop stimulation merits further investigation as it can be a minimally invasive way of stimulating deep brain targets and offers benefits not shared by prior methodologies of electrical or magnetic stimulation.
... This debate has continued since the observation of "RF hearing effects" in the early 1960's 5,34,35 . However, there have been few direct studies of the instantaneous (and potentially nonthermal) effects of RF exposure on neuronal activity 13,14,26,27,[36][37][38][39] . A particular challenge for such studies is to identify a technique for monitoring neuronal activity that is not affected by RF interference. ...
Article
Full-text available
As the use of Radio Frequency (RF) technologies increases, the impact of RF radiation on neurological function continues to receive attention. Whether RF radiation can modulate ongoing neuronal activity by non-thermal mechanisms has been debated for decades. However, the interactions between radiated energy and metal-based neural probes during experimentation could impact neural activity, making interpretation of the results difficult. To address this problem, we modified a miniature 1-photon Ca2+ imaging device to record interference-free neural activity and compared the results to those acquired using metal-containing silicon probes. We monitored the neuronal activity of awake rodent-brains under RF energy exposure (at 950 MHz) and in sham control paradigms. Spiking activity was reliably affected by RF energy in metal containing systems. However, we did not observe neuronal responses using metal-free optical recordings at induced local electric field strengths up to 230 V/m. Our results suggest that RF exposure higher than levels that are allowed by regulatory limits in real-life scenarios do not affect neuronal activity. Omid Yaghmazadeh and colleagues explore non-thermal responses to RF radiation in live rodent brains using electrophysiology and 1-photon Ca2+ imaging. They saw no impact of RF energy in metal-free recordings at levels higher than regulatory limits.
... Frequency-dependent effects caused by particular modulation frequencies on an RF carrier were described by two research groups more than 40 years ago [128,129]. Both described a calcium release in brain tissue caused by AM-RF of 147 MHz with an ELF of 10-20 Hz at low intensities of $1 W/kg; in a control without AM, they found no effect. ...
Article
Full-text available
The temperature-independent effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF) have been controversial for decades. Here, we critically analyze the available literature on non-thermal effects of radiofrequency (RF) and microwave EMF. We present a literature review of preclinical and clinical data on non-thermal antiproliferative effects of various EMF applications, including conventional RF hyperthermia (HT, cRF-HT). Further, we suggest and evaluate plausible biophysical and electrophysiological models to decipher non-thermal antiproliferative membrane effects. Available preclinical and clinical data provide sufficient evidence for the existence of non-thermal antiproliferative effects of exposure to cRF-HT, and in particular, amplitude modulated (AM)-RF-HT. In our model, transmembrane ion channels function like RF rectifiers and low-pass filters. cRF-HT induces ion fluxes and AM-RF-HT additionally promotes membrane vibrations at specific resonance frequencies, which explains the non-thermal antiproliferative membrane effects via ion disequilibrium (especially of Ca²⁺) and/or resonances causing membrane depolarization, the opening of certain (especially Ca²⁺) channels, or even hole formation. AM-RF-HT may be tumor-specific owing to cancer-specific ion channels and because, with increasing malignancy, membrane elasticity parameters may differ from that in normal tissues. Published literature suggests that non-thermal antiproliferative effects of cRF-HT are likely to exist and could present a high potential to improve future treatments in oncology.
... Since the first studies of the 1960s triggered by the increased interest in manned spaceflights to the Moon and development of modern magnetic low-field producing equipment, it has been demonstrated that extremely low MFs affect living organisms (Conley, 1970). Attention to the effects of MFs on living organisms was especially raised after publication of the study by Bawin et al. (1975). Those authors were the first to observe calcium-ion efflux from brain tissue under a 16 Hz amplitude-modulated 147 MHz carrier and, thus, in the region of brain wave frequencies (unmodulated fields did not induce any significant changes in calcium-ion efflux). ...
Article
The order of magnitude of increased growth, multiplication rate, and decreased sporulation of Bacillus subtilis after exposure to nanotesla magnetic fields (MFs) relative to control samples were observed experimentally. Earth's total magnetic field intensity was reduced from 47.9 ± 0.4 μT to cover the range from 97.5 ± 1.7 nT to 1115 ± 158 nT in eight subsequent experiments by using three pairs of Helmholtz coils combined with Mu-metal shielding. The growth, multiplication rate, sporulation, and potassium content were measured in the probe and control containing B. subtilis cultures after 24 h of exposure to nanotesla and Earth's magnetic fields, respectively. The observed effect is discussed with regard to its possible repercussions on Earth's living species during geomagnetic reversals that occurred when the magnetic field was much weaker than the field that exists today. In addition, effects on future manned voyages into deep space, an environment with reduced magnetic field intensity, are considered.
... This review is thus concerned with RF fields below the safety guideline levels, where a negligible temperature rise would be expected. The first article presenting evidence that weak RF fields could specifically influence the distribution of Ca 2þ in brain cells appeared around 1975 (5). Discussion continues to the present day that this ion could represent the key to understanding the possibility of ''non-thermal'' interactions (2). ...
Article
The recent rollout of 5G telecommunications systems has spawned a renewed call to re-examine the possibility of so-called "non-thermal" harmful effects of radiofrequency (RF) radiation. The possibility of calcium being affected by low-level RF has been the subject of research for nearly 50 years and there have been recent suggestions that voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) are "extraordinarily sensitive" to ambient RF fields. This article examines the feasibility of particularly modulated RF coupling to gating mechanisms in VGCCs and also reviews studies from the literature from the last 50 years for consistency of outcome. We conclude that the currents induced by fields at the ICNIRP guideline limits are many orders of magnitude below those needed to affect gating, and there would need to be a biological mechanism for detection and rectification of the extremely-low-frequency (ELF) modulations, which has not been demonstrated. Overall, experimental studies have not validated that RF affects Ca2+ transport into or out of cells.
... In comparison, wavelengths of near-ultraviolet radiation are known to be ionizing radiation that is extremely dangerous to biological products in which they associate, such as X-rays, gamma rays and also sunlight [25], [26]; This can be shown, the ionizing portion of the electromagnetic spectrum is not comprised of radio waves and microwaves that 5G apply. The electromagnetic range is the complete frequency-and wavelength distribution of electromagnetic radiation [23], [27]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The rapid dissemination of new coronaviruses worldwide in 2019-2020 has had a significant effect on global economic and social growth. Those exchanges have featured numerous conspiracies spread by patrons on social media. Among them, 5G has been related by a common hypothesis to the dissemination of COVID-19, which has contributed to confusion and the destruction of 5G towers in the UK. Understanding the drivers of false news and swift strategies aimed at isolating and rebating disinformation is crucial to combating it. This paper sought a systematic literature review to save, classify, and interpret the evidence for this research. A total of 95 articles have been successfully reviewed, consisting of 50 Scopus journals and 45 conference papers ranging from the publication years (2014 to 2020). The primary purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of electromagnetic fields on the human body and to clarify health laws in general public and industrial radiation. The knowledge on the electromagnetic field was obtained using instruments to determine the sensitivity amount of some of the home appliances in the magnetic and electric fields.
... A few investigations revealed that in vitro microwave effects may be on a very basic level impacted by ELF sufficiency guideline. Exceptional introduction of chick cerebrum tissue toward microwaves (147 MHz) sinusoidally amplitude balanced at frequencies some place in the scope of 6 and 20 Hz, provoked the appearance of calcium particles into the extracellular partition (Bawin et al., 1975;Blackman et al., 1979). ...
Chapter
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With the expanding use of wireless cellular networks, concerns have been communicated about the possible interaction of electromagnetic radiation with the human life, explicitly, the mind and brain. Mobile phones emanate radio frequency waves, a type of non-ionizing radiation, which can be absorbed by tissues nearest to where the telephone is kept. The effects on neuronal electrical activity, energy metabolism, genomic responses, neurotransmitter balance, blood–brain barrier permeability, mental psychological aptitude, sleep, and diverse cerebrum conditions including brain tumors are assessed. Health dangers may likewise develop from use of cellular communication, for instance, car accidents while utilizing the device while driving. These indirect well-being impacts surpass the immediate common troubles and should be looked into in more detail later on. In this chapter, we outline the possible biological impacts of EMF introduction on human brain.
... In many cases of radio-frequency (RF) signals modulated by ELF signals, it is found that the modulation (ELF) and not the carrier (RF) is responsible for the biological effects. Moreover it has been repeatedly shown that RF EMFs modulated by ELF pulses are more bioactive than continuous fields (without pulse-modulation) of the same rest characteristics (Bawin et al., 1975(Bawin et al., , 1978Bawin and Adey, 1976;Frei et al., 1988;Bolshakov and Alekseev, 1992;Goodman et al., 1995;Penafiel et al., 1997;Huber et al., 2002;Höytö et al., 2008;Franzellitti et al., 2010;Campisi et al., 2010;Panagopoulos et al., 2013a;Panagopoulos, 2019). These facts are in agreement with the Ion Forced-Oscillation mechanism. ...
Article
It is documented that a few days or weeks before major Earthquakes (EQs) there are changes in animal behavior within distances up to 500 km from the seismic epicenter. At the same time Seismic Electric Signals (SES), geomagnetic and ionospheric perturbations, are detected within similar distances. SES consist of single unipolar pulses, and/or groups of such pulses called “SES activities” with an average frequency between successive pulses on the order of ~0.01 Hz and electric field intensity on the order of ~10-5-10-4 V/m (Frazer-Smith et al 1990; Rikitake 1998; Varotsos et al 1993; 2011; 2019; Hayakawa et al 2013; Grant et al 2015). We show that the SES activities can be sensed by living organisms through the “Ion Forced-Oscillation Mechanism” for the action of Electromagnetic Fields (EMFs) on cells, according to which polarized EMFs can cause irregular gating of electro-sensitive ion channels on the cell membranes with consequent disruption of the cell electrochemical balance (Panagopoulos et al 2000; 2002; 2015). This can be sensed by sensitive animals as discomfort in cases of weak and transient exposures, and may even lead to DNA damage and serious health implications in cases of intense exposure conditions (as in certain cases of man-made EMF exposures). Moreover, we show that the geomagnetic and ionospheric perturbations cannot be sensed through this mechanism. The same mechanism has explained meteoropathy, the sensing of upcoming thunderstorms by sensitive individuals, through the action of the EMFs of lightning discharges (Panagopoulos and Balmori 2017). The present study shows that centuries-long anecdotal rumors of animals sensing intense upcoming EQs and displaying unusual behavior, lately documented by systematic studies, are now explained for the first time on the basis of the electromagnetic nature of all living organisms, and the electromagnetic signals emitted prior to EQs.
... Within the bioelectromagnetic science society, certain theories on how natural and artificial ELF-PEMF may induce cellular effects on the molecular level are discussed, for example, the molecular gyroscope model [12], Lorentz models [13,14], DNA antenna model [15], radical pair model [16], and ion cyclotron resonance [17]. Cells in the human body are continuously exposed to electrical charges (e.g., Na 2+ , K + , or Cl − ion gradients, which regulate cellular membrane potentials) involved in a manifold of cellular processes [18]. ...
Article
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The finding that alterations in electrical potential play an important role in the mechanical stimulation of the bone provoked hype that noninvasive extremely low frequency pulsed electromagnetic fields (ELF-PEMF) can be used to support healing of bone and osteochondral defects. This resulted in the development of many ELF-PEMF devices for clinical use. Due to the resulting diversity of the ELF-PEMF characteristics regarding treatment regimen, and reported results, exposure to ELF-PEMFs is generally not among the guidelines to treat bone and osteochondral defects. Notwithstanding, here we show that there is strong evidence for ELF-PEMF treatment. We give a short, confined overview of in vitro studies investigating effects of ELF-PEMF treatment on bone cells, highlighting likely mechanisms. Subsequently, we summarize prospective and blinded studies, investigating the effect of ELF-PEMF treatment on acute bone fractures and bone fracture non-unions, osteotomies, spinal fusion, osteoporosis, and osteoarthritis. Although these studies favor the use of ELF-PEMF treatment, they likewise demonstrate the need for more defined and better controlled/monitored treatment modalities. However, to establish indication-oriented treatment regimen, profound knowledge of the underlying mechanisms in the sense of cellular pathways/events triggered is required, highlighting the need for more systematic studies to unravel optimal treatment conditions.
... Because of industrialization, characterized by an increasing production, distribution, and consumption of electricity, occupational exposure to ELF-MFs in the frequency range of 3 Hz to 300 Hz is common and many workers are occupationally exposed to these fields Jalilian, et al. [94]. Bawin, et al. [95]; Bawin and Adey [96] provided important initial findings of non-thermal ELF-MFs that Ca 2+ efflux from chick embryo brain tissue was influenced by ELF-MFs.Importantly, Blackman, et al. [97] later confirmed these results. An increased risk of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) in workers occupationally exposed to ELF-MFs were observed in Huss, et al. [21]. ...
... Differential expression t1:1 of several key genes and microRNAs modulating this pathway was confirmed in Huh7 cells (Supplemental Fig. S3b). Ca 2+ modulates several steps of this pathway [28], and we and others [29] have shown that Ca 2+ flux from brain tissue is enhanced upon exposure to RF EMF but only when modulated at specific frequencies, irrespective of the carrier frequency used (50,147, and 450 MHz) [30]. We therefore postulated that Ca 2+ is involved in HCCMF antiproliferative effects on HCC cells. ...
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Background: Administration of amplitude modulated 27·12 MHz radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (AM RF EMF) by means of a spoon-shaped applicator placed on the patient's tongue is a newly approved treatment for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The mechanism of action of tumour-specific AM RF EMF is largely unknown. Methods: Whole body and organ-specific human dosimetry analyses were performed. Mice carrying human HCC xenografts were exposed to AM RF EMF using a small animal AM RF EMF exposure system replicating human dosimetry and exposure time. We performed histological analysis of tumours following exposure to AM RF EMF. Using an agnostic genomic approach, we characterized the mechanism of action of AM RF EMF. Findings: Intrabuccal administration results in systemic delivery of athermal AM RF EMF from head to toe at levels lower than those generated by cell phones held close to the body. Tumour shrinkage results from differentiation of HCC cells into quiescent cells with spindle morphology. AM RF EMF targeted antiproliferative effects and cancer stem cell inhibiting effects are mediated by Ca2+ influx through Cav3·2 T-type voltage-gated calcium channels (CACNA1H) resulting in increased intracellular calcium concentration within HCC cells only. Interpretation: Intrabuccally-administered AM RF EMF is a systemic therapy that selectively block the growth of HCC cells. AM RF EMF pronounced inhibitory effects on cancer stem cells may explain the exceptionally long responses observed in several patients with advanced HCC. FUND: Research reported in this publication was supported by the National Cancer Institute's Cancer Centre Support Grant award number P30CA012197 issued to the Wake Forest Baptist Comprehensive Cancer Centre (BP) and by funds from the Charles L. Spurr Professorship Fund (BP). DWG is supported by R01 AA016852 and P50 AA026117.
... Terrestrial Trunked Radio (TETRA) is a telecommunications system widely adopted by police and other emergency services around the world with over 300,000 users in Great Britain (https://www. airwavesolutions.co.uk/airwave-in-action/the-emergency-button/). the report suggested that signal modulation around 16 Hz should be avoided if possible in future signal coding development, based on experimental findings from a small number of studies which suggested that there was increased calcium efflux from tissues and cells at this frequency (Bawin et al., 1975; Independent Expert Group on Mobile Phones (IEGMP), 2000). The Airwave Health Monitoring Study was established in 2004 in response to the Stewart report; it is a long-term occupational cohort study following up the health of police officers and staff across Great Britain in relation to TETRA use and other exposures (Elliott et al., 2014). ...
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Background: Terrestrial Trunked Radio (TETRA) is used for radiocommunications among the British police forces. Objectives: To investigate association of personal radio use and sickness absence among police officers and staff from the Airwave Health Monitoring Study. Methods: Participant-level sickness absence records for 26 forces were linked with personal radio use for 32,102 participants. We used multivariable logistic regression to analyse TETRA usage in year prior to enrolment and sickness absence (lasting more than 7 or 28 consecutive days) in the following year and a zero-inflated negative binomial model for analyses of number of sickness absence episodes of any duration ('spells') over the same period. In secondary analyses, we looked at an extended period of observation among a sub-cohort with linked data over time, using Cox proportional hazards regression. Results: Median personal radio use (year prior to enrolment) was 29.7 min per month (interquartile range 7.5, 64.7) among users. In the year following enrolment there were 25,655 sickness absence spells among 15,248 participants. There were similar risks of sickness absence lasting more than seven days among users and non-users, although among users risk was higher with greater use, odds ratio = 1.04 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02 to 1.06) per doubling of radio use. There was no association for sickness absence of more than 28 days. For sickness absence spells, risk was lower among users than non-users (incidence rate ratio = 0.91; 95% CI 0.75 to 1.11), again with higher risk among users for greater radio use. There was no association between radio use and sickness absence in secondary analyses. Discussion: There were similar or lower risks of sickness absence in TETRA radio users compared with non-users. Among users, the higher risk of sickness absence with greater radio use may reflect working pattern differences among police personnel rather than effects of radiofrequency exposure.
... Indeed, laboratory and epidemiological investigations to elucidate possible associations of EMFs with a variety of health effects have become extensive. For example, reports of such investigations have addressed possible field strength associations with immunological effects (Lyle et al. 1983), neurological effects (Adey, Bawin, and Lawrence 1982;Bawin, Kaczmarek, and Adey 1975;Blackman et al. 1980;Dutta et al. 1984;Graham et al. 2000;Lai, Horita, and Guy 1994), adverse reproductive outcomes (Meyer, Aldrich, and Easterly 1989;Shaw and Croen 1993), adverse developmental effects (Berman et al. 1990;Hsu and Li 1994;Nelson et al. 1994;Nelson, Snyder, and Shaw 2001), cancer (Chen et al. 2000;Coleman et al. 1989;Dolk et al. 1997a, b;Feychting and Ahlbom 1993;Fulton et al. 1980;Goldsmith 1997;Hocking et al. 1996;Kaune et al. 1987;London et al. 1991;Myers et al. 1990;Repacholi 1997;Repacholi et al. 1997;Salford et al. 1993;Savitz et al. 1988;Severson et al. 1988;Tomenius 1986;Wertheimer and Leeper 1979, 1982Youngston et al. 1991), and cancer promotion (Adey 1990;Anderson 2000;Balcer-Kubiczek and Harrison 1991;Beniashvili, Bilanishvili, and Menabde 1991;Cleary, Liu, and Merchant 1990;L€ oscher et al. 1993;McLean 1993;Mevissen et al. 1993;Stuchly et al. 1992). ...
Article
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Telecommunication generates electromagnetic fields (EMFs) at radio and microwave frequencies. Transmitters have proliferated with siting of wireless communication networks, often co-located among other transmitters. ‘Cell’ phones also have proliferated, representing small transmitters used in contact with human heads, and stored on human bodies. Telecommunications equipment is ubiquitous, and EMF exposure prolonged, raising the issue of possible health risks. Such risks, if any, must be managed. For example, epidemiology studies reported higher exposure to analog cell phone EMFs among brain cancer patients than among controls, but those risks were ‘managed’ via replacement of analog phones with today’s digital phones, which have not been associated with human cancer. Challenges remain, recently from rodent bioassays that show dose-related association of lifetime exposure to cell-phone-type EMFs with heart schwannomas (cancers of schwann cells, which insulate nerve cells) in male rats, though not females. Human cancer risk, if any, remains to be characterized and quantified, which partly will depend upon whether EMFs indeed are non-ionizing as has been assumed, and whether a threshold or non-threshold (genotoxic) mechanism caused the cancers in the male rats. Health concerns have motivated further exposure reduction suggestions, and sometimes opposition to siting transmitters. Credible, objective explication of technical information to primarily non-technical audiences is necessary to support informed public participation and dispassionate weighing of telecommunications risks and benefits in community decision-making. Ultimately, experts and non-experts should adhere to the ‘precautionary principle’, requiring adoption of reasonably (but not excessively) pessimistic exposure and risk assumptions, whether or not they are likely to materialize.
... This potential decreases with increase in frequency [143]. Studies at low frequency radio fields of 5-25 Hz having low intensity have suggested changes in transmembrane flow of calcium ions [145] and signaling mechanisms that involve membrane receptors [146]. Exposure to low-level pulsed microwaves have been reported to affect brain neurochemistry and response to stress [147,148]. ...
Article
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This article presents a broad review on optical, radio-frequency (RF), microwave (MW), millimeter wave (mmW) and terahertz (THz) biosensors. Biomatter-wave interaction modalities are considered over a wide range of frequencies and applications such as detection of cancer biomarkers, biotin, neurotransmitters and heart rate are presented in detail. By treating biological tissue as a dielectric substance, having a unique dielectric signature, it can be characterized by frequency dependent parameters such as permittivity and conductivity. By observing the unique permittivity spectrum, cancerous cells can be distinguished from healthy ones or by measuring the changes in permittivity, concentration of medically relevant biomolecules such as glucose, neurotransmitters, vitamins and proteins, ailments and abnormalities can be detected. In case of optical biosensors, any change in permittivity is transduced to a change in optical properties such as photoluminescence, interference pattern, reflection intensity and reflection angle through techniques like quantum dots, interferometry, surface enhanced raman scattering or surface plasmon resonance. Conversely, in case of RF, MW, mmW and THz biosensors, capacitive sensing is most commonly employed where changes in permittivity are reflected as changes in capacitance, through components like interdigitated electrodes, resonators and microstrip structures. In this paper, interactions of EM waves with biomatter are considered, with an emphasis on a clear demarcation of various modalities, their underlying principles and applications.
... Although as explained, RF/microwave EMFs will be reflected more effectively by any metallic shield than the ELF EMFs, significant experimental evidence suggests that the most bioactive constituents of MT and related types of modern telecommunication EMFs are the ELF pulsing and modulation, not the RF carrier wave itself. In many experiments since the mid 1970's on many different biological endpoints, it is repeatedly shown that unmodulated continuous wave RF EMFs of different frequencies had little or no effect, while the same RF signals modulated by pulsed or sinusoidal ELF fields were bioactive (Bawin et al., 1975(Bawin et al., , 1978Frei et al., 1988;Bolshakov and Alekseev, 1992;Penafiel et al., 1997;Huber et al., 2002;Höytö et al., 2008;Franzellitti et al., 2010;Campisi et al., 2010). In addition, ELF EMFs alone (without any RF carrier) are found to be independently bioactive as are RF EMFs modulated or pulsed by ELFs (Bawin and Adey, 1976;Goodman et al., 1995;Panagopoulos et al., 2013). ...
... Differential expression t1:1 of several key genes and microRNAs modulating this pathway was confirmed in Huh7 cells (Supplemental Fig. S3b). Ca 2+ modulates several steps of this pathway [28], and we and others [29] have shown that Ca 2+ flux from brain tissue is enhanced upon exposure to RF EMF but only when modulated at specific frequencies, irrespective of the carrier frequency used (50,147, and 450 MHz) [30]. We therefore postulated that Ca 2+ is involved in HCCMF antiproliferative effects on HCC cells. ...
Article
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332 Background: Amplitude-modulated 27.12 MHz radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (AM RF EMF) delivered via a spoon-shaped antenna placed on the patient’s tongue result in shrinkage of the primary and metastatic tumors in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). (Costa FP, et al. Br J Cancer. 2011;105:640-648.) The mechanism by which AM RF EMF have direct antiproliferative effect and disruption of the mitotic spindle on cancer cells is largely unknown. (Zimmerman JW, et al. Br J Cancer. 2012;106:307-313.) Methods: We assessed the Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) level and distribution inside the human body. In vitro experiments with HCC cells were performed as previously described (Zimmerman). Immunodeficient mice were subcutaneously implanted with Huh-7 HCC cells or patient-derived xenografts (PDX). Mice were exposed to HCC-specific AM RF EMF using systems replicating human exposure levels and treatment duration. Tumor samples were examined for EMT and cell cycle markers. Results: Intrabuccal delivery results in whole-body absorption of AM RF EMF. Proliferation of hepatitis B positive and negative cell lines as well as HCC cancer stem cells (CSCs) are blocked by AM RF EMF through Cav 3.2 T-type voltage gated calcium channels (VGCC). Proliferation of HCC is inhibited in vivo and tumor shrinkage occurs by dedifferentiation of HCC cells into quiescent myofibroblasts while the growth of intestinal and blood marrow cells is unaltered. Conclusions: Whole-body SAR ranges from 0.2 to 1 mW/kg and is significantly below the international safety limits for human exposure. Intrabucally-administered AM RF EMF is a novel targeted therapy for systemic treatment of advanced HCC with minimal off target effects. Inhibition of HCC CSCs may explain the extremely long term survival (>5 years) of several patients with advanced HCC.
... In 2000, the UK Independent Expert Group on Mobile Phones (Stewart Report) suggested that as a precautionary measure signal modulation around 16 Hz should be avoided if possible in future signal coding development 2 based on experimental findings of increased brain calcium efflux associated with such frequencies in animal models. 3 To address this concern, the Home Office commissioned the Airwave Health Monitoring Study to assess possible long-term health effects of TETRA use among the British police. We present here the first report from the study of cancer risks associated with TETRA use. ...
Article
Background: Radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) from mobile phones have been classified as potentially carcinogenic. No study has investigated use of Terrestrial Trunked Radio (TETRA), a source of RF-EMF with wide occupational use, and cancer risks. Methods: We investigated association of monthly personal radio use and risk of cancer using Cox proportional hazards regression among 48,518 police officers and staff of the Airwave Health Monitoring Study in Great Britain. Results: During median follow-up of 5.9 years, 716 incident cancer cases were identified. Among users, the median of the average monthly duration of use in the year prior to enrolment was 30.5 min (inter-quartile range 8.1, 68.1). Overall, there was no association between personal radio use and risk of all cancers (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.98, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.93, 1.03). For head and neck cancers HR = 0.72 (95% CI: 0.30, 1.70) among personal radio users vs non-users, and among users it was 1.06 (95% CI: 0.91, 1.23) per doubling of minutes of personal radio use. Conclusions: With the limited follow-up to date, we found no evidence of association of personal radio use with cancer risk. Continued follow-up of the cohort is warranted.
... Although windows of increased bioactivity of RF radiations have been recorded for many years, (Bawin et al 1975;1978;Blackman et al, 1980;, there is still no widely accepted explanation for their existence. A novel explanation for the "window" effects is given later on in this chapter. ...
Chapter
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While different classes of biological effects of radiation used in modern telecommunications are already confirmed by different experimenters, a lot of contradictory results are also reported. Despite uncertainties, some of the recent results reporting effects show an intriguing agreement between them, although with different biological models and under different laboratory conditions. Such results of exceptional importance and mutual similarity are those reporting DNA damage or oxidative stress induction on reproductive cells of different organisms, resulting in decreased fertility and reproduction. This distinct similarity among results of different researchers makes unlikely the possibility that these results could be wrong. This chapter analyzes and resumes our experimental findings of DNA damage on insect reproductive cells by Global System for Mobile telecommunications (GSM) radiation, compares them with similar recent results on mammalian-human infertility and discusses the possible connection between these findings and other reports regarding tumour induction, symptoms of unwellness, or declines in bird and insect populations. A possible biochemical explanation of the reported effects at the cellular level is attempted. Since microwave radiation is non-ionizing and therefore unable to break chemical bonds, indirect ways of DNA damage are discussed, through enhancement of free radical and reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, or irregular release of hydrolytic enzymes. Such events can be initiated by alterations of intracellular ionic concentrations after irregular gating of electrosensitive channels on the cell membranes according to the Ion Forced-Vibration theory that we have previously proposed. This biophysical mechanism seems to be realistic, since it is able to explain all of the reported biological effects associated with exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMFs), including the so-called "windows" of increased bioactivity reported for many years but remaining unexplained so far, and recorded also in our recent experiments regarding GSM radiation exposure. The chapter also discusses an important dosimetry issue, regarding the use of Specific Absorption Rate (SAR), a quantity introduced to describe temperature increases within biological tissue (thermal effects), while the recorded biological effects in their vast majority are non-thermal. Finally the chapter attempts to propose some basic precautions and a different way of network design for mobile telephony base station antennas, in order to minimize the exposure of human population and reduce significantly the current exposure limits in order to account for the reported non thermal biological effects.
... The stimuli must be present for a certain minimum duration [91]. "Windows" were found for certain frequencies at cell and molecular levels: for the brain [92][93][94] and also for non-neural cells [95,96]. In human granulocytes, Sontag and Dertinger [97] investigated the liberation of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) during application of EMF of different frequencies: here "windows" at 6 and 16 Hz were found, where PGE was 200% above 0 Hz baseline. ...
Article
In this review we compile results cited in reliable journals that show a ratio for the use of pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) in therapy, indeed. This is true especially for chronically inflamed joints. Furthermore, we try to link this therapeutic approach to the molecular background of chronic inflammation and arthritis. At first we start with the clinical outcome of PEMF therapy. Then, we look for possible triggers and an electromagnetic counterpart that is endogenously inherent in cell biology and in the tissues of interest. Finally, we want to investigate causal molecular and cellular mechanisms of possible PEMF actions. It shows that there are endogenous mechanisms, indeed, which can act as triggers for PEMF like the resting membrane potential as well as resonance mechanisms in charged moieties like membrane transporters. Especially voltage-gated calcium channels can be triggered. These may lead into specific signaling pathways and also may elicit nitric oxide as well as moderate radical reactions, which can ultimately lead to e.g. NFκB-like reactions. Concerted in the right way, these reactions can cause a kind of cell protection and ultimately lead to a dampening of inflammatory signals like interleukins.
... Extensive studies have been done by Adey et al. [62], McRee & Wachtel [63], Blackman et al. [64] and many others [65][66][67][68][69][70] to investigate the effect of MMW on different cells and tissues as well as the whole body. One of the first studies, conducted by Wachtel on neurons of Aplysia, revealed that MMW radiation can cause suppression of neuronal activity (results showed a decrease in firing rate and in some cases full silencing of the probed neuron), and that the effect was different from the effect induced by conductive heating of the sample [71]. ...
Article
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Since regular radio broadcasts started in the 1920s, the exposure to humanmade electromagnetic fields has steadily increased. These days we are not only exposed to radio waves but also other frequencies from a variety of sources, mainly from communication and security devices. Considering that nearly all biological systems interact with electromagnetic fields, understanding the affects is essential for safety and technological progress. This paper systematically reviews the role and effects of static and pulsed radio frequencies (100–109 Hz), millimetre waves (MMWs) or gigahertz (109– 1011 Hz), and terahertz (1011–1013 Hz) on various biomolecules, cells and tissues. Electromagnetic fields have been shown to affect the activity in cell membranes (sodium versus potassium ion conductivities) and non-selective channels, transmembrane potentials and even the cell cycle. Particular attention is given to millimetre and terahertz radiation due to their increasing utilization and, hence, increasing human exposure. MMWs are known to alter active transport across cell membranes, and it has been reported that terahertz radiation may interfere with DNA and cause genomic instabilities. These and other phenomena are discussed along with the discrepancies and controversies from published studies.
... This outcome is intriguing since a modulation frequency of 8 Hz (within the theta-alpha frequency band) corresponds with active behavior in mice, while the 2 Hz (within the delta frequency band) modulation is associated with sleep (Vyazovskiy et al., 2006). Previous studies (in vivo and in vitro) already indicated the significance of the modulation (amplitude, pulsed or frequency modulation) and modulation frequency of electric and EM fields on the biological response (Bawin et al., 1973(Bawin et al., , 1975Tolgskaya and Gordon, 1973;Pakhomov and Murphy, 2000;Hinrikus et al., 2008;Panagopoulos, 2014;Pall, 2015). Although the modulation frequency can play a significant role, continuous 10-GHz microwaves could also contribute to the observed effects. ...
Article
Despite the numerous benefits of microwave applications in our daily life, microwaves were associated with diverse neurological complaints such as headaches and impaired sleep patterns, and changes in the electroencephalogram (EEG). To which extent microwaves influence the brain function remains unclear. This exploratory study assessed the behavior and neurochemistry in mice immediately or 4 weeks after a 6-day exposure to low-intensity 10 GHz microwaves with an amplitude modulation (AM) of 2 or 8 Hz. These modulation frequencies of 2 and 8 Hz are situated within the delta and theta-alpha frequency bands in the EEG spectrum and are associated with sleep and active behavior, respectively. During these experiments, the specific absorbance rate was 0.3 W/kg increasing the brain temperature with 0.23°C. For the first time, exposing mice to 8 Hz AM significantly reduced locomotor activity in an open field immediately after exposure which normalized after 4 weeks. This in contrast to 2 Hz AM which didn’t induce significant changes in locomotor activity immediately and 4 weeks after exposure. Despite this difference in motor behavior, no significant changes in striatal dopamine and DOPAC levels and DOPAC/dopamine turnover nor in cortical glutamate concentrations were detected. In all cases, no effects on motor coordination on a rotarod, spatial working memory, anxiety nor depressive-like behavior were observed. The outcome of this study indicates that exposing mice to low-intensity 8 Hz AM microwaves can alter the locomotor activity in contrast to 2 Hz AM which did not affect the tested behaviors.
... Indeed, RF signals pulsed or modulated by ELF are found in numerous studies since the mid-seventies to be more bioactive than continuous RF signals of identical other parameters (intensity, frequency, duration, waveform, etc) (Bawin et al. 1975(Bawin et al. , 1978Bawin and Adey 1976;Blackman et al. 1980;Lin-Liu and Adey 1982;Somosy et al. 1991;Veyret et al. 1991;Bolshakov and Alekseev 1992;Thuroczy et al. 1994;Penafiel et al. 1997;H€ oyt€ o et al. 2008;Franzellitti et al. 2010;Campisi et al. 2010). Moreover, intermittent exposure to mobile phone radiation with short intermittence durations (which makes the field even more variable) is repeatedly found to be more bioactive than continuous exposure both with simulated and real fields (Diem et al. 2005;Chavdoula et al. 2010). ...
Chapter
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Exposure of Drosophila melanogaster young adult insects to Electromagnetic Fields (EMFs)/Radiation (EMR) emitted by an active GSM (Global System for Mobile telecommunications) mobile phone handset during a usual “talk” operation for a few minutes daily for 2–5 days, revealed an impressive decrease (up to 57%) in reproductive capacity (fecundity) (Panagopoulos et al. 2004). That effect directed us to focus our next studies on the effects of this type of EMF/EMR on the DNA and proteins of the insect’s reproductive cells (gametes). More specifically, we focused on the effects on the female ovarian cells. We used the TUNEL (Terminal deoxynucleotide transferase dUTP Nick End Labeling) assay, to detect fragmented DNA in the ovarian cells. Moreover, we used the Rhodamine-conjugated Phalloidin staining assay, to detect possible damage in the actin cytoskeleton of the ovarian cells. We found a high degree of DNA fragmentation in the nuclei of ovarian cells of the exposed insects (up to +55% compared to the sham-exposed insects) (Panagopoulos et al. 2007a). The DNA fragmentation was highly dependent on the intensity of radiation (distance from the handset) and was found to be maximum for intensities higher than 250 μW/cm2 (in close proximity with the handset) and within a “window” around 10 μW/cm2 (at 20–30 cm distance from the handset) (Panagopoulos et al. 2010). The DNA fragmentation in the nuclei of the exposed ovarian cells was found to be accompanied by actin cytoskeleton damage (Chavdoula et al. 2010). These effects caused a destruction of a significant percentage of egg chambers in the ovaries of the exposed females (Panagopoulos 2012a). New data (Panagopoulos et al. 2015a, b) suggest that the continuous and unpredictable variability of the mobile telephony signals, in combination with the fact that they are totally polarized (just like every type of man-made EMF), and the inclusion of Extremely Low Frequencies (ELF) - due to pulsing and modulation of the microwave carrier - in all modern mobile telecommunication microwave signals, constitute the main reasons for their intense bioactivity. A significant opposition is found between the results of experimental studies employing real exposures of biological samples from commercially available mobile phones, and the results of studies employing simulated exposures from generators or “test” phones as suggested by health authorities (Health Protection Agency 2012; IARC 2013). While experimental studies employing simulated EMF-emissions present a strong inconsistency among their results with nearly 50% of them reporting no effects, studies employing real-life emissions demonstrate an almost 100% consistency in showing adverse effects (Panagopoulos et al. 2015a). Finally, in the present chapter we show why polarized (man-made) EMFs are significantly more bioactive than natural (unpolarized) ones, and we describe the “Ion Forced-Oscillation Mechanism” for the action of polarized EMFs on biological systems.
... In the early to mid 1970s, a research group led by Ross Adey at UCLA's Brain Research Institute, published peerreviewed journal articles indicating that low-intensity electromagnetic fields, in both the extremely low-frequency (ELF) range and in the RF range, when amplitude modulated at certain, specific ELF frequencies, could elicit biological responses in animal subjects and in vitro tissue samples (e.g., Bawin et al., 1975;Gavalas et al., 1970). Although the authors were articulate and forceful in their presentations and in defense of their work in response to critics, their work became more accepted when some of the basic responses were independently replicated and published in peer-reviewed journals, by this author and others (e.g., Blackman et al., 1979Blackman et al., , 1982Dutta et al., 1989). ...
... The UK's Independent Expert Group on Mobile Phones (Stewart Report) concluded in 2000 that '…as a precautionary measure, amplitude modulation around 16 Hz should be avoided, if possible, in future developments in signal coding' (IEGMP 2000). This recommendation was based largely on the results of a study which claimed that RF signals pulsed at around 16Hz had an effect on calcium efflux from cells (Bawin et al 1975), though later and better designed studies using live tissue failed to confirm this finding (MTHR 2007, Green et al 2006, NRPB 2001. From 2001, TETRA was introduced in police forces across the UK. ...
Article
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Background Terrestrial Trunked Radio (TETRA) is a telecommunications system widely used by police and emergency services around the world. The Stewart Report on mobile telephony and health raised questions about possible health effects associated with TETRA signals. This study investigates possible effects of TETRA signals on the electroencephalogram and electrocardiogram in human volunteers. Methods Blinded randomized provocation study with a standardized TETRA signal or sham exposure. In the first of two experiments, police officers had a TETRA set placed first against the left temple and then the upper-left quadrant of the chest and the electroencephalogram was recorded during rest and active cognitive processing. In the second experiment, volunteers were subject to chest exposure of TETRA whilst their electroencephalogram and heart rate variability derived from the electrocardiogram were recorded. Results In the first experiment, we found that exposure to TETRA had consistent neurophysiological effects on the electroencephalogram, but only during chest exposure, in a pattern suggestive of vagal nerve stimulation. In the second experiment, we observed changes in heart rate variability during exposure to TETRA but the electroencephalogram effects were not replicated. Conclusions Observed effects of exposure to TETRA signals on the electroencephalogram (first experiment) and electrocardiogram are consistent with vagal nerve stimulation in the chest by TETRA. However given the small effect on heart rate variability and the lack of consistency on the electroencephalogram, it seems unlikely that this will have a significant impact on health. Long-term monitoring of the health of the police force in relation to TETRA use is on-going.
Book
Electromagnetic Hypersensitivity is categorised as a multisymptomatic 'el-allergy' in the Nordic classification of 2000 (R.68.8). Its symptoms are 'certainly real' and it can be a 'disabling condition' (W.H.O., 2005). It was first recorded in the mid 20th century as an occupational illness, but it has now spread into the general population through environmental exposure from increasing levels of electromagnetic fields and radiation. This Summary covers current research on this syndrome, covering EM Sensitivity and EM Hypersensitivity. It includes tables of symptoms, EMF sources and exposure guidelines, along with references to scientific studies. This New Edition adds updates, international doctors' protocols, aspects of quantum biology, evidence for sensitivity in animals and plants, case studies, disability issues and human rights.
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Ambient levels of nonionizing electromagnetic fields (EMF) have risen sharply in the last five decades to become a ubiquitous, continuous, biologically active environmental pollutant, even in rural and remote areas. Many species of flora and fauna, because of unique physiologies and habitats, are sensitive to exogenous EMF in ways that surpass human reactivity. This can lead to complex endogenous reactions that are highly variable, largely unseen, and a possible contributing factor in species extinctions, sometimes localized. Non-human magnetoreception mechanisms are explored. Numerous studies across all frequencies and taxa indicate that current low-level anthropogenic EMF can have myriad adverse and synergistic effects, including on orientation and migration, food finding, reproduction, mating, nest and den building, territorial maintenance and defense, and on vitality, longevity and survivorship itself. Effects have been observed in mammals such as bats, cervids, cetaceans, and pinnipeds among others, and on birds, insects, amphibians, reptiles, microbes and many species of flora. Cyto- and geno-toxic effects have long been observed in laboratory research on animal models that can be extrapolated to wildlife. Unusual multi-system mechanisms can come into play with non-human species — including in aquatic environments — that rely on the Earth’s natural geomagnetic fields for critical life-sustaining information. Part 2 of this 3-part series includes four online supplement tables of effects seen in animals from both ELF and RFR at vanishingly low intensities. Taken as a whole, this indicates enough information to raise concerns about ambient exposures to nonionizing radiation at ecosystem levels. Wildlife loss is often unseen and undocumented until tipping points are reached. It is time to recognize ambient EMF as a novel form of pollution and develop rules at regulatory agencies that designate air as ‘habitat’ so EMF can be regulated like other pollutants. Long-term chronic low-level EMF exposure standards, which do not now exist, should be set accordingly for wildlife, and environmental laws should be strictly enforced — a subject explored in Part 3.
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A pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) has been used to treat inflammation‐based diseases such as osteoporosis, neurological injury, and osteoarthritis. Numerous animal experiments and in vitro studies have shown that PEMF may affect angiogenesis. For ischemic diseases, in theory, blood flow may be richer by increasing the number of blood vessels which supply blood to ischemic tissue. PEMF plays a role in enhancing angiogenesis, and their clinical application may go far beyond the current scope. In this review, we analyzed and summarized the effects and possible mechanisms of PEMF on angiogenesis. Most studies have shown that PEMF with specific parameters can promote angiogenesis, which is manifested by an increased vascular growth rate and increased capillary density. The potential mechanisms consist of promoting vascular endothelial cell proliferation, migration, and tube formation, and increasing the expression level of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2), angiopoietin‐2 (Ang‐2), and other angiogenic growth factors. Additionally, PEMF has an impact on the activation of voltage‐gated calcium channels (VGCC). Bioelectromagnetics.
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This is a review of the research on the genetic effects of non-ionizing electromagnetic field (EMF), mainly on radiofrequency radiation (RFR) and static and extremely low frequency EMF (ELF-EMF). The majority of the studies are on genotoxicity (e.g., DNA damage, chromatin conformation changes, etc.) and gene expression. Genetic effects of EMF depend on various factors, including field parameters and characteristics (frequency, intensity, wave-shape), cell type, and exposure duration. The types of gene expression affected (e.g., genes involved in cell cycle arrest, apoptosis and stress responses, heat-shock proteins) are consistent with the findings that EMF causes genetic damages. Many studies reported effects in cells and animals after exposure to EMF at intensities similar to those in the public and occupational environments. The mechanisms by which effects are induced by EMF are basically unknown. Involvement of free radicals is a likely possibility. EMF also interacts synergistically with different entities on genetic functions. Interactions, particularly with chemotherapeutic compounds, raise the possibility of using EMF as an adjuvant for cancer treatment to increase the efficacy and decrease side effects of traditional chemotherapeutic drugs. Other data, such as adaptive effects and mitotic spindle aberrations after EMF exposure, further support the notion that EMF causes genetic effects in living organisms.
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Synchronization provides an effective way for stable signal exchange and balance in membrane potentials of neurons. Both electric synapse and chemical synapse play important role in processing signals by emitting signal and receiving signals, and the encoded signals are estimated by a variety of synaptic currents. For two or more neurons, the synaptic current can pass along the coupling channels with feasible self-adaption and then synaptic plasticity is formed. The occurrence of synaptic currents generates complex biophysical effect because continuous propagation and pumping of calcium, sodium and potassium can induce time-varying physical field intra- and extracellular of cell. Indeed, the field effect becomes more distinct when more neurons are involved in a functional region of the nervous system. To decrease the energy consumption and obtain fast signal exchange, autonomic learning is often activated to select the most appropriate coupling gain in the synapses connected to neurons. That is, synapse can increase the synaptic intensity carefully before reaching synchronization. In this paper, the two-variable Fitzhugh-Nagumo neuron driven by voltage source is used to investigate the synchronization stability when hybrid synapse is applied between two neurons. By using the saturation gain method, the synapse intensity is increased with appropriate step until synchronization is reached, and then the coupling intensity is fixed to find the threshold for stabilizing complete synchronization. It gives new clues to understand the synaptic plasticity from physical viewpoint.
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Living in the era of twenty first century, humans cannot take a single step forward without taking help of wireless communication systems. Uninterrupted voice communication, high speed data communication, remote controlling systems etc. are some of the basic benefits of wireless technology that are being utilized in day-to-day activities. However, it is well known that wireless communication systems make use of Radio Frequency (RF) energy at different frequency bands like 900 MHz, 1800 MHz, 2100 MHz, 2300 MHz, 2400 MHz etc. At the same time, plenty of in-vitro and in-vivo research work have been reported on biological effects of RF radiation [1-7]. Based on the findings with specific reference to thermal effects, international organizations like International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP), Federal Communications Commission (FCC) etc. have prescribed RF regulatory guidelines that describe reference levels for frequency band specific RF power density/equivalent field strength, basic restrictions on Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) [8-12]. RF energy has already been classified as class 2B i.e. possibly carcinogenic to humans by International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) of World Health Organization (WHO) [13-14]. However, it is unfortunate that RF power density reference levels and basic SAR limits prescribed by different international organizations are inconsistent with each other [8-9]. FCC allows higher RF power density level for both public and occupational exposure beyond 300 MHz and below 2000 MHz compared to ICNIRP guidelines; however, FCC as well as ICNIRP RF exposure limits are at per beyond 2000 MHz [8-9]. The contradiction is further visible while dealing with basic restriction on SAR limit; SAR is a measure of the rate at which RF energy is absorbed by a living mass while exposed to electromagnetic field and the same is cumulative in nature. FCC restricts SAR limit for public exposure at 1.6 W/Kg averaged over 1g of contiguous human tissue (valid up to 6 GHz) whereas ICNIRP restricts at 2 W/Kg averaged over 10g of contiguous human tissue (valid up to 10 GHz) [8-9]. To investigate the difference between SAR limits prescribed by FCC and ICNIRP along with significance of SAR averaging mass, simplified phantom models for human head and human body have been designed. Human head phantom model has been designed as a spheroid (with 25 cm major axis and 18 cm minor axis) whereas a cuboid flat phantom represents (60 cm x 40 cm x 20 cm) upper part of human body. Frequency band specific dielectric properties have been defined for head and body phantom models in CST Microwave Studio 2018 [9, 15]. Thereafter Maximum Local Point (MLP) SAR, 1g averaged SAR, 10g averaged SAR and Whole Body Averaged (WBA) SAR data have been simulated due to plane wave exposure at different frequency bands. It is observed that for any particular RF exposure condition MLP SAR is of highest value; whereas 1g averaged SAR value is greater than 10g averaged SAR and WBA SAR is of least value. From the observations, it can be further concluded that ICNIRP restriction on SAR i.e. 2 W/Kg averaged over 10g contiguous mass is much more relaxed compared to SAR restriction imposed by FCC (1.6 W/Kg averaged over 1g contiguous mass) [8-9]. Further interpretation illustrates MLP SAR data are basically diluted along with shift in position due to averaging over 1g or 10g contiguous mass. Observed SAR data clearly point out inconsistency in basic SAR limits prescribed across different countries and the same should be made uniform. According to international guidelines, basic SAR restriction is valid either up to 6 GHz (FCC) or 10 GHz (ICNIRP); ICNIRP do not consider SAR as an useful metric beyond 10 GHz because of lower depth of penetration among humans [8]. But as seen in observations, SAR value increases with the increase in frequency of exposure because of more number of peak formations. In addition, conductivity of human tissue increases with frequency at that region of spectrum [16-18]; beyond 10 GHz, the same can result in further increased energy deposition near human skin. Therefore, ignoring SAR beyond 10 GHz should be reconsidered by regulatory bodies. It should also be noted that human tissue equivalent single layered homogeneous dielectric liquid has been standardized for practical SAR measurement [9-12]. However, effect of multiple reflection and refraction of incident wave in actual multilayered human body along with spatial energy deposition cannot be simulated using the above mentioned homogeneous phantom liquid. All these observations indicate that international RF Exposure Guidelines and SAR measurement protocols are evidently inconsistent and have need of proper attention.
Chapter
Originally, all effects of weak EMF on living organisms were attributed to the increase of the heat in the tissue, which in turn can cause considerable harm to the affected organism. Electromagnetic fields however, affect the internal communication of neural cells. The electric communication pulses are of the order of 1.5 MV/m. The potential difference between the inside and outside of the cell membrane corresponds to an electric field of 50 MV/m. [1–2]. With this type of shielding, weak external fields should not affect intercell communications but they do. This phenomenon has nonetheless therapeutic effects and it is applied to people with multiple sclerosis, Parkinson’s etc. Due to the nonlinear behavior, however, of this membrane, it is possible to create “windows” for the external EMF at certain intensity levels and cause movement in and out of calcium and potassium ions. Melatonin, which is a hormone excreted by the epiphysis, a gland that is at the rear side of the cerebrum, is used to regulate the biological “clock” and support the immune system. External EMF can reduce the production of melatonin with correspondingly negative or harmful effects in humans. In other words, external man-made EMF can “fool” cells by presenting them with recognizable controlling signals that may lead to harmful reactions.
Chapter
Biological studies suggest that extremely low frequency-electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) operate by modulating normal control mechanisms available to the cell. There is an abundance of experimental and clinical data which indicate that exposure to exogenous electromagnetic fields of surprisingly low levels can have a profound effect on a large variety of biological systems, including the abovementioned bone disorders such as bone fracture and osteoporosis. The data obtained from in vitro systems suggest that the current biological activity of a cell (e.g., division or differentiation) can be modulated. As the number of experiments on EMF effects increases it is becoming increasingly evident, as will be shown below, that more cursory consideration must be given. Many EMF experiments employ transformed rather than normal cells. One must question whether cells that are abnormal represent the best model systems for elucidating EMF interaction mechanisms. A better approach might be to use simpler, well-studied normal cells such as yeast or bacteria. The obvious advantage of employing these organisms to elucidate the transduction pathway(s) is that they are well characterized and, more importantly, an endless array of mutants is available to the investigator. Historically, the use of mutants has proved to be an essential tool for elucidation of cellular pathways. The approved therapeutic effects of weak EMF result from devices which were designed to modulate (not initiate) tissue growth and repair. It is quite clear from all of the dosimetry data available that the amount of energy deposited in the cell or tissue target is negligible compared to the energy required by the affected biochemical pathway. Thus, the capability of weak EMF to have a bioeffect appears to reside in the informational content of the waveform. This may provide part of the explanation for the sensitivity of living systems to weak electromagnetic and magnetic fields. Finally, the site(s) and mechanisms of interaction between ELF-EMF and biological systems remain to be elaborated. Although there are numerous studies and hypotheses that suggest the membrane represents the primary site of interaction, there are also several different studies showing that in vitro systems, including cell-free systems, are responsive to EMF. The debate about potential hazards or therapeutic value of weak electromagnetic fields will continue until the mechanism has been clarified. The problem of how weak fields perturb cell function will be understood when the techniques of molecular biology, genetics, biochemistry, and biophysics are directed together to answer the question.
Chapter
For more than 100 years, structural and functional substrates of the organization of brain tissue have been based on considerations of connectivity as described in Waldeyer’s neuronal doctrine and Sherrington’s research on integrative action in the nervous system. The neuronal doctrine emphasizes signaling processes based on synaptic transmission. This in turn has focused attention on signal coding through nerve action potentials, conveyed along axonal paths from one cell to another.
Chapter
The technology and developments introduced in the preceding chapters indicate that we are on the verge of a revolution in medicine. A revolution that is predicated upon the recognition of the electrical side of biology. There is substantial evidence that low level electromagnetic fields (EMF) do indeed interact with the electrical signals and mechanisms in the body. It is exciting to contemplate the beneficial diagnostic and therapeutic applications of this interaction. However, there also is concern that the changes induced at the cellular level can be harmful to living organisms.1 This chapter presents some of the research that raises the question of risk. In addition, some of the general concepts and concerns associated with risk/benefit analysis are discussed.
Chapter
Man has lived in the presence of electric fields for many centuries most of which predate the invention of the electrical generator. Current theory, as well as history, tells us that early man recognized that he had no control over lighting and that magnetic mineral ore, lodestone, did not appear to have any biological effect. However, contact with the fish, Torpedo which inhabits the Mediterranean, could produce shocking results when in contact with the body. The biological effects of the Torpedo fish were described by Plato, Aristotle and many others in ancient Greek and Roman texts. The first medical use of electric fish is found in a report by S. Largus in the first century.22 Prior to the Renaissance, electric fish were used by Arab physicians to treat sleeping disorders,37 migraine, melancholy and epilepsy.50 This use of electric fish represents an ancient precursor of electroshock therapy for severe depression. The ancient physicians did not recognize that these fish were producing an electrical current, rather the cure was thought to result from some excretion of a semi-material nature. It was recognized, however, that the electric fish had to be alive to produce any beneficial effects. Thus, therapy was limited to sites near the seashore where fish could be caught and maintained fresh and alive until used for treatment.
Chapter
The editors have charged us with presenting material to help scientists, clinicians, and regulators alike to examine critically the growing body of knowledge concerning electromagnetic medical technologies. I would like to suggest a central proposition as a guide to such an examination, by proposing the following: 1) subtle and specific changes in cellular function may be achieved by applying specific electromagnetic fields; and 2) in evaluating emerging electromagnetic medical technologies, it is sometimes appropriate to consider not just the energetics of the applied field, but also its informational content, where this content may reflect both frequency components and phase relationships and other characteristics of the signal as well.
Chapter
In the search for functional correlates of information processing in brain tissue, early interest in the electroencephalogram proved disappointing. Although phenomena such as blocking of the alpha rhythm with eye closing and visual attention (Berger 1929, Adrian 1947) were quickly recognized, it has remained for much later studies with sophisticated computer analyses and pattern-recognition techniques to reveal EEG correlates of decision-making (Elazar and Adey 1967; Hanley, Walter, Rhodes, and Adey 1968), of psychological stress in hostile questioning (Berkhout, Walter, and Adey 1969), and of difficult perceptual tasks (Walter, Kado, Rhodes, and Adey 1967). Even though the latter studies have revealed EEG signatures for groups of subjects as well as for individuals, clear evidence has been lacking that would assign a causal role to the EEG in information processing. Indeed, it has been widely considered as a “noise” in cerebral tissue, having no direct physiological role, even though it could be correlated with specific behavioral states, including the brief epochs that accompany decision-making and perception, and even though these correlates might be reliable indicators of quite subtle differences, such as correct versus incorrect task performance at a later time (Hanley, Walter, Rhodes, and Adey 1968), or of opening versus closing of the hand in a phantasied motor performance (Nirenberg, Hanley, and Stear 1971).
Article
Spontaneous cortical activity in anesthetized cats was recorded from two microelectrodes set 30 to 300 μ apart. Bipolar as well as monopolar readings were taken simultaneously, and a third microelectrode some 100 to 250 μ deeper was also included. No similarity could be found between the monopolar recordings of both spikes and slow waves obtained simultaneously from all three microelectrodes in the cortex, even with an interelectrode distance as small as 30 μ. This finding was further supported by the bipolar readings, in which activity of apparently “normal” form was present even at the minimal interelectrode spacing. Bipolar registrations obtained at 30 μ interelectrode distance showed the same pattern as at 300 μ. The limited extent of the dipoles of spontaneous activity in the cerebral cortex is commented upon, and some of its implications discussed.
Article
The process of excitation is, as a rule, intensified in dogs on the background of relative stability on active inhibition in dogs submitted to a weak (pm about 0.005 wt per cm2) SHF alternating power field for 2 hours (about 0.005 wt per cm2). Repeated numerous actions of such a field bring about development of phasic conditions. The phenomena of cumulation and partial adaptation to SHF field are observed. On the contrary, in high intensity of the action causing a thermal effect with SHF alternating power field (equal to about 0.1 wt/cm2) a weakening of conditioned reflex reactions are observed with a disinhibition of differentiations.
Article
The efflux of both45Ca2+ and [3H]GABA from suprasylvian cortex of cat has been studiedin vivo. After pre-incubating the cortex with radioactivity for 90 min, superfusion with non-radioactive medium was carried out using 0.8 ml vol. changed at 10 min intervals. Increases in the calcium concentration of the medium resulted in greater efflux of both45Ca2+ and [3H]GABA, and the effect on [3H]GABA efflux was potentiated by AOAA. The effect of a1mM increment in Ca2+ concentration was only slightly less than that of a20mM increment. Adding Mg2+ to the medium did not produce increases comparable to added Ca2+, whereas electrical stimulation of the cortex had no effect on the efflux of either45Ca2+ or [3H]GABA. Thiosemicarbazide, an epileptogenic agent, resulted in a slightly irregular efflux of45Ca2+ with peaks visible at times of seizure activity. The efflux of3H2O and14C-(car☐yl)-inulin could not be correlated with any of the above treatments. The efflux of [3H]GABA from the cortex is considered to originate from synaptic terminals and that of45Ca2+ may be the result of reactions at the membrane triggering the release or turnover of calcium.
Article
MICROWAVE radiation produces both thermal and non-thermal effects in biological systems1,2. The thermal effect is manifested as a rise in temperature of the irradiated system and is accompanied by physiological responses depending on the intensity and duration of the field. Non-thermal effects are manifested as changes in cellular metabolism caused by both resonance absorption and induced EMFs and, when neural structures are involved, are often accompanied by a specific behavioural response. An important difference between thermal and non-thermal effects is in the matter of time scale. Chickens exposed to a "slightly thermal" microwave field (20-50 mW/cm2) respond with an escape or avoidance reaction within a few seconds of the onset of radiation3.
1.1. The relations between spontaneous EEG waves, convulsoid potentials (induced by i.v. Metrazol injection or epicortical stimulation) and intracellularly recorded activity were analyzed in the motor cortex of cats under Nembutal.2.2. During regular surface negative spindle waves a close positive correlation exists between cellular depolarization and surface negativity. The cellular depolarizations are composed of several EPSPs which can be easily distinguished in some cells. Sometimes they begin to summate during a slight surface positivity preceding the negative wave. The summated post-synaptic depolarization is preceded by a period of synaptic silence, indicating an extracellular, probably extracortical, trigger mechanism. IPSPs are seen only if much spike activity is present.3.3. Another type of spindle wave (sometimes seen in isolation) is characterized by a relatively short and weak surface negative wave followed by a longer positive potential. The cellular activity shows more or less pronounced depolarization and spike activity during or just preceding the negative wavelet and an IPSP during the surface positive potential. The IPSP may begin during the peak or falling phase of the surface negative potential. The presence of active inhibition in these cases has been proved by intracellular stimulation.4.4. If biphasic positive-negative spindle waves are present their relation to the cellular activity depends upon the potential gradient of the wave. If the positive-negative gradient is steep, cellular activity with a relatively high discharge rate is located on the positive phase; if the gradient is relatively small the slow summation of EPSPs reaches its peak during the negative wave (see Fig. 9).5.5. At the beginning of Metrazol-induced seizures slow surface negative waves occur simultaneously with cellular depolarization. During the peak of the seizure, when mainly large biphasic positive-negative potentials are seen in the EEG, massive cellular depolarization, leading quickly to high frequency grouped spike discharges, occurs with the first surface positive phase. Cellular repolarization coincides with the positive-negative transition of the surface potential. The biphasic EEG potential is frequently followed by a longer positive potential which corresponds to a cellular IPSP. At the end of the seizure isolated IPSPs are frequently seen.6.6. Strong high frequency epicortical stimulation leads to a long lasting depolarization of cortical cells (down to 20–30 mV) with inactivation of the spike generator. After the end of the stimulation the membrane potential shows regular oscillations, the spike generator recovers and the cell polarizes slowly. Finally, oscillating depolarizations are interrupted by long polarizations. Some cells do not show a long lasting depolarization after the stimulus but are subsequently synaptically depolarized during the depolarizing oscillations. The depolarizations occur simultaneously with large surface positive potentials of the cortical after-discharge.7.7. Possible mechanisms relating EEG waves to cellular potentials are discussed within the framework of transcortical and soma-apical dendrite potential distributions during different phases of physiological and pathological cortical activity.Zusammenfassung1.1. Im motorischen Cortex der Katze (Nembutalanaesthesie) werden die Beziehungen von spontanen EEG-Wellen und Krampfpotentialen (Krämpfe nach epicorticaler Reizung bzw. nach i.v. Cardiazolinjektion) zu intrazellulär abgeleiteter Zellaktivität untersucht.2.2. Während regelmässiger oberflächen-negativer Spindelwellen besteht eine enge Beziehung zwischen zellulären Depolarisationen und Oberflächennegativität. Die zellulären Depolarisationen sind aus mehreren sich summierenden EPSP's zusammengesetzt, die gelegentlich schon während des kleinen, nicht in allen Ableitungen vorhandenen oberflächen-positiven Vorpotentials beginnen. Der summierten postsynaptischen Depolarisation geht eine Periode synaptischer Stille voraus. IPSP's sind nur bei verstärkter Entladungstätigkeit vorhanden. Ein extracorticaler Aktivierungsmechanismus liegt diesen Spindeln zugrunde.3.3. Ein anderer Typ von Spindelwellen, die gelegentlich auch als isolierte Welle auftreten, ist durch eine relativ kleine und kurze oberflächen-negative Welle gekennzeichnet, der ein längeres positives Potential folgt. Auf zellulärer Ebene findet man eine mehr oder weniger deutliche Depolarisation mit vermehrter Entladungsaktivität während oder unmittelbar vor der negativen Welle und ein IPSP während des positiven Potentials. Das IPSP beginnt während des Gipfels oder des abfallenden Schenkels des negativen Oberflächenpotentials. Aktive Hemmung, also das Vorliegen echter IPSP's konnte durch gleichzeitige intrazelluläre Reizung nachgewiesen werden.4.4. Bei biphasischen positiv-negativen Wellen hing die Beziehung zur Neuronaktivität von dem Gradienten zwischen positivem und negativem Gipfel ab. Bei steilem Gradienten tritt die neuronale Aktivierung (steiles EPSP und hochfrequente Entladungsgruppe) während des primären positiven Potentials auf, bei flachem Gradienten ist die neuronale Aktivierung (langsam summierte EPSP's, wenig Entladungstätigkeit) gleichzeitig mit der negativen Welle (Fig. 9).5.5. Im Beginn eines Cardiazolkrampfes erscheinen grosse langsame negative Wellen zusammen mit zellulären Depolarisationen. Während der Höhe des Anfalls mit grossen biphasischen positiv-negativen Krampfpotentialen finden sich rasche zelluläre Depolarisationen mit hochfrequenten Entladungen während des primären positiven Potentials. Die zelluläre Repolarisation fällt mit dem positiv-negativen Übergang des Oberflächenpotentials zusammen. Der biphasischen EEG-Welle folgt häufig ein längeres positives Potential, dem neuronal ein IPSP entspricht. Bei Krampfende zeigen einige Zellen isolierte IPSP's.6.6. Starke frequente epicorticale Reizung führt zu lang anhaltenden Depolarisationen corticaler Zellen um 20–30 mV mit Inaktivierung des Spike-Generators. Nach Reizende treten regelmässige Oszillationen des Membranpotentials auf, die Spike-Generation erholt sich langsam während die Zelle zunehmend repolarisiert. Schliesslich werden die Oszillationen durch lang anhaltende Polarisationen unterbrochen. Einige Zellen zeigen keine lang anhaltende Depolarisationen während und im Anschluss an den Reiz, sondern sind während der Nachentladung synaptisch aktiviert. Die Depolarisationen erscheinen gleichzeitig mit den grossen oberflächenpositiven Wellen der EEG-Nachentladung.7.7. Mögliche Mechanismen werden diskutiert, um die zellulären Potentiale kausal mit den EEG-Potentialen in Beziehung zu bringen. Es werden v.a. die transcorticalen und soma-dendritischen Potentialverteilungen während physiologischer und pathologischer corticaler Aktivität besprochen.
Article
This chapter presents a working hypothesis for prostaglandin action, which will enable the determination of the possible significance of these substances in their own branches of medicine and biology. In doing so, the chapter lays the basis for elucidation of the possible biological role of the prostaglandins. It mainly deals with the action of prostaglandins in those systems where the adenyl cyclase system has been implicated. A great deal of evidence has now accumulated indicating that many of the pharmacological effects of the prostaglandins are manifest in those systems where cyclic AMP is believed to mediate the response of the hormone. Initially, three factors led to the realization that prostaglandins might interact with the cyclic AMP-forming system in a regulatory capacity. In the first observation, it was found PGE1-inhibited epinephrine-stimulated lipolysis. Lipolysis is believed to be mediated via cyclic AMP, and an increase in the intracellular concentration of the nucleotide is thought to be the rate-limiting step in the activation of a triglyceride lipase. In a study described in the chapter, it was demonstrated that in fat pads, the antagonism by PGE1 of lipolysis was associated with the inhibition of cyclic AMP accumulation; this inhibitory effect of PGE1 has since been demonstrated in isolated fat cells.
Article
CALCIUM is a divalent cation, ubiquitous in its biological occurrence, important in its physiological significance. It is an ion of particular interest to investigators of neural and neuro-effector systems. Reviews have appeared that cite the role of calcium in excitation-contraction coupling of striate muscle (Sandow, 1965) and in the maintenance of the nerve membrane during nervous transmission (Abood, 1967). The intention of this review will be to summarize the various experimental evidences that implicate calcium in its role as a necessary factor in the processes of neurohumoral and neurohormonal extrusion. The diversity of physiological foci considered has meant that the discussion could not feasibly cite all primary references. Consequently, an attempt has been made, when applicable, to note recent and well prepared reviews.
Article
The effects of exposures to low intensity (1 mW/sq.cm or less), very high frequency (VHF) (147 MHz) electrical fields, amplitude-modulated at biological frequencies (1–25 Hz), were studied on untrained and conditioned chronically implanted cats. The fields were applied between two aluminum plates (identical voltages, 180° phase shift) firmly anchored to the floor of an isolation booth, especially designed for use of VHF fields. The animals were restrained in a hammock, the longitudinal axis of the body kept parallel to the field plates. EEG and EOG were recorded through a system of low pass filters on a Model 6 Grass electroencephalograph and an Ampex FR 1100 tape recorder; behavior was continuously observed through a closed circuit TV.
Article
A series of experiments has been done to assess the effects of low-level, low-frequency electric fields on the behavior and EEG of monkeys. Three monkeys were implanted with subcortical and cortical EEG electrodes and trained to press a panel on a fixed interval-limited hold schedule. The monkeys were rewarded for pressing the panel once every 5 sec within a 2.5 sec enable period. After the animals were performing well, they were tested under low-level electric fields (2.8 V p-p); the voltage was applied to 2 large metal plates 40 cm apart so that the monkey's head was completely within the field. Fields frequency was set at 7 or 10 c/sec within the range of typical EEG recording (0-33 c/sec). Four hour daily tests of fields-on were randomly interspersed with 4 h runs with field-off. Under the 7 c/sec fields, the monkeys showed a significantly faster interresponse time in 5 of 6 experiments. Mean differences between fields-on and fields-off were 0.4 sec or greater. The 10 c/sec fields did not produce a reliable effect on behavior. Analysis of the EEG data showed a relative peak in power at the frequency of the fields (10 c/sec and 7 c/sec) for the hippocampus in all 3 monkeys. Similar peaks were seen less consistently in the amygdala and the centre median.
Article
Duration of low amplitude (< 50 μV) hyperstriatal EEG activity is both a treatment and stimulus-specific indicator of imprinting training in domestic chicks. Trained birds exhibited sustained EEG arousal in the presence of the imprinted stimulus whereas both they and control birds evinced temporary desynchronization when presented with a strange stimulus. The EEG pattern observed in the chicks was virtually identical to that obtained in domestic turkeys tested under similar conditions.
Article
which were 10% higher than that obtained by the Lowry method. One mg of membrane "protein" corresponds to about 1.5 mg dry weight, most of the nonprotein mass consisting of phosphatides and cholesterol. About 1.5% of the dry mass is carbohydrate and 1-2% is contributed by tightly bound RNA. It should be noted that cellular membranes obtained in isoosmotic media (e.g., 0.25 M sucrose) ordinarily contain considerable quantities of trapped, soluble proteins,8 but in the isolation procedure here employed, these contaminants were removed by "osmotic shock."'24 The reported optical measurements are thus due to components integral with the membrane structure. 2-Chloroethanol (Eastman White Label) was completely transparent to 260 m,u after fractional redistillation. The apparent pH of 9:1 2-chloroethanol:water was about 1.1. Lysolecithin (Sigma Chemical Co.) was used at a concentration of 0.13 mg/ml which reduced the turbidity of PM suspensions by 50%. Infrared spectra: A Perkin-Elmer spectrophotometer model 521 was employed. Solid films were prepared by applying about 0.5 mg membrane protein (in aqueous suspension, or chloroethanol or formic acid solution) as a 0.5 X 2-cm band in the center of the silver chloride plate and drying in air at about 25?C. Once dried, the films were strongly adherent to the plate. Quantitative extraction of lipids from the films was achieved by immersing the plates in 2:1 chloroform:methanol (v:v) for 20 min at room temperature. After rinsing with the same solvent, the films were dried in air. To acidify the films, the dried plates were immersed for 20 min in 0.001-0.1 N HCI at room temperature, rinsed with distilled water, and air-dried. In order to have the films located reproducibly in the optical path, all manipulations of the films were performed with the plates in their plate-holders.
Article
The effects of calcium chloride solutions topically applied to cat cerebral cortex have been tested in locally anesthetized, immobilized preparations, Intracellular records from neurons and “silent” cells have been correlated with EEG records, transcortical d-c gradients and focal impedance measurement in the same Ca-treated cortical domain. Calcium solutions were added in amounts of 30, 60, or 90 μEq every 10 min for 50–60 min to a CSF volume of approximately 1.0 ml overlying the cortex. Calcium levels of CSF were thus raised approximately 10, 20 or 30 times. With the 30-μEq doses, no significant EEG changes occurred. With the 60-μEq doses, isolated EEG spikes or short spike trains appeared briefly for 20–30 min, beginning about 45 min from the start of calcium dosage. With the 90-μEq doses, EEG spikes coalesced to seizure bursts in the period 3–5 hr after Ca exposure. Neither seizures nor spikes occurred in cortex exposed for the same period to normal saline or calcium-free CSF. Electron micrographs after 90 μEq do not indicate osmotically active Ca. The 90-μEq doses raised impedance and abolished or inverted the normal negative transcortical d-c gradient. Combined d-c gradient, impedance, and intracellular records suggest movement of Ca through cortex at around 1.0 mm/hr, or approximately the same as diffusion in free solution. Control records disclosed reversible depolarization of silent cells in response to brief asphyxial episodes. Intermediate (60-μEq) doses of Ca transiently hyperpolarized neuronal membranes but depolarized silent cells 90 min after Ca in the outer 1.0 mm of cortex. By contrast, after 90-μEq doses, very few membrane potentials of either neurons or silent cells were seen in the outer 2.0 mm of cortex in the first 90 min. Neurons and membrane potentials gradually returned 2–5 hr after Ca, but the number encountered appeared related to concurrent EEG seizure episodes. Isolated EEG spikes were accompanied by intracellular polarizing transients up to 5.0 mv in amplitude and occurred with low neuronal membrane potentials. In cortex with established seizures, membrane potentials evolved from low to high values during a seizure and then declined to low values. Since classical views on a stabilizing role for Ca in neuronal membranes appear inadequate, models are discussed based on competitive binding of Ca and H ions to surface polyanions in control of membrane leakage currents, and on its metabolic interactions, as with ionic pumps and with glutamate sodium-current triggering.
Article
Spontaneous electrical activity has been recorded via implanted electrodes from the surface of the cerebral hemispheres of chicks between the ages of 1 day and 2 weeks after hatching. The records were obtained during various behavioral situations, involving either restraint of movement or an approach drive coupled with hesitation.The electrical patterns characteristic of the most mature birds were already present at 1 day after hatching. There was a wide range of amplitudes and frequencies for the slow wave component, upon which a weaker, faster signal was continuously superimposed. The extremes of (a) absence of all slow waves and (b) waves maximally large and slow were associated with behavioral attention and deep sleep respectively. The transition from (a) to (b) was gradual and discontinuous and accompanied by decreasing signs of alertness. Sensory stimulation always shifted the pattern towards desynchronization regardless of whether or not an observable motor response occurred.Behavioral patterns in the testing situation were limited to a few types, all of which were observed sooner or later in almost all experiments. ‘Individuality’ appeared, nonetheless, in the form of preferences for one or another type of response. Five categories of response patterns were distinguished, in which the relative number of members varied with age. The greatest consistency for the approach drive was reached by 1 week of age, after which an inhibiting influence developed progressively. Short-term memory could be demonstrated in all except a few of the 1-day-old birds, whose responses moreover varied erratically. Under conditions of prolonged restraint an embryonic mode of motility (periodic, stereotyped struggling) reasserted itself against a background of deep sleep.
Article
Thesis (Ph. D. in Physiology)--University of California, Berkeley, Sept. 1963. Bibliography: leaves 158-167.
Intracellular micro-electrode records from pyramidal tract neurones during spindle bursts in cerveau isolé pyramidal cat preparations, or with light barbiturate anaesthesia, has shown a close relationship between spindle waves and much larger oscillations in membrane potential of PT cells.Intracellular oscillations are composed of excitatory (depolarizing) and inhibitory (polarizing) components of 5–17 mV amplitude. Excitatory components correspond to the surface negative spindle wave or recruiting response, and are most prominent in stable cells with a high resting MP and low rate of spontaneous firing. Inhibitory phases of intracellular oscillation, most prominent in partially depolarized active cells are not so clearly reflected in the form of surface spindle waves. The inhibitory phase may arrest spontaneous firing and decrease the probability of intracellular invasion of antidromic impulses.Although intracellular oscillations and occasionally a burst of spindle waves may be evoked by antidromic volleys, such stimuli are far less effective than intralaminar thalamic stimulation in controlling spindle bursts. Axon collateral inhibition, though present and long lasting in PT neurones, does not seem to be the most important mechanism generating spontaneous spindle bursts in the cortex.Spindle bursts are most likely composed of synchronized alternating excitatory and inhibitory post-synaptic potentials distributed over the extent of the soma-apical dendritic membrane of pyramidal cells, the more superficially located synapses being largely responsible for the surface negative excitatory waves.Surface positive waves may be also excitatory and slow surface negative waves may be associated with long lasting polarizing waves in PT neurones. Multiple intracortical, thalamo-cortical, and cortico-thalamic reverberating rhythmic systems, normally loosely linked and capable of a degree of independent action, must be involved in the generation of the variety of waves and rhythms of the EEG. Pacemaker neuronal systems in the thalamus probably provide the timing for many cortical rhythms, even though intracortical axon collateral or other self re-exciting circuits may participate in generating rhythmically repeated discharge, and may become at times independent of thalamic control.
Article
Many authors1–31 have described the effects of polarization by imposed electric current upon nerve cells. We have not seen in the literature, however, a quantitative evaluation of the sensitivity of nerve cells to electric fields in terms of voltage gradient across some appropriate dimension of the neuron. We have undertaken to estimate the threshold value as being the unique value of greatest interest and have found this to be far lower for modulation of the frequency of an already active neuron than for the excitation of a silent one.
Cat EEG and behavior in very high frequency electric fields am-plitude-modulated at brain wave frequencies. Ph.D. Dissertation. University of California Effects of modulated VHF fields on specific brain rhythms in cats
  • S M Bawin
  • S M Bawin
  • R J Gavalas-Medici
  • W R Adey
BAWIN, S. M. 1972. Cat EEG and behavior in very high frequency electric fields am-plitude-modulated at brain wave frequencies. Ph.D. Dissertation. University of California, Los Angeles, Calif. BAWIN, S. M., R. J. GAVALAS-MEDICI & W. R. ADEY. 1973. Effects of modulated VHF fields on specific brain rhythms in cats. Brain Res. 58: 365-384.
Review Article: The role of catcium in neurohumoral and neurohormonal extrusion processes Abrupt depolarization and bi-ionic action potentials in internally perfused squid giant axons. Amer
  • L A Simpson
  • I Tasaki
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