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Transformation of the Common Information Model to OWL

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Managing an IT environment requires the exchange of structured data between different agents. The Common Information Model (CIM) is a comprehensive open standard that specifies how managed elements in an IT environment are modelled as a set of common objects and relationships between them. It has however limited support for knowledge interoperability and aggregation, as well as reasoning. By converting the existing CIM model into a format that can be processed by semantic web tools, these limitations can be overcome. This paper describes how CIM can be converted into a Web Ontology Language (OWL) ontology including constructs for which no obvious direct conversion exists, such as CIM qualifiers.
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Transformation of the Common Information
Model to OWL
Andreas Textor1,2, Jeanne Stynes2, Reinhold Kroeger1
1RheinMain University of Applied Sciences
Distributed Systems Lab
Kurt-Schumacher-Ring 18, D-65197 Wiesbaden, Germany
{andreas.textor,reinhold.kroeger}@hs-rm.de
2Cork Institute of Technology
Department of Computing
Rossa Avenue, Bishopstown, Cork, Ireland
jeanne.stynes@cit.ie
Abstract. Managing an IT environment requires the exchange of struc-
tured data between different agents. The Common Information Model
(CIM) is a comprehensive open standard that specifies how managed
elements in an IT environment are modelled as a set of common ob-
jects and relationships between them. It has however limited support
for knowledge interoperability and aggregation, as well as reasoning. By
converting the existing CIM model into a format that can be processed
by semantic web tools, these limitations can be overcome. This paper
describes how CIM can be converted into a Web Ontology Language
(OWL) ontology including constructs for which no obvious direct con-
version exists, such as CIM qualifiers.
1 Introduction
With the constantly growing size and complexity of IT environments, compre-
hensive management systems that can effectively and efficiently manage these
environments, are essential. A number of commercial and free systems exist that
cover various parts of the required feature set for such management tasks. Usu-
ally, the management system is not comprised by a single tool, but by a set of
different tools. To provide a unified view on the environment and allow inter-
operability between multiple management tools and managed elements, several
integrated network management models were developed. Notable examples are
the OSI network management model (also known as CMIP, the name of its pro-
tocol) and the still widely used simple network management model (SNMP).
A more recent approach to specify a comprehensive IT management model is
the Common Information Model (CIM) which is described in more detail in
section 3. This widely recognized Distributed Management Task Force (DMTF)
standard allows consistent management of managed elements in an IT environ-
ment. CIM is actively used; for example, the storage standard SMI-S (Storage
Management Initiative Specification) of the SNIA (Storage Networking Industry
Association, [1]) is based on CIM.
To establish interoperability mechanisms between the heterogenous inte-
grated management models, mappings between different types of models can be
defined. However, one question arises that can not be easily answered: “What
happens when two different domains represent the same concept in a different
way? A merely syntactic translation from the source model will not give the
existing concept in the destination” [2]. This problem is known as Semantic
Matching or Ontology Matching (see e.g. [3]). The problem can be approached
by using ontologies to clearly define the semantics. The long term goal is to
perform IT management based on a semantic foundation and a comprehensive
domain model with the ability to model management rules in this model.
An IT management ontology can not only be used to clearly define the se-
mantics of the managed elements in the managed system, but can also be used
when describing associations of the managed system to adjacent domains. For
example, if processes defined in an ontology for semantic business process man-
agement (see e.g. [4]) refer to physical or logical IT systems, such references
can be directly and unambiguously expressed in the particular ontology. With
the increasing development of semantic web techologies, including the specifica-
tion of the Web Ontology Language (OWL) and numerous publications regard-
ing merging and mapping of ontologies, querying, distributed reasoning etc., an
ontology-based IT management approach can probably profit even more.
One aspect that is common to most recent approaches of applying semantic
web technologies to the domain of IT management is the use of the Common
Information Model as the domain model. To allow for semantic interoperability
in IT management, a corresponding management ontology is required, and in
[5], CIM has been proposed for this purpose. As [6] points out, CIM is usable
for inferring properties about distributed systems, but is a semi-formal ontology
with limited support for knowledge interoperability and aggregation, as well as
reasoning. To create an IT management domain model that overcomes these
shortcomings, a conversion of CIM to OWL is desirable. OWL can be used with
reasoners, and can be augmented with rules formulated in the Semantic Web
Rule Language (SWRL).
This paper presents how a conversion from CIM to OWL can be performed.
Section 2 describes existing approaches to a conversion, section 3 gives an overview
of the Common Information Model. Sections 5 and 6 describe the conversion of
structural and additional CIM elements to OWL, respectively. Section 7 explains
details of the implementation and examines the properties of the resulting on-
tology. The paper closes with a conclusion in section 8.
2 Related Work
The idea of applying semantic web technologies to the domain of IT management
has been examined in several publications, e.g. [7, 8]. Although CIM is often
proposed for this purpose, the conversion of the native format in which CIM is
specified into an ontology is not trivial. Several publications exist that attempt
to create a conversion of CIM to OWL. In [6] the authors compare possible
conversions of CIM to RDFS (Resource Description Framework Schema) and to
OWL. They find that RDFS is unsuitable to express CIM as it “does not provide
constructs for expressing cardinality restrictions such as those used for describing
association or aggregation relationships between CIM classes”. Also, some CIM
qualifiers can not be adequately expressed in RDFS. They go on to construct an
OWL-based ontology for CIM by using a previously defined mapping of UML to
DAML+OIL (which is the predecessor to OWL) and create a mapping of CIM
to UML. The conversion of structural information (classes and properties) can
be expressed, but most CIM concepts (e.g. CIM qualifiers) have no mappings
to either UML constructs or OWL constructs, so the resulting ontology lacks a
large part of the information that is provided in the original model.
In [9] the author also addresses the conversion of CIM to OWL, but sev-
eral decisions in the conversion prevent a complete or near-complete conversion:
Properties of CIM classes are mapped to OWL datatype properties, which pre-
vents any property that has the type of another CIM class (object properties
must be employed for this to be possible). The author addresses the issue of CIM
properties that are explicitly scoped to the corresponding class, but in OWL
have global scope, by using the OWL allValuesFrom restriction. This makes it
impossible to specify properties for multiple classes that have the same name
but different ranges. Apart from that, a lot of CIM constructs and qualifiers
are not considered at all in the conversion, such as Aggregration/Composition,
Value/ValueMap, Keys, etc.
A more complete conversion approach from CIM to OWL is described in [10].
The authors introduce a meta-ontology that is used to model the CIM constructs
that have no direct OWL correspondence, e.g. default values or qualifiers that
set a value read-only or write-only. However, they do not describe how the meta-
ontology is constructed. The authors handle more of the CIM constructs than the
previously described approaches, such as several qualifiers, but do not describe
how more complex elements, such as CIM methods, can be converted. Also, they
leave out several of the restrictions the CIM defines, e.g. data types of properties
are lost and in their approach it is generally not possible to support constraints
for properties, such as MaxLen for strings.
3 DMTF CIM Overview
This section briefly describes the basic properties of the Common Information
Model. CIM defines how managed elements in an IT environment are represented
as a set of objects and relationships between them. The model is intended to
allow a consistent management of these managed elements, independent of their
manufacturer or provider. Unlike SMI (Structure of Management Information,
the model underlying the popular SNMP protocol), CIM is an object-oriented
model. CIM consists of
A basic information model called the meta schema. The meta schema is
defined using the Unified Modeling Language (UML, [11]).
A syntax for the description of management objects called the Managed
Object Format (MOF).
Two layers of generic management object classes called Core Model and
Common Model.
Figure 1 shows the CIM meta schema definition in UML, as shown in the CIM
specification [12]. The meta schema specifies most of the elements that are com-
mon in object-oriented modelling, namely
Classes,Properties and Methods. The class hierarchy supports single inher-
itance (generalization) and overloading of methods. For methods, the CIM
schema specifies only the prototypes of methods, not the implementation.
References are a special kind of property that point to classes.
Qualifiers are used to set additional characteristics of Named Elements, e.g.
possible access rules for properties (READ,WRITE), marking a property as a
key for instances (Key) or marking a class as one that can not be instantiated.
Qualifiers can be compared to Java annotations; some qualifiers also have
parameters.
Associations are classes that are used to describe a relation between two
classes. They usually contain two references.
Triggers represent a state change (such as create, delete, update, or access)
of a class instance, and update or access of a property.
Indications are objects created as a result of a trigger. Instances of this class
represent concrete events.
Schemas group elements for administrative purposes (e.g. naming).
Fig. 1. CIM Meta Schema
Properties, references, parameters and methods (method return values) have
a data type. Datatypes that are supported by CIM include {s,u}int{8,16,32,64}
(e.g. uint8 or sint32), real{32,64}, string, boolean, datetime and strongly typed
references (<classname>ref).
4 Translation Approach
For the construction of an OWL ontology, CIM schema elements have to be
translated to OWL. In this case, the goal is an OWL 1 ontology. Some elements
can be translated in a straightforward way, while other elements, especially qual-
ifiers, can not be directly translated. To translate CIM constructs for which no
direct translation exists, [10] proposes the use of a CIM meta ontology, although
without describing it in detail. In our approach, we will create an ontology that
consists of two parts: One part is the CIM meta ontology, which is statically
modelled (i.e. manually) and which consists of super classes, properties and an-
notations that meta-model CIM constructs which can not be directly translated
to OWL. The meta ontology has the namespace meta. The second part is the
CIM schema ontology, which is modelled using OWL-, RDFS- and CIM meta
constructs, and which represents the actual CIM model. It is automatically cre-
ated by parsing and translating the MOF representation of the CIM schema,
and has the namespace cim.
The translation of elements was performed incrementally. First of all, the
basic CIM elements were translated to OWL constructs, such as classes. Possi-
bilities for the translation of other elements were examined, and where possible,
the corresponding OWL construct was used. In some cases a certain translation
seems obvious, but isn’t actually usable, e.g. using datatype properties to repre-
sent CIM properties where object properties are necessary. CIM concepts that
have no corresponding OWL construct were modelled in the meta ontology, so
that elements in the CIM schema part of the ontology can make use of these
concepts. For the translation of the qualifiers, it was sometimes necessary to
alter the structure of the model to be able to properly represent the qualifier;
other qualifiers were modelled in the meta ontology.
When ontology elements such as classes and properties for corresponding
CIM elements are created, the original name is retained. When “helper” elements
are created (e.g. elements that do not exist in this form in the CIM schema), the
identifiers of the original CIM class are suffixed with a double underscore “ ”,
followed by the helper element name; further elements are concatenated with
single underscores.
5 Translation of Structural Elements
The most basic element of the translation is a CIM class, which can be directly
translated to owl:Class. Likewise, generalization (inheritance) can be expressed
using the OWL subclass concept rdfs:subClassOf. Apart from generalization,
CIM has another basic construct to express relationships between classes, the
Association. An association is a special kind of a class describing a link between
other classes. Associations are essentially normal classes with two typed reference
properties, and are marked with the Association qualifier.
An Aggregation is a specialization of an association, where the two references
are explicitly marked as parent and child (the class has both the Association
and Aggregation qualifiers, and the parent reference is also tagged with the
Associated qualifier). The aggregation can be specialized even further using the
Composition qualifier, which adds the semantics of a whole-part/compositional
relationship to distinguish it from a collection or basic aggregation. None of
the three constructs – association, aggregation and composition – can be di-
rectly translated into OWL. Using object properties for representing them is not
possible, as association classes can inherit from other classes, but OWL object
properties can not inherit from OWL classes. In order to model these constructs,
corresponding classes and object properties are modelled in the CIM meta on-
tology.
The class CIM Association represents an association and is the domain of
the object property CIM Association Role, from which concrete CIM associa-
tion object properties can inherit. Each concrete association has two association
roles (i.e. two instances of the object property). CIM Aggregation is modelled as
a subclass of CIM Association and has two object properties which represent
the parent and the child part of the association, respectively, and which are sub-
properties of CIM Association Role. The Composition is modelled analogously
as a subclass of the aggregation class and the parent and child subproperties of
the aggregation parent and child object properties.
The modelling of CIM properties proves to be not straightforward either.
While the structural element of a property could be modelled by a simple ob-
ject property, this approach is not applicable when taking into account that
properties can have qualifiers that make assertions about the property. A simple
example is the MaxLen qualifier that can be used with properties of type string
to assert a maximum length for its value. Qualifiers that make assertions can, in
some cases, be represented by OWL property restrictions, which constrain the
range of a property in specific contexts in a variety of ways. One important case
where this is not possible is the combination of Values and ValueMap quali-
fiers: The ValueMap qualifier defines the set of permissible values for a property.
When it is used in combination with the Values qualifier, the location of the
value in the ValueMap array determines the location of the corresponding entry
in the Values array. Listing 1.1 shows an example property from the CIM class
CIM Job.
1[ Wr i te , D e scr i p t i on ( " T h is p ro p e r ty i ndi c a t es w he t h e r the t i m es "
2" r epr e s e n te d i n th e R u n St a r t I n ter v a l a nd U n t i lTi m e p r o per t i e s "
3" r epr e s e nt l oc a l t i me s o r U TC t i m es . Ti m e v a lu e s a r e s ync h r o n ize d "
4" w or l d wi d e by u si n g t h e en u m er a t i on v a lu e 2, \" U T C T i me \ ". " ),
5Va l ue M ap { " 1" , "2 " },
6Va l ue s { " Lo c al T im e " , " U TC Ti m e " } ]
7uint16 LocalOrUtcTime;
Listing 1.1. ValueMap and Values qualifiers
To implement CIM properties in the OWL model, a structure as shown in
figure 2 is used. In the figure, rectangular boxes represent OWL classes, rounded
boxes with one connection represent datatype properties and rounded boxes
with two connections represent object properties. Each CIM property is mod-
elled as a combination of an OWL object property and an OWL class. This
class inherits from the meta ontology class CIM Value that has two datatype
properties, “value” and “valueMap”. To model the semantics from the original
ValueMap and Values qualifiers, the class is restricted using owl:oneOf to allow
only instances from a list of CIM Value instances (one for each ValueMap-Values
combination).
Fig. 2. Modelling of properties
For the example in listing 1.1, the following OWL elements are created: The
class CIM Job LocalOrUtcTime Value which is a subclass of CIM Value, the ob-
ject property CIM Job LocalOrUtcTime (with domain CIM Job and range CIM
Job LocalOrUtcTime Value), the CIM Value instance CIM Job LocalOrUtcTime
Value Local Time with data property value set to “Local Time” and data
property valueMap set to “1”, likewise an instance for UTC Time, and finally, a
subclass restriction on CIM Job on the object property to limit all values to one
of the two CIM Value instances.
One important part that was left out so far, is the data type of the modelled
property. To preserve the type information, the CIM primitive type is mapped to
a corresponding XSD type, which is then added to the object property using the
meta ontology annotation type. Another possibility would have been to create
a subclass of CIM Value for each primitive data type.
Each signed and unsigned number type is translated to its XSD equivalent,
e.g. uint8 becomes xsd:unsignedByte,sint32 becomes xsd:int,real32 be-
comes xsd:float, and so on. Translation is mostly straightforward, except for
char16, which has to be translated into a string, and datetime, which has
a corresponding XSD data type but which specifies a different lexical repre-
sentation for the datetime string. While CIM uses the format “yyyymmddhh-
mmss.mmmmmmsutc” (where “mmmmmm” is the number of microseconds, and
“utc” is the offset from UTC in minutes), XSD uses the format “yyyy-mm-
ddThh:mm:ss” (where T is the date/time separator; a decimal point and addi-
tional digits to increase the precision of fractional seconds can be added after the
seconds part). Datetime values have to be converted accordingly. Default values
that can be specified for CIM properties unfortunately can not be expressed in
OWL directly. To translate the default values into the ontology, the annotation
defaultValue is defined in the meta ontology and added to the corresponding
object property in the same way as the type annotation is added. Whenever an
instance of a class that has as property with a default value is to be created, this
annotation has to be taken into account.
Fig. 3. Modelling of methods
The translation of CIM methods to OWL requires several OWL elements
per method as well. Figure 3 shows how the translation is performed. A method
basically has to provide the information about its name, type and its parameter
list, where each parameter in turn has a name, a type and, in CIM, can have
additional qualifiers. The meta ontology provides the class CIM Method, that has
two datatype properties, methodName and methodType. For each method of a
CIM class, an OWL object property CIM <Class> <Method> is created, with the
original CIM class as domain, and the CIM Method class as range. An instance of
the CIM Method class is created and added as annotation to the object property.
Generating both the object property and the instance is necessary, because in
OWL, datatype properties can not be attached to object properties, but only
to classes and instances. If the method overrides a method from a super class, a
corresponding rdfs:subPropertyOf is added to the method object property.
Another object property is needed to associate the method instance with its
parameters. Each method parameter is represented by an instance of the meta
ontology class CIM Method Parameter, which in turn has datatype properties
for its name, type and position. The position property is necessary, because
OWL has no construct for ordered collections, and modelling a linked list would
add unreasonable complexity. Note that although the OWL reference describes
“Enumerated Datatypes” [13] that use rdf:List to define a list of values for
a datatype property, a similar construct for OWL instances is not specified.
The object property representing the parameter list has the method instance as
domain and an owl:oneOf set of the method parameter instances as range.
6 Translation of Qualifiers
While section 5 described the translation of structural elements (classes, proper-
ties and methods), the second part to convert are the CIM qualifiers. Each qual-
ifier can have a specific scope (e.g. can only be used in the context of classes,
or in the context of properties and methods, etc.). A qualifier can also have
parameters that have to be taken into account.
Values and ValueMap are modelled in the meta ontology and were described
in section 5.
The Override qualifier can be used with properties and methods and indi-
cates that the element in the derived class overrides the similar construct of
the same name in the parent class in the inheritance tree. For the Override
qualifier, an rdfs:subPropertyOf relationship is added to the object prop-
erty that represents either the CIM property or the CIM method.
The Key qualifier marks a property as the identifying property of the
class. Keys are written once at object instantiation and are not mod-
ified thereafter. Key qualifiers on single properties can be translated
by declaring the corresponding object property to be an instance of
owl:InverseFunctionalProperty. If a property is declared to be inverse-
functional, then the object of a property statement uniquely determines the
subject (some individual). When more than one property in the source class
is marked with the Key qualifier, they form a compound key. This poses the
same problem as translating a SQL schema with composite primary keys to
OWL (as proposed e.g. in [14]). One solution could be to create a synthetic
class for the properties that comprise the key. This case is not handled by
the converter.
Description can be added to any element and provides a textual description
of the element in human-readble format. It is converted into a rdfs:comment.
The Min and Max qualifiers indicate the minimum and maximum cardinality
of a reference property. They can be translated to owl:minCardinality and
owl:maxCardinality.
MaxLen is a qualifier that can only be attached to properties of type
string, and specifies the maximum length of the string value. For this
qualifier, an owl:Restriction is created for the class containing the prop-
erty, as shown in the example in listing 1.2: using owl:allValuesFrom and
owl:withRestrictions, the maximum length for the value can be specified
as an XSD value restriction.
MaxValue and MinValue specify the minimum and maximum values for int
properties and can be translated analogously to the MaxLen qualifier, using
xsd:maxInclusive and xsd:minInclusive datatype facets.
The Deprecated qualifier marks an element as deprecated, and is converted
usingg owl:deprecatedClass and deprecatedProperty, respectively.
Required indicates that a non-NULL value is required for the property. It is
translated by adding an owl:minCardinality of 1 to the object property.
An Alias establishes an alternate name for a property or method and can
be converted using the owl:equivalentProperty construct with the object
property that represents the property or method.
1< ow l : Cl a ss r df : a b ou t = " # CI M Ac c ou n t Cr ea t i o nC l a ss N a me V al u e " >
2< rd f s : su b C la s sO f r df : r e so u r ce =" & m et a ; C IM V al u e "/ >
3< rd f s : s u bC l as s O f >
4<owl:Restriction >
5< ow l : o nP r o pe r ty r df : r e s ou r ce = "& m e ta ; v a lu e " / >
6<owl:allValuesFrom >
7<rdf:Description >
8< rd f : ty p e r df : r e so u r ce = " & rd f s ; Da t at y p e "/ >
9< ow l : o nD a t at y pe r df : r e s ou r ce = "& x sd ; st r in g " / >
10 < ow l : w it h R es t r ic t i on s r df : p a rs e T yp e = " C ol l e ct i o n " >
11 <rdf:Description >
12 < xs d : m ax L en g t h
rd f : d at a t yp e = " & xs d ; i nt e g er " >2 5 6 </ x s d : ma x Le n gt h >
13 </ r df : D e sc r ip t io n >
14 </ o wl : w i t hR e st r ic t i on s >
15 </ r df : D e sc r ip t io n >
16 </owl:allValuesFrom >
17 </ o wl : R e st r ic t io n >
18 </ r df s : s ub C la ss O f >
19 </ o wl : C la s s >
Listing 1.2. Conversion of MaxLen qualifier
The ModelCorrespondence qualifier indicates a correspondence between two
elements in the CIM schema. It is translated to the rdfs:seeAlso construct.
Read and Write define that a property is readble or writeable. As no OWL
construct exists to represent this feature, they are modelled as annotations
in the meta ontology, that are attached to the particular object property.
Version provides the version number of a schema object; it is converted to
owl:versionInfo.
The Abstract qualifier indicates that a class is abstract and serves only as a
base for new classes. A translation of this concept to OWL does not make
much sense, as OWL classes can not be compared to classes from object-
orientation in this respect. Therefore, a marker annotation abstract is mod-
elled in the meta ontology and attached to the OWL class. This does not
preserve the orginal semantics, but can be accounted for by tools that create
instances of CIM classes.
The Units and PUnit qualifiers provide information about the unit in which
a property or method is expressed. While the (now deprecated) Units quali-
fier specifies a human-readable format (e.g. “Tenths of Decibels”), the PUnit
qualifier uses a machine-readable format (e.g. “decibels101”). The quali-
fiers are converted using the meta ontology annotations units and punit,
respectively.
UMLPackagePath specifies the a position within a UML package hierarchy
for a CIM class. A class hierarchy other than the inheritance hierarchy is
not modelled in the ontology, so the package path is also modelled as an
annotation in the meta ontology.
The ClassConstraint,PropertyConstraint and MethodConstraint qualifiers
can be used to specify OCL constraints for the particular elements. The
Object Constraint Language (OCL) is a declarative language for describing
rules that apply to UML models. These qualifiers are currently not handled
by the converter. One possibility to handle these qualifiers is to convert the
OCL expressions to SWRL, as proposed in [15], which can then be included
in the ontology.
Some more CIM qualifiers exist, which are not discussed in detail here. These
qualifiers mostly serve as flags, for example the Experimental qualifier, and can
be converted by creating appropriate annotations in the meta ontology.
7 Implementation and Resulting Ontology
The converter was prototypically implemented in Scala [16], a programming lan-
guage that integrates object-oriented and functional features and that compiles
to Java Byte Code. Java libraries can be used in Scala programs, and OWLAPI
2.2.0 was used for the creation of the ontology. The conversion is performed in
two steps: The first step is parsing the MOF representation of the CIM schema.
The parser was implemented as a combinatory parser using parser combinators
that are part of Scala’s standard library; no external parser generator was nec-
essary. The second step consists of traversing the resulting abstract syntax tree
and mapping elements to OWL axioms, as described in sections 5 and 6.
CIM schema version 2.23.0 consists of 1379 MOF files, containing roughly
the same amount of OWL classes, and is converted to a total amount of 69295
OWL axioms, which are serialized into a 12 MB OWL file. The conversion takes
about 35 seconds on an Intel Core 2 Duo with 2 GHz and 2 GB RAM; this
can be interesting when a newer version of the CIM schema is to be translated.
Loading the ontology using OWLAPI takes approximately 10 seconds and uses
130 MB on the same computer.
Only constructs that are valid in OWL DL are used; the resulting ontology
has the expressiveness of OWL DL, which allows for decidable reasoning. As
owl:InverseFunctionalProperty for the conversion of the Key qualifier is only
used with object properties, the ontology does not require OWL Full expres-
siveness (the inverse functional characteristic for datatype properties can only
be specified in OWL Full). Pellet 2.0.1 affirms the consistency of the ontology
and the reasoning complexity of ALUH OIN (D)(ALU E is equivalent to S, and
SH OIN (D)is the reasoning complexity of OWL DL).
8 Conclusion and Future Work
This paper presented a short introduction to the DMTF Common Information
Model (CIM), and the motivation to convert CIM into the OWL format. It then
explained in detail how CIM constructs such as classes, properties, methods and
various qualifiers can be converted into OWL. The OWL ontology consists of
two namespaces: meta, which contains manually modelled entities that repre-
sent CIM constructs for which no direct OWL translation exists, and cim, which
contains the actual OWL elements that model the CIM schema. The resulting
ontology has the expressiveness of OWL DL. Future work includes the examina-
tion of reasoning performance in a real-world scenario using instance data and
the possibility of a round-trip conversion (i.e. translating OWL back to CIM),
as well as the application of the ontology in an IT management context using
management rules formulated in SWRL.
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... We developed a full mapping of CIM to OWL, which we use in this paper (see Section III-A) and which is first described in [11]. ...
... As pointed out in Section II-B, a translation of CIM to OWL must be performed. The translation approach described in this section has first been published in [11] and is described in full detail in [28]. This section gives an overview of the translation approach and describes (previously unpublished) technical details necessary for the implementation of the translation using exemplary values. ...
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... The ontology importer simply reads the data from an OWL ontology and adds the facts to the shared knowledge base. The CIM importer uses the mapping rules described in [3] to map the CIM schema to OWL facts. As well as models, rules can be specified in a domain specific manner. ...
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... The authors in [12] introduce a meta-ontology to model CIM constructs that have no direct OWL correspondence, but they do not describe how this meta-ontology is constructed, and their approach does not specify how several qualifiers and more complex elements, such as CIM methods, can be converted. The approach presented in this paper thus relies on the translation of CIM to OWL described in section 4.2, and in more detail in [20]. ...
... The translation of CIM to OWL is described in more detail in [20]. Only constructs that are valid in OWL DL are used; the resulting ontology has the expressiveness of OWL DL, which allows for decidable reasoning. ...
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