Conference Paper

Integrated Quality of Models and Quality of Maps

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Abstract

Conceptual modeling traditionally focuses on a high level of abstraction. Even if geographical aspects such as location is included in several enterprise modeling frameworks [26], it is not common to have geographical aspects included in conceptual models. Cartography is the science of visualizing geographical information in maps. Traditionally the field has not included conceptual relationships and the primary focus is on a fairly low abstraction level. Both cartography and conceptual modeling have developed guidelines for obtaining high quality visualizations. SEQUAL is a quality framework developed for understanding quality in conceptual models and modeling languages. In cartography such counterparts are not common to find. An attempt to adapt SEQUAL in the context of cartographic maps has been performed, named MAPQUAL. The paper presents MAPQUAL. Differences between quality of maps and quality of conceptual models are highlighted, pointing to guidelines for combined representations which are the current focus of our work. An example of such combined use is presented indicating the usefulness of a combined framework.

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... In this work we look at modelling of 'place'. Work combing modelling of space (e.g. in maps) and conceptual aspects are described in [10]. In previous papers we first performed a preliminary analytical evaluation of some notation alternatives in [5], the evaluation based on a semiotic framework [11]. ...
... For an entirely new notation, the usage of planar variables (horizontal and vertical placement) could be the most intuitive choice to indicate geographical location, as this the normal approach for spatial relationships in maps, which most people have somehow been accustomed to without any IS education. As discussed in [10], due to the different meta-meta model of maps and conceptual models, there are differences in how to exploit the nine principles of Moody. Cartography revolves, generally, around geographical information which is strongly reflected in the visualization used. ...
... This is inherently different from metameta models in conceptual modelling which usually comprise only nodes and links between nodes, in addition to containment. From [10] we have the following guidelines based on the work on MAPQUAL: 1. Clearly discriminate between geographical oriented lines and conceptual lines (relationships) 2. Clearly differentiate between nodes (concept) which are often depicted by a geometric shape, and geographic areas (by texture or colour for instance) 3. Indicate topological information by positioning of conceptual nodes according to the topology where relevant. 4. Position concepts according to their temporal nearness. ...
Conference Paper
In mobile and multi-channel information system, the geographical location and context of the user when performing some task may be important for the design of IT applications. Yet, mainstream process models seldom capture the "where" aspect, such as the location for performing some activity. In previous papers we have performed an initial analytical evaluation and two controlled experiments comparing some notation alternatives. For all these notation alternatives the underlying assumption has been that they should be achieved as fairly small adaptations of existing process notations, using UML Activity Diagrams as an example. In this paper we provide a more comprehensive analysis of the problems, using 9 principles for visual notations proposed by Moody, and considering clean-sheet design of a process notation in addition to minor adaptations of existing ones. The paper demonstrates how this would result in quite different notations, each with their pros and cons. © 2011 IFIP International Federation for Information Processing.
... The guidelines proposed by Klippel et al. (2006) are based on map and graphic design -which can be closely related to semiotic theory. Previous research has attempted an integration of the field of conceptual modeling and cartography Nossum andKrogstie (2009), Nossum (2009) and proposed a quality framework for cartography inspired and based on SEQUAL. Combined this emphasizes the need for proper guidelines and understanding of quality in cartography -however the work of Klippel et al. (2006) also underlines the importance of considering the differences in cartography with respect to contextual sensitivity and domain application -there are no silver bullet for modern cartography. ...
... Examples of such evaluation methods could be to have other experts evaluate the YAH maps following the guidelines and observe and compare their response. Other means could be to compare the guidelines with other similar guidelines, such as SEQUAL (Krogstie and Sølvberg 2003) or MAPQUAL (Nossum and Krogstie 2009) or simply comparing the guidelines with accepted cartographic design principles. The lack of discussion on different means of evaluating the performance of the guidelines themselves should be addressed to increase the potential impact and acceptance of the guidelines. ...
... These findings emphasizes the need for proper guidelines in order to avoid potentially life-threatening emergency outcomes and to increase the security impact YAH maps can have. As Nossum and Krogstie (2009) also recognizes, there is much similarities between seemingly orthogonal fields, such as cartography and conceptual modeling. Collaboration and integrated work efforts could potentially be highly beneficiary for both fields. ...
... These states are often modelled, and the state of the organization is perceived (differently) by different persons through these models. This open up for different usage areas of conceptual models as described e.g. in [6,7]. 1. Human sense-making: The model of the current state can be useful for people to make sense of and learn about the current situation as it is perceived. ...
...  Empirical quality: Support for empirical quality will be more built in, e.g. in tools that build up models from raw data in process mining, thus integrating information visualization tools and modelling tool. Different meta-meta models can necessitate rethinking guidelines for achieving empirical quality [6].  Physical quality: Rather than being based on central repositories, more distributed, federated storage of model fragments must be available, utilizing standard interchange formats and supporting model mash-ups. ...
Conference Paper
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’Digital ecosystems’ is a metaphor inspired by natural ecosystems which describes a set of distributed, adaptive, and open socio-technical systems. Being parts of such ecosystems, individual persons, public and private organisations are becoming increasingly dependent on each other. When such cooperation moves beyond simple buying and selling of goods and well-defined services, there is a need for a flexible infrastructure that supports not only information exchange, but also collaborative knowledge creation, evolution and sharing across a number of cooperation and collaborative networks that traditionally work in a bottom-up and rather improvised way. We will in this paper look at how techniques and approaches to modelling used e.g. for enterprise architecture and collaborative networks should evolve to support the development, support and evolution of digital ecosystems.
... together with Moody (Moody, Sindre, Brasethvik & Sølvberg, 2002) also included empirical evaluations, and practical applications of the framework have been reported in (Heggset, Krogstie & Wesenberg, 2014;Heggset, Krogstie & Wesenberg, 2015b). The framework has been developed through a number of iterations, and have also in some cases been established as part of the knowledge base e.g. in the development of a framework for quality of maps (Nossum & Krogstie, 2009). The current version of the framework is described in (Krogstie, 2012a) where also newer work on quality of modeling languages (including the work presented by Moody (2009)) is incorporated. ...
... • SEQUAL-SRS: Software requirements specifications (Krogstie, 1999;Krogstie, 2001), including quality of goal models (Krogstie, 2008 (Nossum & Krogstie, 2009) Another dimension of specialization relates to the type of model. Traditionally, one have mainly differentiated between as-is (descriptive) and to-be (prescriptive models). ...
... together with Moody (Moody, Sindre, Brasethvik & Sølvberg, 2002) also included empirical evaluations, and practical applications of the framework have been reported in (Heggset, Krogstie & Wesenberg, 2014;Heggset, Krogstie & Wesenberg, 2015b). The framework has been developed through a number of iterations, and have also in some cases been established as part of the knowledge base e.g. in the development of a framework for quality of maps (Nossum & Krogstie, 2009). The current version of the framework is described in (Krogstie, 2012a) where also newer work on quality of modeling languages (including the work presented by Moody (2009)) is incorporated. ...
... • SEQUAL-SRS: Software requirements specifications (Krogstie, 1999;Krogstie, 2001), including quality of goal models (Krogstie, 2008 (Nossum & Krogstie, 2009) Another dimension of specialization relates to the type of model. Traditionally, one have mainly differentiated between as-is (descriptive) and to-be (prescriptive models). ...
Chapter
An important challenge for organizational activity is to effectively represent and transfer knowledge. One reason why humans have excelled as a species is our ability to create common stories and represent, reuse, and transfer this as knowledge across time and space. Whereas in most areas of human conduct one-dimensional natural language texts are the main way of expressing and sharing knowledge, the authors see the need for and use of two and many-dimensional forms of knowledge representational to be on the rise. This will also enable users to capture contextual dependencies between roles, tasks, information elements, and the views required for performing work without having to go through traditional systems developers to have enhanced support for their work. The importance on supporting judgment on the quality of these models will thus increase along with the usefulness of frameworks for quality of models and modeling languages such as SEQUAL.
... • SRS-software requirements specifications (Krogstie 2001) • DM-data models (Krogstie 2013a;Krogstie 2015) • DQ-data quality (Krogstie 2013b;Krogstie 2015) • IM-interactive models (Krogstie and Jørgensen 2002) • EM-enterprise models/modeling languages (Krogstie 2012a) • BPM-business process models (Krogstie 2012b) • ONT-ontologies (Hella and Krogstie 2010) • MDSD-models used in model-driven software development • UML-UML models (Krogstie 2003) • MAPS-MAPQUAL (not in Fig. 3.1) (Nossum and Krogstie 2009) The high-level SEQUAL framework has many similarities with Krogstie (2012a), but we have added reference models and reference languages/ontologies due to their importance in the business process modeling area when we present the updated SEQUAL framework below. ...
Chapter
Whereas we in the previous chapter looked upon quality of models and quality of business processes more generally, we here bring these together, by presenting a specialization of the SEQUAL framework for discussing and assessing the quality of business process models. As in the original SEQUAL framework, we look upon aspects of physical, empirical, syntactic, semantic, pragmatic, social, and deontic quality of business process model. Although the same levels developed for the quality of models in general are also relevant for the quality of business process models and they share many of the same means for improving model quality, we have also identified a number of specific aspects that are related to the use of process modeling languages, the use of reference process models, and process improvement.
... In this work we look at modeling of "place." Work combing modeling of space (e.g., in maps) and conceptual aspects are described in Nossum and Krogstie (2009). When modeling 'place,' a limited number of places are typically relevant in most cases, as exemplified by the three types of remote mobility. ...
Article
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For mobile and multi-channel information systems it is often relevant to model where something is supposed to take place. Traditional business process modeling notations seldom capture location. Examining if there might be any gain in extending mainstream modeling notations with the capture of location is an interesting research topic. This paper addresses this question both through an analytical comparison of various notation alternatives and two experiments investigating different ways of visualizing location. The results of the experiments indicate that the notation using color for distinguishing different places have advantage over textual annotations, whereas no significant difference was found between the use color and pattern fills when it came to the subjects? performance solving the experimental tasks.
... Traditional representations of space such as a map have is to a limited degree been oriented towards representation of process knowledge. Some recent approaches do take these aspects more consciously into account, as exemplified by (Nossum and Krogstie, 2009). ...
Article
An important area of BPM is the modeling of processes. Processes modeling is done for a number of reasons in relation to BPM, and this chapter will describe main approaches to different types of process modeling. Modeling approaches will be structured according to the main modeling perspective being used. In conceptual modeling in general, one can identify 8 modeling perspectives; behavioral, functional, structural, goal-oriented, object-oriented, language action, organizational and geographical. In this chapter, we will present examples of process modeling according to these different perspectives, and discuss what perspectives are most appropriate to use to achieve the different goals of modeling.
... Traditional representations of space such as a map have only to a limited degree been oriented towards representation of conceptual knowledge. Some recent approaches do take these aspects more consciously into account, as exempli fi ed by Nossum and Krogstie ( 2009 ) . We will illustrate the approach with an application to provide process support/decision support in the medical domain. ...
Chapter
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In this chapter, we will give an overview of general mechanisms and perspectives used in conceptual modelling. We will first look upon modelling as a type of hierarchical abstraction. We present main abstraction mechanisms used in modelling languages (generalisation, aggregation, classification, association). Meta-modelling as a type of classification is discussed specifically, as is influence of philosophical ontology through BWW and UEML. We survey different modelling languages according to the main phenomena they describe, what we call the main modelling perspective of a modelling language. We have identified eight perspectives (behavioural, functional, structural, goal and rule, object-oriented, communicational, actor and role and topological). We discuss process modelling according to these perspectives before finally we discuss how to apply several such perspectives at the same time in an integrated manner, including examples of different approaches for integrating different perspectives in one language both for design modelling (UML) and enterprise modelling (EEML).
... Furthermore, evidence from deployed IPSs can be used when planning, building and operating new shopping malls, office buildings or hospitals. Specifically in hospitals, it is essential to keep track of where both patients, staff and equipment are, and support both wayfinding (for patients), planning (of logistics), and self-coordination (of doctors and nurses) as unexpected events occur [24]. Finally, regarding safety, IPSs could enable a higher level of emergency preparedness at indoor venues. ...
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Global navigation systems and location-based services have found their way into our daily lives. Recently, indoor positioning techniques have also been proposed, and there are several live or trial systems already operating. In this paper, we present insights from MazeMap, the first live indoor/outdoor positioning and navigation system deployed at a large university campus in Norway. Our main contribution is a measurement case study; we show the spatial and temporal distribution of MazeMap geo-location and wayfinding requests, construct the aggregated human mobility map of the campus and find strong logical ties between different locations. On one hand, our findings are specific to the venue; on the other hand, the nature of available data and insights coupled with our discussion on potential usage scenarios for indoor positioning and location-based services predict a successful future for these systems and applications.
... together with Moody [11] has also extended the evaluation with empirical techniques. The framework has been developed through a number of iterations, and when have also in some cases been established as part of the knowledge base e.g. in the development of a framework for quality of maps [13]. The current version of the framework is described in [2] where also newer work on language quality is included. ...
Chapter
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We are very pleased that our CAiSE’95 paper has been selected to be included in the Springer book that celebrates the 25th anniversary of the CAiSE conferences series. This paper entitled ‘Towards a Deeper Understanding of Quality in Requirements Engineering’ presented a development of work started some years earlier in the research group of Arne Sølvberg on the topic of quality of models. This topic has been of interest during the next 20 years by us and a number of other researchers both in the context of IS development and in other areas, and will in our view be a relevant topic for the foreseeable future.
... Conventional representations of space such as a map have to a limited degree been oriented toward representation of process knowledge. Some recent approaches do consciously consider these aspects, as exemplified by Nossum and Krogstie (2009), and Krogstie and Nossum (2014). ...
Chapter
This chapter contains the theoretical foundation of the book by introducing the topic area of business processes and modeling and the most important concept underlying modeling of business processes. After introducing high-level aspects of business process management, business process modeling is grounded in general model theory and the chapter describes the philosophy underlying the approach to the quality of models by providing an overview of the most important goals of modeling. We also exemplify this by introducing some of the cases and modeling notations used later in the book, including an introduction to BPMN, variants of which are used in several of the cases presented.
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This publication is originally published in LNI volume 204. http://www.gi.de/service/publikationen/lni/gi-edition-proceedings-2012/gi-edition-lecture-notes-in-informatics-lni-p-204.html The Gesellschaft für Informatik is the owner of the copyright. According to the copyright transfer form I can provide access to an article that appears in the LNI by means of my own web pages (which includes my ResearchGate page)
Book
In 2013, the International Conference on Advance Information Systems Engineering (CAiSE) turns 25. Initially launched in 1989, for all these years the conference has provided a broad forum for researchers working in the area of Information Systems Engineering. To reflect on the work done so far and to examine prospects for future work, the CAiSE Steering Committee decided to present a selection of seminal papers published for the conference during these years and to ask their authors, all prominent researchers in the field, to comment on their work and how it has developed over the years. The scope of the papers selected covers a broad range of topics related to modeling and designing information systems, collecting and managing requirements, and with special attention to how information systems are engineered towards their final development and deployment as software components. With this approach, the book provides not only a historical analysis on how information systems engineering evolved over the years, but also a fascinating social network analysis of the research community. Additionally, many inspiring ideas for future research and new perspectives in this area are sparked by the intriguing comments of the renowned authors.
Chapter
Since the introduction of the ER-language in the late seventies, conceptual modelling has been an important area in information systems development. Conceptual modelling is widely used today, both on an analytical and a design-oriented level, e.g. for model-driven software engineering. The quality of conceptual models have also been investigated and discussed since the mid-nineties. In this paper we present a specialization of a general framework for assessing quality of models for being able to evaluate the quality of conceptual models as used in model-driven software engineering. This has resulted in a useful deepening of the generic framework on this specific kind of models, and in this way improved the practical applicability of the framework when applied to discussing the quality of conceptual models as used in model driven software engineering..
Chapter
Processes modeling is done for a number of reasons in relation to enterprise modeling, business process modeling and information systems development in general, and this paper will give an overview of main approaches to different types of process modeling. Modeling approaches are structured according to the main modeling perspective being used. In conceptual modeling in general, one can identify 8 modeling perspectives; behavioral, functional, structural, goal-oriented, object-oriented, language action, organizational and topological. In the paper we will present both historical and current examples of process modeling according to these different perspectives, and discuss what perspectives are most appropriate to achieve the different goals of modeling.
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As approaches and tools for process and enterprise modelling are maturing, these techniques are in an increasing number of organizations being taken into use on a large scale. In this paper we report on the use over many years of process-modelling in connection to the quality system of Statoil, a large Norwegian oil-company, in particular on the aspects found necessary to emphasis to achieve the right quality of the models in this organisation. The Statoil-guidelines for enterprise structure and use of standard notation are mapped to the levels of SEQUAL, a generic framework for understanding the quality of models. Guidelines for modelling are found on most levels. More detailed guidelines than in general work on quality of business process models are found in particular on the physical, empirical, and syntactic level, where the number of detailed guidelines in Statoil has increased over the years due to needs identified.
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The quality of data models has been investigated since the midnineties. In another strand of research, data and information quality has been investigated even longer. Data can also be looked upon as a type of model (on the instance level), as illustrated e.g. in the product models in CAD-systems. We have earlier presented a specialization of the general SEQUAL-framework to be able to evaluate the combined quality of data models and data. In this paper we look in particular on the identified issues of ‘Big Data’. We find on the one hand that the characteristics of quality of big data can be looked upon in the light of the quality levels of the SEQUAL-framework as it is specialized for data quality, and that there are aspects in this framework that are not covered by the existing work on big data. On the other hand, the exercise has resulted in a useful deepening of the generic framework for data quality, and has in this way improved the practical applicability of the SEQUAL-framework when applied to discussing and assessing quality of big data. © 2015 IFIP International Federation for Information Processing.
Book
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This book covers the whole spectrum of modeling goals to achieve optimal quality in the process model developed. It focuses on how to balance quality considerations across all semiotic levels when models are used for different purposes, and is based on SEQUAL, a framework for understanding the quality of models and modeling languages, which can take into account all main aspects relating to the quality of models. Chapter 1 focuses on the theoretical foundations, introducing readers to the topics of business processes and business process modeling, as well as the most important concept underlying the modeling of business processes. In turn, Chapter 2 addresses the quality of models in general and business process models in particular. Chapter 3 contains a specialization of SEQUAL for quality of business process models. In Chapter 4, examples of the practical uses of business process models are provided, together with the results of detailed case studies on how to achieve and maintain quality in business process models. Chapter 5 presents a process modeling value framework that demonstrates how to achieve more long-term and higher return on investment with regard to (business) process and enterprise models. Lastly, Chapter 6 reviews the main points of the book and discusses the potential for business process modeling in the future through its combination with other types of modeling. The book has two intended audiences. It is primarily intended for computer science, software engineering and information system students at the postgraduate level who want to know more about business process modeling and the quality of models in preparation for professional practice. The second audience consists of professionals with extensive experience in and responsibilities related to the development and evolution of process-oriented information systems and information systems methodologies in general, who need to formalize and structure their practical experience or update their knowledge as a way to improve their professional activity. The book also includes a number of real-world case studies that make it easier to grasp the main theoretical concepts, helping readers apply the approaches described.
Chapter
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type Generalization Subtype Aggregation Association Attribute(grouping) (singlevalued)Fig. 2.7. Example of a GSM modelAttribute(Multi-valuedPrimitive types. The data types in GSM are classified into two kinds:the printable data types, that are used to specify some visible values, andthe abstract types that represent some entities. In the example, the followingprintable types can be identified: Eraall-address, language, firstname,initials, and lastname.
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An international standard has now been established for evaluating the quality of software products. However there is no equivalent standard for evaluating the quality of conceptual models. While a range of quality frameworks have been proposed in the literature, none of these have been widely accepted in practice and none has emerged as a potential standard. As a result, conceptual models continue to be evaluated in practice in an ad hoc way, based on common sense, subjective opinions and experience. For conceptual modelling to progress from an "art" to an engineering discipline, quality standards need to be defined, agreed and applied in practice. This paper conducts a review of research in conceptual model quality and identifies the major theoretical and practical issues which need to be addressed. We consider how conceptual model quality frameworks can be structured, how they can be developed, how they can be empirically validated and how to achieve acceptance in practice. We argue that the current proliferation of quality frameworks is counterproductive to the progress of the field, and that researchers and practitioners should work together to establish a common standard (or standards) for conceptual model quality. Finally, we describe some initial efforts towards developing a common standard for data model quality, which may provide a model for future standardisation efforts. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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Information systems analysis and design (ISAD) methodologies provide facilities for describing existing or conceived real-world systems. These facilities are ontologically expressive if they are capable of describing all real-world phenomena completely and clearly. In this paper we formally examine the notion of the ontological expressiveness of a grammar and discuss some of its implications for the design and use of ISAD methodologies. We identify some generic ways in which ontological expressiveness may be undermined in a grammar and some potential consequences of these violations. We also examine ontological expressiveness within the context of some other desirable features that might be considered in the design of ISAD methodologies.
Article
An international standard has now been established for evaluating the quality of software products. However there is no equivalent standard for evaluating the quality of conceptual models. While a range of quality frameworks have been proposed in the literature, none of these have been widely accepted in practice and none has emerged as a potential standard. As a result, conceptual models continue to be evaluated in practice in an ad hoc way, based on common sense, subjective opinions and experience. For conceptual modelling to progress from an “art” to an engineering discipline, quality standards need to be defined, agreed and applied in practice. This paper conducts a review of research in conceptual model quality and identifies the major theoretical and practical issues which need to be addressed. We consider how conceptual model quality frameworks can be structured, how they can be developed, how they can be empirically validated and how to achieve acceptance in practice. We argue that the current proliferation of quality frameworks is counterproductive to the progress of the field, and that researchers and practitioners should work together to establish a common standard (or standards) for conceptual model quality. Finally, we describe some initial efforts towards developing a common standard for data model quality, which may provide a model for future standardisation efforts.
Conference Paper
This paper develops a framework for evaluating the quality of data models and choosing between alternative representations of requirements. For any particular set of user requirements there are many possible models, each of which has drastically different implications for database and systems design. In the absence of formally defined and agreed criteria, the choice of an appropriate representation is usually made in an ad hoc way, based on personal opinion. The evaluation framework proposed consists of four major constructs: qualities (desirable properties of a data model), metrics (ways of measuring each quality), weightings (relative importance of each quality) and strategies (ways of improving data models). Using this framework, any two data models may be compared in an objective and comprehensive manner. The evaluation framework also builds commitment to the model by involving all stakeholders in the process: end users, management, the data administrator and application developers.
Conference Paper
UML is a visual language. However surprisingly, there has been very little attention in either research or practice to the visual notations used in UML. Both academic analyses and official revisions to the standard have focused almost exclusively on semantic issues, with little debate about the visual syntax. We believe this is a major oversight and that as a result, UML’s visual development is lagging behind its semantic development. The lack of attention to visual aspects is surprising given that the form of visual representations is known to have an equal if not greater effect on understanding and problem solving performance than their content. The UML visual notations were developed in a bottom-up manner, by reusing and synthesising existing notations, with choice of graphical conventions based on expert consensus. We argue that this is an inappropriate basis for making visual representation decisions and they should be based on theory and empirical evidence about cognitive effectiveness. This paper evaluates the visual syntax of UML using a set of evidence-based principles for designing cognitively effective visual notations. The analysis reveals some serious design flaws in the UML visual notations together with practical recommendations for fixing them.
Article
The choice of an appropriate representation of data is one of the most crucial tasks in the entire systems development process. However in practice, there are few generally accepted guidelines for evaluating alternative models, and little agreement even among experts as to what makes a "good" data model. In the absence of agreed criteria, the choice of an appropriate representation is usually made in an ad hoc way, based on common sense and experience. As a result, data modelling has more of the characteristics of an art than an engineering discipline, and the quality of models produced is almost entirely dependent on the competence of the designer. This paper develops a framework for evaluating the quality of data models and choosing between alternative representations of requirements. The framework has been developed in practice, and has been applied successfully in a wide range of organisational contexts.
Article
A data model, called the entity-relationship model, is proposed. This model incorporates some of the important semantic information about the real world. A special diagrammatic technique is introduced as a tool for database design. An example of database design and description using the model and the diagrammatic technique is given. Some implications for data integrity, information retrieval, and data manipulation are discussed. The entity-relationship model can be used as a basis for unification of different views of data: the network model, the relational model, and the entity set model. Semantic ambiguities in these models are analyzed. Possible ways to derive their views of data from the entity-relationship model are presented.
Conference Paper
Numerous treatises exist that define appropriate qualities that should be exhibited by a well written software requirements specification (SRS). In most cases these are vaguely defined. The paper explores thoroughly the concept of quality in an SRS and defines attributes that contribute to that quality. Techniques for measuring these attributes are suggested
Article
A data model, called the entity-relationship model, is proposed. This model incorporates some of the important semantic information about the real world. A special diagrammatic technique is introduced as a tool for database design. An example of database design and description using the model and the diagrammatic technique is given. Some implications for data integrity, information retrieval, and data manipulation are discussed. The entity-relationship model can be used as a basis for unification of different views of data: the network model, the relational model, and the entity set model. Semantic ambiguities in these models are analyzed. Possible ways to derive their views of data from the entity-relationship model are presented.
MAPQUAL: Understanding Quality in Cartographic Maps
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Identifying and Measuring Quality in a Software Requirements Specification
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AwareMedia -A Shared Interactive Display Supporting Social, Temporal, and Spatial Awareness in Surgery
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