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Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community

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Video-based media spaces are designed to support casual interaction between intimate collaborators. Yet transmitting video is fraught with privacy concerns. Some researchers suggest that the video stream be filtered to mask out potentially sensitive ...

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... American academic Robert Putnam (1995Putnam ( , 2000 looked back to Tocqueville to celebrate associational life and its effects, and argued such life was in decline in the USA, Italy and elsewhere, helping to generate a new debate on 'social capital'. The 'Neo-Tocquevillian' tradition is "particularly strong in the USA, where it dovetails naturally with pre-existing traditions of self-governance, suspicions about the state, and concerns about public disengagement from politics and civic life" (M. ...
... Portes (1998) highlights how Putnam's search for an explanation often ends up by relabelling the original problem to be explained, where the elimination of exceptions reduces the logical space between cause and effect, "so that the final predictive statement is either a truism or circular." For Putnam (2000) the essence of social capital is face-to-face contact, not a mail-out. While he acknowledges the political importance of the new mass membership organisations, he relegates national SMOs as "tertiary" associations from the point of view of social connectedness. ...
... As we saw in the earlier literature review, some civil society advocates claim national social movement organisations (SMOs) do not positively contribute to the development of social capital and thus should not be regarded as part of civil society (Minkoff, 2001, p. 187). Putnam (2000) relegates national SMOs as "tertiary" associations" from the point of view of social connectedness. Yet if such conceptions of civil society minimise or downplay the role played by national political CSOs, there is a danger that the contribution of CSOs in shaping political discourse and mobilising collective interests may be overlooked. ...
Thesis
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This thesis applies a Neo-Gramscian analysis to Civil Society Organisations (CSOs) in New Zealand, in particular focusing on the Campaign Against Foreign Control of Aotearoa (CAFCA) in the political debate on Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) and as a civil society actor in an environment hostile to its aims. CAFCA are a left-wing political CSO, active from 1975 to the present day. While the attempt by CAFCA to conduct a successful political campaign around foreign ownership in New Zealand may appear to have failed to influence government policy significantly, the longevity of the group and the maintenance of the integrity of its message suggest that, despite the political marginalisation of the group, CAFCA were still able to make a significant contribution to political debate and the public sphere on FDI in New Zealand. While CAFCA were marginalised by the growing influence of neoliberalism and related models of globalisation, both combining to ‘depoliticise’ civil society, CAFCA may also demonstrate how a CSO can play a political role in civil society, particularly in a neoliberal environment. I provide examples of CAFCA acting as a journal of record, a resource for others, and discuss how this role can be undertaken and sustained. I also suggest that the full impact of this role cannot always be ascertained in the short term, and can best be seen as part of a longer-term view. Drawing from a detailed qualitative case study of CAFCA, I attempt to develop the possibilities for theory generation concerning the journal of record role, and offer some suggestions as to how this may contribute to the literature on CSOs. Little in the contemporary literature acknowledges the role of political CSOs, particularly in relation to FDI and its impacts. While transnational versions of political associations are seen as the main indicators of a growing “global civil society”, Jackie Smith and Debra Minkoff highlight how the contribution of political CSOs to civil society at the national level is ignored. By highlighting CAFCA as an organisation I aim to address this lacuna in the literature, in the hope this will provide insights into how the role of similar political CSOs can be assessed.
... In this dissertation, I propose and test a novel explanation for the decline in social capital-namely, the decline in unionization. Over much of the same period as the social capital decrease, union density decreased by over half, and workers lost "an important locus of social solidarity, a mechanism for mutual assistance and shared expertise" (Putnam 2000). To test this hypothesis, I estimate the effect of unionization on social capital, in two ways. ...
... In this dissertation, I propose and test a novel explanation for the decline in social capitalnamely, the decline in unionization. Over much of the same period as the social capital decrease, union density decreased by over half, and workers lost "an important locus of social solidarity, a mechanism for mutual assistance and shared expertise" (Putnam 2000). To test this hypothesis, I estimate the effect of unionization on social capital, in two ways. ...
... In recent years, the topic of social capital has gained a renewed interest, largely from the publication of Robert Putnam's Bowling Alone (Putnam 2000), which found that social capital has declined significantly in the US over the latter half of the twentieth century. Indeed, among social commentators, lamenting the extent of social isolation in the US had become something of a cottage industry unto itself, even before the COVID-19 pandemic exacerbated the issue. 1 Congress's Joint Economic Committee is several years into the Social Capital Project, a "research effort that will investigate the evolving nature, quality, and importance of our associational life," and one of whose goals is "rebuilding civil society." 2 Researchers have investigated why the decline in social capital occurred, but only to partial success: A large portion of the decline in social capital remains unexplained. ...
Article
Social capital, as measured by social trust, pro-social values, or proxies capturing civic engagement, is a strong determinant of an area’s income, economic growth, and political institutions (Guiso, Sapienza and Zingales 2011). But in the US, it has declined significantly over the latter half of the twentieth century, with researchers and policymakers puzzling over why, and how it might be restored. In this dissertation, I propose and test a novel explanation for the decline in social capital—namely, the decline in unionization. Over much of the same period as the social capital decrease, union density decreased by over half, and workers lost “an important locus of social solidarity, a mechanism for mutual assistance and shared expertise” (Putnam 2000). To test this hypothesis, I estimate the effect of unionization on social capital, in two ways. The first is to combine data on NLRB unionization elections with data on commonly used proxies for social capital, and, in a modified RD-DD design, compare the change in social capital in areas that saw a close unionization victory to the change in areas that saw a close unionization loss. The second method is to use the PSID to estimate the effect of becoming unionized on an individual worker’s propensity for charitable donation. The results of the county-level analysis suggest that in the long term, unionization significantly increases voter turnout. However, the estimated effects on membership organizations are statistically insignificant. In an analysis of heterogeneous effects, I further find that the effect of unionization on total organizations is decreasing in a county’s per-capita income. Finally, the results of the individual-level analysis imply strong positive effects of becoming a union member on one’s family’s probability of donating to charity.
... Possession of social capital is associated with positive outcomes, such as educational attainment and good health. Putnam (2000) argues for the relational link between social capital and the ability of a community to work toward a common goal. Conversely, there are negative aspects of social capital, which are found to be "greatest for people in disadvantaged and isolated communities, whose social networks are often homogenous, comprised of underprivileged people who recycle the same information amongst one another" (Dominguez and Arford 2010, 116). ...
... Social capital allows cooperation in social dilemmas. According to Putnam (2000), social capital "refers to connections among individuals-social networks and the norms of reciprocity and trustworthiness that arise from them" (19). Informal networks of relationships maintain governing coalitions of both the public and private sector. ...
... Although social networks are at the core of human society, it is believed that Americans are becoming increasingly isolated and disengaged (Putnam 2000). Kadushin (2012) argues that "rather than disappearing, neighborhood and village-based groups celebrated as the heart of the nineteenth-century America have become transformed from social relations and networks based on place or kinship into communities oriented around geographically dispersed social networks" (3). ...
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Documents a study of the impacts of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill on communities already struggling to recover from Hurricane Katrina
... Following Putnam (2000), we understand social capital as a set of values and attitudes of citizens relating mainly to trust, reciprocity, and cooperation. Such capital should positively affect societal wellbeing, and public institutions should help form and distribute social capital with positive characteristics (Chmielecki & Sułkowski, 2018). ...
... Coleman, 1988;Boxman et al., 1991;Putnam, 1993). Some researchers have emphasised the influence of social capital on intraorganizational mobility (Podolny, & Baron, 1997), as well as the links between trust and civic engagement within a country, on the one hand, and economic performance, on the other (Knack, & Keefer, 1997;Putnam, 2000;Whiteley, 2000). Others have underlined the link between social capital and sustainability. ...
... Social capital based on trust, reciprocity and cooperation (Putnam, 2000) is desired for every country. Therefore, the International Organisation of Supreme Audit Institutions (INTOSAI), including SAIs from more than 180 countries, points out the necessity of fighting corruption and building social capital (IN-TOSAI Strategic Plan 2017-2022). ...
... Social scientists have long sought to understand the role that trust plays for society (Blau, 1964;Durkheim, 1984;Simmel, 1978), and, in recent years, have come to agree that trust solidifies communities, lubricates markets, and legitimizes hierarchies (Banfield, 1958;Coleman, 1990;Fukuyama, 1995;Inglehart, 1997;Paxton, 2007;Putnam, 2000;Uslaner, 2002;Verba et al., 1995). To gain traction on how trust undergirds daily life, social scientists distinguish between two types of trust. ...
... Some work in this area underscores clear theoretical and empirical distinctions between particularized trust and generalized trust (Banfield, 1958;Claibourn and Martin 2000;Fukuyama, 1995;Uslaner, 2002;Yamagishi and Yamagishi, 1994). Other work suggests a tight coupling between the two types of trust (Freitag and Traunmüller, 2009;Putnam, 2000; Newton and Zmerli, 2011), with research supporting bi-directional effects, where generalized trust stems, in part, from particularized trust (Paxton and Glanville 2015) but also serves as a baseline starting point for the development of particularized trust (Robbins, 2016a). Both of these accounts, however, require substantial correlations between particularized trust and generalized trust, which the literature supports (Freitag and Traunmüller, 2009;Newton and Zmerli, 2011). ...
Article
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In the social sciences, trust scholars largely divide their interests between two streams of research: one on generalized trust and one on particularized trust. While recent developments in the measurement of generalized trust have pushed the literature forward, similar improvements to the measurement of particularized trust have lagged behind. In this article, I advance trust research by (1) developing an egocentric particularized trust (EPT) instrument based on a multiple name generator approach, and (2) assessing EPT's empirical performance across numerous psychometric tests. Results from a general population quota sample (N = 2041) indicate that EPT consists of two separate latent constructs, one for personally known others (EPT-K) and one for family members (EPT-F). Using traditional measures of particularized trust as benchmarks, I find that EPT-K and EPT-F provide the most valid and reliable measures of particularized trust. I conclude by discussing implications and directions for future research.
... Citizen participation happens when links and "bridges" are created between people. Bonding happens between similar types of people in terms of class, ethnicity, and interest, for example, while the creation of "bridges" is based on different people grouping together and creating an alternative "we" [97]. The creation of communities and networks of actors are not always directly proportional, as the literature on the subject indicates that there is an opposition or contradiction between them. ...
... On the other hand, community interests are articulated through political, organizational, and administrative processes at local and regional levels [116]. It is important to highlight that each of these organizations can be considered a linkage between people with moderately similar characteristics, forming "bridges," as Putman states [97]. Citizen groups are a polycentric characteristic of climate governance, as stated by Ostrom [67]. ...
Article
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The creation of the Urban Wetlands Law has emerged as a promising initiative to address the challenges of urban wetland management in Chile. Concepción, with its urban wetlands, is presented as a relevant case study for the analysis of water management of these ecosystems. The simple identification of the actors involved in the territory is not enough to achieve a clear understanding of the problem, so this article focuses on the networks of actors that are involved in the water management practices of the wetland ecosystems of Los Batros and Paicaví. In this work, the application of grounded theory and semi-structured interviews with key actors were combined. The main results indicate that water management has elements that are close to polycentric governance, such as the aforementioned law, where there are coordination initiatives among actors and power limitations in the analyzed cases. However, this research identifies several areas of improvement regarding decentralization, citizen participation, mitigation, and adaptation actions.
... Otros trabajos señalan esta relación en el otro sentido, es decir, que la participación ciudadana incide en el sentido de comunidad y esta, a su vez, en otras variables de vinculación con los lugares de residencia (Vidal et al., 2013). Así pues, la participación ciudadana se presenta como un mecanismo que refuerza la cohesión social y la unión de comunidades, puesto que disponer de procesos participativos es un instrumento efectivo para fortalecer la eficacia personal, colectiva y política (Putnam, 2000;Wandersman y Florin, 2000). ...
... Con respecto al modelo causal, se observa que la participación sociopolítica no predice sentido de comunidad. Estos datos podrían relacionarse con las ideas de Putnam (2000) acerca del declive en la participación electoral y en los movimientos sindicales, asociacionistas, etc. Al contrario, la bibliografía consultada en torno a esta vinculación siempre ha estado más centrada en su sentido comunitario (Gómez-Jacinto y Hombrados-Mendieta, 1992). En cuanto a la hipótesis planteada, se confirma que solo las teorías fácticas (estructurales) pueden tenerse en consideración para predecir la participación comunitaria, pero que el sentido de comunidad puede estar causado también por explicaciones culturales. ...
Article
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El objetivo del presente trabajo es examinar la relación entre las atribuciones causales de la pobreza con la participación y el sentido de comunidad. Previamente se tuvieron en cuenta la influencia de variables sociodemográficas y socioeconómicas en este tipo de atribuciones, encontrándose algunos efectos según sexo, edad y nivel educativo. La muestra estuvo compuesta por 720 participantes y los resultados indican que las explicaciones de la pobreza de tipo cultural tienen un efecto directo sobre el sentido de comunidad. Sin embargo, los datos sugieren que la relación entre atribuciones de pobreza (de tipo estructural) y el sentido de comunidad está mediada por la participación comunitaria y tiene efectos en el desarrollo comunitario. Esta aportación resulta relevante para el diseño de programas de sensibilización, intervención y cooperación en países en vías de desarrollo.
... Lokalsamfunnet står ikke lenger like sentralt som identitetsmarkør og forankringspunkt i tilvaerelsen (jf. Turkle, 2012;Castells, 2000;Putnam, 2000). Mitwelt med sine typifiserte relasjoner og større sosiale strukturer kan sies å ha spist seg inn på det som tradisjonelt var lokaljournalistikkens Umwelt (jf. ...
Book
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The Norwegian local journalism has gone through critical changes during the last years, due to digital transformation and economical decline. Journalists experience the tension between tradition and innovation. This thesis scrutinizes how local journalism actors experience their professional everyday life and their vocational role in a time of digital changes. It further explores which tensions the intersubjective experiences carry. Data from semi-structured interviews with 16 local journalists and editors forms the basis for the research, and the theoretical framework is everyday sociology, with emphasis on the sociological phenomenology of Alfred Schutz and Berger & Luckmann. Methodologically, the study follows a sociological phenomenological approach. The thesis shows how changed working conditions affect the perceived meaning of work, the professional understanding, the perception of audience and journalistic quality, as well as the significance of the community in local journalism. Through the concepts of “relevance system” and “relevance structures” the analyses show how ideal-typical “traditional anchored” and “digital oriented” local journalists divergently hierarchize perceived meaning, professional values and journalistic relevance. While the traditionalists emphasise a critical, demarcated and autonomic professional role, the digital oriented journalists underscore public-mindedness, service orientation and storytelling. In addition, the analyses reveal that the measurability of online readership leads to a diminished focus on locally framed journalism. Increased demands of work effort and efficiency cause a tension between desktop reporting and fieldwork. This change strains the proximity affordance, which traditionally has been the distinctiveness and strength of local journalism. Everyday working demands also lead to resignation and declined attachment among a large part of the journalists. In an overall perspective, the analyses point towards a tension between what is measurable – the quantified online readership, and what cannot be measured – the social significance of local journalism. The thesis suggests that the local mission of local journalism is weakened, that professional values are under pressure and that the news production is becoming more commercialized.
... -Scientific professionals in other fields such as medicine and public health -Educators in general biology at universities or schools -Professionals in non-scientific fields including law, banking and commerce -Non-professionals, students and retired people 164 These issues are common to national and regional malacological societies in most countries, whose journals pass through similar "golden" and "blue" periods. Interestingly, the general decline in socialization among people with shared interests chronicled by Putnam (2001) seems not to have affected natural history clubs in Japan as badly as it has in the USA. 165 Defined here as zoologists whose primary specialization is the Mollusca, and whose work is principally research and publication. ...
Thesis
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Since prehistory Japanese people have named animals, plants and natural phenomena using their own language. Neither the advent of Chinese as a written language in the sixth century nor subsequently of modern Western science and its associated literature in the nineteenth substantially changed this practice. Vernacular names remain the principal vehicle for natural knowledge within Japan, offering beginners a path to advanced scholarship that does not require the acquisition of a foreign language. They are not subject to formal laws such as those governing scientific nomenclature but instead to the rule of consensus. They nevertheless represent a parallel system based on more localized concepts that at species level is equally or more granular than scientific nomenclature, and their cultural grounding in the Japanese language means that they link to broader networks of local knowledge. This paper explores the history of Japanese vernacular names in natural history and examines their scientific, epistemic and social functions. Their growth in number and sophistication following the scientific reforms of the Meiji period is linked to the establishment of a national education system that sought to teach Western science without adopting its parent languages. Examples are given of historical and contemporary usage of Japanese names in natural history, and the ongoing debates over their use, function and regulation are reviewed.
... The findings provide additional support to existing literature that education can play a crucial role in promoting social integration (Putnam, 2000). Education is strongly conducive to a variety of social outcomes, such as social engagement and social integration. ...
Article
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Background Internal migration or cross‐border migration differs from traditional migration. The influence of academic performance on social integration among migration or cross‐border student groups has drawn attention. Method A survey collected data from cross‐border students in Mainland China. The sample included 616 university students (bachelor's, master's, and doctoral students) coming from Hong Kong studying in Guangzhou, Guangdong Province. Results The moderating effect of cultural distance in the relationship between academic performance and social integration was significantly negative (β = –0.081, p < 0.05). The effect of academic performance on social integration was significantly positive (β = .104, p < .05). Length of time studying in the Mainland, social status, entrance exam score (which might affect the current academic performance), and acquiescence are as the control variable in examining the role of cultural distance in the effect of academic performance on social integration. This result embodies the functionalist theory. Conclusion The host society is the structural whole requiring the function of social integration, whereas education is the structural component fulfilling the function. When cultural distance is large, the function of education for social integration decreases. The practical implication for enhancing social integration is relieving or bridging the distance.
... However, theoretically, technology use could also cultivate humanism, which refers to the importance of social ties in society and is reflected in lasting friendships, disinterested help, social justice, and kindness to others (Boski, 2006). Humanism relates closely to the notion of social capital, which focuses on connections between people resulting in trust and reciprocity (Putnam, 2000). Reports indicate that people use modern technology for social reasons (Wajcman, Bittman, Jones, Johnstone, & Brown, 2007;Zilka, 2020). ...
Article
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Previous research among Western youth has yielded inconclusive results regarding the effect of technology use on life satisfaction. This research focused on a particular type of technology use, namely, social use, and examined whether youths’ social technology use affects their life satisfaction through a change in the perceived quality of online, offline, and mixed-mode friendships, as well as materialism and humanism. Importantly, this study focused on a new population, namely, Polish youth. Polish culture has been typically characterized as less materialistic and more humane. Does this culture prevent youth from any harmful effects that the social use of technology might have? An analysis of the data of 583 Polish children aged 9 to 13 revealed that while social technology use directly decreased life satisfaction and increased materialism, it also fostered humanism and the perceived quality of friendships. These findings lead to recommendations for designers of children’s technology to restrict the amount and type of advertising that is targeted towards youth, to design communication applications facilitating children to meet in real life, and to provide positive online content.
... Covid did not bring about the revolution of societal isolation, though. Robert Putnam spoke extensively about it 22 years ago in his book Bowling Alone (Putnam, 2000). The reality is, our society has been growing into a space of isolation for years, if not generations. ...
Article
This project comes from a deep love of the idea of creating cultures of belonging, originating from my own relationship with community, in which my life was saved by the loving generosity of the 12-step community. This connects to contemporary research on both the nature of, and need for, a sense of belonging to something bigger than oneself. This project begins with a review of current literature on the experience of belonging in the workplace, and the influence that feeling a sense of belonging within one’s organization has on well-being. It then goes into an exploration of current interventions that can be utilized to create cultures of belonging, most notably high-quality connection (HQC) building and appreciative inquiry. The remainder of the paper is a collection of suggestions for interventions and next steps to take when seeking to create a more comprehensive culture of belonging in the workplace. This work helps to drive deeper the importance of having organizational community and healthy interpersonal dynamics in the workplace. The broader implication is that belonging in the workplace is becoming more of a necessity for organizations, and this work helps to guide organizations on their first steps towards a more nourishing workplace community and a culture of belonging.
... Nonetheless, the ATUS provides researchers with the opportunity to explore multiple contexts of the what, where, and with whom of social participation (Levasseur et al. 2010) across a "comprehensive and more democratic" swath of activity domains (Verbrugge and Jette 1994: Shandra 22 5). The study of disability as a social category has been largely peripheral to many social science disciplines (Arneil and Hirschmann 2016;Green and Gerschick 2016) and omitted from one of the most often-cited tomes on social participation in the United States (Putnam 2000). The results presented here suggest more inclusive ways to measure and conceptualize the characteristics of daily life with disability. ...
Chapter
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Participation is considered a key component of many disability frameworks, yet the concept of social participation remains amorphous and contested. This chapter reviews how common disability frameworks conceptualize activities, roles, and environments in relation to participation. It then discusses challenges to measuring (social) participation through the elements of activities, roles, and environments and describes how time diary data can be used to understand daily life with disability. Finally, it analyzes the nationally representative American Time Use Survey to compare how individuals with and without disabilities spend time in fifteen activity categories, across six physical locations and eight types of social interactions. Results indicate that people with disabilities spend more time at home, less time in public places, and less time in transportation than people without disabilities. They also spend more time alone and have less contact with others. However, these results depend upon activity type, illustrating the importance of integrating social and environmental contexts in empirical and theoretical models of participation differences by disability status.
... Earlier social capital research described bonding and bridging social capital as strong and weak ties, respectively [36]. Putnam alleged that bonding social capital is used for 'getting by' [37], with poor rural communities using their bonding ties to ensure basic needs, such as food, water and shelter. Meanwhile, bridging social capital is for 'getting ahead' and can help communities take the steps needed to develop beyond just meeting basic needs. ...
Article
Bonding, bridging and linking social capital can be a useful mechanism to promote sustainable development in low-income countries. Social capital typologies vary spatially, with the rural poor having a specific combination. Similarly, bonding, bridging and linking social capital’s association with sustainable development is also likely to differ spatially across a country, but there is limited research in low-income countries. This study aims to improve understanding of the spatial variation of bonding, bridging and linking social capital in low-income countries using Malawi as a case study. Using secondary data and spatial statistics, including kriging and geographically weighted regression, we explore the spatial variation of social capital typologies and their spatial associations with various sustainable development indicators. There were three key combinations of bonding, bridging and linking social capital, which differ from the standard model of social capital typologies for the rural poor. We also found social capital’s association with sustainable development indicators depends on the social capital typology, study area and the sustainable development indicator in question. With this in mind, development practitioners, researchers and policymakers should aim to understand the specific social capital context prior to sustainable development research or project implementation.
... Cultural capital can also materialize into social mobility, especially in immigrants and ethnic minorities, who tend to attribute a higher importance to education (Basit 2013;Mirza 2006;Driessen 2001) as means of improving one generation's socio-economic status when compared to its predecessors. Mirza (2006) (Putnam 2000), but also inasmuch as social capital is a lens through which to observe the relationship between educational attainment and social inequality (Coleman 1990). Bourdieu brought us a more bridging perspective of social capital, linking the notion of membership to a group and a resulting collective-owned "credential", backed by the group, that entitles the member to exchange said "credential" towards a desired outcome (Bourdieu et al. 1986). ...
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|||Abstract||| This study uses Bourdieu’s theory of capital to discuss the role of different forms of capital on individuals’ success, and reinforcing effects among them, using Haig and Evers’ Abductive Theory of Method approach. The goals were to develop a Student Capital and Success scale and assess the weight of wealth in self perceived success, to support higher education institutions in closing the achievement and employability gaps between students from different social backgrounds. Topics reviewed include: social class and its impact on accessing and completing higher education; Bourdieu’s social, economic and cultural capital, and their measurements across existing literature; success; and the role of universities in graduate development. Three research questions arise: what are the roles of capitals and how are they related to each other?, is there a “rich-parents effect”, i.e., do wealthy business school graduates have better chances of being successful?, and how can universities boost graduates’ success by assessing capital gaps?. The mixed methods approach used 17 semi-structured interviews and an online survey of 205 recent graduates of UK universities. Content analysis of the interviews and multivariate statistical analysis, including Structural Equation Modelling, produced as main findings: individuals raised with financial comfort exhibit higher levels of success, in what can be deemed a “rich-parents effect”; students can be diagnosed on their capitals using the Student Capital and Success scale developed here via structural equation modelling, and universities can use those results to optimise the capital set upon graduation and therefore enhance all alumni success. The resulting Student Capital and Success scale was successfully evaluated against the Theory of Explanatory Coherence and Bryman’s criteria of Validity, Reliability and Replication.
... If local communities were constructed to encourage cooperation among residents, social efficiency might increase, and local societies could be revitalized by autonomously resolving such issues as social welfare for children and seniors, the coexistence of residential and commercial areas, and the distribution of public goods and shared resources [1][2][3]. Such effects produced by the cooperative behavior of residents are called social capital [4]. Communities where new and existing residents cooperate can be formed through interactions among residents in employment, education, medical care, sports, entertainment, festivals, and other activities. ...
Article
For balancing the improvement of social capital through mutual interaction among residents and measures against infectious diseases, municipalities must understand where their residents interact with each other during epidemics. By distinguishing between new and existing residents based on the average age of the houses in their residential areas, we measured the degree of separation between them at various locations and facilities in the Tsukuba City in the Greater Tokyo Area during the daytime based on smartphone location information. We also investigated separation by visitors’ residential savings and income class and their age and gender in each location. Separation was observed in almost all the public places in Tsukuba City, even before the COVID-19 outbreak. During the outbreak, many public places and facilities were visited by fewer people, and yet their separation increased. On the other hand, separation lessened in parks, increasing opportunities for residents to interact. Even after the outbreak began, lower separation environments remained in places where food courts and department stores were located compared to other places. In the post-outbreak period, separation returned to its normal level.
... Bonding relationships are based on reciprocity, trust, and solidarity. They provide support and protection, but they also can constrain the mobility of the members and are considered socially homogenous and closed (Putnam, 2000). Nevertheless, in 2011 a survey found that three quarters of Roma respondents in 10 SEE countries would prefer to live under better living conditions, but surrounded by a majority population rather than residing under worse living conditions but surrounded by fellow Roma communities (Perić, 2012). ...
Book
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Precarious housing conditions are on the rise across Europe. Precarious housing refers to housing that is either unaffordable or unsuitable, for example because it is overcrowded, in poor dwelling condition, poorly located or even unsafe. While there is much literature on the strong link between employment and housing insecurity and abundant investigations in different aspects of precarious housing, hardly any attempt has been made so far to provide a consolidated overview of the whole topic and thereby put these different facets into the joint perspective of housing-related poverty. This Critical Guide adds to the debate on causes, symptoms, consequences and possible solutions and makes them accessible for teaching, learning and self-study across multiple disciplines. It is the result of “PusH – Precarious Housing in Europe”, a Strategic Partnership funded under Erasmus+. The seven chapters of this book examine a range of themes, focusing on how experiences of precarious housing intersect with other dynamics of precariousness, associated with insecure immigration status, racism and discrimination, class, wealth, and income disparities, and forms of homelessness and displacement. Each chapter draws on examples from across Europe to explore different experiences of precarious housing, and different responses to these conditions. The Guide is accompanied by an open access website that provides further resources for teaching and learning https://mdl.donau-uni.ac.at/push/
... S tem se razvijajo možnosti in priložnosti za zavedanje, prepoznavanje ter spoštovanje socialne in kulturne raznolikosti. Glavne značilnosti socialnega kapitala so medosebne povezave, dobro razvite socialne mreže, odnosi z visoko ravnjo zaupanja, državljanske zavzetosti, soodvisnosti, vzajemnosti in dejavnosti skupnosti, s skupnimi simboli in obredi, pravili in vrednotami (Putnam 2000). ...
... I'm particularly interested in how media consumption impacts political knowledge, as the literature on this issue is starkly divided. While some scholars claim that the media is informative, mobilizing, and beneficial for civic engagement [Neuman et al., 1992, Norris, 2000, others argue that the media is mainly disruptive and ineffective in helping voters accumulate political knowledge [Robinson, 1976, Putnam, 2001. Because this is an ongoing debate with various nuances depending on how you choose to frame it, my goal isn't to arrive at a conclusive answer or measure of the media's impact. ...
Thesis
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... Urban common refers to a special type of inherently public ownership. In fact, contemporary urban common is exhibited by the public interactions of spaces and is usually considered inefficient due to lack of profit (Putnam, 2000;Sampson, 2013;Brain, 2019, p. 272-276). ...
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It is possible to measure the realization of the right to the city as a demand related to the right to use urban space relying on the concept of perceived space. It can therefore be said that attention to this subject is important because it can deal with the inefficiencies of urban spaces. The present study was an applied developmental type in terms of purpose and a survey in terms of method. After categorizing the components of urban space desirability and the right to the city, a quantitative research method with a questionnaire was used targeting, a sample size of 390 citizens of Qazvin. Sample selection was performed by combining proportional stratified and disproportional cluster sampling methods. Then, using R 3.3.0 software and the Kruskal-Wallis test the desirability of urban spaces by districts was determined the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used to assess the effect of each component on the desirability of urban space. Finally, using the Spearman correlation test, it was found out that the desirability of urban spaces has a direct effect on the satisfaction of the right to the city. The obtained statistics show an average relationship between the two topics. In other words, increasing the desirability of urban space will significantly increase satisfaction with the right to the city. One of the main requirements to establish this relationship correctly is the change in the occupation of urban spaces. Finally, by evaluating the most significant distinction between the components of urban space desirability and residential district, the perceptual component of urban space desirability was obtained.
... Social capital, or social organization features that facilitate action and cooperation for mutual benefit [6], is essential for reducing social isolation and loneliness. Previous studies reported that individuals with higherlevel social trust were less likely to be socially isolated than those with lower-level social trust [7]. ...
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Background Accumulating social capital in urban areas is essential to improve community health. Previous studies suggested that intergenerational contact may be effective for enhancing social capital. However, no study has examined the effect of intergenerational contact on social capital through a population-based evaluation. This study aimed to investigate the effects of a community-based intervention to increase the frequency of intergenerational contact on social capital among adults aged 25–84 years. Methods This study used a non-randomized controlled trial design to conduct a community-based intervention (from March 2016 to March 2019). The study area was Tama ward, Kawasaki city, Kanagawa, Japan. The area comprises five districts; one district was assigned as the intervention group and the other four districts as the control group. We provided the intervention to residents in the intervention group. The intervention comprised three phases: Phase 1 was the preparation term (organizing the project committee); Phase 2 was the implementation term (trained volunteer staff members, conducted the intergenerational greeting campaign, and held intergenerational contact events); and Phase 3 was the transition term (surrendering the lead role of the project to the city hall field workers). In the control group, field workers provided public health services as usual. We conducted mail surveys in September 2016 and November 2018 to assess the effects of the intervention on social capital during Phase 2. Eligible participants were randomly selected from community-dwelling adults aged 25–84 years according to age (10,620 control group individuals and 4479 intervention group individuals). We evaluated social trust, norm of reciprocity, and social support as outcome variables. Results In total, 2518 participants completed both surveys and were analyzed (control group: 1727; intervention group: 791). We found that social trust (coefficient = 0.065; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.006, 0.125) and norm of reciprocity (coefficient = 0.084; 95% CI: 0.020, 0.149) positively changed in the intervention group compared with the control group. Conclusions This community-based intervention may contribute to sustaining and improving social capital among community-dwelling adults. Trial registration: UMIN000046769 (UMIN-CTR); first registered on January 28, 2022 (retrospectively registered).
... Vandaar dat recent veel wordt gekeken naar maatschappelijke organisaties in de civil society. De rol van klassieke civil society organisaties als kerken, vakbonden en verenigingen is sterk afgenomen (Putnam, 2000). Mensen worden minder vanzelf sprekend lid van een vereniging, vakbond of kerk, zij gaan in wisselende groepjes af en toe iets doen, en dat heeft grote gevolgen voor het sociale weefsel en het sociaal kapitaal van een buurt en een stad. ...
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Steden en wijken staan ook de komende jaren voor belangrijke opgaven. Deze complexe en taaie vraagstukken kunnen veelal niet door één of twee partijen van bovenaf worden opgelost. Ze vragen om een nieuwe aanpak met een grotere rol van de direct betrokkenen. Op steeds meer plekken in Nederland zien we dan ook dat groepen van diverse personen en organisaties met elkaar werken aan creatieve oplossingen voor lokale vraagstukken. Aan de hand van tien casestudies en interviews worden deze nieuwe samenwerkingsverbanden onderzocht. Ondanks hun verschillende achtergronden, belangen, denk- en werkwijzen werken diverse partijen gezamenlijk aan iets ‘nieuws’. Daarmee zijn het voor ons plekken van hoop en verandering.
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Contrary to popular claims, civil society is not generally shrinking in Southeast Asia. It is transforming, resulting in important shifts in the influences that can be exerted through it. Political and ideological differences in Southeast Asia have sharpened as anti-democratic and anti-liberal social forces compete with democratic and liberal elements in civil society. These are neither contests between civil and uncivil society nor a tussle between civil society and state power. They are power struggles over relationships between civil society and the state. Explaining these struggles, the approach in this Element emphasises the historical and political economy foundations shaping conflicts, interests and coalitions that mobilise through civil society. Different ways that capitalism is organised, controlled, and developed are shown to matter for when, how and in what direction conflicts in civil society emerge and coalitions form. This argument is demonstrated through comparisons of Singapore, Malaysia, the Philippines, and Thailand.
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This study examines Twitter data collected by Netlytic building up to the 2018 midterm election date as well as one month after. We conducted a social network analysis and a semantic textual analysis of the data. Prior research on network discourse of Black Lives Matter, a social movement organically created from a hashtag on social media following the acquittal of Trayvon Martin's killer George Zimmerman, found Black victims of police brutality and systemic racism were victim blamed. This present study maps tweets, showing communication networks formed around Black Lives Matter and what the networks communicated. Through our analysis, eight distinct virtual community networks emerged.
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Despite the escalated interest in entrepreneurship, scholars have underexamined the role of social capital in determining entrepreneurial intention. This research attempts to examine how social capital matters in enhancing the intention of becoming an entrepreneur in the rural community. The method adopted in this work was a quantitative research approach using a survey model. The respondents of this survey were collected from the rural community in a selected area in Indonesia. Furthermore, to test the relationship between variables, we used Structural Equation Modeling Partial Least Squares (SEM-PLS) to regress the data. The findings of the study confirm that social capital has robustly influenced the intention of being an entrepreneur. However, the perceived desirability of entrepreneurship failed to mediate the linkage between social capital and entrepreneurial intention. The findings have several implications for the government in developing economic growth and entrepreneurship in the local community.
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In recent years, the importance of social capital, which is an intangible type of capital in organizational studies, has been increasing and attracting more attention. Social capital is social resources, such as trust, friendship, solidarity and sharing approach, which are formed by the interaction of individuals with each other and enhanced from his/her social environment in individual's favour. In the interaction process, the relational dimension of social capital becomes more prominent. The aim of this study is to investigate whether there is a significant difference between gender, marital status, age, work experience, position, and relational dimension of social capital. In addition, it aimed to make recommendations based on the results. The data of the research were gathered through questionnaires from 186 personnel working in different positions in the textile mills operating in the province of Batman. Obtained data were analyzed with the Independent Sample T-test, correlation and MANOVA using SPSS 25.0 program. The results of the analysis revealed that the level of relational social capital differed significantly according to gender, marital status, and position in the workplace. However, the level of relational social capital did not differ significantly with regard to age and work experience. Based on these results, it is recommended to know that gender, marital status, and position affect the development of relational social capital positively and significantly, while age and work experience were not related. Thus, organizations should develop managerial practices in this direction.
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This research is an attempt to assess the impact of trust, helpfulness, and fairness on economic growth in Europe. The first part of the paper highlights the concept of social capital and the related concept of trust, while the second part gives an overview of selected research hitherto conducted on the subject. The third part presents an econometric growth model based on a modified Cobb‑Douglas production function. The model we propose includes three interrelated variables: generalized trust, helpfulness, and fairness, which can be combined into an aggregated variable, called ‘cooperation capital’. The pooled sample covers the years 2006–2018 and includes 22 European countries. European Social Survey data provides a chance to examine the previously inaccessible measurement of the impact of bridging social capital increase on economic growth. The results suggest that approximately 1/8 of economic growth (measured by the GDP growth rate) may be ascribed to the effect of an increase in cooperation capital. In addition, 86% of this effect occurs with a 1–4 year lag. The three‑component cooperation capital explains economic growth better than generalized trust exclusively. The estimated model suggests that an increase in helpfulness among people has the largest impact on economic growth. As the outcomes of this research also clearly show, fairness and trust are key factors for economic growth in Europe.
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This paper explores the Australian community’s reaction to the deportation of unvaccinated tennis star, Novak Djokovic, in the lead up to the 2022 Australian Open. The analysis interprets the community’s hostile reaction to Djokovic by understanding community as both a structural and dynamic concept and, even more so, how fluid, evolving macro influences of community or group identification can intensify the demands of individuals to compromise for the common good based on ingrained expectations of the community. To do this, Norbert Elias’ concepts of figurations and ‘we-they’ group identities are used to help highlight the link between structural and dynamic theories of community and identity. This study also outlines how ‘what is fair’ lies in pre-existing community rules and conventions being influenced by often momentary factors that impact and often change forms of group identity. These changes can be temporary or long-lasting and are driven by macro influences such as COVID-19 that can intensify existing community tensions. Throughout the analysis, it becomes clear that community’s response to Djokovic was not only fair, but a logical manifestation of community.
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End-of-life (EOL) care is a crucial public health issue in Hong Kong, and one in which the community social service sector has become increasingly involved, as healthcare policy in the city shifts towards greater emphasis on social relationships in non-medical forms of EOL care. This study used abductive grounded theory methodology to illustrate the dynamics and mechanisms involved in social relationships between dying people (and their families), volunteers, and professionals in community-based social service agencies in Hong Kong. The aims are a) to understand how social relationships influence the experiences of dying people and their families, and b) to engage theoretically with concepts of social capital and compassionate communities to explicate the dynamic and relational processes involved in this phenomenon. Fourteen in-depth interviews with practitioners and two service users affiliated with two community-based EOL care agencies in Hong Kong were conducted. Findings inform a parsimonious three-stage model of social capital development in which relationships between service agency workers and families address a key precondition of social capital through establishing trust, facilitating the accessibility of social capital through cultivating mutuality, and mobilising social capital through collaborating in community EOL care. These processes in turn mitigate community detachment in the EOL experience.
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The flood phenomenon in Malaysia is considered a yearly event that most of the time hits the east coast area (Kelantan, Terengganu, and Pahang). It is also understood that when the floods happen, the government would spend a certain amount of money to cover damages and losses due floods. As the flood may affect society on the whole, we should think how to assist the flood victims and at the same time reduce the government expenses regarding the floods. This research therefore is conducted to investigate the effect of floods on society in terms of finances, health, source of income, and property. This research also observes the experience of the flood victims staying at the flood evacuation centre, and finally proposes a permanent flood evacuation centre base on the waqf principle. To achieve the stated objectives, a case study on two flood-prone areas, Tumpat and Pasir Puteh located in Kelantan, is conducted. Overall it is found that floods have affected the victims (villages) in terms of finances, health, sources of income as well as properties where some of them have to borrow money from relatives or friends to bear all the losses caused by floods. Besides that, asking about their experiences staying at the flood evacuation centre, the majority of the victims are satisfied with the food and other necessities prepared for them. Unfortunately, the bad experiences that they have had during their stay were basically in terms of cleanliness of the centres, Shariah issues that emerged because of the arrangement of the spaces, and also limited activities conducted for children or parents. This research thus suggests a permanent flood evacuation centre based on the waqf principle to enhance the existing management of flood evacuation centres. The proposed centre would cover both physical and spiritual aspects for the flood victims where appropriate activities or modules will be structured for the children as well as the parents to enhance their skills and increase their living standards in future. Interestingly, all the respondents accepted this suggestion positively and were happy with our proposal for establishing a permanent waqf flood evacuation centre. This research thus is significant in giving suggestions to the authority to build permanent flood evacuation centres using the waqf principle, which provides avenues to the villages (in a low-income group) to enhance their income and increase their standard of thinking and living.
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This conceptual paper discusses ‘unseen observation’ as an alternative model of classroom observation to support teachers’ professional learning. The paper starts with a critical synopsis of how observation has been appropriated principally as a performance management tool for monitoring teacher effectiveness in the UK. It argues that the overreliance on assessment-based models has led to the hegemony of observation as a performative tool and its subsequent dilution as a catalyst for professional learning to develop teachers’ pedagogic thinking and practice. As a counter narrative, this paper proposes an alternative, peer-based model, unseen observation, which reconceptualises and reconfigures observation for professional learning by prioritising collegial meaning-making and reflexive dialogue. Drawing on the concept of intersubjectivity to theorise unseen observation, the principles, purpose and practical application of this model are discussed, along with its benefits and challenges. The paper argues that unseen observation offers a structured approach for stimulating and channelling opportunities for teachers to engage in honest introspection, participatory sensemaking and reflexive dialogue of their practice. Meaningful and sustainable improvements in professional learning are arguably more likely to flourish by creating such opportunities, though further research is needed to investigate the application and impact of unseen observation as a model.
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For small as well as big-scale sport tourism events to be able to contribute to sustainable community development they not only have to be integrated socioculturally into the host community, the events must also be part of strategic planning and political mobilization for social and economic change and development. Even if it is not always the case, this integration can also strengthen the sustainability of the sport tourism events themselves. Without social and political basis and support in the host communities, a locally owned and/or run small-scale sport event will most likely not survive for long. To give their support the inhabitants of the host communities have to get something back from the events, anything from a feeling of pride to social and economic benefits. The more evenly or fairly distributed the benefits from the sport events are in the host community, the greater the potential for community support of the events, but probably also for the event's contribution to community development. However, for sport tourism events and community development projects to be sustainable, broader involvement of the inhabitants of the host community is one, but not the only requirement. According to the International Association for Community Development (IACD), community development is about respect for local values, cultural diversity, economic equality, and social and political inclusion of the local population. To contribute to sustainable development in the host communities and regions, the organization of sport and sport tourism should be based on the same fundamental principles. A review of small-scale sport tourism studies in rural communities and regions around the world shows that there still is a long way to go for sport tourism and community development to become sustainable.
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What is the relationship between trust in religious leaders and compliance with policies that are costly to the individual? Religious leaders often have the moral authority to affect individuals’ willingness to adopt prosocial behaviors. Yet, that influence can be either positive or negative because religious leaders face mixed incentives to encourage compliance and their leadership is often decentralized. We argue that greater trust in religious leaders will increase compliance in countries with a dominant religion and centralized religious authority because religious leaders will offer a coherent message that aligns with state directives. We test our hypotheses using data from surveys fielded in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan during the COVID‐19 pandemic. We find a positive and significant relationship between trust and voluntary compliance only in Kazakhstan, where religious leaders reduced the costs of compliance by enabling adherents to practice their faith while social distancing. We thus identify an alternative mechanism whereby trust promotes compliance.
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Since the death of Islom Karimov in September 2016, the government of Uzbekistan has witnessed almost 4 years of slow but steady political reform. President Shavkat Mirzayoyev initiated restructuring in the law enforcement agencies, intelligence service and military, all that moved the country away from the police state that Karimov constructed in his 25-year reign. In particular, Mirzayoyev restricted the power of the criminal police and the traffic police, the latter a particularly despised organization because of their corruption and abuse of power. Beginning in March 2020, the Uzbek government began extending the powers of law enforcement, including reopening the interregional traffic police checkpoints which had been closed in 2017. The country implemented a strict quarantine, confining people to their homes except for trips for food, medical treatment and a handful of other “essential” activities. Other authoritarian measures, with little if any connection to controlling the spread of infection, have also been imposed in the political, religious and media spheres. This chapter explores the political changes COVID-19 has wrought in Uzbekistan, especially in the context of ongoing reforms directed toward fighting corruption and increasing political freedom.KeywordsSocial fabricIslom KarimovShavkat MizayoyevUzbekistanAuthoritarianismCorruptionCentral AsiaLockdowns
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A Civil Society explores the struggle to initiate women as full participants in the masonic brotherhood that shared in the rise of France’s civil society and its “civic morality” on behalf of women’s rights. As a vital component of the third sector during France’s modernization, freemasonry empowered women in complex social networks, contributing to a more liberal republic, a more open society, and a more engaged public culture. James Smith Allen shows that although women initially met with stiff resistance, their induction into the brotherhood was a significant step in the development of French civil society, including the promotion of women’s rights in the late nineteenth century. Pulling together the many gendered facets of masonry, Allen draws from periodicals, memoirs, and archival material to account for the rise of women within the masonic brotherhood in the context of rapid historical change. Thanks to women’s social networks and their attendant social capital, masonry came to play a leading role in French civil society and the rethinking of gender relations in the public sphere.
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Kapitel 2 des Buches beinhaltet eine Darstellung der zentralen Einsichten und Implikationen des verhaltensökonomischen Ansatzes umfasst, wobei neben den Ursachen einer begrenzten Rationalität individuellen Entscheidungsverhaltens in Gestalt von subjektiven Wahrnehmungsfehlern, der verzerrenden Wirkung kognitiver Heuristiken und Illusionen sowie der Zeitinkonsistenz individueller Präferenzen auch auf die Bedeutung von Fairnessnormen und Gerechtigkeitseinschätzungen einschließlich damit verbundener Reaktanzpotenziale für das individuelle Entscheidungsverhalten näher eingegangen wird.
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The COVID-19 pandemic has a profound impact on the everyday lives of people around the world. This includes economic issues, social isolation and anxieties directly related to the coronavirus. Some of these phenomena relate to social disintegration, which in turn has been linked to negative outgroup sentiments. However, the tenuous connection between pandemic developments and international migration processes calls into question whether a link between pandemic concomitants and immigration-related attitudes exists empirically. Arguments based on political cues and media effects even suggest that the widespread focus on the COVID-19 pandemic suppresses the issue salience of immigration and negative immigration sentiments. To test these propositions, we employ data from a newly collected cross-sectional study carried out in November and December 2020 in 11 European countries. We distinguish between general migration-related threats and blaming the pandemic on immigration as outcome variables. The results suggest that pandemic-related concerns increase both threat perceptions and perceptions that immigration is driving the pandemic, but more clearly so for the latter. On the macro level, we find that where the pandemic is more severe, respondents are less likely to blame immigrants. This suggests that a country-level suppression of salience of immigration is indeed taking place.
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In Kap. 5 des Buches werden die in der Finanzwissenschaft gängigen Begründungen der Staatstätigkeit einer verhaltensökonomischen Betrachtung unterzogen. Dabei kann unter Bezug auf das Effizienzziel nicht nur gezeigt werden, wie psychologische Erkenntnisse zu ergänzenden Einsichten mit Blick auf die Bereitstellung öffentlicher Güter, die staatliche Internalisierung externer Effekte oder auch die Korrektur informationsbedingter Marktunvollkommenheiten durch den Staat führen. Zudem wird dargelegt, wie das verhaltensökonomische Konzept des asymmetrischen (libertären) Paternalismus zu einem grundlegenden Perspektivenwechsel in der finanzwissenschaftlichen Diskussion um die Bereitstellung meritorischer Güter beiträgt. Unter dem Verteilungsziel liefern darüber hinaus die Berücksichtigung sozialer Präferenzen – erklärt mit Hilfe von Verhaltensmotiven wie Altruismus oder einer Ungleichheitsaversion – ebenso wie Ergebnisse der ökonomischen Lebenszufriedenheitsforschung sowie psychologischer Untersuchungen zur Wirkung von Knappheit und Armut zusätzliche Argumente für eine Umverteilungspolitik des Staates. Unter dem Stabilisierungsziel sind es schließlich zum einen die Psychologie von Geld, Inflation und Finanzmärkten und zum anderen verhaltensökonomische Ursachen und Effekte von Arbeitslosigkeit, die zu einer Erweiterung der finanzwissenschaftlichen Perspektive in der Bewertung des staatlichen Handlungsbedarfs beitragen.
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The present study builds on prior research by examining the moderating relationships between different types of capital on physical functioning, emotional functioning, and depressive symptoms using a 2.5‐year longitudinal design with a national sample of African–American adults. Results indicated a significant T1 social capital × T1 religious capital interaction such that among low T1 religious capital participants, those with high T1 social capital had lower T2 physical functioning than those with lower T1 social capital. There was also a marginally significant T1 social capital × T1 spiritual capital interaction suggesting that among low T1 spiritual capital participants, those with higher T1 social capital reported a decline in depressive symptoms compared to those with lower T1 social capital. Future research and implications for intervention and policy development are discussed.
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We review and discuss research on the development of regional entrepreneurship over time. A particular focus is on the long-term persistence of regional levels of entrepreneurship, its explanation, and its meaning for economic development. What is the state of empirical research in this field, and what can explain the empirical findings? How are long-term trends of entrepreneurial activity linked to regional performance in terms of employment, gross domestic product (GDP), and innovative activity? Based on our assessments we derive conclusions for theory, policy implications, and avenues for further research.
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Objectives: We examined the association between neighborhood characteristics and depressive symptoms in a population-based sample of dementia caregivers. Methods: Data came from the 2017 National Health and Aging Trends Study (NHATS) and National Study of Caregiving. The sample included 956 caregivers of those with dementia. Linear regression was used to examine associations between neighborhood physical disorder neighborhood social cohesion, and depressive symptoms, and to test the moderating effect of social support on these relations. Results: Results suggested that having friends and family (1) to talk to buffered the effect of high NPD and low cohesion on depressive symptoms, (2) to help with daily activities buffered the effect of low cohesion on depressive symptoms, and finally, and (3) to help with care had a protective effect on depressive symptoms if social cohesion was high. Discussion: Neighborhood contextual characteristics and social support interact to affect caregiver depressive symptoms in complex ways.
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The immense popularity of social networks such as Facebook has led to concerns about their potentially addictive nature and the ways in which they may be negatively affecting users, especially adolescents. However, despite the fact that “Facebook addiction” and “social media addiction” have become common terms in the media and social dialogue, the empirical evidence at this time does not support the existence of such a psychological affliction for several reasons: (1) The majority of studies on social media addiction are correlational and use self-report questionnaires which are not suitable for diagnosis; (2) Most studies employ non-standardized measures, cut-off scores, and criteria, and (3) There is an absence of case studies, experimental studies, longitudinal studies, and clinical studies in the field. Social interaction is a fundamental human need which social networks facilitate. Therefore, their widespread appeal is understandable. However, although an addiction to social media might not exist, there are still various problems that have been associated with social media use, including lower self-esteem, Fear of Missing Out (FOMO), bullying, anxiety, and depression, among others. In this chapter, we review the research on social media addiction, analyze how it fulfills the psychological criteria that define a true addiction, discuss the various problems associated with social media use outside of the addiction framework, and explore how these problems develop as well as look at potential treatments and prevention strategies for them.KeywordsSocial media sitesFacebookAddictionFOMO
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whether we necessarily need more cooperation, keeping, for the moment, the distinction between cooperation and trust blurred and their relationship implicit. According to the trite observation - Adam Smith wrote - if there is any society among robbers and murderers, they must at least abstain from robbing and murdering one another (Smith [1759] 1976: 86; see also Saint Augustine in Dunn, this volume). This trite observation serves a double purpose: it reminds us that basic forms of cooperation...
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This study examines the amount of time dual-earner couples spend together by analyzing time diaries (N = 177) from the 1981 Study of Time Use. We find that time together is substantially reduced by the number of hours couples work (combined) and how they schedule these hours. Sociocultural and life-cycle factors appear to have very limited net effects on time spent together. There is a theoretically predictable relationship between marital quality and time couples spend together: the more time together in certain activities, the more satisfactory the marriage. As the number of dual-earner families increases, more spouses may be less able to sustain each other emotionally.