382 G.A. Shah et al.
reason is apparent because the sink node is the only node that provides coordi-
nation among clusters and actors in indirect conﬁguration. Whereas, the other
two conﬁgurations provide direct coordination among sensors and actors.
There have been a number of routing protocols developed for WSN that claim
to provide real-time routing and congestion control. However, none of them has
considered the presence of actors. RCR addresses the issues in such heteroge-
neous network and provides a coordination framework for wireless sensor and
actor networks. It clusters the sensors and selects a head in each cluster to min-
imize the energy consumption, estimates the delay budget and makes routing
decisions. The communication framework works ﬁne in semi-automated architec-
ture as well as automated architecture. Simulation results show that RCR meets
the E2E deadlines for real-time applications with a small value of miss-ratio.
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