TCP Smart Framing: a Segmentation Algorithm to
Improve TCP Performance
Marco Mellia, Michela Meo, Claudio Casetti
Dipartimento di Elettronica, Politecnico di Torino, 10129 Torino, Italy
?mellia, michela, email@example.com
Abstract. In this paper we propose an enhancement to the TCP protocol, called
TCPSmart Framing,orTCP-SFforshort, thatenablestheFastRetransmit/Recovery
algorithm even when the congestion window is small. TCP-SF is particularly ef-
fective for short-lived flows, as most of the current Internet traffic is. Without
modifying theTCPcongestioncontrol based ontheadditive-increase/multiplicative-
decrease paradigm, TCP-SF adopts a novel segmentation algorithm: while Clas-
sic TCP starts sending one segment, a TCP-SFsource is allowed to send an initial
window of 4 smaller segments, whose aggregate payload is equal to the connec-
Tahoe to SACK, and requires modifications to the server behavior only.
Analytical results, simulation results, as well as testbed implementation measure-
ments show that TCP-SF sources manage to outperform Classic TCP in terms of
???. This key idea can be implemented on top of any TCP flavor, from
1 Introduction and Work Motivation
Balancing greediness and gentleness has always been the distinctive feature of conges-
tion control in the TCP protocol . Mindfulof the presence of othertraffic sharingthe
same network resources, TCP tries to grab as much bandwidth as possible, eventually
causing congestion and data loss. Data lost by TCP is used as congestion signal, and
cause the source to slow down its transmission rate. Thus, lost data can actually be seen
as bandwidthused to controlandregulatethe network,since everysegmentthe network
discards is an indication that a TCP source has been congesting the network and should
temporarily back off.
Thisschemehas beensuccessfullyemployedoverthe years,whilethe trafficpattern
has shifted from long file transfers and short, persistent connection,typical of terminal-
emulation traffic, to the ”Click-and-Run” paradigm found in Web interactions .
A recent paper on TCP congestion control  listed four “golden rules” for a well-
formed congestioncontrol forTCP connections. Specifically, a TCP congestion control
should: i) exhibit additive increase and multiplicative decrease behavior of the con-
gestion window; ii) use retransmission timeouts to slow down the sending rate during
?This work was supported by the Italian Ministry for University and Scientific Research under
the PlanetIP project and the CERCOM project. A preliminary version of this paper appeared
in IEEE Globecom 2001.
highly-congested spells; iii) initially probe the available bandwidth using the exponen-
tial window increase typical of the Slow Start algorithm; iv) clock the sending rate
based upon the return of ACKs.
In this paper, we propose a new approach to data segmentation in the early stages
of Slow Start that adheres to the four guidelines listed above and, at the same time,
addresses the nature of today’s Internet traffic: short, spotty client-server interactions
between a Web client and a Web server. We will refer to this variant of TCP as “TCP
Smart Framing”, or TCP-SF for short.
As will be detailed below, we advocate an increase in the numberof segments trans-
mitted by a TCP source, without increasing the amount of application data actually
sent in the congestion window. This will be done whenever the congestion window is
”small”, i.e., at the beginning of each Slow Start phase, and in particular at the flow
The main observation is that TCP’s congestion control is only marginally driven by
the rate at which the bytes leaves the source but, rather, by the rate at which segments
(and their respective ACKs) are sent (or received) at the source.
TCP infers that a segment is lost whenever one of the following two events occurs:
a Retransmission Time Out (RTO) expiration, or the arrival of three duplicate ACKs
that triggers the Fast Retransmit (FR) algorithm. Of these two events, RTO is the most
undesirable one as the RTO period is usually much larger than the Round Trip Time
(RTT) Indeed, regardless of the actual amount of bytes transmitted, a coarse RTO ex-
piration can be prevented only if enough segments are sent in the transmission window
(i.e., at least three more following the lost segment). This situation can occur only if i)
the congestionwindow is largerthat 4
is long enough to allow the transmission of at least 4 back-to-back segments (i.e., it is
not a so-called short-lived flow).
Also, it should be pointed out that repeatedly forcing a short-lived connection into
RTO often results in excessive penalty for the connection itself, that would otherwise
be finished in few more segments, rather than in actual network decongestion. Since
today’s Internet traffic is heavily represented by short-lived connections , the need
is felt to address their requirements in the design of TCP’s congestion control.
While Classic TCP1starts sending one segment, in our scheme a TCP-SF source
is allowed to send
ciated to the connection. Thus, the resulting network load is, byte-wise, the same of a
Classic TCP connection (except for the segmentation overhead). The ACK-driven win-
dow increase law employed by TCP-SF affects the amount of data per segment, rather
than the numberof segments, until a threshold is reached, after which TCP-SF resumes
the classic behavior. The Classic TCP algorithms (Slow Start, Congestion Avoidance,
Fast Retransmit, Fast Recovery) are not otherwise affected. However, the modification
introduces a number of key advantages:
??? (Maximum Segment Size) and ii) the flow
??segments, whose aggregate payload is equal to the
– the lengthy first-window RTO (set to 3 seconds) is no longer the only outcome if a
loss occurs at the onset of a connection;
1unless otherwise specified, by “Classic” TCP we refer to any TCP version currently imple-
mented in standard TCP stacks (i.e., TCP Tahoe , TCP Reno , TCP NewReno , TCP
– when Delayed ACKs are employed and the congestion window is 1 segment large,
the receiver has not to wait for 200 ms before generating an ACK; several current
TCP implementation start a connection with a window of 2 segments, a widely-
employed acknowledged workaround to the Delayed ACK initial slowdown;
– the RTT estimate,which is updateduponthe receptionofeveryACK,andis usedto
set the retransmission timer, improvesits accuracy early on, thanks to the increased
number of returning ACKs in the first window already;
– short-lived flows, for which the completion time is paramount,are less likely to ex-
perience a coarse RTO expiration, since the number of transmitted segments grants
a bigger chance of triggering FR;
– shorter segments can exploit pipelining transmission, completing the transfer in
a shorter time because of the store-and-forward mechanism at the routers; this is
especially useful in slow links;
– not requiring any contributionfrom the receiver, the scheme can quite easily be de-
ployed on a source-only basis; furthermore, it can equally benefit well-established
Classic TCP flavors, such as TCP Reno, NewReno, SACK, and also works coupled
with ECN (Early Congestion Notification).
2 TCP Smart Framing
As is well known, when the TCP congestion window size (??
segments, TCP has no other means to recover segment losses than by RTO expiration.
Indeed, since ACK transmission is triggered by the reception of a segment, the re-
ceiver has no chance to send three duplicated ACKs when the congestion window size
is smaller than foursegments. Being the time to recovera loss by RTO expirationmuch
longer than the time needed by FR, this behavior deteriorates TCP performance, espe-
cially when connections are short-lived. In particular, when the flow length is shorter
than 7 segments (i.e., about 10 Kbytes using a 1460-bytes MSS), there are no chances
forthe transmitterto triggera FR. Note that if the Delayed-ACK optionis implemented,
the flow must last more than 10 segments.
In the scheme we propose, TCP-SF, we enhance TCP behavior in the operating
FR possible, as for example at the beginning of each Slow Start phase. The region in
which we enhance TCP behavioris shadowed in Figure 1 which shows the dynamics of
??) is smaller than four
?? ??. This region is commonly known as the small window regime.
TCP-SF is based the followingidea: increasingthe upstream flow of ACKs bysend-
ing downstream a larger number of segments whose size is smaller than the
While maintainingunchangedthe amountof datainjectedinto the pipe,a largernumber
of segments receivedat the otherend triggers a largernumberof ACKs in the backward
channel and thus a larger probability that the transmitter can recover losses without
waiting for the RTO to expire. In other words, this procedure gives the transmitter the
chance to obtain more feedback about what is happening at the receiver. Increasing the
number of ACKs will therefore enable FR when the congestion window is smaller than
four segments; in particular any flow larger than
and help the RTT estimation algorithm to converge quickly to the correct values of the
RTO, thus alleviating the first RTO penalty of 3 seconds.
? will benefit from this;
Table 3. Percentage of RTO occurrences, RTO estimates and completion times for web objects
smaller than 10 kB as a function of the emulated drop probability and latency.
drop latency Classic TCPTCP-SF
probability [ms] Samples RT [ms] % RTO Samples RT [ms] % RTO
0.0120 8093 435
and smaller values of the retransmission timer shortens the completiontime in presence
of a loss
predictablebehaviorofdifferentbrowsertypes, the trend nonethelessconfirmsa sizable
reduction of completion times for TCP-SF.
????; although we remarked that completion times are affected by the un-
Table 4. Percentage of RTO occurrences, RTO estimates and completion times for web objects
sized between 10 kB and 100 kB, as a function of the emulated drop probability and latency.
droplatency Classic TCPTCP-SF
probability [ms] Samples RT [ms] % RTO Samples RT [ms] % RTO
We proposedan enhancementto the TCP protocolthat is based on the key idea of trans-
mitting smaller size segments when the congestion window is smaller than
without changing the degree of aggressiveness of the source. This allows the sender
to receive more feedback from the destination, and thus use the Fast Recovery algo-
rithm to recover from segment losses, without waiting for a Retransmission Timeout
expiration to occur. TCP-SF is particularly effective for short-lived flows, but improves
the responsiveness of long file transfers also. Coupled with the current Internet traffic,
Table 5. Percentage of RTO occurrences, RTO estimates and completion times for web objects
larger than 100 kB, as a function of the emulated drop probability and latency.
drop latencyClassic TCPTCP-SF
probability [ms] Samples RT [ms] % RTO Samples RT [ms] % RTO
0.0120 139 253
TCP-SF outperforms Classic TCP in terms of both completion time, and probability to
trigger Fast Recovery to detect segment losses.
The proposed modification is extremely simple and can be implemented on the top
of any TCP flavor, and requires changes on the server side only.
Hands-on measurements of Internet traffic could not have been possible without the
cooperation of several people from our Department who willingly (or unaware), left
their browsers at our mercy for a month or so. In acknowledging their help, we also
wish to thank the Politecnico di Torino Network Facilities (CESIT) that allowed us to
take the network measurements, and Mario Gerla at UCLA and the Computer Science
Facility at CMU for letting us run remote experiments on their workstations.
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