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Combining physical and visual simulation---creation of the planet Jupiter for the film “2010”

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By integrating physical simulation, in the form of numerical fluid dynamics, with visual simulation, in the form of particle rendering, texture mapping and traditional polygonal modeling techniques, we have achieved a uniquely realistic and organic special effects sequence of a planetary atmospheric flow. This paper examines the selection, implementation, and application of these techniques, know collectively as VORTEX, to produce the moving images of the planet Jupiter in the film "2010." Details of the generation of the flow field and the fluid dynamic algorithms employed are presented, along with issues relating to the generation and updating of the atmospheric images. We also describe the integration of these techniques with an advanced computer graphics imaging system. The VORTEX system provides a fairly general solution to a class of imaging problems involving two-dimensional fluid flows, and we remark upon its application to other projects. VORTEX, as an example of the marriage of physical simulation to visual simulation, demonstrates the importance of computer graphics to the computational sciences and of the physical sciences to the field of computer graphics.
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... Fusion of physics-driven and heuristic-driven methods. Early work of combining the driven methods was done by Yaeger et al. (1986) in which the computational fluid dynamics were engaged with the particle systems via particle decomposition to model clouds in the generation of the simulated planet Jupiter for the film ''2010 00 . The fusion between the Coupled Map Lattice (CML) as a heuristic-based method and physical simulation of atmospheric fluid dynamics was proposed by Miyazaki et al. (2001) for modeling and simulating the cloud formation processes. ...
... Developing the physics-driven methods is a challenging task due to its complexity and computational burden (e.g., Kajiya and Von Herzen, 1984;Yaeger et al., 1986;Gamito et al., 1995;Luciani et al., 1995;Miyazaki et al., 2001;Overby et al., 2002;Dobashi et al., 2008;Qiu et al., 2013;Goswami and Neyret, 2016;Webb et al., 2016;Kobak and Alda, 2017;Vimont et al., 2020). However, if these methods are incorporated with hardwareaccelerated methods or computation compression methods, realizing the physically-accurate atmospheric clouds would be possible in the future. ...
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... The cues for procedural animation can also be extracted from images or videos. The motivation to convert texture to particles in [103] is to update the fluid mechanics properties of the regions through these particles, while animating Jupiter's atmosphere. The initial vorticity field on particles is seeded using a large black and white image of the planet with hand-marked vortex features, approximating the contribution of each vortex in the surrounding elliptical region. ...
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