Expert-Citizen Engineering: "Crowdsourcing" Skilled Citizens

Conference Paper · December 2011with33 Reads
DOI: 10.1109/DASC.2011.148 · Source: DBLP
Conference: IEEE Ninth International Conference on Dependable, Autonomic and Secure Computing, DASC 2011, 12-14 December 2011, Sydney, Australia
Abstract
Citizen Engineering (CE) is a concept that engages a cohort of physically dispersed citizens connected by the Internet to collaboratively solve real-world problems through massive cooperation. With advances in information technology, we can build transformative cyber-infrastructures to effectively leverage the ''wisdom of crowds''. Regarding the citizen engineers who function as main contributors, there is a wide spectrum of human resources that crowd sourcing system designers can harness - from amateurs/hobbyists, lacking practical experience, to experts/licensed engineers, with years of professional training. As such, we are encouraged to investigate proper approaches to design CEs that can sufficiently engage and support expert citizens who have unique needs that may be different from those of amateur citizen engineers. In this study, we focused on a system designed for engaging high-end users - expert citizens. Our experiment is based on a web site -- ''Expert Citizen Engineering Experiment'' developed to fulfill a sophisticated civil engineering task. The conclusions generated from this experiment provide guidance for future CE project designs, where skilled users are the main contributors. Based on our observations and post-experiment interviews, we believe that expert citizen engineers have higher expectations on computation platform capacity and system stability compared to average citizen engineers. Meanwhile, it should be acknowledged that in the domain of civil engineering, high reliability and trustworthiness are particularly emphasized.
    • "Last but not the least, domain of Civil Engineering has followed other domains in employing crowdsourcing for annotation and visual recognition tasks. developed a portal for classification of damaged elements and tagging them in photos Street management (ClickFix & FixMyStreet) Idea generation for policymaking through wiki survey (Salganik and Levy, 2015) ( Bastías and González, 2012) Green Line Challenge (Messina, 2012) Geospatial data and hydro-geology Neo-geography (Goodchild, 2009) Map refinement (Heipke, 2010) Neo-photogrammetry (Label, 2010) Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation (Zhai et al. 2011) CrowdHydrology (Lowry and Fienen, 2013) Geo-Wiki taken following Haiti 2010 earthquake. Participants were asked to add in-depth information including pattern and severity of damages. "
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  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Open Source Software (OSS) development has much in common with concepts such as crowdsourcing, citizen science, collective intelligence, human-based computation, and what we call "Citizen Engineering (CE)". We report on several pilot projects that apply these shared principles of OSS development to engineering activities beyond software engineering. CE models harness human computing power from open communities, which commonly consist of a cohort of geographically and/or institutionally scattered citizens - professionals or amateurs - to collaboratively solve real-world problems. In most cases, the problems targeted are challenging to computers, but manageable or trivial to human intelligence. In these systems, while humans play fundamental roles, whether they are project architects or problem solvers, the implementation of CE is greatly facilitated by the advance of information technology, particularly the Internet, considered as "creative mode of user interactivity, not merely a medium between messages and people" [10]. In this paper, we characterize existing citizen engineering practices into 6 major categories, followed by a discussion of 4 ongoing projects, aiming to provide new perspectives and insights for achieving successful CE project designs. © 2012 IFIP International Federation for Information Processing.
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