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A pattern language: Towns, buildings, construction

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... Buildings, walls, trees, and other vertical features create and define public areas aesthetically. It has a distinct and definite shape, as definite as the shape of important as the shapes of the buildings which surround it (Alexander et al., 1977). Some configurations of structures create highly threedimensional environments (Hedman, 1984). ...
... Personal interaction distances have a role in human-scale design. These lengths are as follows: (Gehl, 1987) and (Alexander et al., 1977). ...
... (Jacobs, 1993) In urban planning, coherence refers to a sensitivity to the visual directive or the systematic preparation of physical things in the atmosphere. Coherence is the constancy and complementarity of the building components of a cooperative form in scale (grain) and setting close interaction (Alexander et al., 1977) and (Ewing et al. 2006). Coherence in architecture is as, "buildings on the best streets will get along with each other" (Jacobs, 1993). ...
Article
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Shortage supply of space for urban infrastructure including street and pedestrian aspects remains a great challenge in the context of Bangladesh due to the rapid growth of urbanization. Here, overcrowded cities can hardly manage space for walking, the safest mood of public mobility. In Sylhet, a city in north-eastern Bangladesh, widening the vehicular street and decorating pedestrian pathways is the common tendency of street development by the local authority where the quality of urban streets is rarely investigated. In most research, walking preferences are measured via a quantitative method by addressing street comfort, traffic, and size rather than the urban design qualities of the street, i.e. a qualitative approach. Hence, the project aims to identify the user preferences for walking in the Zindabazar area, a commercial street of Sylhet considering the urban designs qualities like enclosure, legibility, human scale, transparency, complexity, coherence, linkage, and imageability. Therefore, this research applied a questionnaire survey, conducted to analyse the relation between walking preferences and urban design qualities of the commercial street. After collecting Likert scale data, Linear and multiple regression models were used to analyse it. Regression analysis was conducted to identify the relation between urban design qualities and user preferences for walking on the proposed street. The research identified that walking preferences of user are not significantly associated with all the factors of urban design qualities except legibility, transparency, and human scale. The research will help identify the poor and significant urban qualities of the street(s) which need to be modified to improve user preferences.
... In this research, a particular approach is proposed based on well-defined and important architectural concepts. They were called primary generators by Lawson (8), or patterns by Alexander, Silverstein, and Ishikawa (54). The patterns are part of a repertoire for reasoning about early-stage information. ...
... According to Alexander et al. (54), every design begins with general and abstract solutions to guide the process of design and later construction, which are implemented numerous times without repeating the exact form of application. Therefore, thinking in terms of patterns while designing contributes to remembering recurring problems addressed by architecture and for which the project must provide a solution. ...
... Numerous methods and structures for the design process were previously discussed and applied in architecture (59,55,(51)(52)(53)(54)60). A critical aspect is to be aware of their nature: creative, rational, or of the design process control (55,60). ...
Conference Paper
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This paper's goal was to develop an Augmented Reality (AR) app using a three-dimensional marker inspired by the Rubik's Cube and evaluate its performance. This is an exploration of a new approach for early stages of architectural design coupling the acquired knowledge of traditional briefing methods and contemporary technology. We considered the concept of patterns to outline geometric forms and associations using visual programming. The Design Science Research was applied to develop the study. An SDK was used in a game engine to generate the AR app. The tool's functionality was assessed by verifying the readability and precision of the reconfigurable 3D marker. The results indicated an inconsistent response. To use AR in the early stages of architectural design the system must provide consistent information and appropriate feedback. Nevertheless, we conclude that our framework sets the ground for looking deep into AR tools for briefing design.
... A pattern is a concept widely used in engineering and other disciplines for variety of purpose, e.g. business or system analysis [1]. This wide usage has been inspired by the works of Alexander [2] which describes architectural patterns. There are numerous definitions of the term pattern, see examples in [2], [3]. ...
... This wide usage has been inspired by the works of Alexander [2] which describes architectural patterns. There are numerous definitions of the term pattern, see examples in [2], [3]. In this paper, we use this term in the most general way: "a pattern is an idea that has been useful in one practical context and will probably be useful in others" [3]. ...
... Our discussion is focused only on the cases of operational decision-making where Fractal Enterprise Model (FEM) [5] could be used ignoring other methods of conducting such decisions. FEM is employed for (1) getting a holistic picture of business activities of interest, (2) analyzing the situation, and (3) finding places in the business where some operational-level decision can or need to be made. FEM has a form of a directed graph with two types of nodes, processes and assets, where the arrows (edges) from assets to processes show which assets are used in which processes and arrows from processes to assets show which processes help to have specific assets in "healthy" and working order. ...
Chapter
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A pattern is a concept widely used in engineering and other disciplines for variety of purpose, e.g. business or system analysis. In this work, we present the concept of patterns usage within enterprise modelling. The undertaking is a part of the larger case study dedicated to Fractal Enterprise Modelling (FEM) development deploying Design Science (DS) research methodology. Based on the case study, we have identified three FEM related patterns: one modelling pattern and two analyzing patterns. A modeling pattern advises on a proper way of building a model for a particular purpose, while an analysis pattern helps to find places in a business where a decision could/should be made. More precisely, the modelling pattern identified in this study helps to build a model on an appropriate level of granularity for a certain purpose (operational decision-making). The analysis pat-terns identified in the study are divided into two categories of patterns: transformational patterns and problem patterns. Transformational pattern is a pattern that contains a condition and an action parts that represent a standardized solution or an opportunity. Problem pattern is a pattern that expresses conditions where a problem might exist without specifying a definite action. These patterns contribute into the creation of the bank of patterns to guide practitioners in modelling and analyzes of the business situations using FEM.
... The process will then move towards creating terrain, architecture, and other elements. When creating terrain, the authors mention autogenerated terrain as one of the options, so we believe that the concepting phase and the ones that immediately follow are a good time to make use of procedural generation tools.To understand more about settlement design, we looked at what was written by Alexander et al.[1] who present detailed patterns for creating towns, among other topics. This work is still discussed in recent years, as we can see in the work of Dawes et al.[11], where criticism on the original text is analysed and classified so that the readers are aware of the problems that arise in the original text. ...
... This work is still discussed in recent years, as we can see in the work of Dawes et al.[11], where criticism on the original text is analysed and classified so that the readers are aware of the problems that arise in the original text. Alexander et al.[1] detail methods of building and planning towards the improvement of towns or neighbourhoods. This text provides simple solutions ranging from urban planning to interior design. ...
Thesis
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With technology rapidly advancing, the virtual worlds are increasing in size and complexity, and they are more difficult to create. To aid the development process, procedural generation can be implemented, but there are downsides to consider when doing so. Our goal is to improve on the creation of game levels with better efficiency and increased creativity. For that purpose, we test a mixed-initiative approach on level design in games. We believe that this approach could capitalize on the benefits of procedural generation, without taking away control from the designer. The experiment performed consisted of individual sessions where each participant built two villages: one without the AI part of the tool, and one with AI suggestions. The experiment ended with an interview. Results from observations and interviews show that participants found it easier to create villages using this tool and were more interested in the process because of it. The participants also stated that the tool stimulated their creativity, and if more procedural generation was integrated, it could also lower the time required to build levels. Therefore, we advise to further develop procedural level design tools as it can effectively stimulate creativity and productivity in the game development process. Applications of this system can be introduced in other domains as well. The developed tool can have uses in the film industry, for city planning, historical simulations, and others.
... The people except on the first few floors of the building cannot get meaningful contact with the ground level in multi-story buildings (Gehl, 2011). Moreover, there are also some negative effects on the physical and psychological health of children (Alexander, 1977;Van Vliet, 1983). It is necessary to build "short blocks" which provides permeable and perceivable urban landscape on a human scale in order to ensure livable neighborhood and sustainable urban facilities (Jacobs, 1961). ...
... Instead of standardized approaches in housing and urban design, some decisions should be left to user preferences. Some architectural values such as types, patterns, themes and systems should be followed but the dominant approaches such as coding and assigning just playground equipment for children should be replaced with flexible solutions (Habraken, 2017;Alexander, 1977). This also allows adaptation and contributes to the architectural quality and identity of spaces. ...
Chapter
The aim of this study is to contribute to sustainable and livable environments with the approach of “smart density planning”, which ensures a smart and planned growth with an acceptable density taking into consideration the efficient distribution of public spaces and services in urban regeneration areas in Turkey. There is a rapid urban transformation especially after the 2000s in Turkey in order to redevelop squatter settlements that have been built in order to respond to housing needs in rapid urbanization in cities unofficially and building areas that require improvement for structural resilience. However, there are significant problems confronting the process of regeneration. Squatter settlements have been demolished in order to create modern urban areas with better “physical conditions”. Multi-story housing blocks are the dominant shape of a new style of housing. Their scale and high number of flats provide shelter for more people on limited land and cause a high-pressure density which ignores the livability and socio-spatial needs of the inhabitants. Since housing is a condition more than a shelter, creating livable residential areas is a crucial issue. The paper first discusses the meaning, context, relation and importance of these terms in order. Moreover, a critical review of the “smart city” has been conducted in relation to the presented “smart density planning” concept in order to rethink urban transformations in terms of socio-spatial quality of inhabitants. The authors introduce this concept of “smart density planning”, which refers to the logical distribution of facilities and public spaces for overall inhabitants in efficient planning. Moreover, the proposed concept defines a morphology that takes into account the human scale and optimization of activity patterns in terms of smart planning, rather than a well-known definition of “smart cities” that is minimized to technological developments. Consequently, a framework has been composed to define the principles/ indicators of “smart density planning” to ensure sustainable and livable urban transformation implementations in Turkey. These indicators assay how smart planning can be achieved in terms of density-based planning. This analytical framework also acts as a guideline to lead future neighborhood designs in Turkey.
... While the DwI Method does not completely replace the domain expertise, insight, and creativity that experienced professionals bring to a project, it is intended to aid in the exploration of responses to a brief and to allow designers to benefit from the work of others who have tackled similar problems in a similar domain in a similar context. Throughout the research and development process, it was determined that a design pattern method based on Alexander (1977) and Tidwell (2010) would be most beneficial in terms of making any work immediately applicable and useful to designers in the context of real projects and briefs, rather than theoretical development from scratch, was the most appropriate approach. ...
... The DwI toolkit was heavily influenced by Alexander's (1977) work in architecture, as well as Tidwell's (2005) work from a more pure design perspective, in order to fully capture this approach. ...
Thesis
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New technology is making fundamental changes in the etiology of accidents and is creating a need for changes in the explanatory mechanisms used. We need a better and less subjective understanding of why accidents occur and how to prevent future ones. The most effective models will go beyond assigning blame and instead help engineers to learn as much as possible about all the factors involved, including those related to social and organizational structures. In our increasingly complex and interrelated societal structure, responsibility for safety is shifting from the individual to the government. Individuals no longer have the ability to control the risks around them and are demanding that government assume greater responsibility for controlling behavior through laws and various forms of oversight and regulation. In this study, two taxonomically distinct methods: "Systems Theoretic Accident Model and Process" based "System-Theoretic Process Analysis" (STAMP-STPA) and Design with Intent (DwI), have been used to develop a framework for road crash mitigation measures in the context of Bangladesh. Where most traditional accident models view accidents as resulting from a chain or sequence of events, STAMP-STPA and DwI focus on the overall structure of the system: from the design level to the operation level. One road collision, the Uthalia accident, has been used as a case study to develop the framework in this research. STAMP-STPA is a structured, constrained, and systematic approach. In contrast, DwI is nonstructured and unconstrained, mainly in the form of brainstorming, idea-generation, or ideation sessions where participants are asked to generate concepts, individually or together, in response to a design problem. Both approaches aim to find the countermeasure or preventive measure for hazards. Accimap is a prevalent sociotechnical approach for accident analysis; however, STAMPSTPA has subtle advantages as it adequately indicates the irregularities or non-existence of the control-feedback loop in the system. On the other hand, DwI is an unconventional but handy method for analyzing and developing recommendations regarding system or design failure due to road collisions. This method allows for creative thinking and brainstorming. Traditional accident analysis methods are localized since they provide a site-specific solution. In comparison to traditional methods, STAMP-STPA and DwI have the potential to provide solutions from a broader perspective that can be transferred or applied to other sites. Firstly, an Actor Map for the Uthalia accident has been generated. Secondly, the produced actor map is used to build the STAMP and STPA model and perform DwI sessions for the selected road collision study. Information regarding the accident event has been collected from popular media reports, accident investigation reports, and local interviews to conduct a thorough investigation. A total of 171 actors have been identified across the eight levels of the Bangladesh road safety system. Actors at different levels have been found to be contributing to the overall road safety system. STAMP-STPA analysis of the case study revealed that while investigating accidents, the blame should not always be only on the end users' level; instead, the faults across different hierarchies in the system need to be identified. Exploring the lackings in the overall road safety system through this developed framework will guide policymakers to build a safer road infrastructure for the road users. Based on the developed STAMP-STPA model and DwI method, a number of recommendations corresponding to the collision events were proposed, which were later aggregated. These recommendations have been provided corresponding to different events occurring at different levels of the system, which emphasizes performing road safety system reformation. It is found that almost all of the recommendations or countermeasures found from DwI fall under Level 5: Operating Process and Environment indicating that DwI focuses on lower-level solutions, whereas STAMP-STPA offers solutions from a broader perspective: from the international context to the operational level. The aggregation of the proposed recommendations from the STAMP-STPA and DwI method were validated by three different subject matter experts with vast experience in the safety domain. It should be noted that methods like STAMP-STPA have primarily been applied to lane-based, homogeneous traffic systems; however, the traffic situation in Bangladesh is very different and, arguably, more complex, given the wide variety of road and road user types, as well as the chaotic nature of the system, when compared to those seen in high-income countries. More studies are needed for validation purposes in order to establish the use of sociotechnical methods in Bangladesh.
... As systems become more complex, there is also a potential for reusing best practices for the integration of elements to achieve particular effects. Such reusable best practices are commonly referred to as patterns, and this concept was made popular by Christopher Alexander's book A pattern language [1]. It describes 253 different patterns for city planners and building architects, where each pattern can be seen as an abstraction that highlights certain parts of a solution and leaves other parts open for tailoring to the specific usage context. ...
... A catalog of patterns can potentially become extensive, as is illustrated in Alexander's work with over 250 named patterns described in a book of 1,200 pages [1]. It is thus evident that a user needs support in navigating such a resource. ...
... The language used in the HUL Recommendation enables heritage to be considered within the context of sustainable development. This ability for urban morphological thinking to explain and describe processes and their associated patterns (Alexander, 1977;Kostof, 1999;Marshall, 2005) in historic urban landscapes is relevant to heritage studies as it can contextualise the heritage layers in an historical sense (understanding diachronic change), rather than viewing heritage layers only through their present configuration. ...
... Finally, as space is intrinsically social, studying space means looking at how streets are formed, evolve and relate, and how they structure 'everyday life and transactions' (Hillier and Hanson, 1984: 21). Furthermore, space syntax theory, together with other seminal urban theorists such as Jane Jacobs (Jacobs, 1961(Jacobs, , 2000(Jacobs, , 2016, Jan Gehl (Gehl, 1996), Christopher Alexander (Alexander, 1965(Alexander, , 1977 and Kevin Lynch (Lynch, 1960(Lynch, , 1984, fundamentally understand that space reveals itself to be intricate and yet ordered complexity that has 'universal, as well as culturally determined spatial features' (Hiller, 2009: 2). These features 'play a strong role both in embodying and reproducing the underlying social and economic patterns in cities and driving the evolution of functional complexity in the system' (ibid.). ...
Thesis
This thesis investigates urban evolution in Tel Aviv-Yafo’s historic urban landscape. The research uses historical, spatial, morphological and social analysis to frame and question contemporary configurational, morphological and social properties to examine how historical socio-political conditions in Tel Aviv-Yafo impacted on emergent spaces of activity over time. The research is positioned within, and seeks to advance, the field of heritage urbanism syntax by contributing a social heritage layer as an urban component, alongside the existing components of configuration and morphology. The thesis draws on theories and methods from space syntax, urban morphology, and geography, and employs methods and tools from these fields to explore urban evolution and transformation over time. The research adopts a landscape-based approach firstly to discuss the evolution of Tel Aviv-Yafo’s regional network and secondly to examine the heritage gateway-pathway that links historic Jaffa to Tel Aviv. The gateway-pathway – a transect sample – is used as a tool to track properties of the historic urban landscape and to explore mechanisms of change in urban space. This is related to the impact on the perception and use of heritage space by individuals of different identities today. Analysis finds that individuals with different identities (specifically Arab and Jewish) inhabit, use and perceive space differently. Tel Aviv-Yafo’s spatial and morphological urban evolution has resulted in restricted urban residence, mobility and cognition for Arabs. Conversely, events and urban transformation appear not to impact Jewish cognition, behaviour and activities to the same degree. Historical processes of urban evolution appear to shape heritage patterns and spatial cultures that are identity contingent. The research is innovative in its historical breadth (over 200 years), comprehensive approach (focus on broader landscape and micro-morphological detail, interdisciplinary nature and integrated framework), and the scope of specialised methods used to map transformative urban processes and their impact on individuals today.
... In order to counteract the fragmented space of everyday, interdisciplinary methodology is used to analyze living patterns (Alexander 1977). The patterns reveal the site and region through active participation, giving value to lived space as active ingredient informing the built environment. ...
... (Lefebrve 1996, 102) The interdisciplinary methodology deployed in this thesis aims to activate the site through spatial stories embedded in the archeological site. The site, currently bound for 'cultural heritage' through observation of its rhythms and patterns, can also become productive social spaces for its participants (Lefebvre 1991;Lefebvre 2004;Alexander 1977). Participants at the archeological site in Iznik are informed by the interdisciplinary analysis of the human and ...
Thesis
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Material cultures of past and present societies are increasingly being threatened to lose their sense of place to commodification and dominant powers. Such forces of economy and politics in a globalized world are shaping everyday-life experience and the production of space. The resulting spaces reveal a fragmented social fabric for local inhabitants. However, in a differentiated lived space for production of culture, a sense of place needs to be observed and felt. Through recordings of those observations, experiences and interdisciplinary research in the town of Iznik in Turkey, this thesis seeks to link ruins as living active social agents through an architectural intervention. Architecture in an archeological site therefore does act as the in-between space to produce a collective sense of belonging by engaging in the processes of cultural production.
... A street can be seen as a micro atmosphere that supports the stream of individuals who reflect different actions and interactions with each other and the street edge. A street mostly exists for staying in and moving-to rather than moving-through [9], [10], [11]. ...
... Also, in-between is employed to examine social interaction and the morphological pattern of a city; in-between space signifies social interaction amongst inhabitants so long as it offers a role within the street edge and increases street life [14]. The cells of activity (or neighbourhood cells) perform a considerable function in molding a live space; they facilitate activities and offer links as in-between spaces that generate pleasing areas for people to stop and engage [9], [24]. ...
Article
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The micro-level approach to transformations in urban morphology is the current leading area of study. It captures the significant soft grain of the street edge and its function. The pattern (edge-edge interface) is controlled by morphological analyses that are based on two primary urban elements: Plots and blocks. In addition, the street edge represents the link between two realms-the private and public-and defines their interrelationship. Three indicators (constitutedness, permeability and intervisibility) formulate the degree of interaction, whether between street edge ingredients or people and the adjacent edge. The main aims of this paper are to highlight the characteristics of the street edge and to compute and derive an equation for the three indicators. The paper adopts a morphological and analytical method in order to trace the primary purpose of the research with greater concentration on the micro-level scale. A quantitative technique is used to formulate the main equations and significant results are extracted regarding the specific morphological properties of the edge. Thus, the main contribution of this research is the development of knowledge that quantitatively determines the attributes of the street edge.
... This open space faces the sun throughout the year. As stated by (Alexander et al., 1977), ...
... In the rainy season, semi-covered verandahs (Figure2b) are considered to be better since they allow various activities to be performed. Alexander et al. (1977) examined the pattern of 'common areas at the heart' by saying: ...
Article
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There is growing apprehension about the well-being and substantiality of our planet due to global warming, rising energy consumption by the building sector, and depletion of natural resources. Architects and designers are in pursuit of the methods that may prove useful to limit the negative impacts of the building sector in order to respond to the changing needs of contemporary times. In Pakistan, along with the use and development of technologically advanced approaches, the revival of traditional vernacular architecture is seen as a way to achieve a sustainable future. In this study, the HarSukh Mansion, designed by the renowned traditionalist architect Kamil Khan Mumtaz, wasevaluatedbased on the functional level of the Deep Beauty framework. In addition to examining the pragmatic needs of the users with respect to the building architecture, the case study also investigated the fundamentals of sustainable living, including modern passive energy strategies, recycling of natural resources, use of locally available building materials, and various traditional design elements and strategies. The analysis determined that Deep Beauty in architecture can be used to build a sustainable future for the building sector.
... The decision to focus on a part of the whole is based on the characteristics of our complex feeble reality, enhancing diffuse scen arios filled with uncertainties. It seemed pertinent to address an autonomous pattern (Alexander, 1977) with a common-base rationale embracing old con cepts to transform them into new definitions. ...
... The decision to focus on a part of the whole is based on the characteristics of our complex feeble reality, enhancing diffuse scen arios filled with uncertainties. It seemed pertinent to address an autonomous pattern (Alexander, 1977) with a common-base rationale embracing old con cepts to transform them into new definitions. ...
... Urban tissues can be depicted as complex systems (Batty, 2007;Salingaros, 2000) that are a combination of intertwined components that can be understood by going from the single component to the larger whole: It finds its morphological expression in its spatial layout, patterns, and typology of buildings. As discussed by Alexander's pattern language and generative design theory (Alexander, 1977;Alexander et al., 1987), and later further A. CHEDDADI, K. HOTTA AND Y. IKEDA ...
... Taking advantage of such relationships' unique affordances for allowing the spatial interaction constructions, urban squares with proper D:H ratios, have important design value to create a "sense of enclosure" for an open space in a city (COLLINS et al. 2006, HANDY et al. 2002, TRANCIK 1986, JACOBS 1993. ALEXANDER et al. (1977) claimed that D:H ratios for streets should be less than 1:1 to achieve a sufficient balance between buildings' height and distance of the viewer from them. LYNCH (1984) suggested that the D:H ratios are between 2:1 and 3:1 for an optimal enclosure in urban squares. ...
Article
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Virtual landscape is going through an advancement initiated by the development of digital technologies related to virtual environments. The virtual landscape has been used as a tool to develop the real world; however, this domain itself also carries a design value. Taking advantage of the unique affordances of such environments, virtual landscape designers need to increase users' sensory, perceptual, and attention abilities to allow cognitive relationships by implementing the theories of the physical world. This research adopts the D:H ratio principle to understand its optimal suggested values in the real world to assess the sense of enclosure in virtual landscapes. The statistical analysis of the results indicates that the optimal D:H ratios for "Open" and "Comfort" qualities of space are larger in the virtual landscape than in real-world suggestions. The perception of "Constricted" and "Human-scale" qualities in the virtual landscape is perceived differently depending on the surrounding building heights. By focusing on the D:H Ratio principle, the research results suggest that virtual landscapes fed by design disciplines such as urban planning, landscape architecture, and architecture produce a more compact and holistic perspective by increasing the user-space interaction.
... The automobile, which promised to bring people closer, has wiped the human scale out of urban design by scaling them up in metal bubbles and alienated them from each other, the city texture and the land. High-rise buildings, similarly, have separated habitats from hearing, smelling, experiencing and participating in the street life below (Alexander et al., 1977;Mumford, 1993, pp. 235-239). ...
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It is a mediated experience through designed artefacts, systems and environments that human beings relate to the earth. The already transformative effect of this mediated existence has accelerated sharply with digitalization. In this research, we take the dichotomies of nature/culture and human/environment and the consequent miscalibration between human intentions and ecological results as the root cause of the current ecology and mind crisis, and we approach the situation as a ‘design failure’. We intend holistically to propose a conceptual design guideline, as a contemplation tool to be able to ‘think like a mountain,’ which proposes a set of common principles that healthy ecosystems are supposed to carry.
... Such walkable areas would enhance sociability and the overall ambience of the city (Yaseen, 2017). These essential qualities of the Traditional city were not only endorsed by Post Modern theorists like Jacob (1960), Alexander (1977), Rapoport (1990), Appleyard (1976) etc. but are endorsed by the charter of New Urbanism, too (Talen,2002). The informality in the primary urban structure of the Traditional city of Lahore had concerns with the human senses, as was evident in other Medieval cities of Spain and the Middle East (Broadbent, 1990, p.13). ...
Article
This research explores the dilapidation of Tradition from sophistication to taboo in the Indian subcontinent, particularly In Lahore. British Colonizer's supremacy manifests in the region under the British East India Company (Company) and later British Raj. The argument in this research is based on the supposition that the British manipulation and resultant Othering' caused the traditional sophistication to become distasteful. It is established through national and international postcolonial literature, and then its impact on Natives is documented, taking Lahore as Case Study. The research concludes that the 'othering' by British colonizers inculcated an inferiority complex in Natives. Resultantly, natives wished to be 'like Colonizer and abhorred their Tradition. It is recommended to overcome the inferiority complex and appreciate the traditional ways that might prove the right choice.
... VRtiquette will thereby be easier to learn and enforce. That is what is usually done in real world spaces, and Christopher Alexander provided a catalog of architectural 'patterns' for the design of such specialized physical spaces (Alexander et al., 1977), an approach that can be generalized to design augmented or virtual spaces (Jan 2001). Digital design provides multiple and new ways to do so in VR. ...
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Humans are social animals living in societies with most of their activities occurring in social settings, characterized by multiple actors, the crossing of individual behavioral paths, interactions between participants themselves and between participants and material (or immaterial) setting components. We theorize that virtual conferences, like physical ones, have a dual-space structure where the two types of activities (content transfer and social intercourse) intertwine. Understanding what happens in such complex social events requires minutely analyzing this complex intertwined structure of components and events. This analysis is even more necessary when one wants to intervene in such settings, for example when designing supports or attempting to change behavior. Nevertheless, most methods of data collection and analysis are either centered on methodological individualism, looking at aggregates at macro or meso level, or looking in detail at only some aspects of the whole event (e.g., conversation analysis). The paper offers, while illustrating with actual data, a Multilayered Installation Design (MID) method that facilitates focus upon the various perspectives of subjects, combines them into a single framework of Installations for activity that describes the setting in a systematic and structured way, and offers directions for design or intervention. This paper (1) briefly situates the nature of the problem and some gaps in the current methodological landscape; (2) contextualizes the main theories underlying the MID method — Activity Theory and Installation Theory; (3) describes the new method per se; (4) illustrates the method on a specific case, the analysis of a conference in a virtual space; and (5, 6) lists some issues and limitations as well as future orientations. Conceptualizing issues with the help of Installation Theory informs a structured and goal-oriented approach to design that improves on the usual design thinking approach by providing a robust analytic and idea-generating framework.
... Design patterns were originally introduced in the domain of building architecture to describe best-practice or expert solutions to recurring problems [3]. Several years later, the idea of applying design patterns was extended to the world of programming for designing reusable solutions to common software engineering problems [13]. ...
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Domain-specific constraint patterns are introduced, which form the counterpart to design patterns in software engineering for the constraint programming setting. These patterns describe the expert knowledge and best-practice solution to recurring problems and include example implementations. We aim to reach a stage where, for common problems, the modelling process consists of simply picking the applicable patterns from a library of patterns and combining them in a model. This vastly simplifies the modelling process and makes the models simple to adapt. By making the patterns domain-specific we can further include problem-specific modelling ideas, including specific global constraints and search strategies that are known for the problem, into the pattern description. This ensures that the model we obtain from patterns is not only correct but also of high quality. We introduce domain-specific constraint patterns on the example of job shop and flow shop, discuss their advantages and show how the occurrence of patterns can automatically be checked in an event log.
... Alexander [25] introduced the pattern approach for the domain of architectures. In time, his approach has spread and expanded to other fields, especially to software engineering. ...
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Context: Today’s vehicle development is focusing more and more on handling the vast amount of software and hardware inside the vehicle. The resulting planning and development of the software especially confronts original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) with major challenges that have to be mastered. This makes effective and efficient release planning that provides the development scope in the required quality even more important. In addition, the OEMs have to deal with boundary conditions given by the OEM itself and the standards as well as legislation the software and hardware have to conform to. Release planning is a key activity for successfully developing vehicles. Objective: The aim of this work is to introduce release planning patterns to simplify the release planning of software and hardware installed in a vehicle. Method: We followed a pattern identification process that was conducted at Dr. Ing. h. c. F. Porsche AG. Results: We introduce eight release planning patterns, which both address the fixed boundary conditions and structure the actual planning content of a release plan. The patterns address an automotive context and have been developed from a hardware and software point of view based on two examples from the case company. Conclusions: The presented patterns address recurring problems in an automotive context and are based on real life examples. The gathered knowledge can be used for further application in practice and related domains.
... Although design research typically applies to the gathering of information that feeds into a creative process of design, design itself creates knowledge. Christopher Alexander et al. (1977), in their groundbreaking work on design patterns, showed how the knowledge of skilled architects could be viewed as a cumulative set of patterns, a "pattern language" that could be used to express different designs. Each pattern represented a known partial solution to a category of problems, such that patterns were documented by describing the essential characteristics of a design solution, the circumstances under which they might be necessary, and links to other patterns that were frequently composed together. ...
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The ever-changing nature of online learning foregrounds the limits of separating research from design. In this article, we take the difficulty of making generalizable conclusions about designed environments as a core challenge of studying the educational psychology of online learning environments. We argue that both research and design can independently produce empirically derived knowledge, and we examine some of the configurations that allow us to simultaneously invent and study designed online learning environments. We revisit design-based research (DBR) methods and their epistemology, and discuss how they contribute various types of usable knowledge. Rather than compromising objectivity, we argue for how design researchers can acknowledge their intent and, in so doing, promote ways in which research and design can not only produce better interventions but also transform people and systems. © 2022 The Author(s). Published with license by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.
... The theme of design criteria for urban spaces, of a 'Cities for People', the title of a popular book written by Jan Gehl (2010), is certainly not new. There are many writings that link the interpretation of urban structure to design, some of which had a great impact and were very influential (for instance, to name just a few: Alexander et al., 1977;Lynch, 1960 andmore recently Carmona, 2010a, b and the previously cited work by Gehl, 1987Gehl, , 2010. More modestly, we shall try and list some strategies that seem to be in line with the attitude and the role the design should take, in the light of what we have previously written, so it will be rhizomatic, open, inclusive, respectful of local differences and 'intimate' (quoting Geddes again). ...
... These ontological primitives will not likely require a modification to existing conceptual modeling grammars, as they can be modeled as classes, or entities using grammars such as UML, ER or ORM and incorporated into existing modeling grammars as modeling patterns. The notion of a modeling pattern has been adapted in conceptual modeling research (Garzotto et al. 1999) from the field of architecture and "describes a problem which occurs over and over again in our environment, and then describes the core of the solution to that problem, in such a way that you can use this solution a million times over" (Alexander 1977). ...
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General ontology is a prominent theoretical foundation for information technology analysis, design, and development. Ontology is a branch of philosophy which studies what exists in reality. A widely used ontology in information systems , especially for conceptual modeling, is the BWW (Bunge-Wand-Weber), which is based on ideas of the philosopher and physicist Mario Bunge, as synthesized by Wand and Weber. The ontology was founded on an early subset of Bunge's philosophy; however, many of Bunge's ideas have evolved since then. An important question, therefore, is: do the more recent ideas expressed by Bunge call for a new ontology? In this paper, we conduct an analysis of Bunge's earlier and more recent works to address this question. We present a new ontology based on Bunge's later and broader works, which we refer to as Bunge's Systemist Ontology (BSO). We then compare BSO to the constructs of BWW. The comparison reveals both considerable overlap between BSO and BWW, as well as substantial differences. From this comparison and the initial exposition of BSO, we provide suggestions for further ontology studies and identify research questions that could provide a fruitful agenda for future scholarship in conceptual modeling and other areas of information technology.
... Therefore, authoring tools for AR experiences that target museums should also support authors in implementing navigational functions. pattern, as described by Alexander et al. (1997), describes a solution for a reoccurring process. We identify reoccurring use cases from everyday scenarios where AR adds value and describe these in application patterns. ...
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The use of Augmented Reality (AR) has the potential to make everyday experiences exciting and educational. For example, AR can augment exhibits in museums with animated and interactive content. The creation of this content, however, is still facing challenges. To meet these, we employ reusable, pattern-based building blocks called AR nuggets. An AR nugget implements one application pattern in a small and self-contained piece of software to provide a complete solution for recurrent AR-based experiences. For example, in the application context of museums and exhibitions, we identify superimposition or visualization of echolocation as general patterns for AR use cases. AR nuggets encapsulate AR-specific knowledge and sophisticated functionalities to support authors and reduce the authoring task to tweaking existing templates to individual exhibits. To connect AR nuggets used in different exhibition rooms, we present novel AR nuggets that encapsulate the functionalities needed for creating a path between the exhibits. Additionally, we provide examples of AR nuggets that implement a virtual character that guides visitors to exhibits of interest. With this new set of AR nuggets, spatial connections can be authored, e.g., in the form of a guided tour with interactive narration. For this authoring task, we introduce an AR nugget manager that supports authors in creating and adapting multiple non-linear AR experiences. We illustrate our approach with the creation of an everyday AR application for a museum of natural history, share our experiences and discuss to what extent our approach can mitigate authoring challenges for everyday AR applications from a museum’s point of view. This work contributes to the field of everyday AR with 1) a pattern-based authoring concept to create complex everyday AR experiences based on self-contained building blocks, 2) a set of patterns that allows for spatial connections of these to create non-linear AR content, 3) means for supporting this authoring process in the form of an AR nugget manager, 4) lessons learned in applying our authoring concept in a real application case in a museum, 5) our observation of hurdles that still prevent more widespread use of AR in everyday applications during the realization of this application case.
... Most of the existing material relies on analytical tools and evaluated projects, published in form of guidebooks and manuals (Alexander et al., 1977;Appleyard, 1981). Because there is a big number of suggested methodologies, this thesis focuses on a set of tools proposed by Jan Gehl in his work How to Study Public Life (2013). ...
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Eighty percent of our cities outdoor public spaces are streets. Apart from the infrastructural function, urban streets are a place for social interactions – a place for a daily talk or a coffee break. Based on the example of Berlin's Maaßenstraße – a novel street model based on the shared space idea – this thesis sets out to discover the potential of specific urban design on urban soundscapes and to improve understanding of the relationship between activity and sound perception. The lack of knowledge on the actual use of urban design tools for soundscape issues resulted in the development of a methodology that combined activity maps and soundscape assessment. The results showed that the number of people who are sitting in cafes, contribute a positive influence on the perception of human sounds. Furthermore, the quantitative and the qualitative analyses of the assessment of the soundscape showed that human sounds decrease the perception of loudness, and increase acoustic quality. Considering human sounds as a consequence of activity a framework is proposed which links activity to the physical setting and built environment. To point out the practical use of the framework, the arrangement of some (non-acoustic) elements are proposed to improve the sonic quality of the street. The proposed framework can be used as a tool for urban planners to design future urban spaces with an adequate sound environment and consequently improve public health.
... Design patterns originate from architecture where Christopher Alexander observed countless patterns in buildings and towns and described them systematically in order for others to use them when constructing new or improving existing structures. Alexander (1977) stated that "each pattern describes a problem which occurs over and over again in our environment and then describes the core of the solution to that problem, in such a way that you can use this solution a million times over, without ever doing it the same way twice". ...
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In this article we discuss two studies of children getting acquainted with an autonomous socially assistive robot. The success of the first encounter is key for a sustainable long-term supportive relationship. We provide four validated behavior design elements that enable the robot to robustly get acquainted with the child. The first are five conversational patterns that allow children to comfortably self-disclose to the robot. The second is a reciprocation strategy that enables the robot to adequately respond to the children’s self-disclosures. The third is a ‘how to talk to me’ tutorial. The fourth is a personality profile for the robot that creates more rapport and comfort between the child and the robot. The designs were validated with two user studies ( N 1 = 30, N 2 = 75, 8–11 years. o. children). The results furthermore showed similarities between how children form relationships with people and how children form relationships with robots. Most importantly, self-disclosure, and specifically how intimate the self-disclosures are, is an important predictor for the success of child-robot relationship formation. Speech recognition errors reduces the intimacy and feeling similar to the robot increases the intimacy of self-disclosures.
... Propagated since the 1960s by architects and engineers like Christopher Alexander or Richard Buckminster Fuller, holistic and "universal" design methodologies have been developed on the basis of so-called pattern languages or pattern thinking. Here patterns are seen as key enablers for collaborative work across disciplines and domains, and as heuristic devices for the synthesis of modular components into complex solutions (Alexander 1964;Alexander et al 1977;Buckminster Fuller 1963;. While the pattern approach was only slowly taken up in the context of computational design and urban analysis (Shape Grammar, Space Syntax), it turned into a successful paradigm in software engineering, as it facilitates the efficient creation of complex software by way of connecting independent code modules with pre-structured architectures and program interfaces. ...
Conference Paper
Increasingly complex challenges in the planning of the built environment require compre-hensive and holistic approaches. Yet, projects frequently fail to integrate central factors and impacts, which leads to poor outcomes. This can be attributed to a lack of modelling approaches that enable integration and convergence of multiple disciplinary perspectives. In this paper, we aim to motivate a paradigm shift, from an exclusive and disciplinary modelling culture towards a more comprehensive and holistic one. For this purpose, we present the conceptual idea of the open model. This collaborative integrated modelling ap-proach – both digital tool and process methodology – combines architectural, structural, social and environmental aspects of built environment projects. Guided by the conceptual idea of the open model and based on interdisciplinary discussions and literature reviews on integrated modelling, we identify fundamental dilemmas and research questions that represent the preliminary theoretical scoping for a long-term interdisciplinary research into integrated modelling.
... Lee & Lee, (2015) identified publicity, placeness, connectivity, spatiality, accessibility and amenity as the prime spatial characteristics of a public space. The spatial characteristics are a manifestation of the underlying patterns (Alexander et al., 1977) where each pattern represents an identifiable situation along with possible solutions. Patterns are described as "empirical rules, representing regularities of behaviour" in urban the urban realm (Salingaros, 2000). ...
... Estos espacios físicos hacen posible que las personas estén a gusto en un lugar diferente al privado, y conectadas a un sistema social más amplio (Alexander, 1977). Por eso se concibe como el gran sistema articulador de la ciudad, que provee espacios de esparcimiento y recreación (Departamento Administrativo de Planeación Municipal . ...
Technical Report
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Documento técnico para el ejercicio de formulación de la política pública de espacio público, desarrollado en la administración Maurice Armitage (2016 - 2019) por el Departamento Administrativo de Planeación. La política pública no fue presentada ante el Concejo de Santiago de Cali, por lo cual queda como base su ejercicio técnico.
... A similar approach, widespread recently, by recycling many of above-mentioned principles is the concept of 15-minute city. Although presented as a kind of new concept, the issue of walkable distances in cities and neighbourhoods is elaborated before in many works (Jacobs, 1961;Alexander, 1977;Gehl, 2010). The '15minute city' model was developed by Moreno (2016) but became more popular on the time of COVID-19 pandemic. ...
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This study brings a rapid method to utilize the available open-source geospatial data in assessing the pedestrian accessibility to key public services/facilities. At this stage, we are testing the method in the case of Tirana, the capital city of Albania. Yet, the method is reproducible to other metropolitan areas around the world. Open street map (OSM) data and reference layers from Albanian National authority for geospatial information (ASIG geoportal) have been used as the raw material of the study. While the geospatial visualization, refinement, and analysis rely on the usage of QGIS software and the related plugins. QNEAT is the plugin that was used to generate the isochrones which indicate the spatial coverage of a certain service referring to the existing urban transportation/circulation network. The plugin enables the definition of different distance ranges. Our results show that certain public services serve to various amounts of the building stock at a gradient of walking distances. For example, more than 25% of the existing building stock has pedestrian access to caffes and pharmacies within a walking distance of 250 m. The same services serve to almost 90% of the same building stock within 1 km walking distance. However, services like banks are accessible only by 12.6% of the existing buildings within a walking distance of 250 m, and 67% at 1 km walking distance. The accuracy of the available geospatial data resulted to be vital for the reliability of the results. We conclude by highlighting the importance and utility of GIS-based methods of urban analysis in the processes of planning new public services in the city.
... Christopher Alexander (1977) 23 initiated the concept of "pattern Language" where developed a large number of patterns out of observing the built environment. ...
Chapter
This chapter employs empirical material to examine five well-accepted and theorized conditions in sociology that are considered to support informal social life and interaction: ‘people-watching’, events, thresholds, ‘open regions’, and ‘triangulation’. It contends that despite arising primarily from social conditions, these conditions are also spatialized. They are framed by very particular spatial conditions and occur in very specific spatial settings. This chapter selects several locations to demonstrate that their sociality and spatiality are closely interconnected.KeywordsInformal social interactionPublic spacePeople-watchingEventsThresholdsOpen regionsAnd triangulation
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The human scale, among the principles of urban design, is a concept related to the sizes of the physical components in the space. Since the measurement unit of the space is human, the design of urban spaces at human scale and presence of human-sized components in these spaces evoke the feeling of like me in the individual. This sense of self leads to strengthening the human-space relationship and forming and developing a sense of belonging. For social sustainability, it is important to develop a sense of belonging in the individual. The sense of belonging helps to increase the sense of trust in place and decrease the alienation and tendency of crime. The aim of this study is to emphasize the relationship between human scale and sense of belonging. According to the study's hypothesis, the existence of human scale designs and elements in urban spaces improves the sense of belonging of the city dwellers. A survey was conducted with 400 participants in the study. The urban elements that the participants noticed while walking around the urban spaces and, at the same time, their sense of belonging to space were questioned. Then, urban elements were defined as independent and sense of belonging as dependent variables, and multiple regression analysis was performed. As a result, it has been determined that there is a significant and positive relationship between the participants' sense of belonging and variables such as landscape elements, urban furniture, pavement and pedestrian walkways, recesses-protrusions and door-window density on building facades. In addition, it was determined that there was a significant and negative relationship between the sense of belonging of the participants and the cars as the element they noticed. As a result, the design of spaces for pedestrians in urban design projects causes the sense of belonging of individuals to develop.
Chapter
More frequent and intense fires, floods, droughts and extreme temperatures point to a progressively de-regulating environment. In so much as this reality is understood as ‘climate collapse’ we are confronted by a processing task that is profoundly difficult. Initially, the conceptual and affective dimensions of this challenge are examined. A second section develops the proposition that as climate collapse accelerates, and as the scale and timelessness of this disruption takes hold, experiences of guilt and loss, anger and despair, will tend to be amplified by pre-existing unconscious tropes, particularly the fantasy of the vengeful, all-powerful mother. Accenting the possibility psychic tumult may be held against, the implications for mental health are reviewed. A final section considers the prospects for Eros – for play and creativity, innocence and companionship – in the long hard rain of climate collapse.
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Die Coronapandemie stellt Hochschulen vor bisher ungeahnte Herausforderungen. Digitalisierung und Online-Lehre bestimmen das Bild, während Campus und Seminarräume verwaisen. Welche Auswirkungen haben diese Veränderungen auf Studierende und Lehrende? Werden Diskriminierung und Exklusion durch digitale Lehre verstärkt oder gemindert? Und wie können Hochschulleitungen auf das »New Normal« reagieren? Die Zusammenführung von Forschungsergebnissen, Lessons Learned und Best Practice-Beispielen zeigt, wie sich Hochschulen – und Hochschullehre – durch die Erfahrungen aus der Pandemie verändern, und bietet Impulse für eine nachhaltige Hochschulentwicklung.
Chapter
Software design and the underlying programming activities entail a great portion of exploration to better understand problem and solution spaces. There are programming tools and environments that support such exploratory programming practices exceptionally well. However, inexperienced programmers typically face a steep learning curve until they can reach the promised efficiency in such tools. They need a long time to study best practices firsthand in real projects. The tools in use might also need adjustments, given that modern programming languages are continually introducing new features or redesigning old ones. We want to apply the idea of patterns to capture traditional and modern practices of exploratory programming. In this chapter, we focus on the workspace tool, whose core ideas transcend many different programming communities such as the Smalltalk workspace, the Unix shell, and data-analysis notebooks. We extracted the essence into a novel pattern language around the conversations that programmers have with their environment. We believe that our work can help programmers to quickly understand and apply the idea of workspaces, as well as tool builders to increase the efficiency of their project team when facing exploratory challenges.
Chapter
This chapter introduces three types of optimal spaces for informal social life—circulation, controlled, and congested spaces—which unlike the previous conditions are not well-documented or accepted in sociology or urban design. Ultimately, they are targets of the current critiques of urban design. Much of the criticism on these types of spaces focuses on their contribution to the loss of public realm. Despite these critiques, some of these spaces have become increasingly valued as public realms. After all, these are the places where people gather for optional and social activities. Because of the ambivalence of these critiques, there is a need to analyse these spaces more in depth. This is what this chapter does. It draws on empirical fieldwork observations and selects several locations that both illustrate and counter those critiques.KeywordsInformal social interactionPublic spaceCirculationControlCongestion
Article
The streets, which provide the connection between the neighbourhoods, which are the smallest structures in a city where neighbourhood relations are established, and the structures of this city, present a different character in the Ermenek District of Karaman Province. The streets of this city, which is located on very rough terrain, are designed to adapt to the topography. Most of the buildings were built adjacent to each other, there are no other spaces apart from the street spaces. Therefore, as a result of bringing together the urban fiction, residences and streets within the framework of an organic union, these passages, which allow the street to continue, are strengthened with coverings, which are called “örtme” in Turkish. The topic of the study is conducted on the following four main themes: (1) the spatial readings to be made on coverings, (2) the construction of coverings in the traditional street texture, (3) the discussion of the relations of coverings with the individual, the city, and the environment, (4) the typological classification of coverings. In this context, as the methodology of the study, field studies, that is, on-site observation, detection and documentation studies, were carried out in the first stage. Afterwards, a typological classification was made by examining the place of coverings in urban fiction through literature and field studies. In conclusion, urban, spatial and physical readings of the coverings, which have an influential position in the traditional street texture, were carried out. With this study, the significance of such structures, which reflect the living culture of the people, which began to disappear by being forgotten in the rural architectural structuring, in the history of architecture and urbanism was emphasized
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With the rise of the next generation of artificial intelligence driven by knowledge and data, the research on knowledge representation in architecture is also receiving widespread attention from the academia. This paper sorts out the evolution of architectural knowledge representation methods in the history of architecture, and summarizes three progressive representation frameworks of their development with type, pattern and network. By searching these three keywords in the Web of Science Core Collection among 4867 publications from 1990 to 2021, the number of publications in the past 5 years raised more than 50%, which show significant research interest in architecture industry in recent years. Among them, the first two are static declarative knowledge representation methods, while the network-based knowledge representation method also includes procedural knowledge representation methods and provides a way for knowledge association. This means the network representation has more advantage in terms of the logical completeness of knowledge representation, and accounts for 67% of the current research on knowledge representation in architecture. In the context of the rapid development of artificial intelligence, this method can realize the construction of architectural knowledge system and greatly improve the work efficiency of the building industry. On the other hand, in the face of carbon-neutral sustainable development scenarios, using knowledge representation, building performance knowledge and design knowledge could be expressed in a unified manner, and a personalized and efficient workflow for performance-oriented scheme design and optimization would be achieved.
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Journal on European History of Law // The time of the Internet from 1990 to 2000 can hardly be compared with the digital world in which we live today. For a long time in media histroy, we were talking about a one-sided, straight line of information from the content creator to the content consumer with a corresponding legal framework that has existed for centuries. The former legislation of the press was no longer able to fill the new modern framework of the Internet. This gave rise to the early myth that the Internet is a lawless space in which almost Wild West rules dominate. The study outlines the appearance of social media, the transformation of Internet communication, and the arc from Web 1.0 to Web 2.0, highlighting the difficulties legislators and regulators may face with this new medium.
Article
Modelling a 3D city poses an interesting challenge. To create a virtual city, a road pattern has to be designed and a large number of buildings need to be generated. Every urban place has a road network, often a superimposed pattern plan that serves a population density and buildings which follow statutory rules. This patterned behaviour of the city is why it is possible to develop rules or “computational instructions,” to generate city models. In this article, we are going to discuss how to use procedural modelling and CityEngine, a rule-based application commonly used in the movie industry and gaming to produce vast realistic cityscapes, for regional and urban planning via an urban analytics approach. Unlike cinema’s imaginary worlds, cities have real-life population dependencies that need to be modelled for the development of planning scenarios. The goal is then to use the generative properties of the procedural modelling approach, along with population prediction models, to create informed 3D city scenarios. Instead of designing solutions, the user can use interactive parameters to affect the 3D model globally, thus enabling virtual cities to become active simulators for planning. Using urban analytics and generative environments, procedural cities may be able to create a “teaser” of different versions of how the city would look like in the future.
Conference Paper
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This paper adopts an alternative rationale where analysis and planning are treated as a unified process, proposing an integrated evidence-based planning method towards sustainable mobility and human-oriented urban space. Specifically, centrality (active and network) and infrastructure (pedestrian streetscape characteristics and transport network) are combined in a GIS environment, aiming to identify both existing and emerging centralities and utilise them as human-oriented nodes of sustainable mobility. The proposed methodological process consists of two levels (municipality and local/neighbourhood) where each level has three stages: A. Mapping, B. Assessment C. Planning. Firstly, regarding the municipal level and especially the urban dimension, the established local centres are identified, evaluated in terms of vitality and then, their pattern is re-organised towards an efficient coverage of the study area (emerging centres are utilised). Afterwards, concerning the transport dimension, the existing ways of connection between the above centres are examined (public transport, walking and cycling), evaluated in terms of multimodality and then re-organised. Secondly, when it comes to the local/neighbourhood level, emphasis is now given to the area within these centres. Specifically, with regard to the urban dimension; the characteristics of urban centres are recorded, evaluated based on vitality criteria and then planning interventions are suggested. Next, reflecting the transport dimension, the pedestrian infrastructure is mapped thoroughly, evaluated based on walkability criteria, and then planning interventions are also proposed. The results signify the need for improvements both at macro and micro scale. Therefore, this paper could function as a compact strategy, capable of upgrading typical planning practices.
Thesis
Conçue dans les années 1960 à la NASA dans le contexte du programme Apollo, la preuve de concept – ou POC pour proof of concept en anglais – a connu un succès grandissant au fil des décennies auprès des praticiens de l’innovation. Davantage encore qu’à l’époque, le régime d’innovation contemporain requiert d’explorer collectivement l’inconnu. Les processus de conception se sont complexifiés : l’identité des objets et des collectifs sont rarement prédéterminés. Ils doivent être conçus collectivement et simultanément. Dans ce contexte, la thèse étudie comment la preuve de concept peut devenir un outil de développement des capacités de générativité collective. Tout d’abord, la recherche a confirmé par une étude généalogique que le POC était et est encore le symptôme d’un régime d’innovation se devant de fédérer et faire travailler ensemble des collectifs d’exploration. Ces collectifs comprennent des acteurs aux expertises et légitimités hétérogènes, souvent issus d’institutions variées. Le POC est un des rares outils de gestion permettant d’organiser l’exploration collective de l’inconnu. Il est particulièrement adapté à ces situations parce qu’il porte une double logique de preuve : une « preuve de connu », processus expérimental permettant de générer de nouvelles connaissances et de les valider (i.e., de les reconnaître collectivement comme vraies ou fausses) et une « preuve d’inconnu », processus expérimental permettant de générer de nouveaux concepts et de guider leur exploration (i.e., de nommer collectivement un inconnu interprétable). Ensuite, grâce à l’étude rétrospective de preuves de concept conçues et réalisées par l’agence de design les Sismo, la thèse a identifié qu’il existe différents arrangements entre preuve de connu et preuve d’inconnu et qu’une cohabitation est possible et bénéfique. De manière contre-intuitive, les travaux ont montré que plus la preuve de connu est recherchée et de qualité, plus elle permet de faire émerger de manière simultanée la preuve d’inconnu, et vice-versa. La question des compétences de l’expérimentateur ressort comme l’élément critique pour permettre cette cohabitation, et avoir un POC à fort pouvoir génératif. Enfin, la thèse propose une étude de cas longitudinale d’une preuve de concept conduite par la Chaire de philosophie à l’hôpital et les Sismo, qui portait explicitement une ambition de (plus forte) générativité. Ces travaux ont affermi l’hypothèse que le POC doit non plus seulement être étudié, et donc évalué, comme un outil de test d’un concept mais, également ou dorénavant, comme un outil de développement de capacités de conception collective. La recherche a également identifié des conditions de gouvernance critiques pour que ce changement de paradigme puisse s’opérer au profit de la société.
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The ability of deep learning has been tested to learn graphical features for building-plan generation. However, whether the deeper space allocation strategies can be obtained and thus reduce energy consumption has still not been investigated. In the present study, we aimed to train a neural network by employing a characterized sample set to generate a residential building floor plan (RBFP) for achieving energy reduction effects. The network is based on Pix2Pix, including two sub-models: functional segmentation layout (FSL) generation and building floor plan (BFP) generation. To better characterize the energy efficiency, 98 screened floor plans of Solar Decathlon (SD) entries were labeled as the sample set. The data augmentation method was adopted to improve the performance of the FSL sub-model after the preliminary testing. Three existing residential buildings were used as cases to observe whether the network-generated RBFP gained the effect of decreasing energy consumption with decent space allocation. The results showed that, under the same simulation settings and building exterior profile (BEP) conditions, the function arrangement of the generated scheme was more reasonable compared to the original scheme in each case. The annual total energy consumption was reduced by 13.38%, 12.74%, and 7.47%, respectively. In conclusion, trained by the sample set that characterizes energy efficiency, the RBFP generation network has a positive effect in both optimizing the space allocation and reducing energy consumption. The implemented data augmentation method can significantly improve the network’s training results with a small sample size.
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In the historical process, social, cultural, and physical changes and transformations have occurred in many areas. In the 21st century, changes have begun to be seen in the approaches to cities. It is considered that the city of the future is not going to be a continuation of the cities of the past no longer. Cities, which are formed with an infinite number of elements and structures, are now explained as dynamic, non-linear, complex systems that are in constant change and transformation. In the changing new approach, it is stated that the most important element that defines cities and contributes significantly to their identities is the richness of urban space. In this context, the richness of urban space was evaluated by the fractal geometry method within the study. This street-scale study provides an analysis of the spatial richness of 46 streets selected from the cities of Istanbul and Ankara. The differentiation of physical qualities was decisive in the selection of streets as the sample area. First, the fractal dimensions of the street images were calculated with the help of the HarFa 5.5 program, and correlation analysis was performed in the SPSS 22 program to decide the connection between the obtained values and the physical qualities of the streets. As a result of the analysis, the qualities that affect the fractal dimension at a statistically significant level were determined. Then these qualities were sorted according to the direction and level of influence. It has been established that the qualities with the highest level of influence are the density of building facades on the streets and the number of buildings with different facade arrangements.
Thesis
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Livability is one of the primary guiding principles for policymaking and urban planning, of which the evaluation and definition have become the crucial research topic of countering. The micro-scale living conditions necessitate more urgent attention as the progress in socio-economic development accelerates. However, few researchers have addressed the evaluation criteria of urban livability at spatial enclosure scales as community scale. This thesis aims to create an urban community-level balanced weight evaluation statistical system combined with humanities methods as people's perception is crucial for development, given that residential communities are one of the basic units of the urban living areas. Twenty-nine objective indicators were selected to establish the indicator system. Considering different age groups, a comprehensive evaluation framework for the livability of communities combines objective indicators and subjective perceptions. Accordingly, this study is applied to assess the livability of residential communities in the case study of Salah El-Din Street in Aswan city. Significant results from the first questionnaire study were distributed among three hundred participants of different ages in different time periods through the day. These different age groups have distinct demands for an urban community’s livability. They have valued some indicators and concentrated on the following two dimensions: the pedestrians’ rights and convenience of transportation. The second humanities method phase was adding virtual reality simulation with the questionnaire distributed among hundred participant to validate the changes in Salah El-Din Street to reach people’s perceptions about the new development and determine the results. The results emphasize that combining descriptive statistical methods of balancing weight and human research methodology, not only questionnaires but also virtual reality simulation, have led to precise decisions for development. Virtual reality made people live the entire experience, allowing them to judge the new street proposal as they moved in the simulation as if it were the real world. This proved that urban livability in Aswan reached a degradation level; significant heterogeneity exists in the livability of communities among districts. The communities’ livability shows a decreasing spatial pattern from the city center to the surroundings. These empirical findings may be helpful to urbanists and other parties as stakeholders for future development.
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Yeryüzünde varlığını kalıcı kılma çabasında olan insanın/toplumların en büyük kaygısı yok olmaktır. Kendisinin yokluğunda devam eden zamanda yeryüzü öncekilere mezar olurken yeni varlıklara yaşam sunmaktadır. Tabiatın mizacını bir yasaya indirgeyerek sınırlandırmaya kalktığı "ölüm yasasını" değiştirmek hatta tamamen kaldırmak isteyen insanın paradoksu tam da buradadır. Tüm bu hezeyanlara rağmen toplumlar, geri dönüşü ve döndükten sonra ölümsüzlüğe ulaşılacağını vadederek mekânı tasarlamaktadır. Kültürlerin belirleyiciliğinde, şekillenen cenaze ritüelleri toplumlar arasında farklılık gösterse de hepsinde değişmez olan, defin kültürünün varlığıdır. Tarihsel süreçte, medeniyetlerin birbirleriyle girdiği etkileşimle değişen defin kültürünün mekânla ilişkisinin ele alındığı çalışmada, on dokuzuncu yüzyılla birlikte yaşanan keskin değişim incelenmiştir. Bu değişimin gözlemlendiği yerler, modernleşme sürecinde temsil gücüyle donatılan kent müzeleri olmuştur. Avrupa’dan ithal edilen modern müze kültürü beraberinde sömürü anlayışını getirmiştir. Fakat bu sefer sömürülenler sadece mezarlardaki ölülere ait eşyalar değil bizatihi ölü bedenler olmuş ve tarihin koruyuculuğu söylemiyle müzelerde sergilenmeleri meşrulaşmıştır. Varlıklarının bir ayağını modernleşmeye diğer ayağını evrenselleşmeye koyarak dengede kalmaya çalışan toplumlarda tabu olan ölülerin dahi nesneleşmesi, hiçbir şeyin sömürüye konu olmaktan kurtulamayacağını imler. Had çizgisinin silindiği modern çağın toplumlarının katlanmayı göze aldığı bedel ise medeniyetlerini doğuran ve ayakta tutan geleneğin yok oluşudur.
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