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Motivational Aspects of Gaming for Students with Intellectual Disabilities

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Abstract

The attention to learners with special needs, in particular those with intellectual disabilities, is an area of continuous development. It is considered important to develop adaptive educational solutions for the integration of people with educational difficulties according to their needs. Digital games provide an attractive and direct platform in order to approach students of every intellectual level. However, practical game based learning application in the special education classroom is still regarded with skepticism by educators, or has been treated solely as an extrinsic reinforcement. Moreover, the design and usage of digital games as a motivational tool for students with intellectual disabilities has not been thoroughly documented. This paper presents a review of the motivational theories and research findings regarding the usage of digital games in the educational experience of users with intellectual disabilities, with a scope to define the potentials, prerequisites and possible limitations of such an intervention.

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... Zihinsel engellilik (intellectual disability), zihinsel gelişme, iletişim ve sosyal beceriler konusunda belirli sınırlamaları olan çocuklar ve yetişkinler için kullanılan bir terimdir. Zihinsel yetersizliği olan öğrenciler genellikle literatürde "yavaş öğrenenler" olarak tanımlanmaktadır ve normal müfredata kolayca entegre edilemezler (Saridaki ve Mourlas, 2013). Bu sebeple bu öğrenciler, "özel ihtiyaçları olan" ya da "özel eğitime ihtiyacı olan" öğrenciler olarak da tanımlanabilir. ...
Chapter
Son yıllarda büyük bir hızla ilerleyen internet ve bilgi ve iletişim teknolojileri hayatın her alanında büyük gelişmelere ve değişikliklere yol açmıştır. Söz konusu teknolojilerin hayatımızdaki yeri giderek daha vazgeçilmez olmaktadır. Bilgi ve iletişim teknolojilerinin en çok etkilediği sektörlerden biri de eğlence sektörü olmuştur. Teknolojinin hızla gelişmesi ve yaygınlaşmasına paralel olarak dijital oyunların çocuklar ve gençler arasında popülerliğinin artması yadsınamaz bir gerçektir. Dijital oyunlar, platformları bakımından ve oynayan oyuncu sayısı açısından farklı şekillerde sınıflandırılmaktadır. Dijital oyunların eğitim öğretim süreçlerinde kullanılması, Eğitsel Bilgisayar Oyunları (EBO) kavramları ile doğrudan ilişkilidir. Eğitim öğretim süreçlerinde dijital oyunların kullanılmasının bu süreçleri daha eğlenceli hale getireceği söylenebilir. Eğitsel konu ve amaç taşıyan oyunların, öğrenmeyi daha öğrenci merkezli, daha kolay, eğlenceli, daha ilginç hale getirme ve böylece daha etkili olma potansiyeline sahip olduğuna inanılmaktadır. Alanyazın incelendiğinde; özel eğitimde dijital oyunların kullanılması konusunda yapılan araştırmaların derin bir anlayış oluşturma açısından yeterli olmadığı görülmektedir. Dijital oyunların eğitim-öğretim süreçlerinde kullanılmasının etkililiği düşünüldüğünde; dijital oyunların özel eğitim derslerine entegrasyonunun sağlanması adına bu konuda derinlemesine araştırmalar yapılması gerekmektedir. Bu çalışmada, dijital oyun kavramı açıklanmış, eğitimle olan ilişkisine değinilmiş, özel eğitimde kullanımı konusunda alan yazından örneklendirmelerde bulunulmuş ve sonuç kısmında tavsiyelerde bulunulmuştur.
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I: Background.- 1. An Introduction.- 2. Conceptualizations of Intrinsic Motivation and Self-Determination.- II: Self-Determination Theory.- 3. Cognitive Evaluation Theory: Perceived Causality and Perceived Competence.- 4. Cognitive Evaluation Theory: Interpersonal Communication and Intrapersonal Regulation.- 5. Toward an Organismic Integration Theory: Motivation and Development.- 6. Causality Orientations Theory: Personality Influences on Motivation.- III: Alternative Approaches.- 7. Operant and Attributional Theories.- 8. Information-Processing Theories.- IV: Applications and Implications.- 9. Education.- 10. Psychotherapy.- 11. Work.- 12. Sports.- References.- Author Index.
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