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Abstract

Change may be introduced into an organization a variety of ways – implementing new technology, employing new people, or in establishing new organizational structures, new policies, or new procedures. Just as change is made up of different components, it comes in varying degrees. A three-level classification of change can help IS managers gain control over the variable components and nature of change.
63
INFORMATION SYSTEMS MANAGEMENT
SUMMER 1999
MANAGING THE
THREE LEVELS OF
CHANGE
Margaret T. O’Hara, Richard T. Watson, and C. Bruce Kavan
Change may be introduced into an organization a variety of ways — implement-
ing new technology, employing new people, or in establishing new organiza-
tional structures, new policies, or new procedures. Just as change is made up
of different components, it comes in varying degrees. A three-level classifica-
tion of change can help IS managers gain control over the variable components
and nature of change.
RGANIZATIONAL CHANGE AS IT
relates to information technology (IT)
has been the subject of several studies
since 1958, when Leavitt and Whisler,
who first used the label information technology,
predicted dramatic organizational changes as a
result of IT. Forty years later, the exact nature of
the relationship between IT and organizational
change is still neither well-understood nor well-
managed. Poorly managed technology imple-
mentation may result in only minimal benefits
being realized.14
Although some studies have examined the
impact of technology on organizations, few
have explored the relationship between tech-
nology and the magnitude of change. All new
information technologies cause change within
organizations; the magnitude of change varies
depending upon the technology introduced and
the goals for the technology. Some technolo-
gies, because of their complexity, are more
likely to cause higher levels of change. Cli-
ent/server technology implementations, for
example, can vary from very simple to
extremely complex. Consequently, client/server
technology makes an excellent focal point of
analysis to examine organizational change.
Client/server technology divides comput-
ing resources between a central processor (the
server) and desktop PCs (the clients). An oft-
cited reason for employing this technology is
its flexibility. Applications developed using
client/server may be configured in a variety of
ways, each one providing the users with a dif-
ferent access to information. Some cli-
ent/server configurations closely resemble
their mainframe predecessors; others are a
radical departure from menu-driven systems.
For many organizations, the move from the
mainframe legacy system to client/server tech-
nology represents a major change. For some
firms, it is the greatest change in computing
since they adopted mainframes more than 30
years ago.
Any new technology will be accompanied by
some change. Thus, the conclusions drawn con-
cerning client/server technology may be applied
to the implementation of any new technology.
In ever-increasing numbers, businesses are
turning to IT to provide either the means or
the support for achieving and maintaining sus-
tainable competitive advantage.4,8,11 Often, to
obtain competitive advantage and respond to
their rapidly changing environments, busi-
nesses embrace new technologies without a
complete analysis of their organizational
impact, and they unleash unknown and possi-
bly unanticipated problems.
O
MARGARET
O’HARA is an assis-
tant professor of CIS at
Columbus State Uni-
versity in Columbus,
GA.
RICHARD WATSON
is a professor in the
Department of Man-
agement at the Univer-
sity of Georgia in
Athens.
C. BRUCE KAVAN is
the NationsBank Pro-
fessor of Information
Technology at the Uni-
versity of North Florida
in Jacksonville.
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64 INFORMATION SYSTEMS MANAGEMENT
SUMMER 1999
MANAGING THE THREE LEVELS OF CHANGE
THE SOCIO-TECHNICAL SYSTEM
PERSPECTIVE
One way to understand the complex interaction
between technology and people within an orga-
nization is to consider the organization as a
socio-technical system (STS) in which organiza-
tions are viewed as the interaction of four highly
interrelated variables: task, people, structure (or
roles), and technology. The STS model is based
on the fundamental concepts of general systems
theory.15 Every organization may be thought of
as a collection of interrelated parts working
together toward a common goal. There are two
primary systems in the organization: the social
system and the technical system. These systems
are interdependent; what affects one affects the
other.
People perform tasks; these tasks produce the
organization’s goods and services. Structure
results from the communications, authority, and
workflow systems that operate within the orga-
nization. Technology refers to any direct prob-
lem-solving intervention, such as a computer.
The technical system includes the technology
and the tasks performed to achieve organiza-
tional goals. Although the same type of technol-
ogy may be present in many organizations, the
technical system will be different within each
organization. This is because the technical sys-
tem is the result of implementing the technology,
and the implementation choices are manifold.
People and the roles they assume comprise
the social system. Thus, the attributes of people
(attitudes, skills, and values), and the commu-
nications, authority and workflow systems
within the organization are among the concerns
of the social system.1 Multiple subsystems com-
prise the main social system; each department
may form a unique social subsystem, or sub-
systems may form based on more temporary
divisions. Exhibit 1 offers a graphical represen-
tation of the STS model.
CASE STUDIES
Extending the STS model to include a focus on
organizational change, we now introduce three
orders of change observed in our case studies.
Each order of change is specifically linked to a
component of the STS model. First-order
change involves only task accomplishment. It
occurs, for example, when a task is automated
in some fashion. Second-order change occurs
when the tasks and the people who perform
them are affected. An example would be the
introduction of word processing, which
changed the nature of many jobs. Third-order
change affects task, people, and organizational
structure. Reengineering both management
structures and workflow is a good example of
third-order change. Each order of change is
examined in detail in the cases reported within
this article.
Interviews were conducted with multiple cli-
ent/server implementation teams over a 12-
month period. An iterative process of within-
and cross-case analysis was employed to analyze
the data.2,7,9,16 This process consists of data
reduction, analysis of data displays, and conclu-
sion drawing and verifying. Although conclusion
drawing and verifying took place throughout the
analysis process, the activity reached a final stage
only after all data was collected, reduced, and
analyzed.
Although many client/server implementa-
tions were evaluated as part of a broader study,
only three cases are discussed, one to exemplify
each specific order of change. The broader
study findings, however, were very consistent
with the cases chosen to illustrate each particu-
lar concept.
First-Order Change
In the first case, an international cable manu-
facturer developed a client/server application to
replace a label printing process in which each
plant used a single non-networked PC to print
customer labels for product shipment. These
labels often contained outdated information,
since updates were infrequent and inconsistent.
The client/server implementation provided
plants with multiple PCs linked to one another
and to a central repository of data. Customer
data on the local servers was updated nightly
from the repository at the corporate office,
resulting in a more reliable label for this mission-
EXHIBIT 1 The STS Model
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INFORMATION SYSTEMS MANAGEMENT
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MANAGING THE THREE LEVELS OF CHANGE
critical process. Accurate address labels were crit-
ical to timely delivery of product to customers.
The new label printing system did not
change the manner in which work was accom-
plished from a people perspective; it simply
enhanced the label-printing task. Jobs were not
affected. Consequently, this project illustrates a
first-order change. This level of change is easy
to understand and plan. The consequences are
rarely unanticipated or disruptive.
The development team for this project was
small yet fluid — it consisted of three perma-
nent members and many temporary members.
The project was the development team’s first
venture into client/server technology. At various
times during the project, users from different
functional areas and representatives from the
plants were brought onboard to assess progress,
provide guidance, and specify requirements.
Although this project was limited in scope, the
project manager nonetheless felt it was very dif-
ficult to manage because of the changing nature
of the project team and the learning process
necessary to exploit the new technology.
First-order change is highlighted in the STS
model by an interaction arrow between tech-
nology and task. This represents alpha change
(α), the lowest order of organizational change
that may result from technology implementa-
tions (see Exhibit 2).
Second-Order Change
The second case concerns the standardization
of an application across various subsidiaries of a
major utility. Each of the organization’s 17 sub-
sidiaries used a different system to capture pay-
roll information. The systems ranged from
manual to fully automated. The client/server
replacement application represented the first
common system to be developed for use by all
subsidiaries. It altered both the method of task
accomplishment as well as people’s roles (jobs).
Thus, a second-order change took place. Sec-
ond-order change “replaces the status quo with
a new way of doing things”.3
The two interaction arrows: (1) tasks and
people and (2) people and technology in
Exhibit 3 represent second-order or beta change
(β) resulting from the technology implementa-
tion. Moving clockwise through the model from
technology to task, the technology altered the
method of task accomplishment (time account-
ing). However, not only was the method of task
accomplishment altered (a), but so were the
procedures. It was not a simple technology sub-
stitution such as in the first case study. The
dynamic represented by the arrow between task
and people is the changing roles or procedures
that affected the method of task accomplish-
ment. Not only are the procedures changed, but
the manner in which people interact with the
technology is also altered. This dynamic is
reflected in the arrow between people and tech-
nology. When both roles (people and task
accomplishment) and the method of task
accomplishment (people and technology) are
altered, this is second-order or beta (β) change.
Third-Order Change
The final case is represented by a major finan-
cial institution with 12 regional offices, each
using different information systems. Regional
offices operated autonomously with informa-
tion systems developed by one region that were
sometimes available for internal sale to the
other regions. The regional office examined in
EXHIBIT 2 First-Order Change
EXHIBIT 3 Second-Order Change
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66 INFORMATION SYSTEMS MANAGEMENT
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MANAGING THE THREE LEVELS OF CHANGE
this study had developed two previous cli-
ent/server applications — one of which was
later marketed to other regions. The purchasing
and payables system in this case was also sched-
uled to be marketed to the other offices.
The client/server application system affected
more than 1200 people, and it was used by every
department within a single region. Although cli-
ent/server technology was not new to the devel-
opment team, the project experienced many
difficulties. It involved many different func-
tional areas with an IS staff that was not pre-
pared for such extensive business involvement.
Many of the development team members lacked
understanding of the functional user areas (i.e.,
business knowledge) and were not completely
comfortable with client/server technology, nor
were they rigorous in their approach to develop-
ment and project management.
Both the original IS project manager and
business project manager left the regional office
before the project was completed, and the new
project managers held very different beliefs
about the IS staff and users. All four managers
were interviewed as part of this research.
The original IS manager believed that the
traditional mainframe development staff could
not make the transition to client/server devel-
opment. Still, he placed them on the project
team with little or no client/server training.
These team members subsequently resigned,
and an entirely new team assumed develop-
ment responsibilities. The new project manager
made certain that the new employees received
adequate training in client/server technology to
ensure a smoother development process.
Changes resulting from this system were
also felt in the user area. The new system
allowed for purchase requisitions to be entered
and approved online at a lower managerial
level. Thus, not only were the purchasing tasks
automated, but the entire management struc-
ture of the firm also changed. As decision-mak-
ing moved farther down the hierarchy, the
structure flattened and the culture of the orga-
nization was adjusted accordingly. Thus, peo-
ple, the tasks they perform, and the
communications, authority, and workflow
structures were all altered.
Finally, because of implementation problems
experienced with this project, changes were
made to the project management structure for
all technology initiatives. The makeup of the
steering committee was changed to include
more users. Accounting areas and IS areas were
placed under the control of a single vice presi-
dent, and new lines of accountability for tech-
nology acquisition were established.
This change is highlighted in Exhibit 4 by
three interaction arrows: (1) people and struc-
ture, (2) structure and task, and (3) structure
and technology. In addition to the beta-level
changes discussed previously, changes afforded
by this implementation
1. flattened the organization decision processes
(people and structure arrow dynamic)
2. changed the manner in which new technol-
ogy was selected and implemented (struc-
ture and technology arrow dynamic)
3. altered the method by which the organiza-
tion would accomplish tasks (structure and
task arrow dynamic).
These changes represents gamma-order
change (γ), the highest order of organizational
change that may result from technology imple-
mentations. The STS model, extended to
include the impact of technologically induced
change, is now renamed the socio-technical
change impact model (SCI).
Change is often unanticipated; however, not
all unanticipated change causes problems.
When task automation is not expected, it is
often still welcomed because tasks are done
faster and presumably more efficiently. Even
beta-level change, which affects task and peo-
ple, may be easily handled, since peoples’ skill
sets may just need updating. It is gamma
change, with its far-reaching effects, that causes
the most trouble when it is not anticipated.
This begs the question: How does a manager
anticipate the level of change that a new tech-
nology will produce?
EXHIBIT 4 Third-Order Change
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67
INFORMATION SYSTEMS MANAGEMENT
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MANAGING THE THREE LEVELS OF CHANGE
IMPLICATIONS FOR MANAGING
CHANGE
Managers, acting as change agents, can use the
SCI model first to assess the magnitude of
change and then orchestrate an appropriate
response. In this manner, many undesirable
consequences of inadequately planned change
implementations may be eliminated.
Managing Toward the Magnitude
of Change
A close examination of the case data revealed
several references to the complexities associ-
ated with higher-order (beta and gamma)
change. As a result, a set of guidelines related
to change management is presented to assist
managers to achieve the desired results.
Technology implementation projects may
be divided into three categories, as exempli-
fied by the SCI model: those that affect the
tasks that people perform (alpha), those that
affect the tasks and people (beta), and those
that affect the tasks, people, and structure
(gamma) of the organization. For each level of
change, certain factors are critical to a
project’s success. These factors can be consid-
ered dimensions that may be measured along
an alpha to beta to gamma change continuum
as reflected in Exhibit 5.
Project Management Success Factors
Alpha-level change is related to task — it may
simply be replacing one type of technology with
another type and thereby automating the task
without altering employee’s roles or organiza-
tional structure. This is the simplest level of
change and requires a participatory manage-
ment style for the project manager — users par-
ticipate on the team in the selection and
implementation process. When individual roles
are altered, such as in beta change, a facilitating
management style is required. Such a style
encourages the people affected by the change
to identify role changes, redesign their job
descriptions, and bring definition to the new
roles. When the change is gamma-level, the
pertinent management style is empowerment,
which enables people and teams to redesign
both their work roles and the organizational
structure, recognizing that no single person or
group can accomplish this task individually.
As the complexity of the change increases,
both the business acumen and the ratio of
EXHIBIT 5 Dimensions of Successful Change Management
Dimension Alpha Beta Gamma
Project manager:
Management style Participatory Facilitating Empowerment
Business acumen General understanding Recognized specialized
functional
understanding
Recognized superior general
and functional understanding
Technical ability Specialist Generalist Futurist
Project team:
Orientation Technical specialist Training specialist Organizational design specialist
Level of communications Project status
Implementation
planning guide
Project status
Implementation
planning guide
Workflow walk-through
Job behavior changes
defined and reward
structtures altered
Project status
Implementation planning
guide
Workflow walk-through
Job behavior changes defined
and reward structures altered
Organizational preparedness
processes
Early successes publicized
Organization:
Attitude toward change Understanding Enthusiastic Mobilizing
Implementation training Task Oriented Task Oriented
Role Oriented Task Oriented
Role Oriented
Oganizationally oriented
Problem handling Supervisory Middle management Executive
Problem response Immediate Methodical Introspective
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68 INFORMATION SYSTEMS MANAGEMENT
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MANAGING THE THREE LEVELS OF CHANGE
business understanding to technical under-
standing increases. Only a general business
understanding with a significant technical
specialty is required to manage alpha-level
change, while beta-level change requires
greater business functional area knowledge.
At the gamma level, the manager must not
only have true insight into how the business
works and where it is positioned in the mar-
ketplace, but that manager must also be
clearly recognized within the organization as
having such insight. Only then can the man-
ager truly empower the project team members
and the users.
Project Team Success Factors
Just as the project manager’s management
style must alter within the alpha to gamma
change continuum, so must the nature of the
project team. With lower-order alpha change,
the team members function in the mode of
technical specialists, with an emphasis on the
technology. As there is little impact on the
roles or structure of the organization, there is
little need for the team members to be more
than this. As the complexity increases and
individuals’ roles are altered based on the
planned change, the team needs to incorpo-
rate a significant training component concern-
ing the new method of work accomplishment.
To do this, the team members must have
some experience with training. As change
reaches the highest level of structural change,
the team requires not only technical and train-
ing components but also an organizational
design component. An organizational design
specialist would review and develop the struc-
tures, reporting relationships and reward sys-
tems that affect the people who perform the
work and the roles they assume.
Good communication is critical to the suc-
cess of any project. As the complexity of a
project increases, so does the need for varying
types of communications. At the lower alpha-
level change, simple project status reports
accompanied by the current implementation
planning guides are a minimum. As the change
expands to include role changes (beta change),
workflow walk-throughs and redesigned job
descriptions need to be prepared. The walk-
throughs assist individuals in moving toward
new ways of doing work (i.e., altered roles);
however, new behaviors are not refrozen until
the job descriptions are redesigned, optimally
with the affected people as active participants
in the activity.
Gamma-level change requires that the orga-
nization prepare for change in a more formal
manner. Change orientation seminars empha-
sizing the problems associated with maintain-
ing the status quo and the opportunities
afforded by responding to these problems
should be emphasized in such a manner as to
solicit input as to how the organization might
or should respond. This allows participants to
buy in to the change process. Early successes
resulting from the change should be highly
publicized and rewarded to reinforce the new
appropriate behaviors.
Organizational Success Factors
As indicated, organizations must prepare for
high-order change. These high-order changes
often require the entire organization to be mobi-
lized in the process. In addition to the change
preparedness processes described above, organi-
zations can rally around threats such as a major
competitor or new regulatory requirements.
Such rallies lend themselves to contests, testi-
monials, or success stories, all of which provide
to focal points for strategic planning purposes.
Lesser-order change may require only moti-
vating people through improved understanding
of the rationale for change (alpha) or to gener-
ating enthusiasm for the new method of
accomplishing work (beta). Training sessions,
newsletters, kickoffs, and victory celebrations
may all be useful in generating a positive atti-
tude towards change.
Unanticipated problems typically come with
every change. The handling of these problems
is often as critical to the project success as the
handling of the intended change. The higher
the order of change, the more deliberate the
resolution of problems must be. Alpha-change
problems should be handled swiftly by the
immediate supervisor. Beta-order changes that
affect the roles of individuals should be han-
dled by a higher-level manager after a method-
ical understanding of the conflicts or problem.
Problems associated with gamma-level change
are best handled at the executive level, since
they may involve organizational competitive-
ness or other market or competitive position-
ing. These problems may not be resolved in as
expedient manner as the lower-order changes
because they involve significant organizational
and market introspection.
Appropriate training can often minimize
problems associated with the change. Alpha-
level change requires task-level training (i.e., how
the new technology is used). Since people’s roles
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INFORMATION SYSTEMS MANAGEMENT
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MANAGING THE THREE LEVELS OF CHANGE
are changed by beta-level change, training
should be extended beyond task-level training to
workflow training to understand how roles are
changed. It is often useful to simulate these
changes for individuals to internalize and accept
that the change will indeed accomplish the
required task. At the gamma level, the mobiliza-
tion of the organization around the change
needs considerable care and deliberate planning.
When possible, the change should occur in
phases to allow the organization to deal with it
in smaller, incremental chunks rather than all at
once. However, in such instances, it is very useful
to understand not only the current phase and
the end goal but also how each phase helps
achieve the longer-term outcome.
DISCUSSION
Projects associated with gamma-level change
are difficult to manage: the tasks are changed,
the people are affected, and the management
structure is transformed. To be successful, a
project manager must consider all the factors
mentioned previously; concentrating on only
one or two factors may not be enough to pro-
duce a success. With such projects, the man-
ager must perform a true juggling act, insuring
that all the factors are well-managed.
The cases examined reinforce the notion
that a clearly articulated vision for new technol-
ogy is important if the change is to be success-
ful. This is not a new concept, yet for new
technologies it seems as if managers often lose
sight of its importance.5,6,12,13 Perhaps it is the
seductive nature of any new technology that
the technical person becomes so preoccupied
with the technology and that the users’ needs
are overlooked.10 Perhaps it is simply the nature
of the technical person to focus on what the
technology can do rather than what it must do.
Those projects, where a clear business need for
new technology existed, progressed more
smoothly than projects in which a need was not
clearly articulated. Consequently, managers
must recognize that the existence of a technol-
ogy does not necessarily justify its use within
the organization.
Ideally, organizations should match avail-
able skills to projects at the outset. Manage-
ment, users, and developers each anticipate
certain organizational impacts resulting from
every new project implementation. For exam-
ple, a project designed to automate a simple
process may be thought to initially bring
about an alpha or first-order change. The
actual change that results, however, may be
greater than anticipated. When actual
changes are greater than expected, resources
may be under-committed for the project. A
resulting change that is less than expected
may indicate an over utilization of resources.
Exhibit 6 illustrates these possibilities. Over-
commitment often results in waste, since
projects can expand to reflect the availability
of resources. Conversely, under-committed
projects will likely fail because of inadequate
resources.
In many change models, the first stage con-
cerns preparing the organization to change.
Yet many organizations do not plan imple-
mentations appropriate to the level of change
anticipated. Exhibit 6 will help mangers
match resource allocation and the level of
planned change.
CONCLUSION
The SCI model extends the traditional STS
model by focusing on the varying magnitudes
of organizational change. In an era when
restructuring, downsizing, and reengineering
have become commonplace, managers must
pay closer attention to the human aspects of
the change rather than continue to emphasize
the technical system if organizational perfor-
mance is to be maximized.
EXHIBIT 6 Anticipated vs. Actual Level of Change
Anticipated level of change
Alpha Beta Gamma
Actual Level
of change Alpha Match Over committed Over committed
Beta Under comitted Match Over committed
Gamma Under committed Under committed Match
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70 INFORMATION SYSTEMS MANAGEMENT
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MANAGING THE THREE LEVELS OF CHANGE
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Thesis
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Knowledge-intensive business processes are flexible and data-driven. Therefore, traditional process modeling languages do not meet their requirements: These languages focus on highly structured processes in which data plays a minor role. As a result, process-oriented information systems fail to assist knowledge workers on executing their processes. We propose a novel case management approach that combines flexible activity-centric processes with data models, and we provide a joint semantics using colored Petri nets. The approach is suited to model, verify, and enact knowledge-intensive processes and can aid the development of information systems that support knowledge work. Knowledge-intensive processes are human-centered, multi-variant, and data-driven. Typical domains include healthcare, insurances, and law. The processes cannot be fully modeled, since the underlying knowledge is too vast and changes too quickly. Thus, models for knowledge-intensive processes are necessarily underspecified. In fact, a case emerges gradually as knowledge workers make informed decisions. Knowledge work imposes special requirements on modeling and managing respective processes. They include flexibility during design and execution, ad-hoc adaption to unforeseen situations, and the integration of behavior and data. However, the predominantly used process modeling languages (e.g., BPMN) are unsuited for this task. Therefore, novel modeling languages have been proposed. Many of them focus on activities' data requirements and declarative constraints rather than imperative control flow. Fragment-Based Case Management, for example, combines activity-centric imperative process fragments with declarative data requirements. At runtime, fragments can be combined dynamically, and new ones can be added. Yet, no integrated semantics for flexible activity-centric process models and data models exists. In this thesis, Wickr, a novel case modeling approach extending fragment-based Case Management, is presented. It supports batch processing of data, sharing data among cases, and a full-fledged data model with associations and multiplicity constraints. We develop a translational semantics for Wickr targeting (colored) Petri nets. The semantics assert that a case adheres to the constraints in both the process fragments and the data models. Among other things, multiplicity constraints must not be violated. Furthermore, the semantics are extended to multiple cases that operate on shared data. Wickr shows that the data structure may reflect process behavior and vice versa. Based on its semantics, prototypes for executing and verifying case models showcase the feasibility of Wickr. Its applicability to knowledge-intensive and to data-centric processes is evaluated using well-known requirements from related work.
... In contrast, application-specific development (all processes during application lifecycle management (ALM)) is subject of the task component. The structure component encompasses the nature of communication, authority, and workflow within a system (O'Hara et al. 1999), including IT governance (Chong and Tan 2012). IT governance and its success is dependent on the organizational structure (Larsson et al. 2015), which is why we assign organization-specific topics to the structure component. ...
... IT governance and its success is dependent on the organizational structure (Larsson et al. 2015), which is why we assign organization-specific topics to the structure component. Last, people with specific cultures and human behaviors (attitudes, skills, abilities and values) perform the respective tasks before, during, and after implementing an information system (Gerster et al. 2018;O'Hara et al. 1999). Therefore, we consider stakeholder-specific issues of all involved actors in the people component. ...
Conference Paper
Low-Code Development Platforms (LCDPs) enable non-information technology (IT) personnel to develop applications and workflows independently of the IT department. Consequently, these digital platforms help to overcome the growing need for software development. However, science and practice warn of several barriers that slow down or hinder the usage of LCDPs. This publication scientifically identifies, analyzes, and discusses challenges during implementation and application of LCDPs from both perspectives in a holistic manner. Therefore, we conduct an exploratory study (data from scientific literature, expert interviews, and practical studies) and assign the challenges to the socio-technical system model. The results show that the scientific and practical communities recognize common challenges (especially knowledge transfer) but also perceive differences related to technological (science) and social (practice) aspects. This paper proposes future research directions for academia, such as governance, culture change, and value evaluation of LCDPs. Additionally, practitioners can prepare for possible challenges when using LCPDs.
... Technical objectives therefore depend greatly on the social environment. The socio-technical approach gave birth to a model entitled " socio-technical change impact model" providing a holy environment to assess the causal links within a group of individuals and thus appreciate the variations due to determining components such as individuals, tasks organization and technology [22]. ...
Chapter
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At the inception of the COVID-19 pandemic, there are different planners around the globe, such as Proactive, Preactive, Inactive, and Reactive planners. They all fall to the groups of Early birds and Latecomers. America, as a benevolence country, is playing a central role in the ongoing COVID-19, but America leading humanitarian and health assistance response to COVID-19 did not exempt the country from the deadly coronavirus. Despite the contention of COVID-19 against Americans, the government has been responding to flatten the virus curve. However, the government effort is not enough without examining the opinions of the Americans, and the world in general based on the Pandemic Intervals Framework (PIF) recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). These studies share new knowledge and enlighten the public on the position of COVID-19 globally, but there is a vacuum in having a deeper understanding of the emerging themes in America concerning COVID-19. This research embarked on thematic and sentiment analysis to contribute to ongoing academic discussion on COVID-19 in the context of America. This study found that four lexicons employed measures different aspects of sentiments beyond positive and negative polarity and also realize that not every bigram is relevant to the theme of choice. However, the results show relevant and unexpected bigrams. This study clarifies some uncertainty regarding the COVID-19 outlook in America. Besides, researchers can extend these results to the other countries that are dominated by COVID-19. Finally, this research discusses the study limitations and gives future direction in the area of COVID-19.
... It is important to understand IS in its own context and also IS enablers which could be different digital tools and technologies [12]. According to O'Hara, Watson [14] technology can be a component of IS or a tool to facilitate the functionality of these systems. The digitisation of IS and application of technology is being widely pursued in line with the Industrial Revolution 4.0 in construction. ...
Article
Full-text available
The low-level application of digital tools and information systems in construction implies that many projects cannot meet modern requirements and standard of work of advanced industries. This study adopts a practical and diagnostic approach to identify key attributes and implementation processes of information systems in construction and logistics. To have triangulation of knowledge, a three-step methodology is adopted. Initially an exploratory analysis of previous literature is performed. Secondly a diagnostic analysis of IS applications in construction is achieved by case studies. Finally, expert interviews are performed to examine and consolidate the findings. The study illustrated practical and innovative applications of low-cost digital tools in IS development and created a framework for documentation of these discrete and mostly unshared practices. It is recommended that the construction sector should embrace more advance technologies to minimise human intervention and enhance real-time capabilities. The practicality of how different low-cost and off-the-shelf tools and digital platforms can be combined is discussed and demonstrated. The study provides a clear distinction for practitioners and academics as to what is being practiced in comparison to the dominant theories.
Book
Data Science for COVID-19, Volume 2: Societal and Medical Perspectives presents the most current and leading-edge research into the applications of a variety of data science techniques for the detection, mitigation, treatment and elimination of the COVID-19 virus. At this point, Cognitive Data Science is the most powerful tool for researchers to fight COVID-19. Thanks to instant data-analysis and predictive techniques, including Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning, Deep Learning, Data Mining, and computational modeling for processing large amounts of data, recognizing patterns, modeling new techniques, and improving both research and treatment outcomes is now possible.
Thesis
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The computerized health information system has been introduced to Yemeni organizations in order to overcome the difficulties of daily life. From this perspective, the researcher intends to discover the quality of the computerized health information system used in Yemeni health facilities (Sana'a City). The aim of this study is to explore the importance of the computerized health information system used in Yemeni health facilities (Sana'a City) as well as the effect of safety quality, information quality, system quality, performance quality, and service quality on the quality of health care. The researcher used the quantitative regression method by preparing a self-administrative questionnaire, specifically designed to deal with the research variables. The findings indicate that the hypotheses are highly supported and have a positive relationship. The researcher recommends that Yemeni health facilities in Sana’a are advised to utilize more efforts towards health information systems.”
Research
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In this work, we observe trends in cyberattacks with a social engineering component. We then review existing research on the psychological effects of cyberattacks on the mental health of victims and other individuals potentially affected. We then formulate hypotheses on how information security incident management frameworks currently proposed to organisations integrate the preservation and protection of mental health of individuals in their content. To test our hypotheses, we review five information security incident management frameworks widely recognised by the information security community. We reach two conclusions. Firstly, we observe that the frameworks reflect a strong concern for the well-being and the mental health of information security incident response team (ISIRT) members. However, we also observe that this concern is limited to the risk of burnout, and that the recommendations offered match poorly with the recommendations from the psychology community. Secondly, we observe that the frameworks we reviewed tend to propose categorisations of individuals involved in incident response, but these categorisations are limited to active contributors (e.g., incident handler, coordinator, legal advisor, public media interface, etc.) and fail to identify other categories of potentially vulnerable individuals, who could be negatively affected by a cyberattack against an organisation. We formulate a new hypothesis that the lack of relevant guidance could be explained by a) a general perception that only technical elements of the information system (e.g., systems, data) may be affected by a cyberattack and b) an incomplete categorisation of individuals, which fails to identify which members could be affected by the cyberattack and its response. Following our observations, we identify two opportunities. Firstly, we propose to integrate the protection and preservation of mental health as an explicit objective for information security incident management protocols. Secondly, we propose to extend existing categorisations with two new categories of individuals: the capable observer (members of the organisation, who are capable of contributing but are not contributing to the incident response) and the target user (the individual, who is caught directly in the line of fire of a cyberattack through its social engineering component). We conclude our work with a discussion on new opportunities for various actors such as public and private organisations, cybersecurity services providers, incident management governance bodies and academic research in fields related to information security and psychology.
Article
Purpose This study aims to propose and validate a model for e-Learning success based on students’ experiences in the “new normal.” To achieve this goal, this study focused on answering three research questions: (1) What are the students’ experiential factors that impact e-Learning? (2) How do these experiential factors affect e-Learning success? (3) In what ways does a multimethod provide a comprehensive perspective and an in-depth understanding of students’ e-Learning experiences in the new normal? Design/methodology/approach This study applied a mixed-methods sequential approach using exploratory, confirmatory and complementary studies. First, this study undertook a text-mining exploratory analysis of the review data to extract e-Learning topics. Then, based on the Information Systems (IS) success model, this study identified an integrated framework drawn from the results of the text-mining analysis. Second, this study proposed an e-Learning, experience-based success model and corresponding hypotheses and conducted a confirmatory study with surveys to validate the model. Third, this study conducted in-depth interviews to better identify the phenomenon of interest. Findings The five factors extracted from the first stage are system quality, lecture content, teaching quality, online interaction and achievement. This study subsequently confirmed the significant relationships between the e-Learning success factors in the second stage based on the IS success model. Finally, a complementary study identified the importance of interactivity for e-Learning success in the new normal. Originality/value To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this paper is the first to develop an e-Learning success model using a comprehensive mixed-methods approach.
Chapter
The prevalence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) exacerbated investor fears, uncertainties, and increased volatility in financial markets. The reaction to oil prices gradually absorbed the epidemic until March 08, but the market situation changed soon with a sharp drop in prices until April 17. This study aims to verify the impact of COVID-19 cases on crude oil prices and the Saudi economy. A simple linear regression estimate shows that new daily outbreaks have a marginally negative impact on crude oil prices in the short term. However, COVID-19 also has an indirect effect on the recent volatility in crude oil prices. Solutions include proactive management, and we emphasize that special consideration must be given to the size of the supply to properly forecast oil prices. Volatility dominates in the short term. The relationship between the epidemic and oil prices reveals a root cause. Moreover, we investigate the interaction between the epidemic and oil prices, with the effective implementation of these solutions with the government's full support.
Chapter
The ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is having devastating impacts across the globe. Among the implemented policies to reduce the spread of the disease is lockdown. This might have serious impact on farming activities and the livelihoods of millions of people whose daily means of sustenance is tied to agricultural activities. We undertook this study in West Africa, one of the most fragile and vulnerable regions to the epidemic. Our aim was to understand (1) farmers' perception of the impact of COVID-19 and lockdown policies on their farm or business revenue, (2) farmers' preparedness for COVID-19 lockdown on their farm or business revenue, and (3) the impact of effectiveness of COVID-19 lockdown on their farm or business revenue. We combined online questionnaire, physical contact and administration, and social media (Facebook and WhatsApp) to get responses from 303 farmers in Nigeria and Ghana. Our findings show that COVID-19 and lockdown policies negatively affected the farmers. The impact of COVID-19 and lockdown policies on respondents' farm or business revenue was independent of either age or gender of respondents and the effectiveness of lockdown in both the countries. The status of lockdown in respondent places (locked down versus not locked down) and the level of preparedness of farmers to handle the situation with the current COVID-19 crisis in their farms were also independent in both the countries. However, we found that the impact of COVID-19 and lockdown policies on farm or business revenue depends on the level of preparedness of farmers to handle the situation in each country. We further found that the impact of COVID-19 and lockdown policies on farm or business revenue was independent of the status of lockdown but rather depended on the preparedness for the current COVID-19 crisis and differently across countries. Our findings suggest that building capacities of farmers and supporting them in preparedness for such occurrence, as well as establishing and implementing public policies in this direction, can mitigate the impact of the pandemic on their activities.
Article
The concept of IT as a powerful competitive weapon has been strongly emphasized in the literature, yet the sustainability of the competitive advantage provided by IT applications is not well-explained. This work discusses the resource-based theory as a means of analyzing sustainability and develops a model founded on this resource-based view of the firm. This model is then applied to four attributes of IT -- capital requirements, proprietary technology, technical IT skills, and managerial IT skills -- which might be sources of sustained competitive advantage. From this resource-based analysis, we conclude that managerial IT skills is the only one of these attributes that can provide sustainability.
Article
For strategists, information technology is about building bridges: between business sectors, across continents.
Chapter
Providing a complete portal to the world of case study research, the Fourth Edition of Robert K. Yin's bestselling text Case Study Research offers comprehensive coverage of the design and use of the case study method as a valid research tool. This thoroughly revised text now covers more than 50 case studies (approximately 25% new), gives fresh attention to quantitative analyses, discusses more fully the use of mixed methods research designs, and includes new methodological insights. The book's coverage of case study research and how it is applied in practice gives readers access to exemplary case studies drawn from a wide variety of academic and applied fields.Key Features of the Fourth Edition Highlights each specific research feature through 44 boxed vignettes that feature previously published case studies Provides methodological insights to show the similarities between case studies and other social science methods Suggests a three-stage approach to help readers define the initial questions they will consider in their own case study research Covers new material on human subjects protection, the role of Institutional Review Boards, and the interplay between obtaining IRB approval and the final development of the case study protocol and conduct of a pilot case Includes an overall graphic of the entire case study research process at the beginning of the book, then highlights the steps in the process through graphics that appear at the outset of all the chapters that follow Offers in-text learning aids including 'tips' that pose key questions and answers at the beginning of each chapter, practical exercises, endnotes, and a new cross-referencing tableCase Study Research, Fourth Edition is ideal for courses in departments of Education, Business and Management, Nursing and Public Health, Public Administration, Anthropology, Sociology, and Political Science.
Article
This paper describes the process of inducting theory using case studies-from specifying the research questions to reaching closure. Some features of the process, such as problem definition and construct validation, are similar to hypothesis-testing research. Others, such as within-case analysis and replication logic, are unique to the inductive, case-oriented process. Overall, the process described here is highly iterative and tightly linked to data. This research approach is especially appropriate in new topic areas. The resultant theory is often novel, testable, and empirically valid. Finally, framebreaking insights, the tests of good theory (e.g., parsimony, logical coherence), and convincing grounding in the evidence are the key criteria for evaluating this type of research.