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Computer hacking and cyber terrorism: The real threats in the new millennium?

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Abstract

As the new millennium approaches, we are living in a society that is increasingly dependent upon information technology. However, whilst technology can deliver a number of benefits, it also introduces new vulnerabilities that can be exploited by persons with the necessary technical skills. Hackers represent a well-known threat in this respect and are responsible for a significant degree of disruption and damage to information systems. However, they are not the only criminal element that has to be taken into consideration. Evidence suggests that technology is increasingly seen as potential tool for terrorist organizations. This is leading to the emergence of a new threat in the form of ‘cyber terrorists’, who attack technological infrastructures such as the Internet in order to help further their cause. The paper discusses the problems posed by these groups and considers the nature of the responses necessary to preserve the future security of our society.

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... Use the cyberspace by terrorist groups is an essential transition point from traditional terrorism depends on materialistic means to the modern terrorism relies more on sophisticated and invisible technologies (Furnell, S. M., 1999). In 1980, the cyber terrorism is still theoretical without any perceptible examples. ...
... In 1990, the concern of cyber terrorisms increases extensively, and the media concentrates directly on these dangerous issue, the first emergence of cyber terrorisms was in 1998, on Sri Lankan when a group called "Ethnic Tamil Tigers" used cyberspace to attack government websites in order to disrupt and destroy them (Shandra, 2012). In 2007, hackers from Russia launched a cyber-attack to destroy the Estonian government's websites (Furnell, S. M., 1999). ...
... It refers to the attacks against computers, network, information and the consequence of the attacks terrify the government, political and social objectives [84]. In another way, cyber-terrorism considered as politically motivated computer attacks toward other computer systems that lead to threatening victims of attacks [85]. There are several kinds of cyber-terrorism such as attack can lead to the death or bodily injury; some can damage the critical infrastructure or economic loss. ...
... There are several kinds of cyber-terrorism such as attack can lead to the death or bodily injury; some can damage the critical infrastructure or economic loss. Cyber-terrorists belong to a funding organized group for their activities, so they can hire a lot of hackers to act on their behalf [85]. ...
Thesis
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Cybercrimes nowadays are more complicated and thus make tremendous damages or influences for organizations, individuals, and national security. Therefore, computer and network security are a concern not only for traditional security awareness organizations; for example, military, bank, or financial institutions but also for every individual and government officials who use computers. Viet Nam, a small country in the Southeast of Asia, is also one of the top 20 populous countries in the world but Vietnam Information and communication technology (ICT) industry has just developed recently. Despite the late start, Viet Nam approached rapidly modern telecommunications infrastructure in the world but Viet Nam government did not pay attention to the network security or the damage from the cyber-threats. Thereofore, this thesis aims to investigate whether Viet Nam is ready to face any security problems or find out solutions for them. This study seeks the answers to the six following important questions: What are cyber-threats? Are they dangerous threats to Vietnam? What can Viet Nam do to mitigate cyber-threats? How can Viet Nam cooperate with international organizations to solve these risks? What are the benefits of Visegrád strategies in defense towards cyber-attacks with other countries? Which cybersecurity strategies are found suitable for Vietnam in terms of adaptation? The research hypotheses are presented below. However, because of time limitation, the scope of this thesis mainly focused on the cybersecurity strategies of Visegrád countries and some neighbor countries of Vietnam in ASEAN area in order to propose the new cybersecurity framework for Vietnam and its’ neighbor countries. Hypothesis 1 (H1): Cybersecurity in Visegrád countries shares similarities regarding goals, strategies, and strength to align with European Union Member States regarding armed forces, cybersecurity, and national security. Hypothesis 2 (H2): Cybersecurity in the East Asian and the South East Asian countries aim to create a more secure society and supports economic development. Hypothesis 2a (H2a): Singapore’s cybersecurity strategy may be adapted to Vietnam’s legal framework. Hypothesis 3 (H3): Cybersecurity, especially in cybersecurity cooperation in Visegrád countries may be adapted and networked with Asian countries, particularly in Vietnam and its neighbors.
... They simply enjoy the challenge of trying to get into cyberspace. Their aims are not the same as extremists (Furnell and Warren, 1999). Klausen (2015) argues that social media sites are being used by Isis and others as a global cyber war tactic in places like Syria. ...
... For Weimann (2004), however it means terrorists, using the Internet for psychological warfare, publicity, propaganda, fundraising, recruitment, networking, sharing information and planning (Lachow and Richardson, 2007;Whine, 1999). Recruiters therefore may use more interactive Internet technology (Kohlmann 2008;2006) to go through and use online chat rooms and cyber cafes (Furnell and Warren, 1999), therefore looking possibly for enlisting support from vulnerable people. Marc Sageman states that this form of interaction and chat rooms helps build ideological relationships and are a key tool in radicalising young people (Sageman, 2008). ...
Article
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The current crises in Syria has led to a number of Britons travelling abroad to fight with groups such as Isis. Capitalising on this growth, Isis are now increasingly fighting an online cyber war, with the use of slick videos, online messages of hate and even an app that all aim to radicalise and create a new generation of cyber jihadists. These modern day tools are helping Isis spread their propaganda and ideology to thousands of online sympathisers across the world. Indeed, the group has actively been using social media sites such as Twitter, Facebook and YouTube to recruit new would be members. This is being done through images and the streaming of violent online viral videos filmed and professionally edited that are targeting young and impressionable people. Portraying a glamorised and ‘cool’ image, Isis fighters are beginning to act as the new rock stars of global cyber jihad. The Internet therefore is becoming the virtual playground for extremist views to be reinforced and act as an echo chamber. This study analysed 100 different Facebook pages and 50 Twitter user accounts which generated over 2050 results and helped the author create a typology of seven key behaviour characteristics and motivations. The findings in this study confirmed the author’s original hypothesis, i.e. online hate is being used by groups such as Isis for a variety of reasons such as recruitment and propaganda. Moreover, this material is coordinated and controlled by Isis as a means for publishing and sending out key messages.
... It refers to the attacks against computers, network, information and the consequence of the attacks terrify the government, political and social objectives [84]. In another way, cyber-terrorism considered as politically motivated computer attacks toward other computer systems that lead to threatening victims of attacks [85]. There are several kinds of cyber-terrorism such as attack can lead to the death or bodily injury; some can damage the critical infrastructure or economic loss. ...
... There are several kinds of cyber-terrorism such as attack can lead to the death or bodily injury; some can damage the critical infrastructure or economic loss. Cyber-terrorists belong to a funding organized group for their activities, so they can hire a lot of hackers to act on their behalf [85]. ...
Research Proposal
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In order to investigate whether Viet Nam is ready to face any security problems or find out solutions for them, hence this research aims to figure out the answers for several essential questions; for example, 1) what are the current cyber-threats? 2) What are the influences of global cyber-threats on Vietnam and its neighbors? 3) How can Vietnam solve these problems through international cooperation? 4) What are the advantages of Visegrád cybersecurity strategies towards cyber-attacks? 5) Which cybersecurity strategy can be suitable for Vietnam?
... That is possible when the terrorist are ready to offer the hackers an adequate amount of financial sources for an execution of the cyber attack on the information system of the government institutions and giant corporations, or on the system of critical infrastructure. In this case, the hackers' aims are not political, but financial [5]. ...
Conference Paper
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Article represents the cyber terrorism and the way in which the Slovenian organizations understand and manage it. Cyber terrorism in public is usually referred and is mostly mistaken for classic attacks on information systems. The cyber terrorism can with minimal effort and knowledge cause terrible consequences and threaten existence of every organization. Methods and techniques of such attacks do not differ from the operation of the classic information security threats. However, the terrorist attack strives to political and social changes in order to spread fear among general public. The most common attacks are pointed on information systems in critical infrastructure. The consequences of the terrorist attack on the organization’s information system are mostly economical damage, employees’ injuries or even death.The protection against such cyber threat is therefore necessary; however how it depends on every individual organization. With results explanations, gathered with interviews in Slovenian organizations we are able to learn about problems of understanding cyber terrorism as a threat and to properly adjust to the changes.
... What may seem to be merely a matter of wording about online activism, can also be framed as a struggle about the moral legitimacy of civil disobedience in certain digital forms5. Stakeholders in this discourse seem not to support a coherent judgement they vary between heroo, martyrdomm and terrorismm (Furnell & Warren, 1999) remarkably there is very little in between. The concept of civil disobedience and how it is enacted on the internet offers a wide range of interpretations. ...
Article
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p>This article points out a struggle of today’s societies with the traditional concepts of civil disobedience and stresses the need for reevaluation of the concept of civil disobedience for policy making and public discourse. Starting with a minimal definition of civil disobedience, the article introduces Hannah Arendt’s approach for a legitimisation of civil disobedience and discusses her ideas for digital actions, which are increasingly framed as digital forms of civil disobedience. Addressing WikiLeaks as an example of digital civil disobedience, the author problematises the internal secrecy of WikiLeaks and the focus on Julian Assange as a single decision-maker. Both aspects challenge Arendt’s understanding of legitimate civil disobedience. Even though traditional criteria of civil disobedience need to be revisited in the digital age, organisations or disobedience actors might themselves in their actions be well-advised to comply with the principles they fight for.</p
... However, there is also extensive evidence to suggest that the threats, to the security of organizational information and information systems, are now growing in number, variety and, most importantly, the severity of their impact (Angell, 1996). For example, traditional threats to the security of information and systems include: natural disasters, theft of hardware/software, unauthorised access and human error (Lock et al., 1992), while newer threats include viruses (Post and Kagan, 2000) and hacking and cyber terrorism (Furnell and Warren, 1999). ...
Thesis
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The purpose of this research study is to find the impact of value delivery, strategic alignment, performance measurement, risk management, resource management, organization strategy ISG outcome on information security governance. The main research objectives are to develop the understanding of information security governance (ISG) in police department, to analyse the impact of different factors on information security governance, The ISG performance-measuring systems in Abu Dhabi Police Department and to develop the importance of ISG in police department in Abu Dhabi. The results of the dissertation reveal that the all factors have positive impact on information security governance in police department. This dissertation is proved that the importance of ISG as integrant component for the success of corporate strategy, and ISG investments have created a real value for the Abu Dhabi Police Department. The results also revealed that implementing ISG practices have improved the cost effectiveness of information security. The majority of respondents reported the existence and implementation of ISG in their organizations. In addition, most of the respondents believe that the alignment between ISG and the organization’s overall business strategy is relatively good and adequately implemented. The results of the paper reveal that the Abu Dhabi Police Department have information security strategies, and their management has issued information security policy statements. And those policy statements were subject to reviewing, updating, and approval. Furthermore, information security roles and responsibilities are clearly defined and communicated. There are effective and tested processes to deal with information security incidents and emergencies in the Abu Dhabi Police Department. The majority of respondents believe that the risk assessment procedures are adequate to assure the compliance with laws and regulations and the data protection act. The results also show that the Abu Dhabi Police Department have suffered major security incidents, where the cost of these incidents could be determined and measured. The Abu Dhabi Police Department have organization continuity/disaster recovery plans in place, and such organization continuity/disaster recovery plans that do exist have been tested under real circumstances. Furthermore, there are properly functioning ISG processes and performance-measuring systems in place. Moreover, information security evaluation is reviewed and reported to the top management.
... In this century, the Internet has become a favored weapon for mass destruction as well as a convenient means of communication for terrorists. Research by Furnell and Warren (1999) has found that various terrorist groups and organizations make regular use of the Internet and its information to plan and support their different acts of terrorism and then to carry out their attacks on the global Internet itself as well as on people. They use it too to communicate with people all over the world. ...
Article
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The paper focuses on the application of Geographical Information Systems (GIS) in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia to combat terrorist activities. Even though the Internet became a tool of mass destruction, upgraded information systems can help in understanding the landscape where the presence of terrorists is suspected. Thus, GIS can help in crime mapping and countering terrorism. Different tools and methods related to GIS technology are discussed here and their applications in ensuring effective security measures are focused upon. GIS provides the technology that enables geographical data collection from LIDAR, aerial photography and satellite imagery, data that is captured, stored, analysed and displayed in maps. The maps can reflect hot-spot gas field and oil field where terrorist activities are carried out. This also makes geography a key subject in understanding such activities. Apart from terrorism, the public health sector also has a huge application for GIS. Such technological method requires effective mapping and when combined with geospatial technologies, terrorism can be countered with appropriate action. The age of big data, digital mapping and other remote sensing technologies are discussed in the paper.
... Terrorist use of more advanced encryption methods (Malik, 1996) and improved anonymous electronic remailers will result in a command system that is difficult to break and allows for the control of groups anywhere in the world. As a result, it causes a problem for the security services, as it means that they will have to spend more time and resources on trying to decrypt electronic messages (Furnell and Warren, 1999). ...
... Terrorist use of more advanced encryption methods (Malik, 1996) and improved anonymous electronic remailers will result in a command system that is difficult to break and allows for the control of groups anywhere in the world. As a result, it causes a problem for the security services, as it means that they will have to spend more time and resources on trying to decrypt electronic messages (Furnell and Warren, 1999). ...
... Second, in terms of opportunity, there are a number of reasons that cyberattacks might prove attractive to terrorist groups. These include: the scope for anonymity that cyberspace offers to those with sufficient technological competence; the potential that cyberattacks have to impact upon a wide range of potential targets; and the ability to conduct attacks at a distance from the target itself (Furnell and Warren 1999;Weimann 2005). In the survey of researchers that we carried out, 58% of respondents argued that cyberterrorism does indeed constitute a significant security threat. ...
... Terrorist use of more advanced encryption methods (Malik, 1996) and improved anonymous electronic remailers will result in a command system that is difficult to break and allows for the control of groups anywhere in the world. As a result, it causes a problem for the security services, as it means that they will have to spend more time and resources on trying to decrypt electronic messages (Furnell and Warren, 1999). ...
Article
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An emerging issue called cyberterrorism is a fatal problem causing a disturbance in the cyberspace. To unravel underlying issues about cyberterrorism, it is imperative to look into available documents found in NATO's repository. Extraction of articles using the web-mining technique and performed topic modeling on NLP. Moreover, this study employed a Latent Dirichlet allocation algorithm, an unsupervised machine learning to generate latent themes from the text corpus. An identified five underlying themes revealed based on the result. Finally, a profound understanding of cyberterrorism as a pragmatic menace of the cyberspace through a worldwide spread of black propaganda, recruitment, computer and network hacking, economic sabotage and others revealed. As a result, countries around the world, including NATO and its allies, had continuously improved its capabilities against cyberterrorism., blended learning, open and distance learning, teaching styles, social science research both qualitative and quantitative design, fractal statistics, fractal inference, information technology, and management. He is a graduate of Doctor of Philosophy in Technology Management. He has taught both blended learning and face-to-face learning environment at the graduate and tertiary level of the university. He has presented his research outputs in the Philippines and other countries and received international awards and has published his work in an ISI-indexed and Scopus indexed journals. He was invited as a resource speaker in research and is currently a peer-reviewer, associate editor and editorial manager in some nationally circulated and international journals. This paper is a revised and expanded version of a paper entitled 'Deciphering published articles on cyberterrorism: a Latent Dirichlet Allocation algorithm
... Its issues have become increasingly prominent in future development. 2. Cyber-attacks will be increasingly more complex, and cyber-hackers [41] will exhibit the characteristics of scale, organization, industrialization, and specialization. They will have a growing bad influence on global economic and social development. ...
Preprint
p>It is well known that the metaverse, also named general cyberspace, is virtual-real fusion spaces, consisting of a virtual space namely cyberspace and virtual-real spaces namely cyber-enabled physical, social, and thinking (cyber-enabled) spaces. This paper discusses the open issues of the metaverse in terms of science and technology and proposes a new discipline and inter-discipline hierarchy for the metaverse first. Then, it ex?plores various relevant standards of discipline classification and a discipline and inter-discipline hierarchy based on physical, social and thinking spaces, and investigates the cyberspace and cyber?enabled spaces. On the basis of the above research, this paper proposes the detailed metaverse discipline and inter-discipline hierarchy based on cyber-physical-social-thinking spaces and enriches the content of cyberology from the aspects of cyberspace and cyber-enabled spaces. Finally, this paper predicts the future development of cyberology in terms of society, enterprise and humankind. </p
... It motivates advanced research in multidisciplinary areas, from money matters and law and order to technological and scientific topics such as the process of validation, verification, security, and control. Whereas, it might be slightly bigger than small trouble if your Computer device gets crashed or hacked (Furnell & Warrner, 1999). Now, it becomes all the more significant that an AI does as what we want to do If AI controls our cars, our airplanes, our pacemakers, our computerized trading methods or our power grids. ...
Article
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Purpose of Study: The purpose of the study is to investigate the dark side of artificial intelligence followed by the question of whether AI is programmed to do something destructive or AI is programmed to do something beneficial? Methodology: A study of different biased Super AI is carried out to find the dark side of AI. In this paper SRL (system review of literature approach methodology is used and the data is collected from the different projects of MIT’s media lab named “Norman AI”, “Shelley” and AI-generated algorithm COMPAS. Main Finding: The study carried out the result if AI is trained in a biased way it will create havoc to mankind. Implications/Applications: The article can help in developing super-AIs which can benefit the society in a controlled way without having any negative aspects.
... Nowadays, companies are facing a variety of internal and external cyber threatscyber crime, hacktivism, cyber espionage and cyber war-and are affected by different forms of cyberattacks, such as denial of service, web-based attacks, malicious codes, viruses, worms and trojans, malware, malicious insiders, stolen devices as well as phishing and social engineering (Bendovschi 2015). The possible consequences of cyberattacks include theft, loss and destruction of data and information (Andrijcic and Horowitz 2006;McLaughlin 2011;Jouini et al. 2014;Amin 2019); failure and destruction of IT systems and software (Furnell and Warren 1999;McLaughlin 2011;Lagazio et al. 2014;Jouini et al. 2014;Romanosky 2016); business interruption (Andrijcic and Horowitz 2006;Bendovschi 2015;Amin 2019); disruption and destruction of production facilities (Lathrop and Stanisz 2016;Wu and Moon 2017;Elhabashy et al. 2019); disruption of production and business processes and procedures (Hiller and Russell 2013;Lathrop and Stanisz 2016;Pereira et al. 2017;Kiss et al. 2019); and personal injury and property damage (Zelle and Whitehead 2014). Accordingly, cyberattacks cannot only result in considerable financial losses (Gandhi et al. 2011;Jouini et al. 2014) but also physical damage (Lathrop and Stanisz 2016;Amin 2019). ...
Article
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This paper examines the design of affirmative and silent coverage in view of the cyber risks in traditional insurance policies for select product lines on the German market. Given the novelty and complexity of the topic and the insufficient coverage in the literature, we use two different sources. We analysed the general insurance terms and conditions of different traditional insurance lines using Mayring’s qualitative content analysis. Also, we conducted interviews with experts from the German insurance industry to evaluate how insurers understand their silent cyber exposures, and what measures they take to deal with this new exposure. The study shows a considerable cyber liability risk potential for insurers in the considered insurance lines. This arises from the affirmative as well as silent cover inclusions and exclusions for cyber risks, which result from imprecise wordings of insurance clauses and insufficient descriptions of the contractually specified scope of the insurance coverage.
... [32,33] The concerns regarding the influence of the internet and chat groups on terrorism predate the social media explosion of the 21 st Century. [34] Similarly, the issue of right-wing terrorists and anti-government activity were repeated issues in the 20 th Century. [35][36][37] It is noted political partisanship in the US increased after the Cold War. ...
Conference Paper
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The use of Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning technology may seem to be the tools needed to combat media-inspired "lone wolf attacks" by implementing the concept of "stochastic terrorism," targeting harmful media influences. Machine Learning is in current use to sort through social media data to assess hate speech. Artificial Intelligence is in current use to interpret the data and trends processed by Machine Learning for tasks such as finding criminal networks. The question becomes "can stochastic terrorism be proven" and "should this be implemented." Labeling someone as a "terrorist," regardless of any modifier for the term, tags the person or group for severe, potentially lethal, response by the government and the community. Criminal accusation cannot ethically be done casually or without sufficient cause. Due to documented problems with bias in all aspects of the issue, using these computational tools to establish legal causation between media statements by pundits, politicians, or others and the violence of "lone wolf" actors would not meet the requirements of US jurisprudence or the ethical principles for Artificial Intelligence of being explainable, transparent, and responsible.
... Consequently, academics within terrorism studies have recognised how significant the emergence of Internet has been for terrorism and how quickly these organisations have been adapting their strategies, needs, aims and operative plans to conform within cyberspace (Conway, 2006). Among these, Furnell & Warren (1999), Cohen (2002), Thomas (2003) and Weimann (2004) Operations. ...
Article
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The developments and advantages of the Internet have led terrorists to shift their traditional methods towards a more cyber-enabled approach. In this context, Internet is understood as a powerful political instrument, which is increasingly employed by terrorists to fulfil their aims. This article identifies Financing, Propaganda & Recruitment and Network Operations as the main areas in which terrorism has seen a significant change in the methods, aims and outcomes. Each of these uses of the Internet will be described and analysed
... While 'political insurgency, terrorism, cybercrime, and drugs and people trafficking as a transnational networks' format criminals are imposing threat to the safety and security of the citizen of country (Mette Eilstrup Sangiovanni Section Editor, 2005:12). According to Furnelb and Warren (1999) cyber terrorists other than traditional terrorist they are emphasising technology to collect information, recruit hackers and embezzled money from the financial institution as well as individuals which in the long run restrict people movement due to fear of victimization. However, cryptographic technologies strictly maintain by US but unregulated use of this technology by terrorists is constantly threatening of terrorist attack like a double edge blade one way bombing physically and other way destroy defence mechanism causing national insecurity throughout the world (Furnelb and Warren, 1999:28-32). ...
Article
This research investigated cyber policing challenges to reduce victimization in response to cybercrime with a systematic literature review method. Thematic analysis technique adopted to synthesize 111 articles of Scopus and ASSIA databases to find the theme ‘challenges of cyber policing’. While ‘Big Data’ is an important hurdle to cybercrime investigation for police and othe law enforcement organizations, as cyber criminals use images and social media texts in cyber offences. Then, recording of traditional crime fails to identify the digital fraud, commercial victimization, and gang culture which is huge challenge of effective cyber policing. Besides, transnational jurisdiction, ‘Advaced Persistent Threats (APT), Brexit, interdisciplinary barriers, command responsibility, electronic evidence and lack of equipments and devices were identified as challenges of policing in cyberspace. However, future responsive policies to cybercrime recognized as proactive approach to identify this crime, gain digital specialism, national crime database, ‘Swiss Model’, and vigilatntes. Hence, this study is not beyond limitation of empirical observations, which will be the future initiative in the field.
... The current advancements of AI aim to help society by motivating advanced research in various domains, ranging from money and law to scientific concerns, such as security, verification, control, and validation [14]. However, it might create trouble for users or even much of society if a device involved in a major system gets hacked or crashes [35]. As AI becomes more involved in our automobiles, planes, and trading, there will be serious concerns. ...
Article
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With the emergence of artificial intelligence (AI), the technological revolution has transformed human lives and processes, empowering the products and services in today’s marketplaces. AI introduces new ways of doing jobs and business, and of exploring new global market opportunities. However, on the other hand, it provides many challenges to comprehend. Therefore, our study’s main objective was to examine the behavioral, cultural, ethical, social, and economic challenges of AI-enabled products and services in consumer markets and discuss how businesses might shape their approaches to address AI-related ethical issues. AI offers numerous social, ethical, and behavioral difficulties for people, organizations, and societies that endanger the sustainable development of economies. These fundamental challenges due to AI technologies have raised serious questions for the sustainable development of electronic markets. Based on this, the current study presents a framework highlighting these issues. Systematic reviewing was our research method; we looked for explicit information and methods that indicate the credibility of research or reduce biases. This paper is of great importance, as it highlights several behavioral, societal, ethical, and cultural aspects in electronic markets which were not presented in previous studies. Some key issues are the security and privacy of consumers, AI biases, individual autonomy, wellbeing, and issues of unemployment. Therefore, companies that use AI systems need to be socially responsible and make AI systems as secure as possible to promote the sustainable development of countries. The results suggest that AI has undoubtedly transformed life and has both positive and negative effects. However, the main aim regarding AI should be to use it for the overall goals of humanity. Moreover, authorities operating in e-business environments need to create proper rules and regulations and make the systems as secure as possible for people.
... Its issues have become increasingly prominent in future development. 2. Cyber-attacks will be increasingly more complex, and cyber-hackers [41] will exhibit the characteristics of scale, organization, industrialization, and specialization. They will have a growing bad influence on global economic and social development. ...
Preprint
p>It is well known that the metaverse, also named general cyberspace, is virtual-real fusion spaces, consisting of a virtual space namely cyberspace and virtual-real spaces namely cyber-enabled physical, social, and thinking (cyber-enabled) spaces. This paper discusses the open issues of the metaverse in terms of science and technology and proposes a new discipline and inter-discipline hierarchy for the metaverse first. Then, it ex?plores various relevant standards of discipline classification and a discipline and inter-discipline hierarchy based on physical, social and thinking spaces, and investigates the cyberspace and cyber?enabled spaces. On the basis of the above research, this paper proposes the detailed metaverse discipline and inter-discipline hierarchy based on cyber-physical-social-thinking spaces and enriches the content of cyberology from the aspects of cyberspace and cyber-enabled spaces. Finally, this paper predicts the future development of cyberology in terms of society, enterprise and humankind. </p
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KORSTANJE M 2016 The Risk, The real and the impossibility of Life: examining the Matrix”. Threat Mitigation and Detection of Cyber Warfare and Terrorism. Chapter 7. (pp 164-178) IGI Global, Hershey, Pennsylvania, US, 2017. ISBN 978-1522519386.
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Radical individual and organizations are setting strong foothold on Internet. They operate in dark network hidden from authorities view to pursuade, recruit, and coordinate radical and violent actions. The presence of radical individual and organizations onInternet sites have caused massive debate and contraversi among Internet users, law enforcement bodies,and policy makers regarding misuse of Internet. However, little is known how exactly radical individual and organizations deliver their propaganda on Internet and what radical organizations practice such activities on Internet. Through the use of content analysis approach, this study analyzed various radical websites content to provide deep insight of radical operation and propaganda on Internet. Data was collected from various popular radical organization websites and previous studies. The findings show that well-kown organized radical and terorist oragnizations in Indonesia and International have intensively used Internet for new arena to radical and terror public across the globe. They use Internet topursuade, deliver propaganda to a global audience, recruit new members, communicate with international supporters, solicit donations, and fostering public awareness. This study concludes that Internet has become a new instrument to spread radicalism and terror within community life.
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Nowadays, experts have suggested that the economic losses resulting from mal-intended computer hacking, or cracking, have been conservatively estimated to be in the hundreds of millions of dollars per annum. The authors who have contributed to this book share a mutual vision that future research, as well as the topics covered in this book, will help to stimulate more scholarly attention to the issue of corporate hacking and the harms that are caused as a result. This chapter explores malicious hacking from a criminological perspective, while focusing on the justifications, or neutralizations, that cyber criminals may use when engaging in computer cracking--which is in the United States and many other jurisdictions worldwide, illegal.
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The cyber threat landscape has continued to evolve with time and enhanced technology. With the advent of new breeds of terrorists and cybercriminals, the cyberterrorism debate has again wielded global attention. In this chapter, the author will attempt to delve deeper into the concept of cyberterrorism. Firstly, it will discuss the related issues which include the definition consensus, perception, and media abuse problems. The next section draws on parallels from research on cyber threats and terrorism based on six themes (i.e., modus operandi, domain, targets, impact, antagonists and motivations) to formulate a cyberterrorism conceptual framework. The third section will provide a hypothetical four-step cyberterrorism attack sequence and suggestions for countering cyberterrorism. This chapter will then conclude by highlighting several implications of interest.
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As far as we know, birth and death are solely controlled by nature. But the advancement of the scientific and medical fields currently has made it possible to manipulate both birth and death by extending life spans. Scientists have come up with an enthralling theory of Cryonics in which death can be a process entirely controlled by humans.
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Now in its second edition, Cybercrime: Key Issues and Debates provides a valuable overview of this fast-paced and growing area of law. As technology develops and internet-enabled devices become ever more prevalent, new opportunities exist for that technology to be exploited by criminals. One result of this is that cybercrime is increasingly recognised as a distinct branch of criminal law. The book offers readers a thematic and critical overview of cybercrime, introducing the key principles and clearly showing the connections between topics as well as highlighting areas subject to debate. Written with an emphasis on the law in the UK but considering in detail the Council of Europe's important Convention on Cybercrime, this text also covers the jurisdictional aspects of cybercrime in international law. Themes discussed include crimes against computers, property, offensive content, and offences against the person, and, new to this edition, cybercrime investigation. Clear, concise and critical, this book is designed for students studying cybercrime for the first time, enabling them to get to grips with an area of rapid change.
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This book consist of classroom research papers on Artificial Intelligence
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It is a fact that Teaching and Research are interwoven. Every potential teacher is a researcher and their classroom is a platform to execute their innovation in research. Students of such teachers are gifted as they too are involved in the process of research either as a sample or as a co-investigator. This book is one such evidence that portrays the outcome of classroom research in the form of theoretical research. The students were exposed to collect knowledge about the recent advancement in Engineering and Technology from authentic academic portals and fragment them in a standard framework. Even if the subheadings are common, the literature review conducted against each subheading is different from person to person. Gathering resources, following a unique way of writing and understanding the nuances of academic writing by the budding engineering students are the learning outcomes of the whole process. Though faculty assistance played a key role in organizing the whole process, the students demonstrated enthusiasm and incessant thirst to acquire knowledge.
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Full-text available
It is a fact that Teaching and Research are interwoven. Every potential teacher is a researcher and their classroom is a platform to execute their innovation in research. Students of such teachers are gifted as they too are involved in the process of research either as a sample or as a co-investigator. This book is one such evidence that portrays the outcome of classroom research in the form of theoretical research. The students were exposed to collect knowledge about the recent advancements in Engineering and Technology from authentic academic portals and fragment them in a standard framework. Even if the subheading is different from person to person. gathering resources, following a unique way of writing and understanding the nuances of academic writing by the budding engineering students are the learning outcomes of the whole process. Though faculty assistance played a key role in organizing the whole process, the students demonstrated enthusiasm and incessant thirst to acquire knowledge.
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Due to the continuous usage of gasoline vehicles environment is continuously getting polluted due to which an eco-friendly technology was needed. This led to the invention of electric vehicles. Later it was found out that electric vehicles also faced problem due to heating of batteries which led to the decrease efficiency of the batteries. In warm countries some advanced cooling technology must be introduced so as to overcome heating of batteries. The optimum temperature for batteries is about 25 degree centigrade but due to some internal heating it is difficult to maintain this temperature and due to this various organisations started working for finding an advanced cooling technology so as to increase the efficiency of the batteries and to promote the electric vehicles. Here in this paper some of the current cooling technologies have been discussed along with the comparison with the previous technologies. The preheating of the batteries is also required for starting the electric vehicle and for this sum heat and technologies are the required which are also discuss and this discussion state of charge (SOC) and the health of the batteries should also be maintained in order to increase the life of the battery. For increasing the life of the batteries we have also discuss some technologies in the following pages.
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This paper outlines a hypothetical six-dimension doctrine for military intelligence-gathering in the Akashic domain. The Akashic records are described by esotericists and mystics as a permanent record of all thoughts, feelings, and actions, stored in a kind of cosmic memory bank outside of space and time. Psychics, clairvoyants, and other intuitives purport to read the records, suggesting that development of an operational strategy for accessing such information may be possible. Command oversight, however, would present significant moral challenges, as “hacking” into this information would be a personally intrusive invasion of privacy with serious repercussions for the operators and state sponsors.
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In this rapidly growing era of technology, terrorist organizations do not ultimately depend on weapons, army, bombs, and lethal weapons to inflict terror. As the entire earth is developing at a rapid pace, so do the terrorists. The strategies adopted by them have become cannier and more sinister. In addition to that, they no longer involve in training, making tedious plans, undergoing physical training, and subjecting their allies to physical attacks. Rather, they impose serious threats by attacking their victims by vandalizing the online infrastructure. This can be done conveniently from any part of the globe, thus enabling them to use the dark side of the internet. This chapter focuses on digital terrorism attacks, its impact, and it furnishes certain methods for prevention.
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This chapter describes how with growing reliance of modern society over internet and web-based services in every nook and corner of our daily lives, the threats of disruption and damage to these services has also evolved at a parallel rate. One of these threats having a potential of severe and life-threatening devastations is ‘Cyberterrorism.' Contrasting to non-lethal terms such as ‘internet vandalism' and ‘hacktivism,' cyberterrorism encompasses a daunting reach to destruction to the fabric of our modern society. Because of its nature, despite its rapid growth, contrary to conventional terror attacks, cyberterrorism still seems distant from creating a direct threat to civilian life and society. Due to this distance, there is a lack of attention and focus on counter mechanisms against cyberterrorism. By applying effective techniques and keeping our eyes open, establishments can go a long way to avert cyberterror attacks and also recover quickly in the occurrence of an attack. The conclusion of this chapter is that additional research is needed to identify the areas in which personal and professional functions on the internet are still vulnerable.
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E-government expresses the process of utilizing advanced information and communication technologies (ICT) to automate internal activities of government agencies and their external relations with citizens and businesses. All these interactions provide better, faster and more secure public services. In this article, a method for the detection of terrorism-related activities in the e-government environment has been suggested. In the proposed method, terrorism-related activities are defined based on the similarity between the users' opinions and the vocabulary database created linked to terrorism.
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Analyzes trends in Internet security through an investigation of incidents reported to the CERT Coordination Center. Outcomes include a taxonomy for classifying Internet attacks and incidents, analysis of incident records available at the CERT/CC, and recommendations to improve Internet security. Thesis (Ph. D.)--Carnegie Mellon University, 1997. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 243-246). Photocopy.
Pentagon gets tough in war of the Web
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