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Abstract

Network technology use and cyberspace exploitation for intelligence and attack have become a normal part of military activity. Questions persist as to the appropriate framework for considering this new mode of conflict, but to a degree, these questions result from weak data, imprecise terminology, and a certain reluctance to abandon the notion that cyberconflict is unique, rather than just another mode of attack. This article reviews cyberattack in armed conflicts, thresholds for considering cyberexploits as the use of force, existing armed conflict laws' applicability to cyberattack, and the political implications of cyberexploits' strategic versus tactical applications.

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... The recent cyber feud between the US and Russia, in which the former openly accused the latter of deliberate and orchestrated hacking activities to undermine the integrity of the just-concluded US presidential election, did not come as a surprise. As we witness traditional activities increasingly shifting to this new domain, cyberspace is becoming a focal point not only for beneficial innovations, enterprises and social networking, but also a site for criminality and warfare Lewis, 2011). These latter features are reshaping and redefining the digital space as an environment not only for progress and prosperity, but also for cyber threats. ...
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... Clausewitz understreket også krigens voldsaspekt og fysiske ødeleggelse. I sin definisjon av cyberkrig har Lewis (2011) i så måte lagt seg på en clausewitzisk linje. Han definerer cyberkrig som «bruk av cyberteknikker i den hensikt å forårsake skade, materiell ødeleggelse eller tap av menneskeliv for å oppnå politiske mål utført av stater eller politiske grupper». ...
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Chapter
In the debate on what constitutes acts of war in the cyber environment, some authors proposed to focus on the concept of cyberpeace. Christen and Bangerter question the attempts of defining cyberwar in terms of certain types of attacks. Instead, they suggest focusing on the transgressive nature of both digitalization and war, namely that they tend to infect all spheres of human life. In that sense, peace is a state where immoral acts have limited effects—and cyberpeace is a system property of cyberspace such that the effects of malicious activities can be contained. Cyberpeace thus consists in a sufficient level of cybersecurity in all domains of the digital society. Such a level requires limiting the complexity of information and communication technology (ICT) systems as well as counteracting (to some degree) the interoperability of devices and systems, in particular in likely targets of cyberattacks such as the critical infrastructure.
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Writing about war, I often mistype the word “casualties,” leaving me to wonder what is casual or causal about the harm befalling combatants and noncombatants. Similarly, as a student of armed conl ict, I often wonder what is civil about civilians or civil war. Casual suggests the chance or accidental nature of wartime injuries and deaths. Causal, on the other hand, directs our attention away from chance and toward a discernible sequence of events that result in injury or death. Civil connotes a measure of respect for normative behavior and, therefore, responsibility on the part of all participants, including soldiers, civilians, and bystanders, for the goings on in wartime.
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Public policy discourse about cyber security in the United States is dominated by a metaphor of war and analogies to the Cold War. This essay critically evaluates the contradictory tendency within U.S. cyber war discourse to see cyber conflict as simultaneously revolutionary and unprecedented, but also amenable to the tenets of Cold War nuclear deterrence. This contradiction points to an ongoing crisis of effectively identifying and understanding what is old and new, the same and different about cyber conflict. The first tendency overemphasizes the new/different aspects of cyber conflict while the second simultaneously overemphasizes the old/same aspects. This essay argues that current contradictory tendencies are unproductive and even potentially dangerous. It argues that the war metaphor and nuclear deterrence analogy are neither natural nor inevitable and that abandoning them would open up new possibilities for thinking more productively about the full spectrum of cyber security challenges, including the as-yet unrealized possibility of cyber war.
Article 23; www.icrc.org/ihl
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  • Annex
Hague IV Annex, Article 23; www.icrc.org/ihl.nsf/ WebART/195­200033?OpenDocument.
A History of Warfare, Vintage Books
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Mouse Click Could Plunge City into Darkness, Experts Say CNN, 27 Sept
  • J Meserve