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Information technology use and creativity: Findings from the Children and Technology Project

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Abstract

This research examined relationships between children’s information technology (IT) use and their creativity. Four types of information technology were considered: computer use, Internet use, videogame playing and cell phone use. A multidimensional measure of creativity was developed based on and test of creative thinking. Participants were 491 12-year olds; 53% were female, 34% were African American and 66% were Caucasian American. Results indicated that videogame playing predicted of all measures of creativity. Regardless of gender or race, greater videogame playing was associated with greater creativity. Type of videogame (e.g., violent, interpersonal) was unrelated to videogame effects on creativity. Gender but not race differences were obtained in the amount and type of videogame playing, but not in creativity. Implications of the findings for future research to test the causal relationship between videogame playing and creativity and to identify mediator and moderator variables are discussed.

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... En otro estudio se examinó el uso de diferentes tipos de tecnologías de información en los niños, entre ellos se observó que los videojuegos ayudan a desarrollar la creatividad sin importar el sexo o la raza. (Jackson et al., 2012). ...
... Dentro de los videojuegos pasivos, los cuales se desarrollan generalmente con un mando o control, se distinguen las siguientes categorías: a) Videojuegos violentos: en esta categoría se incluye los juegos de acción, disparos en primera persona y aquellos juegos que la violencia está concentrada en el videojuego; b) Videojuegos de acción y aventura: los juegos de esta categoría implican a juegos de estrategia, rol y resolución de problemas para ganar el videojuego, como Half-Life 2; c) Videojuegos de carreras y conducción: en esta categoría se encuentra la simulación de carreras y conducción; d) Videojuegos deportivos: los videojuegos de esta categoría incluye todos los tipos de deportes y juegos atléticos; e) Videojuegos interpersonales: los juegos de esta categoría implican relaciones interpersonales entre humanos y no humanos, como los videojuegos Sims y Animal Crossing; f) Otros videojuegos: en esta categoría se colocan aquellos juegos que no encajan en ninguna de las anteriores categorías, así como Spider Solitaire y Parkalline (Jackson et al., 2012). ...
... Según Jackson et al. (2012), los distintos tipos de videojuegos están asociados a los beneficios cognitivos, en el estudio los niños desarrollaron más su creatividad sin importar el tipo de videojuego que se jugó. Esto indicó un mayor desarrollo en las capacidades creativas además el esfuerzo constante para dar soluciones creativas a los problemas que se presentan en el videojuego optimizan el desarrollo de la creatividad. ...
Book
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Los videojuegos son productos mediáticos complejos, nacidos del cruce entre múltiples medios y tradiciones expresivas. Por eso, los juegos toman prestados muchos elementos de otros medios y sistemas de significación, mientras estos son transformados también con la invención y el desarrollo del medio nuevo. Jugar un videojuego significa interactuar, relacionarse de manera directa con el juego, y a veces con otros jugadores. También significa situarse en un lugar concreto, dentro de un contexto sociocultural y económico específico, todo lo que puede afectar profundamente la experiencia y el significado de los videojuegos para el jugador. El presente libro constituye un avance rotundo para el análisis del papel de los videojuegos de las culturas hispanas en particular. No se limita a la consideración de temas marginales o de un interés reducido para el mundo de los videojuegos en general; al contrario, los trabajos reunidos evidencian claramente las contribuciones importantes que pueden ofrecer los investigadores iberoamericanos al análisis de la relación entre los juegos y la cultura en cualquier parte del mundo.
... The appeal of the cognitive stimulation offered by games has been explored rather less than their capacity to develop cognitive skills. Previous work has, variously, suggested that playing video is associated with improved spatial skills (Uttal et al., 2013), creativity (Jackson et al., 2012) and communication skill, adaptability and resourcefulness (Barr, 2017). However, the existence of such a large body of work on the cognitive benefits of playing video games must go some way towards vindicating the beliefs expressed by participants here. ...
... According to self-determination theory (SDT), competence and autonomy are, along with relatedness, the three basic psychological needs that humans must have satisfied to ensure well-being (Ryan & Deci, 2000). SDT is frequently used to understand motivations for playing video games (Ryan, Rigby, & Przybylski, 2006) and to help explain some of the positive outcomes associated with well-being (Adachi & Willoughby, 2017;Jackson et al., 2012;Reer & Krämer, 2018). Certainly, the theory provides a useful means of understanding why participants here connect playing games with improved well-being: games are addressing basic needs that are otherwise not being satisfied under lockdown conditions. ...
Article
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The COVID-19 pandemic has affected our lives in many ways, including how we choose to spend our time and deal with unprecedented circumstances. Anecdotal reports suggest that many have turned to playing video games during the pandemic. To better understand how games are being used during the lockdown, we conducted an online survey (N = 781) that focused on gameplay habits and effects on players' well-being. We find that time spent playing games has increased for 71% of respondents , while 58% of respondents reported that playing games has impacted their well-being, with the overwhelming majority of responses indicating a positive impact. We identify seven ways that games have affected players, such as providing cognitive stimulation and opportunities to socialise, and a variety of benefits related to mental health, including reduced anxiety and stress. Our findings highlight the sociocultural significance of video games and the potentially positive nature of games' effects on well-being.
... Por otra parte desde la neurociencia cognitiva se ha explorado la relación entre la experiencia de juego y habilidades más complejas como la creatividad, que depende de varios procesos como la flexibilidad cognitiva (capacidad de modificar ideas o conceptos para adaptarse a una tarea (Bavelier, 2012)), la fluidez ideacional (habilidad para generar un gran número de ideas (Yeh,2015)) y la combinación conceptual (función cognitiva que permite asociar conceptos de manera coherente para evitar relaciones aleatorias incongruentes (Boden,2004)) identificando que el tipo de demanda cognitiva que requieren algunos videojuegos mejoraría el desempeño en pruebas de creatividad (Ward, 2007, Jackson, 2012, Yeh, 2015. ...
... Para este propósito se tomó una muestra de 36 voluntarios, expertos en videojuegos de acción entre los 20 y los 30 años de edad, siendo la variable independiente el tipo de juego, divida en juegos de acción y de no acción, donde se evidenció mayor originalidad, flexibilidad y elaboración(Yeh, 2015). Así mismo Yeh (2015) describe como Mendelsohn (1976), Runco y Sakamoto (1999) establecen la importancia de la atención desenfocada o ampliada, que supone una hipersensibilidad atencional a los estímulos del medio, dado que al ampliar la atención se promueve la asociación de ideas o información remota para trasmitir continuidad, lo que facilita el rendimiento creativo, mientras que una atención focalizada podría dificultar la generación de ideas novedosas.Estos resultados sin embargo son refutados en investigaciones realizadas en niños, sobre el tipo de videojuego y su correlación con la creatividad, ya que en el estudio adelantado porJackson et al. (2012) con 492 participantes, al correlacionar diferentes actividades como el uso de videojuegos, computadores o teléfonos celulares, se encontró que los videojuegos mejoraban la producción creativa evaluada por el test de Torrance en todas las áreas, pero no se encontraron diferencias significativas entre el tipo de juego, videojuegos de acción/ violencia o de no acción. ...
Thesis
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Los videojuegos se han convertido en herramientas populares de entretenimiento a nivel mundial, en Colombia se calcula que un promedio de tres millones de personas consumen de manera regular videojuegos en consolas de alta tecnología (Newzoo, 2017). Diferentes investigaciones reportan que el uso regular de videojuegos permite mejorar habilidades como la atención visual y el control ejecutivo (considerado el modelo que mejor explica la relación entre el uso de videojuegos y el incremento en el desempeño de tareas de memoria de trabajo, inhibición y flexibilidad cognitiva) (Bavelier, 2012, Colzato, 2013) habilidades que a nivel teórico se relacionan con procesos psicológicos necesarios para la creatividad (Chávez et al, 2004). Por este motivo se vuelve importante investigar y profundizar en las posibles relaciones que existen entre el uso de videojuegos y un mejor desempeño en tareas de funcionamiento ejecutivo y pensamiento creativo. Metodología: En este estudio se comparó y describió el desempeño de videojugadores expertos e inexpertos por medio de la realización de tareas de creatividad, control ejecutivo y funciones ejecutivas. Se incluyeron pruebas neuropsicológicas de lápiz y papel: la versión abreviada del test de Torrance ATTA (Abbreviated Torrance test for adults), pruebas de retención de dígitos verbal, memoria visual, atención focalizada y dividida trail making test TMT A y TMT B, memoria de trabajo, tarea stroop y la tarea de torre de Londres para planeación ideacional y pruebas de tiempos de reacción: tarea stop signal, tipo flanker y Nback. La muestra poblacional estuvo compuesta por treinta y seis (n=36) adultos jóvenes (18 videojugadores y 18 inexpertos) los cuales fueron evaluados en cada una de las categorías. Conclusiones: La experiencia con videojuegos puede estar relacionada con el incremento en habilidades para disminuir el efecto de la distracción en tareas tipo Flanker y también podría incrementar la memoria de trabajo.
... Similarly, cognitive absorption has been associated with IT/IS use (cf. [4,89,132,136,176]), which adds to the stream of research in IS examining the interplay between creativity and technology use (see [76]; Yeh, 2015), but not creativity in the context of platform workers. ...
... This also complements research streams in IS that examine the interplay between creativity and technology use (e.g. [76]; Yeh, 2015), and the relationship between cognitive absorption and job performance [40]. ...
Article
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Technology has facilitated platform-mediated work, and individuals are often encouraged to engage with technology using various digital solutions. However, for platform workers, the use of technology can lead to digital overload, which may negatively impact their burnout and performance. In this paper, we examine the interplay between individuals’ cognitive absorption in technology and technology overload in predicting gig workers’ creative output. Using empirical data from 263 Amazon Mechanical Turk platform workers, we show that cognitive absorption positively predicts gig workers’ creativity. However, moderated-mediation analysis shows that in the case of high technology overload, cognitive absorption with technology leads to burnout and reduces creativity levels of the workers
... Video games assisted in the development of language, basic math, basic reading and social skills among special-needs children, and children with attention-deficit disorder showed improvement in attention span, impulsiveness and hyperactivity (Griffiths, 2002). By the same token, Jackson et al. (2012), employing the Torrance Test of Creative Thinking 9 , found that kids who played video games (regardless of the type of video game) were more creative than kids who didn't play. ...
... A wide range of studies link video games to the development of language skills, math and reading skills, creativity, problem-solving, concentration and attention span, and increased performance in mathematics, engineering and science (Jackson et al., 2012;Mark Griffiths, 2003;Subrahmanyam, Smahel, & Greenfield, 2006;Uttal et al., 2013;Hubert-Wallander, Green, & Bavelier, 2011). Ninety-five per cent of the respondents in our study are convinced that video games are educational, with 32% reporting acquiring real skills while having fun: reading, writing, mathematics, the English language, the basics of informatics, strategic thinking, geography and history, teamwork, physics, chemistry, music, first aid, perspective change, etc. ...
Thesis
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Modern video games are complex, diverse, immersive and pervasive, and their influence on society and people is far-reaching. Video games and their impacts were initially demonised, but over time research started assessing the positive effects of games on competencies and abilities connected to twenty-first-century skills that include cultural literacy. In line with this trend, this thesis examines how entertaining commercial titles, serious games, educational games and simulations can support players in learning and in acquiring skills that enhance cultural literacy. An analysis of the common trends for the skills and competencies needed for success in the twenty-first century ¿studied by UNESCO, the British Council, IBM, Google, LinkedIn, and the World Economic Forum, among other,¿ revealed that living in a VUCA (volatility, uncertainty, complexity and ambiguity) world requires a new, updated model of cultural literacy. This thesis proposes such a model. A review was made of the recent literature on the impact and outcomes of video games, showing that video games can reinforce or weaken stereotypes; help to acquire cultural knowledge and develop intercultural literacy, socio-cultural literacy, cultural awareness, self-awareness, and the cultural understanding of different geopolitical spaces; and to some extent also facilitate the development of intercultural skills. The heart of the thesis is an investigation into the effectiveness of video games for tackling difficult social issues such as migratory movements and the refugee crisis. Two studies were conducted one quantitative and the other qualitative that obtained heartening results for producers of empathy video games. Many participants reported feeling more empathy and less rejection towards migrants and refugees, as well as being more motivated to actively help people in need. Additionally, a broad survey revealed the AAA entertainment game genres, characters, and in-game elements and features that digital natives find attractive and those they miss and would like in the future. The findings also confirmed that games produce not only fun but also a great deal of learning. The English language, the basics of informatics, strategic thinking, geography and history, teamwork, cultural knowledge, perspective change, and creativity are all learnt and reinforced during video game play. The evidence presented in this thesis suggests there is a demand for tools facilitating intercultural education. The high point of the thesis is the design of Chuzme, an educational digital game that focuses on raising cultural self-awareness and the acknowledgement of cultural bias in order to generate positive attitudes towards migrants, refugees and expatriates. In summary, this thesis supports the idea that video games facilitate the acquisition of cultural literacy and provides evidence on the cultural, social and communication bene¿ts of gaming that hopefully encourages scholars to actively integrate video games in their teaching practice. Keywords: games studies; intercultural communication, the impact of video games, games-based learning, cultural literacy
... In a recent study, it was found that women are more creative than men, particularly in flexibility; in the rest of the components of creativity, no significant differences were observed [49]. For their part, [50][51][52] found no differences according to gender. With these differences, it is not possible to have a clear view regarding gender and creativity. ...
... In any case, the results of this study are in line with those of a wide range of studies in which no differences between genders were observed in cognitive variables [50][51][52]. This aspect is especially relevant as studies on gender differences have been generalized with all of the relevance that they have at a practical level. ...
Article
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Background: Creativity is one of the most relevant aspects in students' training. One of the purposes of the present work is to show the lack of differences between boys and girls in creativity; the other is the possibility of improving creativity among high-ability students who received specific training as part of their intra-curricular content in a total grouping program for gifted students. Method: The sample consisted of 42 students from first to third grade (13 females and 29 males) and 58 students from fourth to sixth grade (21 females and 37 males). Creativity was measured with the CREA test for younger students and with the PIC-N for older students. Training was carried out through an Integral Innovation and Creativity Program (PIIC). Results: The results showed no differences between genders, except in one of the graphic creativity scales (Details). There were improvements due to the training in all measures of narrative creativity and in the scale of elaboration of graphic creativity. Conclusions: The main conclusions are the importance of increasing creativity with specific programs and the need to improve interventions in graphic creativity.
... Л. Джексон и другие исследователи обнаружили, что видеоигры положительно влияют на креативность у детей, при этом другие современные технологии, такие как компьютер, Интернет, не показали подобного результата. Однако остается непроясненным один момент: видеоигры развивают креативность, или творческие дети предпочитают их, или оба утверждения справедливы [94]. В видеоиграх жанра симулятора бога, где игрок управляет сообществом игровых объектов и персонажей в роли некоей высшей сущности, обладающей сверхъестественными способностями, креативность проявляется сильнее всего. ...
Book
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The monograph is devoted to the issues of understanding video games as a significant phenomenon of modern culture. The main task that the authors of the book set themselves is to acquaint the reader with a wide range of scientific problems in the field of video game research. The monograph contains a study of the origins and effects of video games, highlights the main stages of the development of the gaming industry and game studies. Videogames are investigated from the standpoint of philosophy, cultural studies, psychology, sociology, religious studies and modern educational issues. The book is addressed to a wide audience, but first of all it will be interesting and useful to representatives of the social sciences who are engaged in the study of digital culture and video games.
... [10] .シカート (2014) は,ゲームと創造性が関連性を 有すると述べている [12] .Ott らは,ゲームベース学習の長期 的な研究プロジェクトにおいて,デジタルツールの活用が創 造性の促進に貢献していることを明らかにしている [13] .この 中で観察者は,創造性を測定するために,Ott ら [14] の開発し た指標に基づき,学習者を直接観察している.この指標は, 世 の 中 に と っ て 新 し い 革 新 的 な 創 造 性 で あ る 「 Big-C Creativity」ではなく,本人にとって新しく,日常の中で見られ る「little-c creativity」に焦点が当てられている [ ...
Article
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between “creativity” and “video game uses and gratifications” among students majoring in digital game development and design. To understand game use and satisfaction, we used Iguchi's Video Game Uses and Gratifications Scale and hypothesized that there is a relationship between “creativity” and “video game uses and gratifications,” and accordingly, conducted a survey. The results revealed that students who scored high on “fantasy,” “recognition,” “achievement,” and “study” tended to be significantly more creative, while “preference” and “diversion” were not associated with other game use and gratification factors or creativity. Thus, the results support the hypothesis. The findings suggested that (1) “fantasy,” “recognition,” “achievement,” and “study” could stimulate creativity, and (2) “preference” and “diversion” could be considered as independent factors.
... Video games specified Another cognitive benefit is that it increases creativity. Any video, regardless of whether it is violent or not play increases children's creativity capacity reported (20). Instant feedback in the game encourage players to concentrate and achieve success It was reported that it enabled them to insist on continuation. ...
Article
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The rapid development of technology news has affected all areas as well as sports news and has caused new arrival. Both playing and watching competitive video games and computer games have created the concept of electronic sports (sports). However, it is played in virtual or computer environment and does not require serious financial resources, which may be facilities for modern sports or the ability to do this sport anywhere in the world. One of the most important features is to play individually and as a team and to require natural sports. At least 400 million people in the world are e-sports viewers, more than 100 million people are e-sports players and at least 7 million people in our country are e-sports players and viewers.-Sports is a new water sport in Turkey. It reveals in the literature that e-sports is a sport and that it does not spoil it, and the similar and different aspects of modern non-electronic sports and their relations with the said physical activity.
... (2) Creativity and CT Creativity is defined as a cognitive process, which involves the creation of new ideas or concepts or new connections between existing ideas or concepts (Jackson et al., 2012). CT requires students to formulate problems in a way that enables the use of a computer and other tools to help solve them (Barr et al., 2011). ...
Article
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This study aimed to analyze the effects of Scratch language learning on the computational thinking skills (creativity, algorithmic thinking, cooperativity, critical thinking, and problem solving) of primary school students. We conducted an experiment with 336 Chinese primary students studying in fifth grade. At the beginning of the experiment, all students were required to complete the Computational Thinking Scale (CTS) to measure their CT skills. During the 5 weeks of lesson learning, all students were taught with the same instruction strategy and curriculum. Finally, they appeared for the CTS test again. The research findings indicate that there was a significant difference in the skills of creativity, cooperativity, and critical thinking. However, in this study, Scratch learning did not cause any significant differences in the problem-solving and algorithmic thinking skills of primary school students. Moreover, in both tests, while the girls scored lower than the boys in most skills, they were at the same significance level in most cases. Finally, we suggest providing students with more meaningful programming problems to practice and encourage teachers to combine Scratch with other subjects, such as mathematics and robotic programming.
... The direct and indirect impact of gaming on children can be both positive and negative. Social and collaborative play in online games has been identified as key to learning (Ventura, Shute & Zhao, 2013;Schaaf & Mohan, 2014) and fun (Kaye & Bryce, 2012), boosting creativity (Jackson, Witt, Games, Fitzgerald, von Eye & Zhao, 2012), improving cognitive abilities (Przybylski, 2014), strategic thinking and digital skills (Hygen, Belsky, Stenseng, Skalicka, Kvande, Zahl-Thanem & Wichstrom, 2020), all of which lead to a sense of well-being of children (Amerijckx & Humblet, 2014). However, as with many other online activities involving children, gameplay can have some negative aspects. ...
Article
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For the central entertainment industry of the 21 st century-online gaming, children are undoubtedly the key consumer group. Although research on the impact of the gaming industry on children mainly deals with adverse effects such as addiction, violent content, inappropriate conduct and monetisation of personal data, there are also much positive effects-family fun, virtual socialising, improving cognitive skills and using games as a teaching tool. Therefore, all participants' task in the gaming industry value chain is to maximise the positive and minimise the negative impacts on children. A survey conducted among 893 young gamers in Serbia exposed their habits in consuming online games and indicated whether their rights are protected during the gameplay. The conclusion provides recommendations for key stakeholders in the gaming industry's ecosystem on making the digital playground inclusive, safe, and responsible for respecting children's rights.
... In addition, one of the elements that enhance Creativity is intrinsic motivation, which is precisely enhanced by video games (Gee, 2005). With all these variables exposed, a link between Rocket League and Creativity can be established, even supporting the researched hypothesis that video games can improve this soft skill (Jackson et al., 2012;Inchamnan et al., 2013). ...
Chapter
Esports have had a tremendous evolution since the commencement of the amateur video game tournaments. With over 75 million players, Rocket League has emerged as one of the most popular video games. In this chapter, the authors will expose a hypothetical bibliography-based model of the impact of this video game on the players' soft skills development trying to connect the relation between Rocket League and the potential development of numerous soft skills such as coordination with others or goal setting, amongst others. Soft skills are gaining relevance in the academic and professional sector since they are becoming of high value for professional profile differentiation. Rocket League, amongst other video games, may resolve into the perfect and engaging soft skills-enhancing instrument to assemble the training needs of current students and professionals, as explained in the examples of educational applications of Rocket League.
... Message creation, analysis, or critique can only be possible by a deep understanding of a context and evaluation of alternative solutions to address a communication-based problem. As such, creativity should be a central aspect of solutions for communication-based problems (Jackson et al., 2012). ...
Article
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Originally developed in the field of design, design thinking is widely used as a pedagogical tool to help non-designer students cultivate creative thinking and problem-solving skills. Despite its positive effects on student learning via increased motivation, openness to new ideas, and creative thinking, the understanding of design thinking is limited in the field of communication. Using an exploratory case-study methodology, this study aims to examine the effects of using design thinking on students' learning experience in the communication classroom. The thematic analysis of student self-reflection essays revealed that students had very positive experiences with the design-thinking framework. More specifically, design thinking provided students with a toolkit for creative problem solving, helped students create practical knowledge, and allowed them to engage in deeper learning and harness the benefits of collaborative creativity. The findings are discussed to advance pedagogical implications for integrating design thinking as a creative learning tool in the instruction of communication classes in higher education.
... It is possible that people who often use computers to draw or edit visual contents may possess better skills due to frequent practice, thus making them more fluent in creating computer drawings. Other technology experience not related to drawing may also influence creativity performance, such as playing video games (Jackson et al., 2012). ...
Article
Divergent thinking (DT) tests are the most frequently used types of creativity assessment and have been administered in traditional paper and pencil format for more than a half century. With the prevalence of computer-based testing and increasing demands for large-scale, faster, and more flexible testing procedures, it is necessary to explore and test the usability of computer-based divergent thinking tests. Yet few studies have focused on the use of technologies in the assessment of creativity, including divergent thinking tests. The purpose of the present study was to design and test the feasibility of an online divergent thinking (DT) test. The following three aims were addressed: (1) evaluate reliability evidence of DT test scores, (2) explore relationships between technology use and online DT performance, and (3) compare the online test with its paper version regarding DT scores. One hundred and sixty-four participants were recruited from the University of Connecticut and randomly assigned into three groups: online-basic (OB), online-advanced (OA), and paper-and-pencil (PP). Based on the results of reliability analysis, six DT scores were selected for analysis of variance and multiple regression modeling. The findings indicated that, despite of the possible link between technology use and online DT performance, no differences were found between different modes (online vs. paper) or different interfaces (simple tools vs. advanced tools) in terms of either DT scores or reliability evidence. Additionally, males were found to produce overall significantly higher originality scores than females did in the line meaning test and the real-world problem test. The implications of these findings are further discussed in the paper.
... For example, Hamlen (2009) found no significant relationships between the time students spent playing video games and students' creativity-holding students' gender and grade constant. In contrast, Jackson et al. (2012) found a positive and significant correlation between students' video games playing and their creativity. That is, students who played more video games tended to have higher creativity scores. ...
Article
Creativity is one of the most essential skills for success in life in our dynamic, complex world. For instance, we are currently facing major problems with the COVID-19 pandemic, which requires creative thinking for solutions. To increase the pool of creative thinkers, we need tools that can assess and support people's creativity. With advances in technologies, as well as in computer and learning sciences, we can create such support tools. In this study, we investigated the effectiveness of a creativity-support system that we developed in the level editor of an educational game called Physics Playground. Our goal was to improve college students' creativity. Participants (n = 114) were randomly assigned to one of four conditions and instructed to create as many creative game levels as possible in about two hours. The four conditions included: (1) Inspirational – with supports that provided access to a website with example levels, a brainstorming tool, and a remote association activity; (2) Instructional – with supports that provided specific instructions to first design as many levels as possible, then pick four of the levels, and enhance them using a tool called SCAMPER; (3) Both – with both inspirational and instructional supports; and (4) No Support, which did not include any creativity supports. The major finding from this research was that the Both condition was significantly more effective than the other conditions in improving students' creativity measured by the creativity of the game levels created by the students. Implications of the findings, limitations, and future research are discussed.
... Egyes játéktípusok (például akció-és kalandjátékok) fejlesztik a használók térbeli és navigációs készségeit, problémamegoldó és analitikai képességeit és memóriáját. Emellett gyakorlatilag valamennyi típusú videójáték bizonyítottan összefügg a használók kreativitásával (Jackson et al., 2012), noha az ok-okozati viszony iránya nem derül ki világosan. A játékok segítségével a gyermekek és a fiatalok jobb kedélyállapotra tehetnek szert. ...
... In this context, the competences able to be developed using video games according to the current evidence, are -amongst others-spatial skills (Uttal et al., 2013;Green & Bavelier, 2007;Jackson et al., 2011;Milani et al ., 2019), problem solving (Ventura et al., 2012;Gee, 2005;Adachi & Willoughby, 2013), communication (Barr, 2017Barr, 2018), creativity (Hall et al., 2019 ;Jackson et al., 2012), recognition of opportunities (Scott et al., 2020), attention (Boot et al., 2008;Barr, 2017;Barr, 2018), social skills (Chamarro et al., 2014) and adaptability (Barr, 2017;Barr, 2018). ...
Chapter
The preconceived notion concerning negative effects of video games and students' academic performance is a widely known subject. However, some investigations explore the positive impact of video games on academic performance. With a sample of 247 university students, this chapter studies the perception of both gamers and non-gamers about soft skills and their current relevance in academic and professional fields. The possible relationships linking the intensity of the usage of video games, academic performance, and the perception concerning soft skills are investigated. The results expose a generalized positive perception respecting the relation between video games and the development of soft skills, specifically to the video game genre and its relevance and influence on academic performance, as well as gender differences, where women prevail in emotional and social managements, although this influence is not elevated.
... Nevertheless, videogames have been reported to be effective when supplemented with other pedagogical methods and played in groups, but not more motivating than conventional methods of teaching ( Wouters et al., 2013 ). Research in the US suggests they support creativity ( Jackson et al., 2012 ), play and the related cognitive, emotional, and social development ( Granic et al., 2014 ). ...
Article
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The development of new technology and the central role it plays in current times has allowed an increasing number of children and young people (CYP) to use it on a daily basis for academic, entertainment, and socialisation purposes. Although the role of technology in affecting CYP's mental health and education is well researched, there is a need to investigate the teacher perspective, considering educators’ pivotal role in supporting CYP's wellbeing and learning. Understanding the teacher perspective can provide important information about practical issues surrounding the use of technology in education and can provide insights into how their practices are affected by their views. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate teachers’ views on how use of technology affects CYP's emotions and behaviours. An exploratory, qualitative research approach was taken, and semi-structured interview data was collected from eight teachers and analysed thematically. The results suggested teachers recognised the importance of technology as a learning and teaching tool, as long as it is used in a balanced way; there was also a consensus on the negative consequences of the ‘socioeconomic digital divide’ on CYP's emotions and behaviours. However, they held conflicting opinions on issues related to the impact of technology on socialisation processes, self-esteem, and the demonstration of specific behaviours like social isolation. Teachers’ perceptions can inform strategies for using technology effectively in the classroom and for supporting CYP's mental health and wellbeing, which, now more than ever, should be at the forefront of whole-school approaches.
... A wide range of studies link video games to the development of language skills, math and reading skills, creativity, problem-solving, concentration and attention span, and increased performance in mathematics, engineering, and science (Jackson et al., 2012;Griffiths, 2003;Subrahmanyam et al., 2006;Uttal et al., 2013;Hubert-Wallander et al., 2011). 95% of the respondents in our study were convinced that video games are educational; 32% reported acquiring real skills while having fun: reading, writing, mathematics, the English language, the basics of informatics, strategic thinking, geography and history, teamwork, physics, chemistry, music, first aid, changes in perspective, and so on. ...
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This study presents the results of a survey consisting of broad, mostly open-ended questions concerning the video game preferences of Generation Z gamers and casual players (N = 427). One of our aims was to gain relevant insights into the gaming preferences of Generation Z players and to describe what they find appealing in AAA entertainment games. In particular, this study revealed the video game genres, characters, and in-game elements and features that Gen Zers find attractive both in general and by gender. Our study also explored the genres, characters, in-game elements, and features that Gen Zers miss and are looking for in future games. Understanding the preferences of Gen Z players allows game designers, especially designers of educational and serious games dealing with current global and social issues, to make inferences about the Generation Z's preferred game features and thus better personalise gameplay. Our findings also confirmed that video games are both fun and educational: our respondents indicated that they learned and reinforced knowledge about the English language, the basics of informatics, strategic thinking, geography and history, teamwork, cultural knowledge, perspective change, and creativity during video gameplay.
... It remains to be seen if this 'mindset' generalises usefully to other areas of classroom activity. Also relating to a general capacity for creativity, videogame playing has been found to 'predict' some measures of it, at least with 12 year-olds in the USA (Jackson et al., 2011). But, as is often said, correlation is not causation, so it remains to be seen if providing videogames raises creative competence, or increases it in specific classroom domains. ...
Article
We are now moving rapidly into a new world, one shaped by the Fourth ‘Industrial’ Revolution. This world is one in which digital technologies in various forms will shape work, play and everyday life. Such technologies, unlike the relatively passive ones of the past, are adaptive, able to learn and make decisions and changes using their artificial intelligence (AI). AI, however, has its limits, and productive thought continues to need fostering in the classroom. As a consequence, education systems around the world must respond in what has been called the Fourth Education Revolution. This article explores the potential relationship between AI, creative thinking and education, and the fostering and development of human creative thinking supported by AI. Some significant omissions in current notions of AI support for creative thinking are presented, and some cautionary thoughts offered. The article concludes with recommendations for a more structured and comprehensive provision of AI support.
... The literature on the utility and benefits of video games reveals enormous potential. Results have been found indicating a connection with enhanced cognitive abilities, improved coordination of senses such as sight or touch, spatial reasoning, capacity for attention and creativity [50,51], and the development of social, educational, and spatial skills [9][10][11]. Gamification is also being explored as a means of instrumentalising learning [31]: interactivity and viewer participation in video games facilitate the acquisition of knowledge in a natural way [52]. ...
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In recent years, live video streaming platforms for video games have been gaining popularity. These types of services, which enable anyone to broadcast and consume live content, are revolutionising the current video game landscape. Users approach the emergence of and participation in these platforms driven by a range of motivations. It is essential to characterise the different forms of participation in services such as Twitch to evaluate the phenomenon and reflect on its advantages and disadvantages. To that end, a survey was carried out of 580 young people and adolescents aged between 14 and 24. The aim of this study is thus to explore the uptake of these platforms, as well as identify user groups, distinguish between different motivations, and address the associated benefits and harms. Applying a methodology based on factor analysis and cluster analysis, user profiles were characterised according to their specific features, gaming/viewing hours, self-perception of their skill level as a player, devices used, and type or genre of video game. Four subgroups of gamers/viewers were thus identified: casual, social, hobby, and problematic. The results showed that older users and female users feature more prominently in the first two groups, as do those spending less time on video games and live streaming platforms. Conversely, in the hobby and problematic groups, we observe just the opposite. The existence of profiles at possible risk of addiction underlines how, at a preventive level, there is a need for more in-depth research on these types of services and greater public awareness of the dangers of uncontrolled use.
... Guilford asserted that creativity is directly related to divergent thinking, aiming to create new knowledge from existing information in memory by searching and raising different ideas in diverse directions. Other definitions that fall under the Process category relate to exploratory problem-solving processes and to production of new, innovative ideas, either individually (e.g., definitions by Fullen, M., & Langworthy, 2014; Jackson et al., 2012;Sawyer, 2012) or collaboratively (e.g., definitions by Manches & Plowman, 2017;McGuinness & O'Hare, 2012). Some of these even provide an operative definition of creativity (e.g., Binkley et al., 2012), identifying specific stages involved in the creative process, such as the phases of design thinking presented by Brown (2008). ...
Article
Both computational thinking (CT) and creativity have been recognized as key skills for today's learners. Over the last decade, research of both skills in a single context has emerged. In this paper, we present a scoping review of 62 such empirical from 2011 to 2020. Our goal was to have a thorough understanding of the educational settings in which research on both CT and creativity was conducted, the theoretical foundations it has laid down, and the research tools used. Our findings indicate a geographical bias (dominance of the US and prominence of developed European countries), as well as a focus on secondary education and on STEM-related disciplines; this could be explained by the current situation of CT spread. We also found that when studying CT and creativity jointly, it is most common to define CT in a broader perspective than merely programming of computer science. Additionally, while creativity is largely referred to as product-related, CT is barely referred to as such. Taken together, our findings point out some gaps in the current research of CT and creativity and suggest how it should be expended on the fertile grounds of creativity, as the latter crosses geographical, age, and subject borders. Doing so may build a bridge between CT and creativity in a way that will benefit both.
... Oyunlar şiddet içerikli olsun ya da olmasın herhangi bir dijital oyun oynamanın çocukların yaratıcı kapasitelerini geliştirdiğine dair yeni kanıtlar ortaya konmaktadır. Cinsiyet veya ırktan bağımsız olarak, daha fazla dijital oyun oynamak daha fazla yaratıcılıkla ilişkilendirilmiştir (Jackson et al., 2012). Oynanan oyunların seviyesi zorlaştıkça oyuncuların mücadelenin içinde kalmaya devam etme isteği çocukları kararlı olmaya ve başarıyı kovalamaya teşvik etmektedir (Granic et al., 2014). ...
Chapter
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Oyunlar, çocuk ve ergenlere (adölesanlara) eğitim, fiziksel aktivite, sağlığın korunması ve gelişimi, yaşama hazırlık, boş zamanları değerlendirme ve eğlence gibi çeşitli olanaklar sunmaktadır. Bilişim teknolojilerindeki gelişmelerle birlikte geleneksel oyunlar da yeni bir boyut kazanarak “dijital oyunlar” kavramını ortaya çıkarmıştır. Dijital oyunlar, erken çocukluk döneminden itibaren her yaş grubu tarafından tercih edilirken günlük yaşamlarının vazgeçilmez bir unsuru haline gelmiştir. Dijital oyunlar birçok yönden faydalı olmakla birlikte bilinçsiz, aşırı ve yanlış kullanım ve maruz kalınan problemli içeriklerden dolayı bireyler üzerinde olumsuz etkiler de oluşturabilmektedir. Bu nedenle, bu bölümün amacı, çocuk ve adölesanlarda dijital oyunların yararları, zararları ve riskleri konusunda farkındalık oluşturmaktır. Bu kapsamda, bu bölümde dijital oyunların çocuklar ve ergenlerin gelişimi ve sağlığı üzerindeki etkileri ortaya konulmaya çalışılacak ve ortaya çıkacak zarar ve risklerin önlenmesi için yapılması gerekenler ve alınması gereken önlemler öneriler olarak sunulacaktır.
... Despite the survey being advertised broadly, there is the possibility that those who completed it already self-identified as creative and as a result were more likely to take part. As has been argued elsewhere, engaging in gameplay may increase creativity and in turn, those who play games may be more creative as a result (Jackson, 2012;Jackson & Games, 2015;Jackson et al., 2012). As such, future studies may wish to compare differences in attitudes between those who self-identify as creative and those who do not. ...
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... Consistently, a small but significant body of research has begun to grow, documenting the mental benefits of video games (contrary to the conventional beliefs that online games are harmful). Past empirical studies reported the mental benefits of gaming, such as spatial skill improvement (Green & Bavelier, 2012), more effective allocation of attentional resources Qiu et al., 2018), better problem-solving skills (Adachi & Willoughby, 2013), and enhanced creativity (Jackson et al., 2012). The improved mental skills might function as protective factors to prevent players from being trapped in the vicious cycle of gaming addiction. ...
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Playing mobile MOBA games has become a popular leisure activity among Malaysian youth. However, MOBA games are highly addictive and have negative impacts on adult development. Inadequate local studies investigated the risk factors of excessive MOBA gameplay. The present study examined the (1) predictive role of need frustration on Internet gaming disorder (IGD) and (2) mediating effect of gaming motives. A total of 398 mobile MOBA gamers aged 18 to 29 participated in this cross-sectional online survey study. The findings showed that need frustration positively predicted IGD. Social, escape, competition, coping, and skill motives were significant mediators for the association between need frustration and IGD. However, fantasy and recreation motives were not significant mediators. MOBA players who were frustrated while fulfilling their basic needs may succumb to uncontrollable gaming behavior. Therefore, future prevention and intervention programs should cultivate positive mental strength for youth while meeting their basic needs.
... For instance, Dow (2008) found no impact on written creativity, visual creativity, or problem solving among four experimental conditions (i.e., text, pictures, audio, TV). Jackson et al. (2012) discovered no relationship between creativity and daily usage of a computer, the Internet, or a cellphone. Hamlen (2009) established that there was no significant relationship between the time spent playing video games in a typical week and the general creativity of fourth-and fifth-grade students. ...
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Creativity is essential for the sustainable development of both individuals and organizations. The constant permeation of technology into everyday life is expected to facilitate the cultivation of creativity. To date, no consistent answer has been reached regarding the effect of technology on creativity. This study conducted a three-level random-effects meta-analysis to explore this question. An examination of a sample of 50 studies with 322 effect sizes yielded a moderate positive effect (g = 0.59, 95% CI [0.38, 0.81]). Moderation analysis revealed that the effect was moderated by human–computer interaction, domain, measures of creativity, study design, intervention time, and randomization. Specifically, technologies requiring human–computer interaction led to a greater effect size than those requiring only passive watching. A larger effect was found for creativity in math than in other domains. Effects on originality, elaboration, and overall creativity were greater than those on fluency and flexibility. The effect was larger for studies using a pretest–posttest control group design than those using a posttest control group design. Experiments using a quasi-experimental rather than a randomized experimental design resulted in a lower effect size. Technology interventions spanning a medium or long period displayed a greater positive effect than short-term interventions. These findings confirmed the positive effect of technology on creativity, providing practical implications for creativity educators and researchers.
... In both the academic community and testing industry, there is a growing interest in utilizing videogamebased tasks to improve psychological assessment for the dynamic, interactive and engaging animation features in games and additional behavioral data that are difficult to obtain in traditional tests (Green & Kaufman, 2015;Landers, 2014;Shute & Rahimi, 2021;Shute & Ventura, 2013). There also has been some research evidence supporting the potential benefits of videogame playing for nurturing creativity (e.g., Jackson et al., 2012;Kassim et al., 2014), which makes videogames become attractive to educators who aspire to develop students' 21st century "Four Cs" skills-critical thinking, creativity, communication, and collaboration (National Education Association, 2012; Whorton et al., 2017). As an educational medium that offers authentic creating and crafting experience, Minecraft has been used by teachers around the world to illustrate scientific concepts in an engaging way in classrooms and is at the forefront of the change to improve learning experience and effectiveness (Nebel et al., 2016). ...
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Considering creativity as a novel-and-useful performance outcome, this study explored the predictive effects of cognitive abilities (i.e., divergent thinking, intellectual aptitude as indicated by SAT scores) and Big Five personality traits on creativity and its two aspects (i.e., novelty and usefulness) in addition to the intercorrelations between creativity, novelty, and usefulness in a Minecraft building task. Regression analyses based on a college student sample (N = 285) revealed that Minecraft creativity was predicted by divergent thinking (β = .16, p < .01), SAT scores (β = .27, p < .001), and Openness to Experience (β = .23, p < .001), supporting the standing beliefs regarding individual antecedents of creativity. Such personal characteristics however, had different predictive effects on the two components of creativity, in that novelty was predicted by divergent thinking (β = .14, p < .01), SAT scores (β = .13, p < .01), and Openness to Experience (β = .27, p < .001) whereas usefulness was predicted by Openness to Experience only (β = .14, p < .01). In terms of the intercorrelations among creativity and its two subdimensions, novelty and usefulness were found to be highly correlated with each other (r = .72, p < .001) and were also both highly related to creativity (rnovelty-creativity = .89, p< .001, and rusefulness-creativity = .65, p < .001, respectively). Implications of these results, several key avenues for future research, and study limitations are discussed.
... Despite the survey being advertised broadly, there is the possibility that those who completed it already self-identified as creative and as a result were more likely to take part. As has been argued elsewhere, engaging in gameplay may increase creativity and in turn, those who play games may be more creative as a result (Jackson, 2012;Jackson & Games, 2015;Jackson et al., 2012). As such, future studies may wish to compare differences in attitudes between those who self-identify as creative and those who do not. ...
... Despite the survey being advertised broadly, there is the possibility that those who completed it already self-identified as creative and as a result were more likely to take part. As has been argued elsewhere, engaging in gameplay may increase creativity and in turn, those who play games may be more creative as a result (Jackson, 2012;Jackson & Games, 2015;Jackson et al., 2012). As such, future studies may wish to compare differences in attitudes between those who self-identify as creative and those who do not. ...
... This enhances the patients' learning and believes in relation to their diseases and the importance of medical treatment. Positive emotions that are associated with games are also hypothesized as arbitrating factors among video gameplay and imagination [60], enhanced self-efficacy [45], and fulfilled emotional needs [61]. ...
Article
Depression, coupled with a cancer diagnosis in early childhood, often leads toward disinclination to psychotherapy, especially in children. However, a possible remedy could be found in video games that could reduce the depressive condition. This study investigates two games and our results show that the ability of therapy embedded game (3D-GIT) is relatively better than the simple serious game (Remission-II) in reducing depressive symptoms associated with a cancer diagnosis. The sample comprised of 60 cancer patients, randomly selected from different cancer hospitals in Pakistan. All the patients were pre-tested using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale for Children (CES-DC). The sample was randomly divided into two equal groups: one group played the 3D-GIT game, and the other played the Remission-II game. The games were played four times a week for a month. All the patients were then re-tested on the same scale. Pre-test and post-test scores were compared through paired t-test analysis. The findings of the study support the first two hypotheses that 3D-GIT and Re-Mission-2 are effective in reducing depressive symptoms among young cancer patients. The study results reveal that these video games could be used as an alternative treatment of depression for those who could not or are unwilling to go for counseling sessions with clinical psychologists. However, the results show that there are no significant differences between 3D-GIT and Remission-II games, suggesting that both games effectively reduce depressive symptoms among cancer patients. The study results support that the 3D-GIT game and the Remission-II game could be used to reduce depression among cancer patients.
... Amabile (2012) defines creative thinking in mathematics as 'producing a new answer, product, or solution that is appropriate for an open-ended issue' or the student's possession of the skills of fluency, flexibility and originality and activating them to solve mathematical issues by developing his thinking in mathematical structures, observing patterns, understanding, abstracting and generalizing the mathematical content " (Al-Zuabi, 2014). Or it is a mental process involves the generation of new ideas, concepts or the combination of all new ideas and concepts " (Jackson, Witt, Games, Fitzgerald, Von Eye, & Zhao, 2012) . ...
Article
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The study aims at investigating the effectiveness of self-regulated learning SLR in creative thinking for CLCULUS students at Al-Huson University College. The sample of the study consisted of (125) male and female students of the first-year level (63 in the experimental group, 62 in the controlling one). To achieve the goals of the study, the researchers prepared a study tool that is a test for creative thinking in Mathematics. The results showed the effectiveness of SRL in improving mathematical creative thinking, its skills and a progress in its levels. The study recommended using the SRL strategies in teaching to improve mathematical creative thinking and its levels. In addition, the study recommended these strategies to be used by teachers to develop mathematical creative thinking for students, and conducting similar studies on other mathematical courses such as Algebra, Differential Equations, Probability and Statistics at various university stages.
... In doing so, they combine many of the benefits related to video games (Liao et al., 2019;Paraskeva, Mysirlaki, & Papagianni, 2010;Snodgrass et al., 2019), social networks and the media (Bekalu et al., 2019). Some of the most notable benefits include the acquisition of knowledge, information, skills and social support (Coyne, Padilla-Walker, Fraser, Fellows, & Day, 2014;Gentile et al., 2009), as well as cognitive enhancement and improved coordination of the senses, attention span and creativity (Gozli, Bavelier, & Pratt, 2014;Jackson et al., 2012). Within the field of live streaming, it is striking to see how these benefits align with the new paradigm represented by platforms such as Twitch, in terms of learning (Payne et al., 2017) as well as the job opportunities, economic opportunities (Bingham, 2020;M. ...
Article
Video games have become an everyday part of the lives of thousands of users. While playing video games is relatively common, enjoying video games through live streaming platforms is becoming increasingly popular, with users experiencing the game in a much more social and interactive way. However, recent academic research on the subject has focused on studying the two activities independently. To bridge this gap, the present study proposes a theoretical model that explores the connections between gaming and viewing. More specifically, this paper aims to examine whether the motivations for playing video games and expectations of positive outcomes—e.g., making new friends, professionalizing the hobby, or increasing competences and skills—lead to increased time spent playing and viewing, which may ultimately lead to potentially problematic uses. To validate the conceptual model, data were collected from 954 players and viewers and a partial least squares structural equation model was applied. The results suggest that positive expectations about the use of video games are directly related to time spent playing, but negatively related to time spent watching. Moreover, potential problematic uses are determined more by an increase in time spent playing than in time spent watching, with watching being treated as a complementary activity to gaming.
Article
The current study aimed to investigate whether board games could be used to improve creative potential. Games have proven to be effective learning tools, and some studies have indicated positive links between creativity and other types of games, namely video games and role‐playing games. However, less is known regarding board games’ potential benefits on creativity. This exploratory study compared two types of board games: creative and non‐creative board games. We used a within‐subject repeated‐measurement design, in which participants played to both types of games, across two sessions separated by one week. We assessed creative potential with a divergent thinking task, using fluency and originality as indicators. We controlled for openness, mood states, and enjoyment. Results suggest an improvement of originality after playing both types of games, whereas no differences were observed for fluency. Considering the base level of participants, we found improvement for low‐performing participants specifically, in both fluency and originality, although analyses’ limited statistical power may have impacted the findings. These findings provide a first step in the study of creativity and board games and suggest they could help temporarily improve one’s divergent thinking capacity.
Article
The shift towards physicality and materiality in interaction design and the rise of the Internet of Things is likely to lead to a high demand for physical computing devices and experiences in the coming years. Previous researches have argued that design and development for physical computing require on a diversity of skills including physical design, electronics, computational logic and programming and collaboration. Recent trends in computing education (e.g., initiatives that seek to encourage engagement with computer science topics from a younger age) have the potential to make schools a highly promising site for the development of physical computing skills. Yet, we hypothesize that teaching and learning physical computing is likely to present a range of unique challenges that aren’t addressed by programs that are primarily focused on topics of computing and computer programming alone. In this paper, we present a study that explores the extent and nature of physical computing teaching in the context of one high-profile computing education program: the UK’s Computing at School initiative. Our study comprised a questionnaire that was distributed to teachers, and follow-up interviews with selected respondents. Our findings suggested that physical computing concepts aren't commonly taught in schools, despite physical computing tools being prevalent.
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The article presents the results of testing of the developed online-training of cognitive functions of the brain, which was implemented on a separately created game platform using a set of specially developed games. The proposed results reveal the theoretical justification of the cognitive functions, which are selected for training: memory, thinking, attention, imagination, perception. The characteristics of each cognitive function to be stimulated in the conditions of online games are highlighted. We described the algorithm for games evaluating according to certain cognitive functions and their characteristics. An analysis of the effectiveness of evaluation is given. The results of completing by players of game sessions balanced on the chosen cognitive functions are described. A comparison of the effectiveness of stimulation of different cognitive functions depending on the motivation and choice of players is presented. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of online games in activation and stimulation of the cognitive functions of the human psyche. The research methods were based on our own developed algorithm for training success estimation, analysis of the results of online games, methods of mathematical statistics. The results of the study are presented on the basis of approbation of the developed training, conducted during two years. The analysis of the implementation of the training revealed the dependence of the effectiveness of stimulation of cognitive functions on the motivation and choice of the player. It is shown that when training on a balanced set of games, where all cognitive functions are present in equal shares, the effectiveness of training is not uniform and not balanced. It is investigated that the effectiveness of training depends on the quality of the game's effect on cognitive function. In order to take into account this quality of influence, all games were divided into two classes: actively shaping and passively stimulating. The distribution of games by classes was experimentally confirmed. A generalized analysis of the game sessions of all players for six months revealed cognitive functions which for the most players were better developed and more stimulated.
Conference Paper
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In this study, authors examined a children experience of using digital devices and its relationships with children's cognitive development. Previous research has shown contradictory findings that reflected associations between children engagement with digital technology usage and cognitions. The study approved hypothesis about qualitative changes in children's digital experience after one year. In just one year the landscape of the known by children mobile apps has significantly transformed and expanded. Children continue to master their digital opportunities in the field of those mobile apps which are widely used by adults. The results of the study show there is a qualitative leap in the digital experience of children who hold down in their minds not only the apps that they usually use but also apps related to them. However, adults tend to associate the digital experience with negative consequences. The findings of this study have shown positive connections between the digital experience, cogni-tive development and learning outcomes of children. It could be supposed that cognitive development is accompanied by enrichment of the digital experience which is its integral part in modern conditions of children's mental development .
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This study aimed at investigating the effectiveness of self-regulated learning SRL on mathematical creative thinking, mathematical achievement, and the level of mathematics anxiety for AL-Huson University College students. The study was applied on (125) male and female students of the first year level, the sample was selected and assigned into two groups; experimental group (63) taught through the self-regulated learning SRL, and control group (62) taught normal (traditional) teaching method. The data was collected by using mathematical creative thinking test, mathematical achievement test and mathematics anxiety aquestionaire. The instruments of the study related to mathematical creative thinking test, mathematical achievement test and mathematics anxiety scale were developed after conducting validity and reliability. The findings of the study revealed statistically significant differences between the groups in favor of the experimental group in mathematics creative thinking test, mathematics achievement test, and mathematics anxiety scale. The study recommended that the SRL should be used in teaching to improve mathematical creative thinking and mathematical achievement, also teachers should be used to develop mathematical creative thinking for students, and to use the SRL strategies in teaching to decrease the levels of mathematics anxiety, In addition, conducting similar studies on other mathematics areas such as Algebra, Differential Equations, Probability and Statistics and various stages to verify the effectiveness of SRL strategies. Keywords: Self-Regulated Learning SRL, Mathematical Creative Thinking, Mathematical Achievement, Mathematics Anxiety and Undergradute Students.
Chapter
The present study seeks to review an educational video game design model proposed by Navarro and his collaborators. For this purpose, the study analyzes the development and design of three educational video games that used this model. Based on these experiences, the modifications made include 1) Inclusion of work teams, 2) Inclusion of iterative processes, 3) Eliminate Rules as a component of the model, and 4) a revision of the definitions of the components. The main input of the obtained results resides in the development of a framework for educational video game design that combines design areas with the necessary educational components to achieve the learning objectives proposed.
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Günümüzde dijital oyunların artan kullanımı ile birlikte, bu oyunların oyuncularına sunduğu içerikler, fayda ve zararlar çok daha fazla gündeme gelir olmuştur. Bu çerçeveyle birlikte, bu bölümde öncelikle algı ve bilişin dijital oyunlardan nasıl etkilendiğinden bahsedilecektir. Sonrasında, dijital oyun kullanıcılarının oyuna dair zaman, mekân ve benlik algıları sunulacaktır. Zaman algısı “oyuna dalmak” ve “akış” terimleri ile birlikte ele alınırken mekân algısı, görsel-uzamsal bellek gelişimi ile dijital oyunlarda bakış açısı alma üzerinden sunulacaktır. Dijital oyunlarda benlik ise, avatarlar ve “sanallaşan (çevrimiçileşen) benlik algısı” yardımıyla anlatılacaktır. Son olarak, zihinsel kurgulama seviyelerinin özellikle “ciddi” dijital oyunlar üzerindeki etkilerinden bahsedilecektir.
Article
Creativity plays an important role in politics in both online and offline spaces. Creative forms of political participation have long been tools of disenfranchised groups in their efforts to influence the government. Further, the rise of online creative participatory cultures has afforded new opportunities for civic and political involvement. Creative forms of participatory politics have the potential to facilitate exposure to ideas, foster dialogues, influence agendas and serve as ways to back talk authority. While many avenues for political involvement are creative, the role creativity may play in citizens’ political engagement is not well understood. This study examined the role of creative self-efficacy in political engagement and civic outcomes. Creative self-efficacy represents a belief in one’s ability to produce creative outcomes. A survey of participants living in Australia, South Korea, the Philippines and the USA (USA, Hawaii and Guam) ( N = 807) was conducted. Findings suggest that creative self-efficacy was positively associated with political efficacy and scepticism and not associated with apathy. Creative self-efficacy was indirectly associated with offline and online political participation through political efficacy. The implications of these findings are discussed in context of the role creative self-efficacy may play in impacting political outcomes.
Chapter
With the world rapidly changing, creativity has become more fundamental than ever before. We live in a society where those who do not creatively innovate risk failure in any of several domains of life. With the growth of computational power of machines and the development of Artificial Intelligent systems, the centrality of humans in the future will strongly rely on their creativity skills that are therefore transforming from a sort of scientific singularity reserved to a few talented individuals to an essential ability for the entire human species.
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A játékosítást több mint tíz éve használják a vállalati kultúrában, ezzel növelik a produktivitást, az alkalmazottak motivációját és elköteleződését. Hasonló hatás érhető el a tanulási folyamatokban is. A nevelésben a játékosítással elért elkötelezettség növeli a diákok teljesítményét és javítja a tanuláshoz való hozzáállásukat. A játékosítás hatásának pszichológiai magyarázata van, a játékosság egyértelmű forrása a flow-élménynek. A játékosítás fogalmának egy 2017-es definíciója alapján bemutatjuk, hogy a játékosításnak jelenleg milyen gyakorlati felhasználásai és előnyei vannak a köznevelésben. Felsoroljuk a játékosítás leggyakoribb módszereit és elemeit, majd példákon keresztül megvizsgáljuk, hogy ezeket hogyan alkalmazhatjuk a diákok tudásának, motivációjának és elkötelezettségének növelésére. Mutatunk példákat helyes és helytelen alkalmazásokra is.
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The relationships between video games and well-being have been the subject of empirical investigation for decades. However, this research has largely focused on younger samples, adverse outcomes, and limited measures of game engagement. The current study compared multiple game engagement measures (i.e., time spent playing, social context of play, content rating of favorite video game, and motivations for play) and their associations with psychosocial well-being (i.e., depressive symptoms, stress, loneliness, relationship satisfaction, and social support) in a community sample of 223 adult gamers. When examined separately, time spent playing, playing games for diversion, and more solo play were related to poorer individual well-being. When examining game engagement measures simultaneously, only diversion and fantasy motivations were related to poorer well-being, while more social play was related to lower loneliness. This suggests that gaming motivations and social context are more salient predictors of adult well-being than the often-examined measures of time spent playing or video game content. The results align with the Basic Psychological Needs theoretical approach to gaming, which states that adults play games to feel competent, autonomous, and socially related, and indicate that research and interventions may better serve adult gamers by focusing on motivations for play and social context.
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Résumé Introduction La COVID-19 s’est accompagnée de mesures restrictives. Encourageant le maintien des liens sociaux chez les jeunes, l’OMS soutient l’initiative #PlayApartTogether (jouer ensemble à distance), malgré l’ajout récent de l’addiction aux jeux vidéo (JV) à la CIM-11. Une incompréhension peut naître du caractère paradoxal de ces deux messages. Méthode Nous avons effectué une revue de la littérature internationale, afin d’argumenter les bénéfices et risques de la pratique du JV, durant cette crise sanitaire. Résultats Il s’avère qu’il est difficile de dégager un consensus. Durant la pandémie, pratiquer des JV semble pouvoir favoriser un bien-être psychique de l’adolescent. Les JV, dits prosociaux, sont un moyen de maintenir le lien à l’autre. Certains JV, quant à eux, mobilisent physiquement. Souffrir au préalable d’anxiété ou de dépression peut mener vers une véritable addiction. La littérature non spécifique de la période COVID-19 fait état de l’amélioration des cognitions associées à une pratique régulière du JV. La pratique des JV prosociaux pourrait être bénéfiques sur le comportement ; alors, violence virtuelle et violence en vie réelle ne sont pas associées. Il n’a pas été établi de surrisque de suicide abouti chez les joueurs. Conclusion La littérature argumente le bénéfice de la pratique des JV actuellement. Ceux dits prosociaux sont à privilégier. Il faut, toutefois, rester attentif concernant le risque addictif, en particulier chez le jeune avec dépression préexistante ou nouvellement apparue, et ayant une grande conscience de l’impact du virus, éminemment anxiogène.
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Dijital teknolojinin ipleri eğlence dünyasının tasarımı olan oyuna konumlandırılmıştır. Dijitalleşen oyunun hızla artan payı inovasyonun ticari değere dönüşümünü elverişli kılmıştır. Bu bölümde dijital oyun ekonomisi mercek altına alınarak pazarının büyüklüğü ve ihracat potansiyeli performans ve rekabet perspektifinden değerlendirilmiştir. Dijital oyun pazarının kısaca gelişimi incelenmiştir. Dijital oyunların değer zinciri değerlendirilirken Porter yaklaşımı ile bağ kurulmuştur. Küresel ticarette dijital oyun pazarı uluslararası işletmeler, sanal pazarlar çerçevesinde değerlendirilmiştir. Dijital oyun pazarına ilişkin uluslararasılaşma sürecinin getirdiği ticari başarı ve ihracat potansiyeli vurgulanmıştır. Link: https://acikkaynak.gim.org.tr/img/dijital-oyunlar-2.pdf
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Relationships were examined among two measures of creativity level, the CPI Creativity Scale (CPI-CT) and the MBTI Creativity Index (MBTI-CI), and a measure of creativity style, the Kirton Adaption-Innovation Inventory (KAI). Scores on these scales from various managerial samples were used in the analyses. With sample sizes ranging from 431 to 12,115, significant intercorrelations were found among the three measures. Contrary to expectations, KAI scores were related to creativity levels as measured by the CPI-CT and the MBTI-CI. Additionally, gender was found to account for little variance in MBTI-CI scores.
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Violent video games are increasingly popular, raising concerns by parents, researchers, policy makers, and informed citizens about potential harmful effects. Chapter 1 describes the history of violent games and their explosive growth. Chapter 2 discusses research methodologies, how one establishes causality in science, and prior research on violent television, film, and video games. Chapter 3 presents the General Aggression Model, focusing on how media violence increases aggression and violence in both short and long-term contexts. Important scientific questions are answered by three new studies. Chapter 4 reports findings from a laboratory experiment: even children's games with cartoonish violence increased aggression in children and college students. Chapter 5 reports findings from a survey study of high school students: frequent violent game play leads to an angry and hostile personality and to frequent aggression and violence. Chapter 6 reports findings from the first longitudinal study video game effects: elementary school children who frequently played violent games early in the school year became more verbally and physically aggressive, and less helpful. Chapters 7 and 8 compare a host of risk factors for development of aggression, and find video game effects to be quite important. Chapter 9 describes the role of scientific findings in public policy, industry responses to scientific findings, and public policy options. Chapter 10 recommends that public policy debates acknowledge the harmful effects of violent video games on youth, and urges a more productive debate about whether and how modern societies should act.
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Computer technology has ushered in a new era of mass media, bringing with it great promise and great concerns about the effect on children's development and well-being. Although we tend to see these issues as being new, similar promises and concerns have accompanied each new wave of media technology throughout the past century: films in the early 1900s, radio in the 1920s, and television in the 1940s. With the introduction of each of these technologies, proponents touted the educational benefits for children, while opponents voiced fears about exposure to inappropriate commercial, sexual, and violent content. This article places current studies on children and computers in a historical context, noting the recurrent themes and patterns in media research during the twentieth century. Initial research concerning each innovation has tended to focus on issues of access and the amount of time children were spending with the new medium. As use of the technology became more prevalent, research shifted to issues related to content and its effects on children. Current research on children's use of computers is again following this pattern. But the increased level of interactivity now possible with computer games and with the communication features of the Internet has heightened both the promise of greatly enriched learning and the concerns related to increased risk of harm. As a result, research on the effects of exposure to various types of content has taken on a new sense of urgency. The authors conclude that to help inform and sustain the creation of more quality content for children, further research is needed on the effects of media on children, and new partnerships must be forged between industry, academia, and advocacy groups.
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The authors examined the online construction of identity and sexuality in a large sample of conversations from monitored and unmonitored teen chat rooms. More than half of the 583 participants (identified by a distinct screen name) communicated identity information, most frequently gender. In this way, participants compensated for the text-based chat environment by providing information about themselves that would be visible and obvious in face-to-face communication. Sexual themes constituted 5% of all utterances (1 sexual comment per minute); bad or obscene language constituted 3% of the sample (1 obscenity every 2 minutes). Participants who self-identified as female produced more implicit sexual communication, participants who self-identified as male produced more explicit sexual communication. The protected environment of monitored chat (hosts who enforce basic behavioral rules) contained an environment with less explicit sexuality and fewer obscenities than the freer environment of unmonitored chat. These differences were attributable both to the monitoring process itself and to the differing populations attracted to each type of chat room (monitored: more participants self-identified as younger and female; unmonitored: more participants self-identified as older and male).
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Playing action video games enhances several different aspects of visual processing; however, the mechanisms underlying this improvement remain unclear. Here we show that playing action video games can alter fundamental characteristics of the visual system, such as the spatial resolution of visual processing across the visual field. To determine the spatial resolution of visual processing, we measured the smallest distance a distractor could be from a target without compromising target identification. This approach exploits the fact that visual processing is hindered as distractors are brought close to the target, a phenomenon known as crowding. Compared with nonplayers, action-video-game players could tolerate smaller target-distractor distances. Thus, the spatial resolution of visual processing is enhanced in this population. Critically, similar effects were observed in non-video-game players who were trained on an action video game; this result verifies a causative relationship between video-game play and augmented spatial resolution.
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Creativity measurement itself has been a creative endeavor for both researchers and practitioners. When viewed as a group, the most salient characteristic of creativity measurements is their diversity. The initial purpose of this review is to integrate creativity measurements into a meaningful taxonomy and to illustrate the diversity of the available measurements by citing key examples of the many and varied ways in which creativity has been operationalized. It also is hoped that the numerous examples will give researchers a concise but thorough picture of the many options available when a measure of creativity is needed. The second goal of this review is to use the taxonomy as a framework for discussing the creativity construct in terms of several psychometric characteristics—namely, reliability, discriminant validity, and nomological validity. The third goal is to describe an analytic framework in which measurement issues can be better addressed.
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Among the changes employers say are needed in the educational preparation of American young people to meet the evolving needs of the workplace is improvement in the development of individual creativity and creative thinking. However, a variety of definitions for creativity exist, hindering a consistent educational response. The major areas of controversy concerning creativity's definition are reviewed here, in roughly chronological order corresponding to the publication of each definition of significant influence. Each definition's reasons for failing to achieve widespread acceptance are analyzed, and a suggestion for a general definition of the sort that should be widely acceptable is provided.
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Six guidelines for designing on instrument to measure creativity are presented with a focus on the psychometric and definitional concerns. The Detroit Public Schools Creative Product Scales is described as a possible approach for measuring creativity.
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The Children and Technology Project, funded by the National Science Foundation, is designed to address the broad question \“How does children’s use of Information Technology (IT) influence their cognitive, social, psychological and moral development?” Based on an ecological systems theory perspective, IT use is conceptualized as a reciprocal proximal process that occurs over time and is embedded in a social and cultural context. Thus, to understand the impact of IT use on children’s developmental outcomes requires a consideration of Child and Contextual factors as they interact with IT use over Time. A longitudinal study is underway that consists of six waves of data collection from middle-school children, their parents and teachers to assess Person and Contextual factors, IT use, and a diverse set of cognitive, social, psychological and moral developmental outcomes. In addition to examining the overall impact of IT use on development, the study will examine whether impact is different for children living in disadvantaged environments than for other children, as suggested by ecological system theory. Findings from the project will have implications for how IT is used in educational settings, parental regulation of children’s IT use, and policy-makers decisions about resource allocation for IT in educational and other public settings. Keywords: child development, technology use, cognitive, social, psychological, moral development. 1 Introduction Guided by an ecological systems theory perspective on human development, the Children and Technology Project is designed to examine the impact of
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Tests and measures of creativity are critical instruments guiding educators in identifying highly productive individuals capable of contributing insightful and far reaching solutionsto ourproblem ridden civilization. This paperanalyzesand critiques six popularlyused measures ofcreativity: 1) The Torrance Test of Creative Thinking by E. Paul Torrance (1966); 2) The Creativity Assessment Packet by frank Williams (1980); three subtests of divergent production of the 3) Structure ofthe Intellect Learning Abilities Test by Mary Meeker; 4) Thinking Creatively With Sounds and Words by E. Paul Torrance, Joe Khatena and Bert F. Cunnington (1973); 5) Thinking Creatively In Action and Movement by E. Paul Torrance (1981); 6) Khatena-Torrance Creative Perception Inventory by Joe Khatena & E. Paul Torrance (1976). Reviewed through personal observation and published literature, these tests reveal a capacity as partial measures of divergent and productive thinking. Findings indicate that updating and upgrading of several tests with thought toward key constituent factors of the creative process would be qualitatively beneficial to test design.
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The intent of the author was to identify some of his insights from creativity research which have not been widely accepted, describe what generated the insight, summarize the evidence in support of the insight, and to state what is at stake. It was soon evident that this was a larger task than could be accomplished in an article. The author stated the problem, discussed two examples, and identified fifteen of these insights. A few of them are supported by considerable research evidence but none of them have yet come into acceptance and widespread practice. Others are supported by enough research to convince the author but not enough to convince very many others. The author urges other investigators to examine these insights and to test the validity of some of them. New instruments will have to be created and developed. Longitudinal studies, statistical and qualitative, will be necessary. Experimental studies will also be needed. The author hopes that investigators will be intrigued by some of these insights and will be compelled to investigate them further. Who knows what a new generation of creative investigators will produce?
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As the mobile phone supports interpersonal interaction, mobile phone use might be a function of personality. This study sought to predict amounts and types of mobile phone use from extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism and self-esteem. One hundred and twelve mobile phone owners reported on their use of their mobile phones, and completed the NEO-FFI and the Coopersmith self-esteem inventory. Extraverts reported spending more time calling, and changing ring tone and wallpaper, implying the use of the mobile phone as a means of stimulation. Extraverts and perhaps disagreeable individuals were less likely to value incoming calls. Disagreeable extraverts also reported using the mobile phone more, and spent more time adjusting ringtone/wallpaper. The neurotic, disagreeable, unconscientious and extroverted spent more time messaging using SMS. This study concludes that psychological theory can explain patterns of mobile phone use.
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Researchers have studied whether some youth are "addicted" to video games, but previous studies have been based on regional convenience samples. Using a national sample, this study gathered information about video-gaming habits and parental involvement in gaming, to determine the percentage of youth who meet clinical-style criteria for pathological gaming. A Harris poll surveyed a randomly selected sample of 1,178 American youth ages 8 to 18. About 8% of video-game players in this sample exhibited pathological patterns of play. Several indicators documented convergent and divergent validity of the results: Pathological gamers spent twice as much time playing as nonpathological gamers and received poorer grades in school; pathological gaming also showed comorbidity with attention problems. Pathological status significantly predicted poorer school performance even after controlling for sex, age, and weekly amount of video-game play. These results confirm that pathological gaming can be measured reliably, that the construct demonstrates validity, and that it is not simply isomorphic with a high amount of play.
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Neuroscientific research on creativity has revealed valuable insights into possible brain correlates underlying this complex mental ability domain. However, most of the studies investigated brain activity during the performance of comparatively simple (verbal) type of tasks and the majority of studies focused on samples of the normal population. In this study we investigate EEG activity in professional dancers (n=15) who have attained a high level of expertise in this domain. This group was compared with a group of novices (n=17) who have only basic experience in dancing and completed no comprehensive training in this field. The EEG was recorded during performance of two different dancing imagery tasks which differed with respect to creative demands. In the first task participants were instructed to mentally perform a dance which should be as unique and original as possible (improvisation dance). In the waltz task they were asked to imagine dancing the waltz, a standard dance which involves a sequence of monotonous steps (lower creative demands). In addition, brain activity was also measured during performance of the Alternative Uses test. We observed evidence that during the generation of alternative uses professional dancers show stronger alpha synchronization in posterior parietal brain regions than novice dancers. During improvisation dance, professional dancers exhibited more right-hemispheric alpha synchronization than the group of novices did, while during imagining dancing the waltz no significant group differences emerged. The findings complement and extend existing findings on the relationship between EEG alpha activity and creative thinking.
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Conducted multiple stepwise correlation analyses on each of 7 personality inventories against the rated creativity of 62 architects from a nationwide sample. In each analysis the best combination of 3 variables was identified. The equations derived from the analyses were then validated on a 2nd sample of 62 architects. Initial multiple correlations ranged from .80-.30; cross validated coefficients ranged from .55-.20. Specific cross-validated coefficients were as follows: Adjective Check List, .38; Fundamental Interpersonal Relations Orientation-Behavior questionnaire, CPI, .47; MMPI, .20; Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, .42; SVIB, .55; and Allport-Vernon Lindzey Study of Values, .38.
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Creativity refers to the potential to produce novel ideas that are task-appropriate and high in quality. Creativity in a societal context is best understood in terms of a dialectical relation to intelligence and wisdom. In particular, intelligence forms the thesis of such a dialectic. Intelligence largely is used to advance existing societal agendas. Creativity forms the antithesis of the dialectic, questioning and often opposing societal agendas, as well as proposing new ones. Wisdom forms the synthesis of the dialectic, balancing the old with the new. Wise people recognize the need to balance intelligence with creativity to achieve both stability and change within a societal context.
Article
As video-game playing has become a ubiquitous activity in today's society, it is worth considering its potential consequences on perceptual and motor skills. It is well known that exposing an organism to an altered visual environment often results in modification of the visual system of the organism. The field of perceptual learning provides many examples of training-induced increases in performance. But perceptual learning, when it occurs, tends to be specific to the trained task; that is, generalization to new tasks is rarely found. Here we show, by contrast, that action-video-game playing is capable of altering a range of visual skills. Four experiments establish changes in different aspects of visual attention in habitual video-game players as compared with non-video-game players. In a fifth experiment, non-players trained on an action video game show marked improvement from their pre-training abilities, thereby establishing the role of playing in this effect.
Article
Productive thinking is an aspect of intelligence which has been generally overlooked in most theoretical conceptualizations of human intelligence. A listing of approximately 40 intellectual factors culled from the research literature are presented. Of these numerous factors, the vast majority have to do with thinking and the remainder are memory factors. These factors are categorized according to a scheme suggested by the author. The "implications of the factors and their system were pointed out for factor theory and practice, for general psychological theory, and for the concept of intelligence and practices of intelligence testing." 31 references.
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