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Evaluating Impact of Mobility on Wireless Routing Protocols

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Abstract

In this paper, we evaluate, analyze, and compare the impact of mobility on the behavior of three reactive protocols (AODV, DSR, DYMO) and three proactive protocols (DSDV, FSR, OLSR) in multi-hop wireless networks. We take into account throughput, end-to-end delay, and normalized routing load as performance parameters. Based upon the extensive simulation results in NS-2, we rank all of six protocols according to the performance parameters. Besides providing the interesting facts regarding the response of each protocol on varying mobilities and speeds, we also study the trade-offs, the routing protocols have to make. Such as, to achieve throughput, a protocol has to pay some cost in the form of increased end-to-end delay or routing overhead.

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... For heterogeneous environment i.e. nodes having different energy [17], the nodes with higher energy have more average probability than . The average energy ( ) of the network at round r can be calculated as shown in equation (6). ...
... Routing protocols improve the lifetime of a network and specifically the stability period of a network. Protocols [1], [6], [7], [8], [14], [15], [16], [28], [33]. [36] and [38] are proposed to achieve these goals. ...
... In [6], authors evaluate, analyze, and compare the impact of mobility on the behavior of three reactive protocols (AODV, DSR, DYMO) and three proactive protocols (DSDV, FSR, OLSR) in multi-hop wireless networks. We take into account throughput, end-to-end delay and normalized routing load as performance parameters. ...
... In [4] [5], communication time between nodes is found when the nodes are moving in same and opposite direction with same or different speeds. In this study, we improve the work of678910 and calculate the probability of link establishment between nodes when they are moving in same and opposite direction with same or different speeds. The study of DYMO is done in comparison with other routing protocols [6]. ...
... As we mentioned earlier that probability of node communication can be seen fromFig. 2 as well. The Probability of direct communication of two segments given in [8] is 1/2, we can generalized it as: p n total = 1 n where n is the node density and P (n total ) is the corresponding probability. The effects can be seen inFig. ...
... where, T is the simulation time and CT opp is the average communication time of the nodes moving in opposite direction . Let S = R/n be the separation distance between the nodes, where R is the total length of the strip and n is the total number of nodes on the strip as implied in [8]. The number of nodes moving in opposite direction within a transmission range of a certain node is given as N o = 2×Tr S , where T r is the node's transmission range. ...
Article
In this paper, a framework is presented for node distribution with respect to density, network connectivity and communication time. According to modeled framework we evaluate and compare the performance of three routing protocols; Ad-hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV), Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) and Fisheye State Routing (FSR) in MANETs and VANETs using two Mac-layer protocols; 802.11 and 802.11p. We have further modified these protocols by changing their routing information exchange intervals; MOD AODV, MOD DSR and MOD FSR. A comprehensive simulation work is performed in NS-2 for the comparison of these routing protocols for varying mobilities and scalabilities of nodes. To evaluate their efficiency; throughput, End-to-End Delay (E2ED) and Normalized Routing Load (NRL) of these protocols are taken into account as performance parameters. After extensive simulations, we observe that AODV outperforms both with MANETs and VANETs.
... On the other hand, dense networks result in increased interference. Besides node density, node mobility also is a crucial factor in affecting network performance 13,14 . In very high mobility nodes it is difficult to establish routes or communication link between two nodes leading to packet loss 15 . ...
... On the other hand, dense networks result in increased interference. sity, node mobility also is a crucial factor in affecting network performance 13,14 . In y nodes it is difficult to establish routes or communication link between two nodes loss 15 . ...
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Background: A Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET) consists of many independent nodes that operate over a wireless topology with numerous Quality of Service (QoS) requirements. So, a robust routing protocol that also provides QoS parameters to its different range of applications is needed. Various network parameters like node density, node mobility, field size etc. also effects the QoS parameters of MANETs. Methods: The traditional reactive routing protocols do not have any backup route in case of a node failure and hence are not effective for MANETs. Ad Hoc on Demand Distance Vector Backup Routing (AODV BR) protocol performs better than traditional routing protocols but is not effective when the backup route fails. So, to counter this problem, the authors had proposed AODV nth BR that keeps on providing backup routes when multiple nodes fail and hence successfully transfers the data to the destination. The nodes for backup routing are selected based on their distance from the failed node and energy efficiency. Results: In this paper, the performance of AODV nth BR has been compared with AODV, DSR and AODV BR protocol under varying node density (nodes 20, 60,100) and node mobility conditions (5m/s, 20m/s, 50m/s). The values for Packet Delivery Fraction (PDF) for 60 nodes at speed 20m/s in case of AODV nth BR protocol after 6000 rounds is 0.3054. Comparatively, value of AODV BR is 0.2664, AODV is 0.1936 and DSR is 0.1056. QoS performance is measured in terms of end to end delay, packet delivery fraction and lifetime of devices and it has been shown through simulated results that AODV nth BR protocol gives better output than traditional routing protocols. Conclusion: From the simulated results explained in detail in the paper, it has been observed that route after link breakage is found to be best with AODV nth BR protocol and this can be clearly seen in the QoS parameters obtained.
... Effects of mobility on the performance of routing protocols has been studied in [3,4] with fixed number of nodes. Reference [5] studies the effect of different mobility models such as Fast Car Model (FCM), Slow Car Model (SCM), Human Running Model (HRM) and Human Walking Model (HWM) on three from reactive or ondemand class: Ad-hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV), Dynamic Source Routing (DSR), DYnamic MANET On-demand (DYMO), and three from proactive or table-driven class Destination Sequenced Distance Vector (DSDV), Fish-eye State Routing (FSR), Optimized Link State Routing (OLSR). However, in this paper, the number of nodes is kept constant to 50 nodes and packet rate as 4 packets per second. ...
... Similarly, [6] studies the impact of Pursue, Column and Reference Point Group Mobility-Random Walk (RPGM-RW) on the performance on AODV, DSR and DSDV. As in [5], authors in [6] also have kept the number of nodes constant to 50 nodes and packet rate to 4 packets per second. Authors in [7] have studied the of DSDV, DSR, AODV and Optimized Link State Routing (OLSR) using some of the common mobility models such as Random Walk, Random Direction and Random Waypoint while keeping the number of nodes constant to 50. ...
... II. RELATED WORK A number of studies to understand mobility impact on multi-hop routing exist [3] [6]. Das et al., analyzed the relation between pause time (stationary time of a node) and link break variability [3]. ...
... Das et al., analyzed the relation between pause time (stationary time of a node) and link break variability [3]. Javaid et al. evaluated impact of node mobility on a number of multi-hop routing protocols of reactive and proactive categories [6]. Yawut et al. studied the extent to which different mobility metrics capture mobility [16]. ...
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Node mobility affects routing in terms of robustness and efficiency, as it may lead to frequent link breaks that are not always automatically detected at a protocolar level. In user-centric environments, nodes are characterized by dynamic mobility behavior because they are devices carried or controlled by humans. We propose routing metrics aimed at making routing more robust through consideration of node spatial correlation for successor node. We have validated our metrics in Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV) routing protocol using Network Simulator 2. Results obtained show that our metrics increase multi-hop routing robustness in terms of path re-computation reduction.
... We aim to introduce multiple QoS parameters [23]. Mobility constraints also help to achieve better network lifetime similar to [25,39,40]. We can also use sink mobility to improve the energy utilization efficiency as done in [30,37,38]. ...
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... The works in [9][10][11][12][13], study the most widely experimented and frequently used protocols for our study; three from reactive or on-demand class: AODV, DSR, DYMO, and three from proactive or table-driven class DSDV, FSR, OLSR. . ...
... This model works well for desktop PCs talking to servers over wires but not for our increasingly wireless mobile world. There is ongoing research on adapting routing to function when adjacencies change rapidly, but to date these adaptations have significant efficiency and scalability issues [4]. ...
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Information sharing systems such as iCloud, Dropbox, Facebook, and Twitter are ubiquitous today, but all of them depend on massive server infrastructure and always-on Internet connectivity. We have designed and implemented a sharing system that does not require infrastructure yet supports robust, distributed, secure sharing by opportunistically using any and all connectivity, local or global, permanent or transient, to communicate. One key element of this system is a new information routing model that so far has proven to be as scalable and efficient as the best of the current Internet routing protocols, while operating in an environment more complex and dynamic than they can tolerate. The new routing model is made possible by new affordances offered by information-centric networking, in particular, the open source CCN [1] release. This article describes the new system and its routing model, and provides some performance measurements.
... In either case when a node finds no link to its next hop, it issues an RERR packet informing the un-reach ability of destination node that is transmitted back to main source node. On receiving a ERRor RERR packet, the main source node initiates new route request for broken link [35]. ...
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... Comprehensive stimulation work is done for each routing protocol. With the performance metrics; Throughput, End to End Delay (E2ED), Normalized Routing load (NRL) all of the three protocols are evaluated, analyze and compared in the scenarios of varying the mobilities and scalabilities.[18]evaluates, analyzes, and compares the impact of mobility on the behavior of three reactive protocols (AODV, DSR, DYMO) and three proactive protocols (DSDV, FSR, OLSR) in multi-hop wireless networks. ...
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In this paper, we propose a new Quality Link Metric (QLM), ``Inverse Expected Transmission Count (InvETX)'' in Optimized Link State Routing (OLSR) protocol. Then we compare performance of three existing QLMs which are based on loss probability measurements; Expected Transmission Count (ETX), Minimum Delay (MD), Minimum Loss (ML) in Static Wireless Multi-hop Networks (SWMhNs). A novel contribution of this paper is enhancement in conventional OLSR to achieve high efficiency in terms of optimized routing load and routing latency. For this purpose, first we present a mathematical framework, and then to validate this frame work, we select three performance parameters to simulate default and enhanced versions of OLSR. Three chosen performance parameters are; throughput, Normalized Routing Load and End-to-End Delay. From simulation results, we conclude that adjusting the frequencies of topological information exchange results in high efficiency.
... Using communication technologies without any disturbance mobile phone users have provided Wireless Multi-hop, for different feature to communicate with each other (M. Tahir et al., 2013, Javaid et al., 2011). ...
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Information and communication technologies are increasing day by day among different communities for obtaining the information about related issues, problems and their solutions. In the context of agriculture development, information and communication technologies have played important role in developing countries. Most of the developing countries have got fruitful results of the technologies. Internet, mobile phones, radio and television are most important tools of communication providing knowledge and information to farmers about agriculture. By using these technologies in different countries it was found Positive results in agriculture development have been found by using these technologies. In remote areas radio is still favourite tool of communication which broadcasts many agriculture programs while television also contributes much in disseminating information about agriculture in developing countries. Furthermore, mobile phones have reduced the gap among farmers and buyers, now farmers directly communicate with customers and get price of their products from market. Mobile phones have also provided new approach to farmers to get latest information from metrological department for weather conditions before using pesticides in their farms. However, internet is also disseminating information regarding price and marketing of goods and farmers are receiving information within minutes from all over the world.
... N. Javaid et al. [6], compares the performance of three reactive protocols and three proactive protocols under mobility in wireless multi-hop networks. In [7], authors calculate the link duration of random way point model in Mobile Ad-hoc Networks. ...
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... We aim to introduce multiple QoS parameters[23]. Mobility constraints also help to achieve better network lifetime similar to[39,40]. We can also use sink mobility to improve the energy utilization efficiency as done in[30,37,38]. ...
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In this paper, we propose Regional Energy Efficient Cluster Heads based on Maximum Energy (REECH-ME) Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). The main purpose of this protocol is to improve the network lifetime and particularly the stability period of the network. In REECH-ME, the node with the maximum energy in a region becomes Cluster Head (CH) of that region for that particular round and the number of the cluster heads in each round remains the same. Our technique outperforms LEACH [1] which uses probabilistic approach for the selection of CHs. We also implement the Uniform Random Distribution Model to find the packet drop to make this protocol more practical. We also calculate the confidence interval of all our results which helps us to visualize the possible deviation of our graphs from the mean value.
... N. Javaid et al. [6], compares the performance of three reactive protocols and three proactive protocols under mobility in wireless multi-hop networks. In [7], authors calculate the link duration of random way point model in Mobile Ad-hoc Networks. ...
... We aim to introduce multiple QoS parameters [23]. Mobility constraints also help to achieve better network lifetime similar to [25,39,40]. We can also use sink mobility to improve the energy utilization efficiency as done in [30,37,38]. ...
... In future, routing link matrices can also be applied on this proposed technique. Routing can be done by adapting many different approaches as done in [29], [30] and [31]. Application of routing link matrices on the proposed scheme can be useful in achieving efficient consumption of energy in the network. ...
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... In [12], analysis of DSR, AODV, DSDV, TORA, FSR, CBRP and CGSR has been done on the basis of consumed energy using NS2 simulator. Analysis result shows that DSR and AODV protocols perform better than other protocols. ...
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... DSR showed best performance results: packet delivery rate, average delay, routing overhead, average energy per packet. Authors of [14] gives broad survey of performance of 6 routing protocols (DSDV, FSR, OLSR, AODV, DSR, DYMO) with respect to mobility of nodes in simulated (NS-2) MANET scenario. ...
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The Ad Hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV) routing protocol is intended for use by mobile nodes in an ad hoc network. It offers quick adaptation to dynamic link conditions, low processing and memory overhead, low network utilization, and determines unicast Perkins, Royer, Das Expires 24 May 2001 [Page i] Internet Draft AODV 24 November 2000 between sources and destinations. It uses destination sequence numbers to ensure loop freedom at all times (even in the face of anomalous delivery of routing control messages), solving problems (such as "counting to infinity") associated with classical distance vector protocols. Perkins, Royer, Das Expires 24 May 2001 [Page ii] Internet Draft AODV 24 November 2000 Contents Status of This Memo i Abstract i 1. Introduction 1 2. Overview 2 3. AODV Terminology 3 4. Route Request (RREQ) Message Format 4 5. Route Reply (RREP) Message Format 5 6. Route Error (RERR) Message Format 7 7. Route Reply Acknowledgment (RREP-ACK) Message Format 8 8. AODV...
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Chapter
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In this paper, we identify and analyze the requirements to design a new routing link metric for wireless multihop networks. Considering these requirements, when a link metric is proposed, then both the design and implementation of the link metric with a routing protocol become easy. Secondly, the underlying network issues can easily be tackled. Thirdly, an appreciable performance of the network is guaranteed. Along with the existing implementation of three link metrics Expected Transmission Count (ETX), Minimum Delay (MD), and Minimum Loss (ML), we implement inverse ETX; invETX with Optimized Link State Routing (OLSR) using NS-2.34. The simulation results show that how the computational burden of a metric degrades the performance of the respective protocol and how a metric has to trade-off between different performance parameters.
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In this paper, we propose a new quality link metric, interference and bandwidth adjusted ETX (IBETX) for wireless multi-hop networks. As MAC layer affects the link performance and consequently the route quality, the metric therefore, tackles the issue by achieving twofold MAC-awareness. Firstly, interference is calculated using cross-layered approach by sending probes to MAC layer. Secondly, the nominal bit rate information is provided to all nodes in the same contention domain by considering the bandwidth sharing mechanism of 802.11. Like ETX, our metric also calculates link delivery ratios that directly affect throughput and selects those routes that bypass dense regions in the network. Simulation results by NS-2 show that IBETX gives 19% higher throughput than ETX and 10% higher than Expected Throughput (ETP). Our metric also succeeds to reduce average end-to-end delay up to 16% less than Expected Link Performance (ELP) and 24% less than ETX.
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In this paper, we present a novel routing protocol for wireless ad hoc networks -- Fisheye State Routing (FSR). FSR introduces the notion of multi-level fisheye scope to reduce routing update overhead in large networks. Nodes exchange link state entries with their neighbors with a frequency which depends on distance to destination. From link state entries, nodes construct the topology map of the entire network and compute optimal routes. Simulation experiments show that FSR is simple, efficient and scalable routing solution in a mobile, ad hoc environment. 1 Introduction As the wireless and embedded computing technologies continue to advance, increasing numbers of small size and high performance computing and communication devices will be capable of tetherless communications and ad hoc wireless networking. An ad hoc wireless network is a selforganizing and self-configuring network with the capability of rapid deployment in response to application needs. An important characteristic wh...
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  • Wikipedia
Dynamic MANET On-demand (DYMO) Routing
  • I Chakeres
  • C E Perkins