Article

Evaluating the Cost Effectiveness of Online and Face-to-Face Instruction.

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Abstract

Online instruction is gaining an increasing presence due to the benefits associated with it, including the ability to consolidate education and training across geographical and time constraints, and the claim by many that online education and training is cost efficient. This paper provides a relatively concise and useful history of online learning, and a discussion of issues to be faced by the professional who intends to move the education and training environment online in response to the current academic and business environments. It presents a cost matrix tool by which the costs of online education and training can be tabulated and/or compared with the costs of the traditional education and training medium.

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... Online education has evolved through many stages starting from distance education to the present form of online learning. For a very long time it has been a part of the American education system and it is the largest sector in distance education at present (Bartley & Golek, 2004;Evans & Haase, 2001). Both hybrid or blended learning and pure online learning are considered as online education as against the traditional face to face form of education. ...
... Especially, when compared to the traditional face to face form of education. It is cost effective in combating the rising cost of postsecondary education, offers credit transfer options and most important it offers the possibility of offering world class education to anyone with a broadband connection (Bartley & Golek, 2004;De La Varre, Keane, & Irvin, 2011;Gratton-Lavoie & Stanley, 2009;Koller & Ng, 2014;Lorenzetti, 2013). At the college level, online education has received maximum attention. ...
... Nowadays, the higher educational costs are rising rapidly, and increasingly, students are going for educational loans. Many educators and scholars think that online education is an effective tool to combat the rising costs of college education by covering their operational cost of teaching over a large number of students as compared to traditional form of teaching (Bowen, 2013;Bartley & Golek, 2004;Jung & Rha, 2000;Koller & ng, 2014;Tucker, 2007). The marginal cost of an online student is very negligible as compared to a student of the traditional classroom. ...
Conference Paper
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ABSTRACT: Offline education, which is the ‘brick and mortar’ classrooms are losing their monopoly position in the world of learning. With the advent of internet, online education has become a reality. Many researchers and educators find online learning more attractive and popular means of enhancing student learning in education. Online education has not only become popular and cost effective, but it also requires less resource especially in the field of higher education. India, as a fast-developing country has undergone different stages of growth in its development process. One of the areas in which India has developed in, is in the field of learning. New technologies have been invented in this field to make online education more attractive and lucrative. This article, attempts to trace the beginning of online education, discusses the pros and cons of virtual education. Also, briefly discusses about the various initiatives undertaken in online education in India. A research study was done with a small group of Higher Education students to gauge their responses towards the effectiveness of virtual education. A research study was done with a group of Postgraduate and Undergraduate students to describe their responses to the effectiveness of virtual education. A statistical tool was applied to study whether student satisfaction towards virtual education was determined by their gender. The online teaching methods adopted in India, shows that there is a glaring gap in the digital infrastructure between rural and urban India. Only a minor percentage of the Indian population has access to internet and electronic gadgets. Digital infrastructure is insufficient in the rural areas, in three tier towns and in the remote parts of India. Keywords: brick and mortar classrooms, internet, online teaching, digital infrastructure, three tier towns, internet, electronic gadgets.
... Online learning can be defined as a form of education that is conducted through an online medium (Bartley & Golek, 2004;Evans & Haase, 2001). Even though it has been conducted for decades, however, the spread of pandemic COVID-19 has impacted the education landscape where the forced closure of all academic institutions has created an urgent transformation for all face-to-face learning processes (Cohen, 2021). ...
... Additionally, online learning receives high acceptance in higher educational institutions due to it provides effective learning tools that encourage active learning and engagement from the learners, develop professional skills for instructors, cost-effective concepts and provide world-class education to everyone regardless of their location (Bartley & Golek, 2004). Furthermore, online learning is very beneficial to anyone who lives in remote locations, full time workers who need to study after their working hours and people who want to learn independently (Nguyen, 2015). ...
... District HETI, a unit of HETI, was responsible for partnering with health organizations to develop e-learning (a single online modality of learning) and blended learning (a combination of online modality as well as traditional face-to-face teaching) resources to enhance CPD and shift away from traditional classroom approaches. [16][17][18][19] E-learning has the benefit of increased accessibility, improving equity of access, and can be equally as effective as traditional learning approaches. 20 E-learning resources reach a larger number of health professionals at a limited cost, 21 as they can be shared across health organizations. ...
... 33 The model provides the benefits of equity of access and timeliness, which is valuable in today's ever changing climate. 19,34 A further study to evaluate how modules impact and change clinical practice is required. ...
Article
The provision of high quality, equitable, and accessible education resources is a key to supporting continuing professional development (CPD) in health organizations. The Health Education and Training Institute (HETI) and its operational model for districts (District HETI Operational Model), is a novel approach that supports this imperative for over 155,000 staff working across the state of New South Wales (NSW), Australia. The model uses three principles in education and training development. These include collaborative partnerships, rapid resource development, and effective leadership within virtual teams. A state-wide learning management system has been implemented to support this initiative. Over 451 standardized, education, and training online modules have been developed for medical, nursing and midwifery, dental, allied health, and nonclinical NSW Health employees since 2013. These educational resources are accessible 24 hours a day. Cost-effective online programs have enabled more than 13.6 million learner completions. Program evaluations highlight the value of these resources in providing a positive learning experience. Furthermore, the District HETI Operational Model has been recognized by multiple national and international excellence awards in learning and development. The principles of the District HETI Operational Model apply to other health organizations that may choose to adopt a similar model. Such a model may support equity of access to contemporary, standardized, evidence-based education resources for health professionals working across geographically and clinically diverse environments. Implementation of a similar model for future CPD interventions warrants consideration by practitioners, researchers, and policymakers.
... Another outstanding advantage that is purported to be gained with online education is reduction in educational resources (Nguyen, 2015) and budgets (Friedman & Friedman, 2011;Jung & Rha, 2000). In that, in the face of the global economic recession, online education is claimed to make more fiscal savings both in academia and industry (Bartley & Golek, 2004;Chang, 2016) by removing the necessities for instruction in traditional learning settings and by bringing in the chance of obtaining all the time updated information with new learning technologies (Ally, 2011;Moskal et al., 2010). In fact, the precipitous growth of online learning in post-secondary learning settings has been attributed to its cost-effectiveness and ease of degree attainment (Nguyen, 2015). ...
Article
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While there has been an upsurge in transition to online learning taking place mostly in higher education, many countries around the world have had to leave their brick-and-mortar schools all of a sudden and necessarily turn to fully-online education since the outbreak of Coronavirus pandemic (Covid-19). Such global emergency cases reacquaint us with the fact that education cannot be taken for granted, making the findings of the current research literature inevitable and ready for immediate use for future policy-making regarding online education. Thus, we planned to conduct the present research synthesis including more recent empirical studies of both a quantitative and qualitative character. We took a multi-complementary approach including a meta-analysis together with a meta-thematic analysis of the effectiveness of online education. In order to further complement and consolidate the results of these two reviews of previous studies, we conducted a mixed-methods research (a pre-experimental study and a qualitative study) designed specifically to understand the responses from the abrupt transition period of online education. This kind of research approach is believed to make more contributions to the relevant literature as it may provide a more in-depth perusal of the impacts of online learning on and its effectiveness in student achievement.
... For medical students, the clinical skills are a necessary part of their education, which cannot be usefully taught online, and therefore, when traditional lectures are limited, blended learning is crucial for medical students. The effectiveness of online teaching is still controversial, with some studies [9,10] examining the effectiveness of online teaching compared with offline teaching and finding that the conclusions did not yield consistent results. The most recent systematic review and meta-analysis study was inconclusive in comparison of the acquisition of knowledge and skills between traditional learning and online learning [11]. ...
Article
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Introduction The ongoing Covid-19 pandemic is forcing medical schools to replace substantial parts of the traditional lecture method with online formats to maintain social distancing guidelines and reduce face-to-face contact in the classroom. To our knowledge, there have to date been few studies comparing the effectiveness of traditional teaching with blended teaching based on the students' final grades which the efficacy of online learning is still controversial, and this study aimed to compare the efficacy of blended teaching with conventional teaching in an orthopedics course. Methods This study was a retrospective cohort study based on data collected from fifth-year medical students between April 2019 and March 2021. The students were divided into two groups which based on years of study. The summative assessment was based on summing the MCQs plus KFs, the MEQ plus oral exam, OSCE, simulated patient chart reviews, and OPD work. All students took the same end-of-course quizzes with no differences between the groups regarding the kinds of knowledge tested. The results of these quizzes were used to compare the effectiveness of the conventional teaching in 2019 and the blended teaching in 2020. The paired t-test was used to analyze the data. Results A total of 252 students were enrolled in the study, of whom 128 and 124 students were in the traditional teaching group or blended teaching groups, respectively. The grade point averages of the students were 3.2 ± 0.4 and 3.3 ± 0.4 in 2019–2020 and 2020–2021, respectively, without significant difference (p-value = 0.06). The scores in the blended learning group were higher than in the traditional learning group in all assessment tools (MCQ, KF, Oral, and OSCE scores) except the MEQ. Conclusions Blended learning was not less effective than traditional learning for teaching medical students.
... The results of the study testing the first hypothesis illustrate that there is moderate significant difference in effectiveness, costs, capabilities, and educational resources for digital learning compared to traditional learning. In the current literature, similar results were found by Bartley and Golek (2004), Chen et al. (2012), and Agasisti and Johnes (2015), they conclude that cost benefits of digital learning are significantly superior to traditional learning even with social disparities and governments support (Zhang and Worthington, 2017). However, where courses are practical oriented, the fact to shift completely from traditional to digital learning may not be possible (Muthuprasad et al., 2021). ...
Article
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The paper explores the impact of the corona virus disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic on the Saudi higher education system. The research focuses on the relationship between digital learning in COVID-19 time, life satisfaction, and stress among female students. The study discusses measures, practices, defense mechanisms, and coping strategies to face challenges. Using an online survey based on psychological effects and its role in defense mechanisms and coping strategies, findings show that digital learning provides flexibility in terms of time and offers resources at a lower cost compared to traditional learning. In addition, results show that the coping strategy perception is higher in obtaining a good score and succeeding than to get over the pandemic and recovering from the illness itself. Finally, results confirm that a positive attitude influences positively life satisfaction.
... Online education is significantly more accessible than traditional classroom-based education to many students. Online education is not constrained by location for the teacher or the students, which means that students (and teachers) can participate from all over the world (Bartley and Golek 2004;Ragusa and Crampton 2017) as learners can learn anywhere and can consume their time to gain knowledge of what they want to know and when they need to know. ...
Chapter
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The current COVID- 19 pandemic has forced many countries to halt the spread of the virus by closing schools, colleges and universities. Educators, parents and students continue to struggle adapting new ways of going out about their lives. With the shift from face-to-face instruction to online education, developing and designing online learning platforms, tools and materials have certainly been a challenge for special education teachers in providing engaging learning experience to their students. In the context of English language learning, the deaf and hard of hearing students at Politeknik Ungku Omar (PUO) need a variety of approaches and support in terms of appropriate adaptations, modifications and accommodations made to the online instruction and learning activities. This innovative research aims to evaluate the effectiveness of 3D Virtual Learning Environment (3D VLE) Vocab-Game that is designed not only to improve deaf students’ English Vocabulary but to better engage them in fun virtual classroom activities.
... Besides this, the effectiveness of such independent education is questionable, especially in the field of medicine where group discussions and peer interactions are necessary for knowledge and skill development. [11][12] However, concluding the effectiveness of online and offline education is much difficult and has failed to conclude 13 . ...
Article
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Aim: To evaluate the learning outcomes of first experience with online learning in a medical college in Pakistan. Study design: Retrospective cross-sectional study Place and duration of study: Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi, Pakistan from 1 st January 2021 to 30 th May 2021. Methodology: This study compared the module exam scores of pre-clinical first-year MBBS students of the year 2019 (group A) and year 2020 (group B). Group A was taught in 2019 through the traditional method of teaching while group B was taught online in 2020. Results: The mean score of group B online teaching was significantly higher than that of group A, studied through the traditional method in all three modules, foundation module, locomotor module, and blood module. Group B secured a significantly higher mean score than that of group A with a significant p-value of <0.001, 0.043, and 0.001respectively. Conclusion: The score gained by online learners using virtual teaching methods was significantly higher than those who were taught by traditional method. The results of this study imply that using online educational teaching and learning can lead to the promotion of educational level and enhancement of score levels in students.
... The ongoing Covid-19 pandemic is driving medical schools to replace the traditional lecture method with online formats to maintain social distancing guidelines, and reduce face-to-face contact in the classroom. The effectiveness of online teaching is still controversial, with some studies [9,10] examining the effectiveness of online teaching compared with o ine teaching and nding that the conclusions did not yield consistent results. The most recent systematic and meta-analysis study concluded that there is no evidence that o ine learning works better and that the advantage of online learning is to improve students' knowledge and skills depending on the teaching [11]. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background The ongoing Covid-19 pandemic is driving medical schools to replace substantial parts of the traditional lecture method with online formats to maintain social distancing guidelines, and reduce face-to-face contact in the classroom. To our knowledge, there were a few studies comparing the effectiveness of traditional teaching and blended teaching based on the students’ final grades which the efficacy of online learning is still controversy. This study aims to compare the efficacy of blended teaching and conventional teaching in an orthopedics course. Methods This study was a retrospective cohort study which collected from fifth-year medical students between April 2019 and March 2021. The students were divided into two groups which based on years of education. The summative assessment was based on summing the MCQs plus KFs, the MEQ plus oral exam, OSCE, simulated-chart of patients, and OPD. All students were subjected to the same end of course quizzes with no difference between the groups regarding the kinds of knowledge tested. The results of these quizzes were used to compare the effectiveness of the conventional teaching in 2019 and the blended teaching in 2020. The paired t-test was used to analyze the data. Results A total of 252 students were enrolled in this study, of whom 128 and 124 patients were in traditional teaching group or blended teaching, respectively. The grade point averages of the students were 3.2 ± 0.4 and 3.3 ± 0.4 in 2019–2020 and 2020–2021, respectively, without significant difference (p = 0.06). The scores in blended learning group were higher than in the traditional learning group in all assessment tools (MCQ, KF, Oral, and OSCE scores) except the MEQ. Conclusions Blended learning was as effective as traditional learning for teaching medical students. However, well-designed, randomized controlled trials are needed to further analyze the educational structure and investigate the factors related to the effectiveness of this type of learning.
... It has been identified that the online learning modality is useful for professional development. Its cost-effectiveness is used to combat the rising cost of postsecondary education, credit equivalency at the postsecondary level, and the possibility of providing a world class education with a broadband connection (Bartley & Golek, 2004;De la Varre et al., 2011;Gratton-Lavoie & Stanley, 2009;Lorenzetti, 2013). For instance, Nesler and Lettus (1995) reported higher ratings on clinical competence among nurses graduating from an online program than nurses who were traditionally prepared. ...
... Indeed, Ng (2000) underlined the practical and theoretical difficulties of any such process and stressed the relevance of including infrastructure and support costs, as well as considering, for each cost, who the final payer is (i.e., the institution or the student). Bartley and Golek (2004) divided the costs into one-time and per-session costs, following a breakdown reminiscent of that used to differentiate fixed and variable costs. Finally, the authors suggested the relevant dimensions to be considered, namely design/development costs, implementation costs, and program evaluation costs. ...
Article
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With its combination of online and face-to-face interaction, blended learning is increasingly being employed in postgraduate education. To date, most empirical research on the topic has focused on the design and relative effectiveness of online versus in-person learning. Meanwhile, any exploration of the costs of its delivery has often been neglected. In this study, we propose a framework to assess the costs and cost-effectiveness of alternative designs of blended postgraduate programs, and then empirically apply it to an innovative blended Master of Business Administration (MBA) course as compared with similar MBAs taught at the same institution, with the differences lying in their proportions of online content and the intensity of their use. We applied the Community of Inquiry framework to show that the program with the most intensive use of online learning is also the most effective in terms of student cognitive gain. However, it is not the most cost-effective when compared to other, less online-intensive alternatives. We also found that this result depends on the scalability constraints imposed by the design of the programs. The implications of the scalability versus the quality versus the costs of blended education are then discussed.
... For instance, in 2016, more than 30% of all undergraduate students took an online course (McFarland et al., 2017). Advocates of online education argue that online courses can provide greater and easier access to coursework for students while also serving as costeffective forms of instruction for universities (Bartley & Golek, 2004;Watson & Gemin, 2008). However, numerous studies indicate that near-term measures of student learning and performance (e.g., course completion, course grades, success in subsequent courses) are slightly lower in online settings as compared with traditional face-to-face environments (e.g., Bettinger et al., 2017;Figlio et al., 2013;Xu & Jaggars, 2013, 2014 Much less work has examined how online courses affect more distal outcomes (e.g., time-todegree, graduation rates). ...
Article
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Online courses provide flexible learning opportunities, but research suggests that students may learn less and persist at lower rates compared to face-to-face settings. However, few studies have investigated more distal effects of online education. In this study, we analyzed 6 years of institutional data for three cohorts of students in 13 large majors (N = 10,572) at a public research university to examine distal effects of online course participation. Using online course offering as an instrumental variable for online course taking, we find that online course taking of major-required courses leads to higher likelihood of successful 4-year graduation and slightly accelerated time-to-degree. These results suggest that offering online courses may help students to more efficiently graduate college.
... Effectivity of online learning for undergraduate medical students remains a field of medical education that requires thorough exploration. [1][2][3] and online learning has become a common teaching mode. Pei and Wu in 2019 [4] in their explorative research found no evidence to demonstrate that offline learning works better and suggested that online mode can also be considered as a potential method in undergraduate medical teaching. ...
... As stated earlier, online learning or electronic learning is not new (Bartley & Golek, 2004;Schneider & Council, 2020). However, since educational institutions' closure starts from elementary school to university level, online learning has become more existent than in previous years. ...
Article
Full-text available
The impact of the Covid-19 pandemic in education has caused the learning curriculum to experience replication. Not only in delivering learning material, but replication also occurs in the learning assessment process. Teachers are required to be able to carry out an objective assessment of learning in all subjects. This study aims to determine teacher difficulties and explore alternative assessments used by teachers in mathematics learning in the pandemic era. This research is a qualitative study using an exploratory study approach that aims to deepen the study of research objectives that focus on constraint and alternative phenomena in assessing mathematics learning in elementary schools. The instrument used has been validated by experts and got the value of the coefficient Aiken = 0,742 this shows that the instrument used is valid and in the good category. Data collection was carried out through questionnaires for teachers and field observations in the online learning process. Data analysis was carried out by using descriptive techniques from the findings of the questionnaire and observation instruments. This study's results reveal that the teacher finds it difficult to provide an objective assessment of learning, and the alternative assessment of mathematics learning used is digital learning assessment and structured assignments to parent representatives in each zoning. Future research is expected to develop assessment instruments that can facilitate online learning assessments in the pandemic era.
... A cost matrix developed by Bartley and Golek was used to categorize and organize expenses. 7 Finally, the benefit was measured as monetary gains of the NHSRC from the implementation of the course. ...
Article
Full-text available
Objective. The current paper aimed to discuss developing the online newborn hearing screening certification course and revisions made from pre-pandemic face-to-face strategies to the online implementation in response to COVID-19 limitations. Furthermore, it aimed to create recommendations for the refinement of the course. Methods. The development of the adaptation consisted of document review, focus group discussions among program faculty before and after implementation, which covered the demand for the certification course, opportunities for adaptation, situational limitations, and online implementation advantages and concerns. In addition, a cost-benefit analysis of the online course was done. Results. The certification course was developed within a month and retained the same learning objectives going into an online implementation. One significant change was the addition of a local experience module which allowed for the participation of regional newborn hearing screening coordinators. More resources were required from both instructors and learners to implement successfully. Due to the asynchronous nature of the online course, the evaluation scheme was adapted accordingly. However, teaching strategies were limited. The pricing of the course was also not optimal. Conclusion. Although there were merits in adapting the certification course to the online learning platform, there were areas for refinement. These were the alignment of all course modules to learning objectives, the addition of varied teaching methods, and the revision of pricing for the course.
... Kebutuhan dan situasi unik dari para siswa dapat mempengaruhi pengalaman pendidikan mereka dan institusi harus berhati-hati agar tidak memperburuk kesenjangan yang ada (Dumford & Miller, 2018). Keuntungan dari pembelajaran online adalah efektivitas dalam mendidik siswa, penggunaannya sebagai pengembangan profesional, efektivitas biaya untuk memerangi kenaikan biaya pendidikan dan menyediakan pendidikan kelas dunia untuk siapapun dengan aplikasi video dan audio secara langsung (Bartley & Golek, 2004;De la Varre et al., 2010;Nguyen, 2015). ...
Article
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Beberapa fenomena yang terjadi pada masa pandemi covid-19, diantaranya berkenaan pembelajaran online di lembaga PAUD. Penelitian bertujuan untuk mengungkap persepsi guru PAUD terhadap pembelajaran online. Partisipan 19 guru dari 18 lembaga PAUD di 9 provinsi Indonesia memberikan data hasil wawancara dan dokumentasi untuk diobservasi. Penelitian dilakukan selama 8 bulan (Agustus 2020-Maret 2021) yang menunjukkan bahwa pembelajaran online sebagai kegiatan pembelajaran yang dilakukan jarak jauh menggunakan perangkat teknologi; guru tetap menyiapkan perangkat pembelajaran, media, aplikasi, jadwal, dan strategi pada proses pembelajaran online; pembelajaran online tidak efektif diterapkan pada anak usia dini karena jaringan internet yang kurang stabil, anak kurang fokus memperhatikan guru, dan anak kurang tertarik pada pembelajaran online; orang tua memiliki peran penting dalam proses pembelajaran online. Kebaruan penelitian adalah mengkaji persepsi guru PAUD terhadap pembelajaran online walaupun belum mewakili persepsi guru PAUD di Indonesia dan diperoleh kelebihan dan kekurangan dari pembelajaran online pada anak usia dini
... As e-learning facilitates and directs self-learning, it may be difficult to maintain self-discipline among students without any physical supervision. Moreover, lack of supportive home environment and family issues further attenuate their concentrating and learning ability (Cook et al, 2008;Bartley and Golek 2004). As far as higher education is concerned the ongoing pandemic created a magnanimous impact on students' practices towards academic work and life due to shifting to online lectures, closure of libraries, transformed communication means for teachers' and administrative support, newer assessment methods, different workloads and performance levels. ...
Article
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Background E-learning is a modern and flexible mode of education and is being used as an alternative to conventional mode of education during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. However evidence suggests that effectiveness of e-learning is influenced by many prevailing factors. Methods A cross sectional study aimed to evaluate health care students’ perception towards implementation of e-learning was conducted for a period of 4 months from April 2020 to July 2020. Research instrument consisted of a self-designed, qualitative questionnaire with three domains was validated using field pretest method and administered among health care students of King Khalid University using social media platforms. Chi square test was used to estimate the effect of e-learning on various domains whereas linear regression analysis was used to find the association between subjects’ characteristics to overall domain scores. P value <0.05 was considered significant. Results Among 254 respondents 59.8% were males and 96.5% respondents were staying with their families.10.2% reported medically imposed quarantine for one or more family members. 59.8% reported that the online classes were commenced too early. 63.4% of the respondents reported that they had no previous experience. Poor network connectivity (32.3%) and unawareness about online platforms (29.9%), poor audio/video qualities (26.3%) were found as major barriers. Psychological stress, discipline of study, living status and quarantine history had a remarkable impact on the effectiveness of online education. Conclusion Health care students are still cynical and are yet to embrace e-learning fully. Psychological distress, technical issues in association with accessibility, inexperience and unpreparedness were found to be main barriers that limited student acceptance of e-learning.
... Pei et al [16] reviewed 16 articles and found that compared to traditional classes, online classes present advantages to enhance undergraduates' knowledge and skills and thus can be considered as a potential method in undergraduate medical teaching. However, the effectiveness of online learning is also influenced by many factors, including internal and external factors such as course characteristics, learning goals, and materials [17][18][19]. Therefore, this study aimed to compare the use of the Smart Class teaching module with traditional teaching on the topic of psychosocial dysfunction during the training of undergraduate OT students in China. ...
Article
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BACKGROUND Online blended learning, also known as "smart classes", has benefits when compared with traditional teaching methods that use books and lectures. This study aimed to compare the use of the Smart Class teaching module with traditional teaching on the topic of psychosocial dysfunction during the training of undergraduate occupational therapy (OT) students in China. MATERIAL AND METHODS We recruited Grade 2017 OT students as the Smart Class teaching module group and Grade 2016 OT students as the Traditional Class teaching module group to participate in the study. The objective evaluation (assignment score, practical exam score, written exam score, and final score) and subjective evaluation (data from student questionnaires and information from interviews with the lead teacher and assistant teachers) were performed in both groups. RESULTS No significant difference was found in the final scores (P=0.874) and students' questionnaire results between the 2 groups. However, data from the student questionnaires and teacher interviews indicated a preference for combining the Smart Class teaching module and the Traditional Class teaching module. CONCLUSIONS The advantage of the Smart Class teaching module is that it can effectively integrate excellent teaching resources across geographical restrictions and it is conducive to promoting independent learning for students and all-around supervision for teaching. The Smart Class teaching module was comparable to traditional teaching methods for the training of undergraduate OT students in China, but was preferred by the students.
... For example: should it continue and become a parallel counterpart of the face-to-face learning, or should it completely replace the traditional mode of learning (e.g. Bartley and Golek, 2004;Evans and Haase, 2001;Nguyen, 2015)? These questions confront geoscience community as well, and it requires mapping of merits and shortcomings of both the virtual and traditional mode of learning so that a proper framework is established to move forward in a progressive manner (e.g. ...
Chapter
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The COVID-19 virus vaccination is under process for adaptive immunity. Besides, the virus transmission rate is rapid, being symptomatic and asymptomatic. The curative rate and fatality rate depends on the age groups and individual’s previous health history. To overcome this pandemic spread, development of immune system for every individual is more essential. The antimicrobial enzyme lysozyme is a key component in the immune system which can fight against any infections. It is present naturally and can be generated in the human body from saliva, human milk, tears, and mucus. In general foods have more nutrient values and improve immunity. The outcome of this paper is to understand the importance of immunity and how to build up immune system to fight against any viral infections especially COVID-19. Indian conventional foods containing the main constituents, such as lysozyme, antioxidants, vitamins, minerals, and herbs for boosting the immunity were focused in this study.
... The global trend towards education informatization, the synthesis of the best traditions of classical work in university classrooms, and modern technologies to improve education today is (Karpenko, 2018). The problems of modern technologies are widely represented in the works of many scholars (Bartley & Golek, 2004;Polat, 2005;Singh & Hurley, 2017;Sussman & Dutter, 2013;Zaychenko, 2003). In these works, the signs of distance learning effectiveness are systematized, including those in comparison with traditional full-time forms. ...
Article
Having the epidemiological situation caused by the spread of coronavirus, distance learning has become highly relevant in the world and Ukraine since 2020. Therefore it has become significant to identify, describe, and analyse the parameters of the correspondence of predicted and diagnosed educational results in distance learning in general English, English for specific purposes and business communication. The main aim is to outline strategies for increasing the effectiveness level of such activities. To obtain data to determine the effectiveness of distance practical classes, there have been used the results of regular final tests of the level of skills formation in vocabulary, grammar, reading, speaking, listening, and writing among 200 Kyiv National University of Technologies and Design students. These results were taken at the end of the spring semester of the 2019/2020 academic year and the autumn semester of the 2020/2021 academic year to compare with the same indicators of classroom studies in the autumn and spring semesters of the 2018/2019 academic year. To determine the degree of satisfaction with online learning of the English language, a survey of 20 teachers and 200 students has been carried out. It has been proved that distance learning is able to successfully solve a wide range of problems maintaining the quality of education while adapting lingua didactic science to the current information educational conditions and the development of new teaching methods.
... Правила оформления статьи для публикации в журнале смотреть на сайте: [13][14][15][16][17][18][19] ...
... However, from general literature reviews on the adoption of online teaching at university level (Bartley and Golek, 2004;Castle and McGuire, 2010;Driscoll et al., 2012;Ghazi-Saidi et al., 2020;Glazier et al., 2020) and online investigations among educational experts (Financial Times, 2020;Forbes, 2020;UNICEF, 2020;The New York Times, 2020a), it appears there is no unanimous consensus on what the positive and negative aspects of the use of online teaching are at university level. In particular, several scholars argued differently on: the fields of study that benefit the most from online teaching, the cognitive and affective factors that influence learning outcomes, and the macro-environmental factors (i.e., the availability of IT infrastructures) that are more likely to influence the implementation of online education (Adnan and Anwar, 2020;Cristofaro et al., 2020;Moazami et al., 2014;Nguyen et al., 2012;Paul and Jefferson, 2019;Yen et al., 2018). ...
... Terdapat beberapa faktor yang perlu diberi perhatian dalam melaksanakan pembelajaran dalam talian di peringkat pendidikan tinggi. Ia mencakupi keberkesanannya dalam mendidik pelajar, penjimatan kos untuk mengimbangi peningkatan perbelanjaan dan kesetaraan kredit (Bartley & Golek, 2004;De la Varre et.al, 2011;Gratton & Stanley, 2009;Koller & Ng, 2014;Lorenzetti, 2013). Pelajar dapat berhubung dengan pensyarah dalam ruang mereka sendiri semasa sesi pembelajaran dalam talian dijalankan. ...
Article
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Abstrak Pandemik Covid-19 memberi implikasi yang besar kepada kehidupan manusia di seluruh dunia dalam menjalani urusan seharian. Norma baharu harus dilalui dan ia turut melibatkan bidang pendidikan tinggi. Perintah Kawalan Pergerakan (PKP) yang antaranya tidak membenarkan sesi pembelajaran dijalankan secara bersemuka menyebabkan institusi pengajian tinggi mengambil langkah menjalankan pembelajaran secara dalam talian (online). Bagi kebanyakan kursus, ia memberi kesan kepada pensyarah dan pelajar memandangkan perjumpaan melalui kaedah maya tidak selancar seperti yang dilakukan secara bersemuka. Kadangkala berlaku gangguan pada capaian internet dan perkakasan yang digunakan. Interaksi melalui video walaupun boleh dilakukan secara langsung tidak dapat menerangkan semua persoalan dengan jelas. Terdapat cadangan agar bahan pembelajaran disediakan secara rakaman dengan medium seperti Google Classroom dan Telegram bagi membolehkan pelajar mengikuti sesi mengikut masa yang sesuai. Mengikut beberapa laporan, Malaysia dianggap belum bersedia untuk menawarkan sistem pembelajaran secara dalam talian sepenuhnya atas beberapa faktor. Bagi bidang multimedia, ia dirasakan lebih sukar memandangkan pelajar harus menjalankan aktiviti atau tugasan yang bersifat teknikal dan praktikal. Proses merekabentuk memerlukan kepada konsultasi berterusan untuk mencapai objektif kursus. Kajian ini dijalankan dalam tempoh Perintah Kawalan Pergerakan Pemulihan (PKPP) di Kolej Universiti Islam Antarabangsa Selangor (KUIS). Responden terdiri daripada pelajar program sarjana muda Pendidikan dengan Multimedia, Usuluddin dengan Multimedia, Bahasa Arab dengan Multimedia dan program Multimedia Kreatif yang mengambil kursus Rekabentuk Grafik dalam silibus mereka. Pelajar diberi penyataan berkaitan bahan pembelajaran, kaedah pembelajaran dan kelengkapan pembelajaran yang mencakupi aspek perisian, perkakasan dan capaian internet. Data yang diperolehi dianalisis untuk mengenalpasti persepsi pelajar terhadap perjalanan sesi pembelajaran kursus Rekabentuk Grafik. Ini bagi memastikan sesi pembelajaran secara dalam talian ini dapat dilakukan secara praktis dan efektif.
... One reason why there is so much debate around online learning is that there are many claimed gains and uses of online learning. Some of these gains are: its value in instructing students, its benefits as a professional development tool, its low cost, and the accessibility of education to anyone with a broadband connection (Bartley & Golek, 2004;Bowen, 2013;De la Varre, Keane, & Irvin, 2011;Gratton-Lavoie & Stanley, 2009;Jung & Rha, 2000;Koller & Ng, 2013;Lorenzetti, 2013Tucker, 2007. Digital technology has emerged as a considerable pedagogical tool that essentially affects all student environment areas (Bond, M., Buntins, Bedenlier, Zawacki-Richter, & Kerres ,2020). ...
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This paper explores the utility of online-based instruction from Jordanian EFL teachers' perceptions on "Darsak Platform" during the COVID-19 pandemic on five domains: the logistic and technical support, the content, the teaching and assessment strategies, and the utility of the online instruction for both students and parents. The study followed the quantitative descriptive design, using a 44-item Likert scale questionnaire which was administered to 213 Jordanian EFL teachers. First, the findings revealed that there are some challenges related to the unavailability of Internet connection, poor financial conditions of parents and the lack of basic skills of teachers and learners on how to deal with technology. Second, the findings showed that content needs to be developed to allow teachers to add supplementary materials, tests, and feedback to learners. Finally, the findings revealed that online instruction and the tragic lock down of schools which led to the lack of the appropriate space at homes to receive lessons and the lack of backup from parents who usually work online in the same home, activated students' laziness, and negatively affected their progress.
... Many scholars and educators believe that online learning can be an effective tool in combating the rising cost of postsecondary education by spreading the cost of a class over a much larger number of students compared to the traditional setting, dividing the cost by tens or hundreds of thousands of students as opposed to dozens (Bowen, 2013;Bartley & Golek, 2004;Jung & Rha, 2000;Tucker, 2007). Therefore the effectiveness of virtual learning lies on its improved perception of learning among students. ...
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This study examined the strategies for improving library educators' skills and competencies for effective virtual teaching and learning. It discussed the concept of virtual teaching and learning. It revealed various strategies needed to improve library educators' skills and competencies for effective virtual teaching such as: enhancement of communication skills, improvement of technological literacy, promotion of computer and internet skills, developing the teacher's ability to use interactive online whiteboard, improvement of time management skills, etc. It also examined notable technologies and applications for virtual teaching such as google classroom, zoom, interactive whiteboard, etc. The key benefits of virtual teaching and learning as highlighted by the study includes: increased flexibility of time, increased flexibility of location, information sharing, online resources, among others. It highlighted the barriers to virtual teaching and learning such as: access to technology, access to the Internet, lack of motivation from students, technical issues, ability to use technology, etc. The study recommends that teachers should assess whether the students have reliable access to technology; set clear measurable goals so that students have something to focus on, government should also play their own role by providing each student with access to personal computers with internet connectivity, among others.
... Sesuai dengan kebijakan tersebut, sejak bulan Maret 2020 seluruh aktivitas perkuliahan di Universitas Lampung dilaksanakan dari rumah atau secara daring. Pembelajaran daring merupakan bentuk pembelajaran jarak jauh atau pendidikan jarak jauh, dimana pelaksanaan pembelajaran sepenuhnya dilakukan melalui jaringan internet (Bakia et al., 2012;Bartley & Golek, 2004;FitzPatrick, 2012;Mustofa et al., 2019). Selain sebagai alternatif pembelajaran di masa pandemi Covid-19, pembelajaran daring juga dinilai sebagai sebuah terobosan baru dalam kegiatan pembelajaran. ...
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Pembelajaran daring dianggap sebagai alternatif di masa pandemi Covid-19 dan sebuah terobosan dalam kegiatan pembelajaran. Proses pembelajaran secara daring dinilai lebih fleksibel, efisien, dan praktis dalam hal menyebarkan konten pembelajaran, serta dalam segi waktu. Namun dalam pelaksanaannya, pembelajaran daring tidak mudah dilakukan. Berbagai kendala dialami oleh mahasiswa dan dosen. Salah satu cara yang dapat dilakukan dosen agar pelaksanan pembelajaran daring optimal adalah dengan melakukan inovasi pada konten perkuliahan e-learning, contohnya dengan mengembangkan multimedia interaktif. Sebelum melakukan pengembangan, diperlukan analisis kebutuhan. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian deskriptif kualitatif. Metode yang digunakan berupa angket (kuesioner). Angket diberikan kepada 150 mahasiswa dan 4 Dosen. Data dianalisis menggunakan analisis deskriptif. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa diperlukan pengembangan media pembelajaran berupa multimedia interaktif yang dapat diakses melalui perangkat handphone dan laptop/komputer. Format media pembelajaran interaktif yang diinginkan berupa penggabungan antara teks, grafik, video, animasi dan suara, serta memungkinkan pemakai melakukan navigasi dan adanya simulasi atau latihan soal yang tampilannya menarik
... Considering the cost of online learning is not an entirely new concept. When deciding whether to take an online course, tuition, living expenses, and other educational expenses are considered (Bartley & Golek, 2004;Christie, 2007). The income of the student's immediate family influences higher education choice in terms of public-private institutions (Sidin et al., 2003). ...
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This study examines the influence of the 4Cs educational relationship management (communication, cost, convenience, customer or student centre) on the decision to be an online degree student. The research was analysed using a quantitative method from 211 online degree students through a convenience sampling (online questionnaire survey) from universities that provided online degrees. The statistical analysis employed the multiple regression analysis (MRA) to test the hypotheses. The results indicate that communication has the highest impact on the decision to be an online degree student, followed by cost, convenience and customer (student) centre, respectively. The programme directors and educational leaders should pay attention to educational relationship management (4Cs) because it influences people to decide to be online degree students.
... Mnogi naučnici i nastavnici veruju da online učenje može biti efikasno sredstvo u suzbijanju rastućih troškova postdiplomskog obrazovanja. Boven, Taker, Bartli i Golek, kao i Jung i Ra ukazuju da se suzbijanje rastućih troškova postdiplomskog obrazovanja može smanjiti prenošenjem troškova predavanja na mnogo veći broj studenata u poređenju sa tradicionalnim okruženjem (Jung & Rha, 2000;Bartley & Golek, 2004;Tucker, 2007;Boven, 2013). Ovaj finansijski aspekat u mnogome olakšava planiranje budžeta i psihološki rasterećuje sve porodice, tj. ...
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Monografija koja je pred vama rezultat je razvojno-istraživačkog projekta pod nazivom „Istraživanje kvaliteta i efektivnosti onlajn nastave u visokom obrazovanju u vreme pandemije Covid-19“, koji je odobren i finansiran odlukom Pokrajinskog sekretarijata za visoko obrazovanje i naučnoistraživačku delatnost (rešenje br. 142-451-2017/2021-02/2). Nosilac projekta je Visoka škola strukovnih studija za obrazovanje vaspitača u Kikindi (VŠSSOV). Predmet projekta je kvalitet online nastave u visokom obrazovanju u vreme pandemije. Naime, sa globalnom epidemijom virusa visoko obrazovanje bilo je prinuđeno da se hitno preusmeri na online nastavu. Tako je pred obrazovanje postavljen značajan test, a ostvareni kvalitet obrazovnog procesa u uslovima zatvaranja fakulteta i online nastave postao je ozbiljno pitanje i problem. Monografija se ovom temom bavi iz različitih perspektiva i koristi različite metodološke pristupe, pri tome se bazirajući na istom modelu kvaliteta online nastave, tzv. modelu Istraživačke zajednice ili CoI modelu (eng. Community of Inquiry – CoI). Kvalitet online nastave se ovde sagledava integralno, kroz usklađivanje tri dimenzije: nastavnog vođstva, društvene interakcije i kognitivnog angažovanja, sve uz primenu savremene informaciono-komunikacione tehnologije (Garrison, Anderson & Archer, 2000). Nastavno vođstvo čini dizajn, asistenciju i usmeravanje kognitivnih i online društvenih procesa u cilju postizanja ishoda učenja; društvena interakcija određuje koliko se studenti osećaju socijalno i emotivno povezani sa drugima i sa online okruženjem, a kognitivno angažovanje opisuje u kolikoj meri je student sposoban da izgradi značenje kroz refleksiju i komunikaciju. U monografiji objedinjeni različiti kvalitativni i kvantitativni pristupi, i to iz ugla upravljanja i rukovođenja u obrazovanju, pedagogije, dramske i muzičke umetnosti i kulture i socijalne psihologije. Svaki rukopis prošao je kroz proces višestrukog (dvostepenog ili trostepenog) recenziranja od strane eminentnih stručnjaka i autoriteta u navedenim oblastima u regionu i dobio pozitivne ocene. Nakon prikazivanja rezultata istraživanja, autori su u svakom od šest rukopisa formirali konkretne preporuke za unapređivanje ostvarenog kvaliteta i efektivnosti online nastave u visokom obrazovanju. Preporuke se odnose na nastavni, ali i logistički i upravljački nivo visokog obrazovanja.
... During to the pandemic, many countries have faced difficulties in shifting to a digitalised world. This shift would lead to a total change in the educational setting, such as that the students and teachers are in different locations but can still interact with one another [10,11]. The situation started to change again after vaccines were made available, and now, most colleges and universities are returning to the traditional classroom. ...
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The purpose of this study is to investigate students' intention to continue using online learning platforms during face-to-face traditional classes in a way that is parallel to their usage during online virtual classes (during the pandemic). This investigation of students' intention is based on a conceptual model that uses newly used external factors in addition to the technology acceptance model (TAM) contrasts; hence, it takes into consideration users' satisfaction, the external factor of information richness (IR) and the quality of the educational system and information disseminated. The participants were 768 university students who have experienced the teaching environments of both traditional face-to-face classes and online classes during the pandemic. A structural equation modelling (SEM) test was conducted to analyse the independent variables, including the users' situation awareness (SA), perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness, satisfaction, IR, education system quality and information quality. An online questionnaire was used to explore students' perceptions of their intention to use online platforms accessibly in a face-to-face learning environment. The results showed that (a) students prefer online platforms that have a higher level of content richness, to be able to implement the three dimensions of users' situation awareness (perception, comprehension and projection); (b) there were significant effects of TAM constructs on students' satisfaction and acceptance; (c) students are in favour of using a learning platform that is characterised by a high level of educational system quality and information quality and (d) students with a higher level of satisfaction have a more positive attitude in their willingness to use the online learning system. Citation: Al-Maroof, R.S.; Alnazzawi, N.; Akour, I.A.; Ayoubi, K.; Alhumaid, K.; AlAhbabi, N.M.; Alnnaimi, M.; Thabit, S.; Alfaisal, R.; Aburayya, A.; et al. The
... Essentially, Khan (1997) characterized online guidance as a creative methodology for delivering guidance to a far-off student, utilizing the internet as the medium. Bartley and Golek (2001) viewed web-based learning as a type of distance learning, which has for quite some time been a part of the American learning framework, and it has now turned into the biggest area of learning as of late everywhere. However, Ritchie and Hoffman (1997) confirmed neither putting data online nor connecting to other computerized resources online comprises online learning. ...
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The paper examined the effect of varying intensities of comparative interaction level (CIL_L) and comparative ease of attending online classes (CE_L) (viz., high, and low) on comparative knowledge gained from online and face-to-face learning modes, and existence of differences on the effect across two intensities of the covariates. Based on complete enumeration of the population of 224 management students attending the online classes at Nepal Open University, Nepal (from 22nd February to 29th March 2020), the study-by employing a binary logistic regression model-discovered the effect of comparative interaction level and comparative ease of attending online classes as significant on the comparative gain of knowledge. Further, the study found that the effect of low intensities of comparative ease of attending online classes (CE_L) and comparative interaction level (CIL_L) are lower than high intensities of comparative interaction level and comparative ease of attending online classes in finding the online classes similar/superior as opposed to the face-to-face classes. The findings should be instrumental to the exploration of the potential pathways to ameliorate the virtual learning mode as an alternative to the face-to-face one in Nepalese higher education regime.
... For example: should it continue and become a parallel counterpart of the face-to-face learning, or should it completely replace the traditional mode of learning (e.g. Bartley and Golek, 2004;Evans and Haase, 2001;Nguyen, 2015)? These questions confront geoscience community as well, and it requires mapping of merits and shortcomings of both the virtual and traditional mode of learning so that a proper framework is established to move forward in a progressive manner (e.g. ...
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The present study was done at Hemvati Nandan Bahuguna (H.N.B.) Garhwal University, Srinagar (78°46′56″E, 30°13′7″N, 540 MSL) using automatic weather station and satellite-derived aerosol products. To understand aerosol loading, the space borne radiometer (Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer), onboard of aqua and terra satellite to retrieved aerosol optical depth (AOD), Angstrom exponent, and single scattering albedo (SSA) have been analyzed. The global COVID-19 pandemic has forced to the implication of nationwide lockdown, the AOD level decreased by 32% in the first week of lockdown (March 24 to March 31, 2020) as well as 30.1% in the first phase of lockdown (March 24 to April 14, 2020). The AOD levels in April, May, June, and July of year 2020 drastically reduced by 15.30%, 15.77%, 8.39%, and 41.74%, respectively, as compared to the similar months of 2019. Whereas, the higher AOD values were observed only in the June and July of 2019 and 2020 due to the transportation of aerosols (based on the NOAA HYSPLIT model) from Thar and Sahara desert as well as local emissions. But, a further decrease in AOD was may be due to the precipitation/washout of aerosols from the atmosphere during August and September of 2019. The change in the SSA was in the range of 1%–10% as well as Angstrom exponent (α) showed the variation in the range of 0.74–1.8 and 0.95–1.8 in the year 2019 and 2020 due to the presence of a different type of atmospheric aerosols.
... Considering the cost of online learning is not a new concept (Bartley & Golek, 2004). Tuition fees, living expenses, and other education costs are considered when choosing to pursue an online course (Christie, 2007). ...
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This article reviewed the mediating role of student satisfaction between educational relationship management (4Cs) and the decision to be online degree program students. This study establishes the efforts to improve educational relationship management (4Cs) to students' needs and expectations, influencing student satisfaction and evolving it into a further decision to be an online degree program student. The elements of educational relationship management (4Cs) factors include communication, cost, convenience, and customer (student) centre. The education sector demonstrates the relationship between these measurements in the theoretical framework in this review article.
... In this way, and as Bartley and Golek (2004) point out, online teaching can give benefits compared to face-to-face teaching, since it can reach a large number of students, also reducing the costs of education. However, a great effort must be made to adapt the teaching that until now has been carried out in a face-to-face method to environments where students can learn in the same way, without reducing the skills that they can learn [16]. ...
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Virtual tools are frequently used in education. Among them, the use of virtual laboratories could be an interesting alternative to strengthen the practical concepts of the students, especially in the current paradigm in which the presence of students is often not possible. For this reason, the aim of this study was to analyse the use of different digital tools for the improvement of the teaching process during the COVID-19 pandemic period. To this end, a comparison of the application of different digital alternatives was carried out, evaluating the differences found with previous teaching courses. The results indicate that, although students welcome these activities, they cannot replace face-to-face practices, being considered as a complementary activity.
... The possible access for the teacher to interact with the students is through attractive instructions offered in online class to enhance the quality of students' learning outcomes. So, the instructions play very fundamental roles in performing online teaching and learning as the remote to control the activities (Bartley & Golek, 2004). ...
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Teaching and learning has changed and performed new challenge to provide attracting instruct for students to be active in online learning. The way to run the process of teaching and learning are modified. The use of technology in communicating the teaching-learning material is challenging. Different types of instructions motivate different to students to follow the online class activities. The communication delivered through the instructions becomes a key to guide the process of online teaching and learning. How the instructions performed by the teacher create interesting interaction in online learning. So, it is interesting to analyze further how the instructions work to activate the students’ involvement in online teaching-learning. This research is to describe how the types of instructions performed in online teaching and learning based on the implementation of teaching model. The data is collected from documents of lesson instruction design. This research uses qualitative approach to analyze the data. The result of the research is analyzed related to the types of instructions used in processing the learning activites through instructions provided by the teacher. The conclusion found three types of appropriate instructions to motivate and activate students in the process of online teaching and learning.
... Online education is significantly more accessible than traditional classroom-based education to many students. Online education is not constrained by location for the teacher or the students, which means that students (and teachers) can participate from all over the world (Bartley and Golek 2004;Ragusa and Crampton 2017) as learners can learn anywhere and can consume their time to gain knowledge of what they want to know and when they need to know. ...
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Proceedings of the International University Carnival on e-Learning (IUCEL) 2021
... This has reflected how internet connectivity is a problem for many students living in some rural areas in Malaysia. Unlike those in developed countries, the education system in Malaysia is still adapting to this method of learning (Bartley & Golek, 2004;El Said, 2021). During the early phase of the pandemic, most highly affected countries such as China, South Korea, Italy, and Iran have already adopted online learning platforms to ensure the continuous learning process (Tam & El-Azar, 2020). ...
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The purpose of this qualitative study was to look into the online learning experiences of first-year communication and media students. The study was conducted by gathering 45 written reflection papers from first-year undergraduate students covering their opinions, challenges, and feelings about online learning. NVivo 12 was used to analyse the contents of these reflection papers. The findings of this reflective narrative study offer valuable insights into how first-year communication and media students perceive online learning classes in higher education, the challenges of working with new virtual classmates, the adjustment and role as student and daughters at home, as well as their mental health and emotional feelings towards online learning. Students learned vital lessons about time management, environmental awareness and independence as a result of these experiences. Students experienced anxiety and were demotivated as a result of the lack of face-to-face interaction and effective self-introduction with new peers. Most importantly, they were dissatisfied because they had lost out on the experiences of living on campus during their first year of study. Furthermore, this research looked into another component of the qualitative technique, which is a reflective method to study the first-year students’ experiences with online learning in a Malaysian public university, an insight that can be useful for both lecturers and students.
... It can also be referred to as an electronic-based teaching that solves students problems. Virtual teaching, according to Bartley and Golek, (2004) and Evans and Haase, (2001), has been part of the American education system long ago, and in , Robinson (2021, reported that all teachers and students in schools across the United States had to make a sudden move to virtual academic platforms. As a result, virtual teaching has become the largest teaching mode in the United States. ...
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This is a review work on the control of Agricultural pollution through the use of some terrestrial plants that have the capability of forming a symbiotic relationship with fungi. Mycorrhizal Abuscular Fungi have the capability to trap agricultural run off, thereby reducing the flow of Agricultural water in our water bodies.
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The library environment is changing at a very fast rate keeping pace with the development and application of Information Communication Technology in libraries. Users’ inclination has also increased tremendously towards ICT based information resources and services. Accordingly, a new type of library resources in the form of electronic resources has entered into the collection of libraries irrespective of types and sizes. These e-resources have occupied a major portion of library collection and budget of almost all big libraries. Although there are many advantages of electronic resources over their print counterparts, a lot of challenges are there to manage and administer the electronic resources in libraries. At this juncture, Mr. Abinash Dash,Dr. Brundaban Nahak and Mr. Basanta Kumar Das have taken efforts in bringing out an edited volume on “Electronic Library Administration in Scientific Epoch” that focuses on library administration, particularly electronic library administration in scientific information age
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The purpose of this research was to construct an instrument to measure participants’ satisfaction with synchronous online education, explore its psychometric properties and explore differences among sessions based on their format and content. The quantitative analyses employed factor analysis in conjunction with item response theory for validation purposes and a (multivariate) analysis of variance with multilevel modelling for comparison purposes (N = 433). The qualitative analysis relied on classical content analysis of 303 open‐question feedback responses classified as Promoters or Detractors. Eight out of 10 questions from the initial item pool were retained for the final scale. In contrast with current knowledge about synchronous online education, interactivity was related to overall perceived session quality the least compared with other aspects included. Qualitative research provided pragmatic insights about the participants’ perspective on session quality and a comprehensive map of potentially relevant factors that could be a meaningful focus of future iterations of research. A relatively small and conceptually homogeneous pool of items prevented the extraction of additional factors due to discriminant validity issues. In future research, a larger and more comprehensive pool of items should be used as a starting point for constructing a scale, and if possible, longitudinal measures of learning transfer included as well. Educators can immediately make use of the practical suggestions in their instructional design, use the Perceived Session Quality Scale as a brief screening instrument to evaluate their sessions, and benchmark their quality in light of percentile scores provided for various types of sessions. The major contributions of this paper are the construction of a short, generalizable, and psychometrically valid tool for (synchronous online) education screening assessment—the Perceived Session Quality Scale—and an empirical mapping of potentially relevant aspects that contribute to perceived session quality.
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Learning and teaching domains are going on major higher education companies of e-learning Ideas and practices changes due to quick acceptance. Many universities all over the world are now beginning to offer Internet-based courses that complement classroom-based courses. Online courses offer learners various such as benefits facilities, Teachers, and other close to students to serve flexibility and opportunities from various schools or around the world. The education system and mode of education are changing over the period of time. In instructional technology Innovations often are implemented in traditional ways. TV significantly changes the way people learn, and it stays that way Existing instruction by providing a speaking head as an instructional tool built into the paradigm for sending information to students. Active learning, Cooperative learning, Project-based teaching and despite such educational innovations contextual face-to-face instruction in learning changed character, online courses tend to develop more traditional concepts Learning. Mostly an online course's primary objective is to transfer information from the Instructor to the student accessing information to students and expecting them to Prove their learning in an exam. The development of online instruction programs for online course developers raises an interesting question. Online study designers follow the traditional methods or incorporate online programs' innovative approaches. Primary factors behind the use of online learning improve the quality of education, and also improve the cost-effectiveness of education by reducing costs. Face-to-face Online learning is used successfully with positive effects on career and education. A geographically distributed team within an organization can simultaneously train their skills through online sites and gain greater Competitiveness. Online learning can be beneficial because Students at their own pace can learn through online products. Virtual classrooms are available anywhere with an Internet connection, take advantage of this great way to travel. Gurukul's system of education changed to imparting knowledge in a classroom setting followed by hybrid learning and at present, one new way of learning has emerged as a full-fledged mode to earn a degree i.e. online learning. Online learning comprises of both hybrid/ bended learning (comprises traditional face-to face classes, learning over the internet and learning supported by other technologies) and purely online learning is competing for course delivery through the internet. Due to its flexible and user-friendly features, online learning has been gaining attention from learners and education institutions. Learning is self-phased and effectiveness of learning is achieved if it fulfills the learners' expectation in imparting knowledge, uninterrupted support from the instructor whenever needed, disbursement of the learning materials, communication, and motivation. The objectives of this paper are to study the effectiveness of e-learning compared to conventional classroom learning. The study also shows that a major portion of learners cannot set time for study, homework, and assignments completion. The institutions along with the routine learning can also include sessions for motivation, a sense of accountability, and responsibility which may enhance discipline among learners. A significant portion of learners feels that online learning will not enhance the sense of belongingness. The institutions can create provisions at the campus for the e-learners to meet up occasionally for the interaction between learners and faculties. A portion of E-learners feels that the learning material in e-learning is not effective as that of conventional mode.
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The economic evaluation of educational policies and programs employing the ingredients method for cost, cost-effectiveness, or benefit-cost analysis is no exception to the critique that economic models require an untenable number of assumptions. Educational economists must make assumptions due to two sources of uncertainty: model uncertainty, as in the well-documented debate over the selection of the appropriate social discount rate to calculate present value and empirical uncertainty due to the infeasibility of gathering sufficiently detailed data on all resources. This paper highlights the frequency of empirical assumptions made in the education literature and proposes a set of harmonized assumptions to address empirical uncertainty that can be used to increase comparability of economic evaluation across programs and across studies. By building consensus on a set of reasonable, empirically derived assumptions that are selected so as to minimally distort the results of evaluations, differences in costs, cost effectiveness, and benefit-cost ratios can be more confidently ascribed to meaningful differences in resource use, program implementation, and program effectiveness, as opposed to differences in choices made by the analyst.
Conference Paper
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The ordinary least squares and ridge regression estimators lead to inefficient results when the joint problem of multicollinearity and y-direction outliers are present in the multiple linear regression models. In order to get precise estimates, ridge M-estimation method is usually used in such situations. The ridge parameter, k, plays a key role in achieving the optimal results. The estimation of ridge parameter is an important problem for many researchers. In this article, we considered some existing ridge M-estimators and developed some new estimators for k. Extensive Monte Carlo simulations are used to compare the performance of estimators through mean squared error criterion. The factors we choose to vary are multicollinearity, y-direction outliers, sample size, predictors and error distributions. Some of the new ridge M-estimators performed well compared to the ordinary least square, ridge regression and some existing popular ridge M-estimators. Finally, a numerical example is presented to illustrate the benefits of the new estimators.
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Abstract Algerian Higher education knew a transition to online courses caused by COVID-19 spread. Without prior familiarity with this type of education, such a transition may negatively impact the teaching/learning process. This study analyzes teachers' and students' perspectives about online education and suggests implications for its improvement. Therefore, an online survey and Likert scale questionnaire were administered to university teachers and students, respectively. Results revealed that university e-learning suffers from basic issues, including a shortage of internet and communication technologies. Among study proposing, we find that online education should be gradually blended alongside conventional education considering some important factors such as affordability and accessibility of information and communication technologies as well as training teachers and students to use learning platforms like Moodle.
Article
eLearning practitioners are eager to know what factors affect the effectiveness of online learning and how they can implement evidence-based evaluation to examine and improve their organizations. This study adopted the learning sciences evaluation checklist to successfully evaluate a military-based training and learning organization via a semi-structured interview and provide actionable recommendations afterward. The criteria include educational networks, human-centered evaluations, administrator-instructor trust, institution-student trust, organization support-level strategies, support services, humans/technological support infrastructures, and class size flexibility. Seven practitioner take-aways were provided to ease the use of the checklist.
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Digital literacy is lacking in many tribal areas of India. This article investigates the cost-effectiveness of a program that uses tablets for conducting digital literacy trainings in rural Rajasthan. The program is supported by the Ministry of Tribal Affairs, Government Of India. Data from 700 students belonging to tribal communities across Rajasthan are being analyzed. The students received 20 hours of training with tablets, and then they should attempt an exam for basic computer literacy. Costs and effects for conducting the programs for these students in 15 schools are being investigated. The program is found to be cost-effective with a threshold of INR 264 for the willingness to pay.
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This study aimed to know the students’ perspective of English online learning during Covid-19 pandemic regarding readiness aspect, learning performance, and the obstacles students face in learning distance. This study used qualitative research and it was conducted from September until January in 12 meetings of distance learning using online applications. The questionnaires were given to 42 first-semester students of social faculty of IKIP PGRI Jember. The result showed that almost all students had good preparation before joining English online learning. However, students faced some main problem during online learning: unstable internet connection, losing their concentration starring at the screen of hand-phone or computer, and spending more money to buy internet quota. In conclusion, there were students’ perspective in English online learning, i.e. 1) students have good English motivation motivation; they prepare the equipment needed before joining the online learning. 2) The lecture’s style to teach English, students prefer to use the bilingual method to make them easier to understand the materials. 3) Google meet and zoom applications are the most chosen application used in virtual meetings because they provide good interaction between teachers and students. 4) The obstacles in online learning faced by students. i.e. unstable internet, lose concentration.
Conference Paper
For decades, academics have investigated which design is practical for language classrooms in modern times. Some argue that online is powerful. But others spoke that online is high maintenance compared to the face-to-face classes. In general, our language classroom dominates by traditional teaching and, at present, is struggling to transform into the online teaching cause of the COVID-19. The government takes action to keep national education work-well during the pandemic time. However, the current situation forces the government to prepare a massive infrastructure and redesign the national curriculum to meet the grand design that supports online learning. As a glimpse of hope, this paper aims to fill the gap of literature and promote some feasibilities that beneficial for institutions, higher education, schools, or even parents to broaden the perceptions and prepare for online learning.education, schools, or even parents to broaden the perceptions and prepare for online learning.
Conference Paper
Student feedback is the output provided by the students related to their perception of teachings. This is offered to the students in every semester at the end in response to the various question asked about their activities, tasks and the environment they are engaged in the whole semester. Student’s achievements are a big contribution by the teachers. Teacher evaluation is focused these days to determine the teaching impact on student outcomes and is also use for their professional development. Different researches show different results for evaluation of teachers. This overview provides the information about the teachers practice and using it to improve their system. With existing empirical evidence mostly restricted to short-run outcomes. This study examines long-term academic outcomes of Teacher Evaluation for teachers by bachelor students at Air University. On the basis of statistical analysis the effectiveness of said dataset and relation towards teacher evaluation policies have been formulated.
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Creative thinking is needed to thrive in our fast‐changing world. It has been shown that creative thinking skills can be enhanced through training. Whereas previous research has mainly focused on examining the overall effectiveness of comprehensive creativity training programs, this study examined the effectiveness of four cognitive‐based training techniques (SCAMPER, random connection, schema violation, and simple ideation), each with the aim of training specific cognitive processes underlying creativity. The effectiveness of the four techniques was tested using a pre–posttest between‐subjects design. The participants were assigned to one of the four creativity training conditions or a control condition and practiced each training technique for approximately 20 min. Before and after training, the participants’ creative performance was measured with divergent thinking (Alternative Uses Task; fluency, flexibility, originality, creativity, usefulness) and convergent thinking (Remote Associates Test) tasks. The results showed marginal to significant improvements on several key indicators of divergent thinking, but none of the techniques led to improvement in convergent thinking. Specifically, the SCAMPER technique targeting conceptual expansion marginally improved idea originality, while the random connection technique targeting conceptual combination and the schema violation technique targeting cognitive flexibility seemed to facilitate idea fluency and idea flexibility. No improvement was observed for the simple ideation technique and the control condition.
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Using three learning style instruments, researchers assessed students enrolled in an online instructional design course and students in an equivalent face-to-face course to determine the students’ preferences across the constructs of motivation maintenance, task engagement, and cognitive controls. Although significant differences were found between the learning style preferences of the online students and those of the face-to-face students, these differences were not significant when success factors were controlled. The results of this study suggest that students can learn equally well in either delivery format, regardless of learning style, provided the course is developed around adult learning theory and sound instructional design guidelines.
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The future of online business education seems quite bright. Three-fifths of the 1,700 US institutions of higher learning that are engaged in distance education – 55 percent of which offer credit-bearing business courses – already use some form of Internet-based technology. Nonetheless, there have been no large-scale studies of potential online business students in terms of their traits and desires. In this article, the background of distance education is presented. Then, the results of a major survey, involving NPD’s Online Research Panel, are discussed. In all, 2,651 adults participated in the survey, 1,945 of whom indicated some interest in online business education. Eight propositions are tested, relating to demographics, courses versus programs, reasons for enrolling or not enrolling, desired features, customer service expectations, tuition, prestige and value, and institutional attributes.
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Considers the requirement for information security within the domain of online distance learning. A generic module structure is presented which represents a high level abstraction of the different stages of the educational process. Discusses the main security issues that must be considered at each stage. These various requirements are being addressed in practice by the security framework being developed by the SDLearn research project, a collaborative initiative between higher academic establishments in the UK and Germany.
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The emergence of online education creates opportunities for positive education changes centering on improved learning rather than on reaping economies of scale. We can develop online strategies for using class time more productively; courses can be arranged to correspond to the varying learning curves of different students; and degrees can be tailored to the actual competencies students achieve. Further, the online world based in hypertext and virtuality creates the possibility of providing entirely new educational materials and environments. These improvements depend on faculty seizing control of the way technology is used in education.
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Poses some fundamental questions which need to be answered before course developers and facilitators can transform hands-on, classroom experiences to a totally computer-based learning environment, as happens when adopting the Internet as a teaching medium. Recognizes that instructors face steep learning curves with the advent of Internet-based education and emphasizes that the online environment must be created in such a way that learning can and will take place. Examines many pros and cons of online learning. Concludes that faculty life will become more complicated until members become proficient in online learning but ultimately believes that effective learning experiences will be the result.
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Reviews the fulfilled and unfulfilled promises of Web-based training since its inception. Explores current influences that establish benchmarks of quality, and forthcoming technologies that will shape online learning in the next decade. Contends that distance learning now has a broader interpretation as online learning applications and the underlying technologies have matured. Asserts that instructional design now considers all enabling technologies and learning constructs. Argues that processes that apply user-centered design, knowledge object structures, usability engineering, and formal evaluation ensure that the full needs of both learners and provider organizations are met. States that industry standards for accessibility and reusability influence design and alter engineering. Maintains that emerging technologies like XML, true speech recognition, and wireless impact Web-based training; however, knowledge management, peer-to-peer learning, and personal learning appliances will dramatically transform the way humans learn.
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The study examined the effectiveness of one experiential teaching component, the low ropes course, as an aid to increase learners' application of course concepts in a graduate-level Human Resource Development course at a major land grant university. Findings indicate that the experiential learning component did enhance students' learning of major course concepts. Ropes facilitators were effective and their effectiveness contributed to students' learning of major course concepts as well. Recommendations for further study are provided. Background Higher education today primarily teaches skills necessary to be successful in the academic environment and tests students on their acquisition of knowledge with the assumption that an appropriate application of learning will follow in the workplace. Those skills taught and that knowledge tested, however, may not necessarily be appropriate for, or transferable to, actual life or employment situations (Jernstedt, 1995). The traditional educational approach is based on the transmission of knowledge from an expert (professor) to the novice (learner) in an isolated setting (classroom); however, learning outside of the classroom is most often social, collaborative, and peer-based (Ruben, 1999). In searching for a teaching methodology that encourages inquiry and the active use of information, some have found the traditional "professor as the dispenser of knowledge" approach to be confining. At the graduate level, the students' ability to apply acquired knowledge in their professional lives is of particular concern. National educational reports on undergraduate and graduate education have criticized higher education's overemphasis on
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The combination of the demand for access to continuous, flexible education and training, and the arrival of the increased bandwidth of more powerful information and communication technologies is stimulating extensive corporate developments in the e-learning industry. Strategic alliances of leading universities, e-learning and technology companies are forming to provide online delivery of sophisticated, media rich, interactive education and training on a global basis. Hundreds of e-learning companies are competing in this new marketspace with content, technology and services. Major companies are establishing their own corporate universities. The question is whether the potential for interactive online knowledge communities is achieved, or if this new technology is primarily employed in relatively routine skills training.
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A common thread among the plethora of definitions of knowledge management is that its objective is to identify and leverage the collective knowledge in an organization to help organizations compete and survive. One potential lever is e-learning, the creation and distribution of organizational knowledge through the online delivery of information, communication, education, and training. John Chambers, of Cisco Systems, said: “The two great equalizers in life are the Internet and education”, so why not fuse the two to provide an efficient way to empower a workforce with the skills and knowledge it needs to compete amid the rapid pace of change in business? In this paper we discuss the relationship between knowledge management and e-learning and present a framework for employing e-learning as a valuable tool for knowledge management. The framework encompasses the planning and implementation elements necessary for organizations to leverage existing technologies and implement new ones to promote organizational learning and contribute to the management of organizational knowledge.
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Training can be personalized using online resources to determine an individual’s learning preferences and personality characteristics. This study provides an overview of learning style, personality types, and multiple intelligences theories; lists and describes selected testing instruments available on the Internet; and provides strategies for teaching and learning, considering different learning styles.
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This study identified the factors that are important in the effective implementation of online learning in the mining industry in Queensland, Australia. Two sources of data and a Grounded Theory approach were used to develop a theoretical model that would inform managers, trainers and educators considering online learning implementation. The first source of data was key stakeholders in the Queensland mining industry, which had yet to implement online learning in any systematic way. The second source was literature case studies of other industries that had reported experiences of implementing online learning that were compared with the field case study. Six major factors were identified from this analysis as important for effective online learning implementation: external influences; organizational culture; organizational structures; training environment; learners’ needs and the online learning environment. Implications for further research and the implementation of online learning in other industries are also discussed.
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Obra en que se estudia qué tipo de instituciones educativas se están convirtiendo las universidades ante la adopción de las nuevas tecnologías de información y comunicación en la enseñanza, la investigación y la administración, así como las consecuencias de los cambios en el papel y en la identidad de la universidad.
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Manual para la evaluación de programas de capacitación y de mejoramiento, cuyo autor prové al lector de métodos de recolección de datos, vías para determinar que proporción del mejoramiento está vinculado directamente a los programas de capacitación y técnicas para la conversión de datos, tanto cualitativos como cuantitativos, en valores monetarios.
Instructional systems design: A little bit of ADDIEtude, please
  • P Beckschi
  • M Doty
Beckschi, P., & Doty, M. (2000). Instructional systems design: A little bit of ADDIEtude, please. In Piskurich, G. M., Beckschi, P., & Hall, B. (Eds.) The ASTD Handbook of Training Design and Delivery, New York: McGraw Hill, 28-41.
Assessing the financial benefits of human resource development
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Swanson, R. A. (2001). Assessing the financial benefits of human resource development, Cambridge, MA: Perseus Publishing.
On the way to online pedagogy Teaching and learning online: Pedagogies for new technologies
  • M Good
Good, M. (2001). On the way to online pedagogy. In Stephenson, J. (Ed.) Teaching and learning online: Pedagogies for new technologies, Sterling, VA: Stylus Publishing, 165-174.
Course design for online learning -what's gone wrong? Teaching and learning online: Pedagogies for new technologies
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Whitlock, Q. (2001). Course design for online learning -what's gone wrong? In Stephenson, J. (Ed.) Teaching and learning online: Pedagogies for new technologies, Sterling, VA: Stylus Publishing, 182-194.
The politics of flexible learning: Opportunities and challenges in a globalized world Flexible learning, human resource and organizational development: Putting theory to work
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Jakupec, V. (2000). The politics of flexible learning: Opportunities and challenges in a globalized world. In Jakupec, V., & Garrick, J. (Eds.) Flexible learning, human resource and organizational development: Putting theory to work, New York: Routledge, 67-84.
Pedagogical assumptions in flexible learning Flexible learning, human resource and organizational development: Putting theory to work
  • M Thorpe
Thorpe, M. (2000). Pedagogical assumptions in flexible learning. In Jakupec, V., & Garrick, J. (Eds.) Flexible learning, human resource and organizational development: Putting theory to work, New York: Routledge, 175- 192.