ArticlePDF Available

Abstract and Figures

Mobile devices are more powerful and portable nowadays with plenty of useful tools for assisting people handle daily life. With the advance of mobile technology, the issue of mobile learning has been widely investigated in e-learning research. Many researches consider it is important to integrate pedagogical and technical strengths of mobile technology into learning environments. This review study focuses on the investigation of add-on impact of mobile applications in learning strategies. We surveyed recent researches including context awareness, pedagogical strategy-enhanced learning scenarios, as well as collaborative and socially networked mobile learning. Through this review study, essential characteristics of mobile learning were identified and discussed. With the essential characteristics, we emphasized on the add-on impact of mobile learning and elaborated mobile learning model in learning strategies. © International Forum of Educational Technology & Society (IFETS).
Content may be subject to copyright.
Jeng, Y.-L., Wu, T.-T., Huang, Y.-M., Tan, Q., & Yang, S. J. H. (2010). The Add-on Impact of Mobile Applications in Learning
Strategies: A Review Study. Educational Technology & Society, 13 (3), 3–11.
ISSN 1436-4522 (online) and 1176-3647 (print). © International Forum of Educational Technology & Society (IFETS). The authors and the forum jointly retain the
copyright of the articles. Permission to make digital or hard copies of part or all of this work for personal or classroom use is granted without fee provided that copies
are not made or distributed for profit or commercial advantage and that copies bear the full citation on the first page. Copyrights for components of this work owned by
others than IFETS must be honoured. Abstracting with credit is permitted. To copy otherwise, to republish, to post on servers, or to redistribute to lists, requires prior
specific permission and/or a fee. Request permissions from the editors at
The Add-on Impact of Mobile Applications in Learning Strategies: A Review
Yu-Lin Jeng1, Ting-Ting Wu1, Yueh-Min Huang1, Qing Tan2 and Stephen J. H. Yang3
1Department of Engineering Science, National Cheng Kung University, No.1, University Road, Tainan City, Taiwan,
R.O.C. //;;
2School of Computing and Information System, Athabasca University, Athabasca, Alberta, Canada // //
3Department of Computer Science & Information Engineering, National Central University, No. 300, Jung-da Rd.
JhongLi City, Taiwan //
Mobile devices are more powerful and portable nowadays with plenty of useful tools for assisting people handle
daily life. With the advance of mobile technology, the issue of mobile learning has been widely investigated in
e-learning research. Many researches consider it is important to integrate pedagogical and technical strengths of
mobile technology into learning environments. This review study focuses on the investigation of add-on impact
of mobile applications in learning strategies. We surveyed recent researches including context awareness,
pedagogical strategy-enhanced learning scenarios, as well as collaborative and socially networked mobile
learning. Through this review study, essential characteristics of mobile learning were identified and discussed.
With the essential characteristics, we emphasized on the add-on impact of mobile learning and elaborated
mobile learning model in learning strategies.
Mobile devices, mobile learning, ubiquitous learning, pedagogical strategies
The advance of mobile technologies have turned handheld devices a part of people’s daily life, such as in
communication and entertainment. Meanwhile, educators strive to facilitate learning by applying mobile technology
and appropriate learning strategies. Nowadays mobile devices, such as smart phones, have equipped with location
information receiver, camera, RFID reader, and other environmental awareness sensors. These can provide rich and
interactive multimedia learning content for educational purpose. In addition, appropriate learning strategies can help
educators facilitate mobile learning process and achieve their educational goals.
Most of previous work about mobile technologies has been focused varied strength to emphasize the assistance in
mobile learning activity. In this review study, we take more practical points of view to describe how mobile
technologies facilitate mobile learning activity. The advanced mobile technology provides users with two important
features in recent mobile learning research, situated context and ubiquitous mobility. Ubiquitous mobility has been
considered and implemented in several researches in recent years (Sharples Beale, 2003; Joiner et al., 2006;
Fallahkhair, 2007). With ubiquitous mobility, students can facilitate learning activity in the outside world and
connect to other peers by connecting to network. Mobile technologies offer rich content of mobile learning and
deliver information effectively for students during their learning activities. The feature of mobility also makes
mobile learning become more and more distributed (Chang et al., 2003; Corlett, et al., 2005; Clough, 2008). Situated
learning is one of mobile learning applications (Hall & Bannon, 2006; Morken, et al., 2007; Lai, et al., 2007); it is
the learning that takes place in the context corresponding to the learning materials. Situated learning provides
learners with authentic learning examples which suit the learner’s learning context. With mobile situated learning
system, learner can acquire the context-aware learning materials to enhance their learning experience. Table 1 shows
the benefits of added equipment on mobile devices. Museum guide system is an extension application of mobile
situated learning system. Giuseppe et al. (2009) propose a location-aware, multi-device museum guide system which
integrates various types of games and context-dependent information. The proposed system help improve the
visitors’ experience by extending their interaction with exhibits. This kind of informal learning may draw more
attention form mobile learners. Handheld devices have been deployed as learning tools in both formal and informal
learning contexts. Clough et al. (2008) investigate how experienced users of mobile devices use their mobile devices
to support intentional informal learning. The results show that mobile devices are used extensively in an informal
learning context by mobile learners. Also, they use mobile devices in ways that correspond to the collaborative,
contextual and constructivist mobile learning activities. Moreover, the embedded GPS receiver built into the mobile
devices brings new applications and opportunities to trigger content or action relevant to the learning context. This
feature also causes the improvement in mobile situated learning process.
Table 1. The benefits of added equipment on mobile devices
Added equipment
on mobile devices Description Objective
Wireless network
connection Provide the connection between
mobile devices and Internet. To communicate with remote application server which can
bring the context based learning information for mobile
learner in situated learning environment.
Embedded Camera Enable the capture of current
environment in mobile learning
To upload the picture of current environment on the
application server. With collaborative effort of mobile
learners, the picture can draw discussion and comments
which provide situated knowledge.
Embedded GPS
receiver Provide the current coordinate
of the mobile device. To monitor the position of mobile learner and provide
location-based authentic learning materials.
Additional RFID
reader Connect to RFID tag and
receive the information. To retrieve the information corresponding to current
learning activity and bring benefit in situated learning
From the pedagogical aspects, mobile learning offers context of authentic learning materials in the learning activities.
Therefore, the pedagogic strategies can be utilized in mobile learning activities through the advanced mobile
technique. Collaborative and cooperative mobile learning activities facilitate mobile technique as the learning tools
(Lundin & Magnusson, 2003; Ng, et al., 2005; Järvelä, et al., 2007; Huang, et al., 2008 & 2009). Yang (2006)
constructed three systems in the context aware ubiquitous learning environment, which include peer-to-peer content
access and adaptation system, personalized annotation management system, and multimedia real-time group
discussion system. In that environment, researcher utilized the effective and efficient advantage of ubiquitous
learning to design the strategy of peer-to-peer collaborative learning to the learners. The author addresses the newly
concept of collaborative activity can fully support the needs of peer-to-peer collaborative learning.
Situated context and ubiquitous mobility are important features when developing the educational mobile activities.
The add-on impact of mobile application in learning strategies will also put emphasis on the two features. This study
is organized as follows. In literature review, we collect recent researches focusing on technology and pedagogy
supported mobile learning examples in facilitating mobile learning process. In the third part of the study, the
essential attributes of mobile learning will be summarized to emphasize the add-on impact of mobile technology in
learning strategies. We conclude this study by reflecting impact and learning models associated with mobile learning
in education.
Figure 1. Architecture of the literature review
Literature Review
Figure 1 shows the architecture of this literature review. Firstly, in order to deliver the appropriate learning content
on mobile devices, some researches focus on the adaptive content investigation. Moreover, right learning content
corresponding to mobile learner’s context is more important than a transparent learning content. Then, the pedagogic
strategy in mobile learning activity is illustrated and investigated.
The rapid development of wireless network technologies and various mobile products have enabled people to
conveniently access the information resources anytime and anywhere without constraints of time or place. The
advanced available technologies, such as high bandwidth wireless communication networking infrastructure,
wireless technologies, and advanced handheld devices, have extended online learning modes from E-learning to M-
learning, in which learning objects have started to extend traditional learning manner towards widely used in daily
life for various purposes (Sharples, 2000). However, mobile devices for learning are limited by screen size,
computational power, battery capacity, input interface and network bandwidth (Chen, Chang, & Wang, 2008). Thus,
how to adapt information for delivery to mobile devices has become a critical issue in mobile learning environment.
To address this concern, many researchers have investigated the issue in different ways and have proposed several
solutions (Gaedke et al., 1998; Goh, Kinshuk, & Lin, 2003; Huang & Sundaresan, 2000; Lemlouma & Layaïda,
2003). Yang, Chen, & Shao (2004) developed a universal access mechanism which can provide a transparent and
seamless browsing experience of adaptive content based on XML/RDF, CC/PP, and UAProf techniques. Besides,
content server can create adaptive multimedia content used on Dublin core/MPEG-7 and SMIL for multimedia
content description and composition. Lemlouma and Layaïda (2004) proposed the system using the XQuery
language and delivering the SOAP services to achieve automatic adaptation of the content based on its semantic and
the capabilities of the target device. Zhang (2007) proposed several perspectives to discuss the web content
adaptation for mobile devices. Huang, et al. (2008) utilized Fuzzy Weighted Average (FWA) algorithm to design a
context-awareness synchronous learning system. The proposed manner provides various content styles to make
learning contents appropriate to be displayed on diverse learning devices.
Recently, the concept of context-aware ubiquitous learning has been further proposed to allow students learning with
variety of mobile devices and facilitate a seamless ubiquitous learning environment (Chang, Sheu, & Chan, 2003;
Sakamura & Koshizuka, 2005; Rogers et al., 2005), which learning situation focuses on emphasis the characteristics
of learning at the right time and right place with right resources in the right ways and conducts real-world learning
activities with adaptive supports from the learning system (Hwang, Tsai & Yang, 2008; Peng et al., 2009; Yang,
2006). In order to achieve context-aware and seamlessly learning environments, some ubiquitous computing
technologies and devices were usually utilized to detect or sense users’ context information, such as RFID, GPS,
specific sensors, contact-less smart cards, wearable computers, and wireless communications. (El-Bishouty, Ogata &
Yano, 2007; Hwang, Tsai & Yang, 2008). The acquired context information was not merely used to identify
learners’ situations but also utilized to support personalized learning guidance. Through physical integration,
students can learn physical materials in the real world and conduct authentic activities based on learner-centered and
situated learning pedagogies (El-Bishouty, Ogata, & Yano, 2007; Hwang, Tsai, & Yang, 2008; Shaw, Turvey &
Mace, 1982; Young, 1993). For example, Chen, Kao, & Sheu (2003) constructed a mobile scaffolding-aid-based bird
watching learning (BWL) system which provides cognitive tools to support outdoor nature and science education
afforded by mobile personal digital assistants. Chen, Kao, & Sheu (2005) developed a mobile butterfly watching
learning system which supports independent learning and outdoor learning based on a wireless network, data mining
technologies and using PDAs. Yang (2006) constructed three systems and utilized the effective and efficient
advantage of ubiquitous learning to design the strategy of peer-to-peer learning model to the learners. El-Bishouty,
Ogata, & Yano (2007) proposed the Knowledge Awareness Map which provides personalized learning condition to
the students according to their current need and location and recommends the best matched materials according to
learner’s current task and current location. Tan, Liu, & Chang (2007) developed an Environment of Ubiquitous
Learning with Educational Resources (EULER), which allow students observing real learning objects and sharing
learning experiences to each other. Chen & Hsu (2008) proposed a personalized intelligent mobile learning system
which utilized the fuzzy Item Response Theory presenting the appropriately English news articles and suitable
vocabularies to the learners. Hwang et al. (2009) developed a context-aware u-learning environment to assist
inexperienced researchers in learning single-crystal X-ray diffraction operations, and used the knowledge-based
systems developed for instructing the learners based on the contexts sensed in the real learning environment. Peng et
al. (2009) proposed a Ubiquitous Performance-Support System which combines digital and physical resources and
the manner of data-driven decision making to assist with administrators and educators for understanding the
perceptions of experts and students.
In addition to the integration of suitable software and novel mobile technologies, how to combine appropriate
pedagogical strategy for enhanced learning application was another critical important issue in mobile learning
environment. Some of the studies proposed the navigation mechanism and intelligent tutoring system supporting
suitable tutorial strategies for students increasing learning opportunities (Ghiani et al., 2009; O’Grady, O’Hare, &
Sas, 2005; Pianesi et al., 2009; Virvou & Alepis, 2005). Moreover, the high interaction strategy was proposed to use
for promoting social interaction and enhancing user experience in several studies (Hourcade & Berkel, 2008;
Paterno` & Santoro, 2003; Wessels et al., 2007). Collaborative and cooperative learning are generally the first
method chosen in mobile learning environment. Collaborative and cooperative learning is based on the constructivist
theory which prompts students to learn by doing and construct knowledge for themselves (Schunk, 1996), and that
pedagogical strategies have been widely applied in mobile learning activities (Dearman, Hawkey, & Inkpen, 2005;
El-Bishouty, Ogata & Yano, 2007; Huang, Huang, & Hsieh, 2008; Huang, Jeng, & Huang, 2009; Lundin &
Magnusson, 2003; Patten, Sa´nchez, & Tangney, 2006; Yang, 2006). Besides described above, Peng et al. (2009)
proposed the approach of data-driven decision making as a mindtool which should facilitate critical thinking and
higher-order learning by adapting to the learners. Zurita & Nussbaum (2004) developed a constructivist learning
environment by providing each child with a share of the necessary information to accomplish the educative activity
goal. Chen, Kao, & Sheu (2003) utilized the method of scaffolding which can enhance comprehension, improve
independent learning and application, and promote knowledge transfer. The main research applications of situated
learning and ubiquitous learning have been discussed in this paragraph. The next section will discuss the essential
attributes of mobile learning then conclude the researches.
Essential Attributes of Mobile Learning
Learning through mobile devices is the trend of digital learning field. Generally, learning that happens on any
pervasive computing devices can be referred to mobile learning. Therefore, mobile learning includes portable
technologies and mobile contexts in mobile learning society. This section describes the add-on impact of mobile
learning based on four dimensions as shown in Figure 2. The four dimensions are situated learning environment,
virtual group awareness/strategies, enhanced pedagogical learning process and mobile learner/coacher.
Situated Learning
Virtual Group
Enhanced Pedagogical
Learning Process Mobile
Mobile Learner
Mobile Coacher
Figure 2. Essential attributes of mobile learning
Mobile learner and coacher
The advance of pervasive technologies brings opportunities for educators to design interactive learning activities.
Such environment encourages learners to utilize the learning tools and explore the knowledge (Price, & Rogers,
2004; Monahan, et al., 2008). Learners can learn the knowledge and access the information anytime and anywhere
without too much additional efforts. In mobile learning process, learners’ learning portfolio will be recorded and the
relevant information around learners will be tracked in mobile applications. Accordingly, the authentic learning
materials or the appropriate contextual learning content will be provided according to the learner’s learning context.
The mobile application needs feedback from learner to provide personalized learning suggestions. The mobile
learning system is adaptive to the mobile learners, which can offer right learning content in right places to right
learners. The mobile learning scenario to mobile learners should be natural without carrying additional devices.
The mobile coacher could be a mobile application agent or a real lecturer who guide learners to problem solving in
mobile learning activities. Mobile learning applications are expected to offer learners the sharing of their learning
portfolio, learning context, and learning feedback to their mobile coacher. After receiving the relevant learning
information of learners, mobile coacher can provide adaptable personalized learning contents and suggestions.
Besides, the mobile coacher scaffolds the learning assists according to learner’s ability and learning progress in their
learning activities. The mobile coacher is expected to monitor learners’ needs and provide them with appropriate aid
in the learning activity.
Enhanced pedagogical learning process
Mobile learning is diverse from traditional electronic learning, thus the conventional pedagogical theory should be
revised to fit the characteristics of mobile environment. The enhanced pedagogical learning process is utilized to
facilitate the learning in mobile learning activities. For example, blog articles were applied to construct a learning
map called blog-based dynamic learning map (Wang et al., 2008). It is designed to provide informative and
structured blog articles to assist students’ learning. Therefore, a collaborative learning process can be facilitated by
utilizing a mobile blogging system (Huang et al., 2009). In this mobile collaborative learning process, the blogging
system is employed as a data collector and an information sharing platform for mobile learners. A revised
pedagogical learning process associated with mobile technology has formed the pedagogical foundations of mobile
learning. Chen, et al. (2003; 2008) have designed mobile application system for modeling, coaching and scaffolding
the authentic activities and faded the support during the mobile learning process. They facilitate collaboration and
support some of the social practices associated with learning. Therefore, the traditional pedagogical theory can take
advantage of mobile technology and bring more efficient learning process to mobile learners. The combination of
collaborative, contextual, constructionist and constructivist principles should be derived from augmented
pedagogical learning process.
Situated learning environment
Mobile technologies gradually facilitate and enhance learners' interaction by means of accessing, discussing and
sharing associated information through social networks. A situated learning environment aims to contextualize
learning activities by enabling the learners to interact appropriately with their environment (Patten, et al., 2006). The
advanced function of mobile devices make it possible for detecting learner’s learning environment by embedded
mobile sensors. Yang, (2006) proposed a context aware ubiquitous learning environment to provide contextual
information and support peer-to-peer collaborative learning. The mobility, communication features and
computational capacity of handhelds provide learners with authentic learning activities by simulating a situated
learning environment. In cognitive apprenticeship, knowledge is situated within authentic activities and taught
through interaction with instructors (Brown et al., 1989). Therefore, a vivid learning interaction with the environment
makes the add-on impact of mobile learning in situated learning environment.
Virtual group awareness/strategies
Various studies (Danesh, et al.,, 2001; Inkpen, 1991; Mandryk, et al., 2001) describe the benefit for bringing
mobility, and portability to face-to-face CSCL environments when students are wirelessly interconnected by
handheld devices. Zurita, Nussbaum, & Salinas, (2005) proposed dynamic grouping methodology which is like re-
composition group members during the collaborative activity. The results let future research understand which group
composition should be favored in a given set of circumstances. Therefore, the member of virtual group should be
deployed in particular given learning context to facilitate learners engaging in the learning topics. Uzunboylu, et al.
(2009) investigated the use of integrating mobile telephones, data services to increase students’ use of mobile
technologies and develop environmental awareness. The result of grad analysis was found that students had more
positive attitudes toward environmental issues. With the development of mobile applications, virtual group
awareness can be emphasized and augmented. This improvement in mobile learning draws more opportunities in
utilizing pedagogical learning strategies.
With the integration of the four attributes, a mobile learning activity would be sturdy in perspective of learning
model. A mobile learning environment should have learner and coacher combined with enhanced pedagogical
learning strategies. To address the mobility in mobile learning, the technologic advantages should be valued. The
situated learning environment utilizes the strength of mobility and brings context awareness learning materials for
mobile learner and coacher. In this environment, mobile learner can have the awareness of group membership which
could increase the learning motive or improve the learning efficiency.
Conclusions and Discussions
This review study focused on pedagogical learning strategies applied in mobile learning environments. Through the
survey of recent researches on mobile learning, we investigated the add-on impact of mobile applications in learning
strategies and concluded the following observations.
Mobile technology brings the impact of mobile learning on traditional pedagogical learning strategies. The mobile
learning model emphasized on mobile users, learning strategies, situated environments, and virtual group awareness.
The advance of mobile technology assists the development of “situated classroom” which is an augmented
knowledge context environment pertaining to learners’ daily life. The situated classroom is able to convey
information between learners and coachers while the learning strategies are deployed. With the enhanced
pedagogical learning strategies, learners obtain skill and knowledge in situated classroom. Many currently available
mobile learning applications highlight the mobility, ubiquitous computing, and portability features to facilitate
learning process by utilizing those features. Nevertheless, a more important issue is to rationalize the customized
mobile learning applications in the proposed pedagogical learning strategies. Mobile technology does not aim to
complicate learning process but facilitate mobile learners’ learning process. To create new innovative learning
opportunities, one needs to take into account the usability and the rationality. We believe that the appropriate
application of mobile devices is to be developed in the combination of appropriate use of mobile technology and
enhanced educational underpinning.
Future studies with the support of mobile technology could be directed towards the integration of learning strategies
and emerging mobile sensor technology. More and more mobile devices in the future will be equipped with sensors
and accelerometers which mean the track of mobile learners will be more precise. Combine the personal learning
portfolio with physical learning behavior would bring new issues in the field of mobile learning.
This work was supported in part by the National Science Council (NSC), Taiwan, ROC, under Grants NSC 96-2524-
S-032-001 and NSC 97-2511-S-006-001-MY3, and in part by NSERC, iCORE, Xerox, and the research related
funding by Mr. A. Markin.
Brown, S. B., Collins, A., & Duguid, P. (1989). Situated cognition and the culture of learning. Educational
Researcher, 18(1), 32–42.
Chang, C. Y., Sheu, J. P., & Chan, T. W. (2003). Concept and design of ad hoc and mobile classrooms. Journal of
Computer Assisted Learning, 19(3), 336–346.
Chen, C. M., & Hsu, S. H. (2008). Personalized intelligent m-learning system for supporting effective English
learning. Educational Technology & Society, 11(3), 153–180.
Chen, G. D., Chang, C. K., & Wang, C. Y. (2008). Ubiquitous learning website: scaffold learners by mobile devices
with information-aware techniques. Computers and Education, 50, 77–90.
Chen, Y. S., Kao, T. C., & Sheu, J. P. (2003). A mobile learning system for scaffolding bird watching learning.
Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 19, 347-359
Chen, Y. S., Kao, T. C., & Sheu, J. P. (2005). Realizing outdoor independent learning with a butterfly-watching
mobile learning system. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 33(4), 395–417.
Clough, G., Jones, A. C., McAndrew, P., & Scanlon, E. (2008). Informal learning with PDAs and smartphones.
Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 24, 359–371.
Corlett, D., Sharples, M., Bull, S., & Chan, T. (2005). Evaluation of a mobile learning organiser for university
students. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 21, 162–170.
Danesh, A., Inkpen, K. M., Lau, F., Shu, K., & Booth, K. S. (2001). Geney: designing a collaborative activity for the
Palm handheld computer. Paper presented at the Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, Seattle,
Dearman, D., Hawkey, K., & Inkpen, K. M. (2005). Rendezvousing with location-aware devices: Enhancing social
coordination. Interacting with Computers, 17, 542–566.
El-Bishouty, M. M., Ogata, H., & Yano, Y. (2007). PERKAM: personalized knowledge awareness map for computer
supported ubiquitous learning. Educational Technology & Society, 10(3), 122-134.
Fallahkhair, S., Pemberton, L., & Griffiths, R. (2007). Development of a cross-platform ubiquitous language learning
service via mobile phone and interactive television. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 23, 312–325.
Gaedke, M., Beigl, M., Gellersen, H. W., & Segor, C. (1998). Web content delivery to heterogeneous platforms. 215
Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Springer Verlag, 1552.
Ghiani, G., Paterno, F., Santoro, C., & Spano, L. D. (2009). UbiCicero: a location-aware, multi-device museum
guide. Interacting with Computers, doi:10.1016/j.intcom.2009.06.001.
Goh T. T., Kinshuk, & Lin, T. (2003). Developing an adaptive learning system. Proceedings of the International
Conference on Computers in Education 2003, 1062-1065.
Hall, T., & Bannon, L. (2006). Designing ubiquitous computing to enhance children’s learning in museums. Journal
of Computer Assisted Learning, 22, 231–243.
Hourcade, J. P., & Berkel, T. R. (2008). Simple pen interaction performance of young and older adults using
handheld computers. Interacting with Computers, 20, 166–183.
Huang, W. A., & Sundaresan, N. (2000). Aurora: a conceptual model for Web-content adaptation to support the
universal usability of Web-based services. Proceedings of the 2000 conference on Universal Usability, Arlington,
Virginia, United States.
Huang, Y. M., Huang, T. C., & Hsieh, M. Y. (2008). Using annotation services in a ubiquitous Jigsaw cooperative
learning environment. Educational Technology & Society, 11(2), 3-15.
Huang, Y. M., Jeng, Y. L., & Huang, T. C. (2009). An educational mobile blogging system for supporting
collaborative learning. Educational Technology & Society, 12(2), 163–175.
Huang, Y. M., Kuo, Y. H., Lin, Y. T., & Cheng, S. C. (2008). Toward interactive mobile synchronous learning
environment with context-awareness service. Computers & Education, 51, 1205–1226.
Hwang, G. J., Tsai, C. C., & Yang, S. J. H. (2008). Criteria, strategies and research issues of context-aware
ubiquitous learning. Educational Technology & Society, 11(2), 81-91.
Hwang, G. J., Yang, T. C., Tsai, C. C., & Yang, S. J. H. (2009). A context-aware ubiquitous learning environment
for conducting complex science experiments. Computers & Education, 53, 402–413.
Inkpen, K. M. (1991). Designing handheld technologies for kids. Personal Technologies Journal, 3 (1&2), 81- 89.
Järvelä, S., Näykki, P., Laru, J., & Luokkanen, T. (2007). Structuring and regulating collaborative learning in higher
education with wireless networks and mobile tools. Educational Technology & Society, 10(4), 71-79.
Joiner, R., Nethercott, J., Hull, R., & Reid, J. (2006). Designing educational experiences using ubiquitous
technology. Computers in Human Behavior, 22, 67–76.
Kuo, Y. H., Tan, Q., Kinshuk, Huang, Y. M., Liu, T. C., & Chang, M. (2008). Collaborative creation of authentic
examples with location for u-learning, Proceedings of the 2008 IADIS International Conference eLearning,
Amsterdam, Netherland, Vol. II, 16 -20.
Lai, C. H., Yang, J. C., Chen, F. C., Ho, C. W., & Chan, T. W. (2007). Affordances of mobile technologies for
experiential learning: the interplay of technology and pedagogical practices. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning,
23, 326–337.
Lundin, J., & Magnusson, M. (2003). Collaborative learning in mobile work. Journal of Computer Assisted
Learning, 19, 273-283
Lan, Y. J., Sung, Y. T., Chang, K. E. (2009). A mobile-device-supported peer-assisted learning system for
collaborative early EFL reading. Language Learning & Technology, 11(3), 130-151.
Lan, Y. J., Sung, Y. T., Chang, K. E. (2009). Let us read together: development and evaluation of a computer-
assisted reciprocal early English reading system. Computers & Education, in press.
Lemlouma, T., & Layaïda, N. (2003). Adapted content delivery for different contexts. Proceedings of the 2003
Symposium on Applications and the Internet.
Lemlouma, T., & Layaïda, N. (2004). Context-aware adaptation for mobile devices. Proceedings of IEEE
International Conference on Mobile Data Management, 106-111.
Lundin, J., & Magnusson, M. (2003). Collaborative learning in mobile work. Journal of Computer Assisted
Learning, 19, 273-283.
Mandryk, R. L., Inkpen, K. M., Bilezikjian, M., Klemmer, S. R., & Landay, J. A. (2001). Supporting children’s
collaboration across handheld computers. Proceedings of Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems,
Seattle, USA.
Monahan, T., McArdle, G., & Bertolotto, M. (2008). Virtual reality for collaborative e-learning. Computers &
Education, 50, 1339–1353.
Morken, E. M., Divitini, M., & Haugaløkken, O. K. (2007). Enriching spaces in practice-based education to support
collaboration while mobile: the case of teacher education. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 23, 300–311.
O’Grady, M. J., O’Hare, G.M.P., & Sas, C. (2005). Mobile agents for mobile tourists: a user evaluation of Gulliver’s
Genie. Interacting with Computers, 17, 343–366.
Paterno`, F., & Santoro, C. (2003). A unified method for designing interactive systems adaptable to mobile and
stationary platforms. Interacting with Computers, 15, 349–366.
Patten, B., Sa´nchez, I. A., & Tangney, B. (2006). Designing collaborative, constructionist and contextual
applications for handheld devices. Computers & Education, 46, 294–308.
Peng, H., Chuang, P. Y., Hwang, G. J., Chu, H. C., Wu, T. T., & Huang, S. X. (2009). Ubiquitous Performance-
support System as Mindtool: a case study of instructional decision making and learning assistant. Educational
Technology & Society, 12(1), 107–120.
Pianesi, F., Graziola, I., Zancanaro, M., & Goren-Bar, D. (2009). The motivational and control structure underlying
the acceptance of adaptive museum guides – an empirical study. Interacting with Computers, 21, 186–200.
Price, S., & Rogers, Y. (2004). Let's get physical: The learning benefits of interacting in digitally augmented physical
spaces. Computers & Education, 43, 137–151.
Rogers, Y., Price, S., Randell, C., Stanton Fraser, D., Weal, M., & Fitzpatrick, G. (2005). Ubi-learning integrates
indoor and outdoor experiences. Communications of the ACM, 48(1), 55–59.
Sakamura, K., & Koshizuka, N. (2005). Ubiquitous computing technologies for ubiquitous learning. Proceeding of
the International Workshop on Wireless and Mobile Technologies in Education, Los Alamitos: IEEE Computer
Society, 11-18.
Schunk, D. H. (1996). Learning theories. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.
Sharples, M. (2000). The design of personal mobile technologies for lifelong learning. Computers and Education, 34,
Sharples, M., & Beale, R. (2003). A technical review of mobile computational devices. Journal of Computer Assisted
Learning, 19, 392-395.
Shaw, R., Turvey, M. T., & Mace, W. (1982). Ecological psychology: The consequence of a commitment to realism.
In W. B. Weimer & D. S. Palermo (Eds.), Cognition and the symbolic processes. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum,
Tan, T. H., Liu, T. Y., & Chang, C. C. (2007). Development and evaluation of an RFID-based ubiquitous learning
environment for outdoor learning. Interactive Learning Environments, 15(3), 253–269.
Uzunboylu H., Cavus, N., & Ercag, E. (2009). Using mobile learning to increase environmental awareness.
Computers & Education, 52, 381–389.
Virvou, M., & Alepis, E. (2005). Mobile educational features in authoring tools for personalised tutoring. Computers
& Education, 44, 53–68.
Wang, K.T., Huang, Y.M., Jeng, Y.L., & Wang, T.I. (2008). A blog-based dynamic learning map. Computers &
Education, 51(1), 262-278.
Wessels, A., Fries, S., Horz, H. Scheele, N., & Effelsberg, W. (2007). Interactive lectures: effective teaching and
learning in lectures using wireless networks. Computers in Human Behavior, 23, 2524–2537.
Yang, S. J. H. (2006). Context aware ubiquitous learning environments for peer-to-peer collaborative learning.
Educational Technology & Society, 9(1), 188-201.
Yang, S.J.H., Chen, I., & Shao, N., (2004). Ontological enabled annotations and knowledge management for
collaborative learning in a virtual learning community. Educational Technology & Society, 7 (4), 70–81
Young, M. F. (1993). Instructional design for situated learning. Educational Technology Research and Development,
43(1), 43–58.
Zhang, D. (2007). Web content adaptation for mobile handheld devices. Communications of the ACM, 50(2), 75-79.
Zurita, G., & Nussbaum, M. (2004). A constructivist mobile learning environment supported by a wireless handheld
network. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 20, 235–243.
Zurita, G., Nussbaum M., & Salinas R. (2005). Dynamic grouping in collaborative learning supported by wireless
handhelds. Educational Technology & Society, 8(3), 149-161.
... Situated learning posits that learning can occur in authentic context (Naismith et al. 2005). A situated learning environment provides students the opportunity to interact appropriately with their environment, using mobile technologies by accessing information about the environment and gathering information from it (Jeng, et al. 2010). Collaborative learning emphasizes activities that promote learning through social interaction. ...
Full-text available
The use of mobile technologies in the classroom is transforming teaching and learning in higher institutions. This study investigated University of Ghana Distance Education students' perceptions toward mobile learning. The paper using the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) explained how students' beliefs influenced students' intention to adopt m-learning. Findings from the study showed that most of the students had mobile phones, and used them for conversation and texting. Young students were more likely to have smart phones that their older colleagues. Factor analysis was further conducted which showed strong loadings of factors such as intentions and perceived behavioral control confirming that the TPB explained the students' m-learning readiness very well. Thus, attitude, subjective norm and behavioral control influenced students' intention to adopt m-learning. The results provide valuable information on ways to implement m-learning programs incorporating the voice and needs of students.
... The results of previous research also stated that the learning process would increase the motivation of students if they raised issues that were contextual and real in everyday life (Wahyuni, Ahmad & Syafriani, 2018). Learning arranged based on life or experience helps students build the knowledge learned (Jeng, Wu, Huang, Tan & Yang, 2010). ...
Intensity of the earthquake disaster in Indonesia is quite high. The impact in the form of casualties and infrastructure damage was very severe. It is very important to teach disaster preparedness knowledge from an early age, including in the field of education. The learning being taught is still glued to the material that has not linked disaster knowledge. The purpose of this research is to produce learning media for earthquake disasters based on android through proper physics subjects to improve problem solving skills and disaster preparedness. The design of this research is R & D using the 4D model. The data collection instruments are in the form of expert validation sheets which include media experts and material experts. The research data were collected through observation sheets, questionnaire sheets, and inferential analysis. The results of the development of android-based disaster learning media met the very feasible criteria of 92.1 for media experts and 94.1 for material experts. The Manova test statistical results were 95% for problem-solving skills and 92.7% for disaster preparedness, so it was concluded that Android-based earthquake disaster learning media were used effectively to enhance problem solving skills and disaster preparedness.
... Penggunaan smartphone dari tahun ke tahun terus mengalami peningkatan. Smartphone adalah perangkat mobile yang digunakan orang untuk berkomunikasi satu sama lain yang mampu melakukan berbagai aktivitas, seperti akses internet, aplikasi media sosial, dan pemrosesan dokumen dengan resolusi layar yang baik (Jeng et al., 2010). Smartphone telah dimanfaatkan sebagai fasilitas pembelajaran dalam berbagai bidang seperti kesehatan, bahasa, teknik dan pendidikan (Tossell et al., 2015). ...
... as a result of the fast growth of information networks and the Internet (Moya and Camacho, 2021;Tan, G. et al., 2012;Pedro, Barbosa and Santos, 2018). The rapid consumerdriven development of mobile technologies has allowed people to access information on the move, and enabled the potential facilitation of online learning methods (Al Masarweh, 2019;Yu-Lin Jeng. et al., 2010). The appearance of new educational technology helps society to gain experience and knowledge broadly by using mobile technologies, which has mainly been driven by the commercial potential of such technologies, but which offers promise for innovative solutions in education (Vallejo-Correa, Monsalve-Pulido and Tabares-Betancur, 2021). ...
Full-text available
Many research has been conducted to examine the acceptance factors to use mobile learning (m-learning) for regular students. During the COVID-19 most of the higher education institutions around the world were converted to m-learning especially for regular students, in order to continue supporting the educational stage for these students. This situation, allow researches to tested the use of m-learning for regular students while they are studying in distance learning environment. However, limited researches, especially in developing countries, have been tested the acceptance factors to use m-leaning for distance learning students. In this study the behavioral intention to use mobile learning (m-learning) were examined as well as the m-learning factors that affecting its acceptance amongst the distance learning students were outlined. The study framework was depended on the model of Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT). A quantitative approach was used to analyze the data that collected from a random sample of 154 male and female participants from Saudi universities. The results indicated that significant factors influencing distance learning students’ behavioral intention include quality of service, effort expectancy, facilitating conditions, gender, educational level, and type of device. The regulations governing distance learning programs and the implementation of mobile learning by Saudi universities under the direction of the Ministry of Higher Education are having a good impact and encouraging widespread use of m-learning.
... Students' views and behavior toward academic engagement are affected by their possession of a mobile phone on social, economic, psychological, and educational levels (Mojaye, 2015). Mobile devices and educational apps, in whatever manner they are used, do not "complicate the learning process, but rather promote mobile learners' learning" (Jeng, Wu, Huang, Tan, & Yang, 2010). The problem is that some mobile educational applications are difficult to use, causing students to have negative experiences with the tools (Ting, 2012). ...
Conference Paper
Animal models form the foundation for preclinical biomedical research and will certainly do so, seeing as their life span, albeit, brief, unmistakably mimics that of humans – and further affirms the universality of the aging process. When it comes to animal models for aging research it is important to note that some organisms, such as mice, age diametrically than humans. It is also paramount to note that no single animal model is perfect; therefore, it is prudent to utilise data from both conventional and non-conventional model systems, provided the results are not skewed. The best approach to picking animal models for aging and age-related research is the multifaceted approach, which involves the use of different models. The use of model animals in aging research is risky in light of the fact that our capacity to extrapolate across the tree of life is not clear. On one hand, there are moderated pathways that direct life expectancy in creatures, including yeast, nematodes, natural product flies, and mice. On the other hand, many middle taxa across the tree of life seem not to age by any means, and there is considerable variety in aging mechanisms and patterns – once in a while, even between firmly related species. There are multitude of evidence that show that active behaviours performed by animals daily may have short-term and, sometimes, long-term physiological cost, causing an increase in oxidative stress, DNA damage, and, in some instances, reducing survivability. Quantification of physical activity (such as reproductive events, migration) and measurement of its resulting physiological costs (such as immune-compromisation, production of reactive oxygen species, DNA damage, and distortion of physiological homeostasis) is important in studying the physiology of aging. Understanding the peculiarities of very slow-aging and long-lived creatures, as well as broad comparison trends, will be critical. Aging appears to be significantly influenced by evolutionary history, ecological context, and the habitat in which an organism lives, therefore findings must be evaluated with caution and always in a comparative context. Only by continuing to apply a multi-pronged strategy that includes standard lab models, uncommon lab models, wild animals, and comparative physiological and demographic data will the mysteries of aging be unraveled.
... In fact, it can also help teachers in teaching and learning. As with the implementation of Mobile Applications in teaching and learning, it acts as a practical teaching aid and suits the needs of students (Jeng, Wu, Huang, Tan, & Yang, 2010). In addition, it also facilitates teachers and students in practicing the knowledge learned. ...
Full-text available
This study aimed to evaluate the effect of 8-week aerobic dance on body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage and aerobic fitness among overweight female adults (N=32, [body mass index (BMI) ≥ 23 kg/m2, age 18-25 years). The aerobic dance program was conducted three sessions per week for 8 weeks at submaximal intensity. Results: After the 8-week intervention, the aerobic dance group had significantly more changes in BMI, body fat percentage and aerobic fitness than the control group. Conclusion: An 8-week aerobic dance intervention with submaximal intensity can considerably reduce BMI and body fat and improve aerobic fitness among overweight female adults. Good program adherence was attributed to this study.
... It has been demonstrated that integrating interactive technology into education can improve learning in traditional classroom settings [12]. Furthermore, mobile devices should help learners learn rather than complicate their learning processes [23]. In addition, Students embrace applications more readily when they are simple to use and navigate in the context of mobile learning. ...
Full-text available
The laboratory component of the general chemistry course has long been regarded as a crucial component of the curriculum. Due to disruptions brought about by the pandemic, access to laboratory instruction has been reduced. This poses a problem in science education as learners will have difficulty grounding their chemistry lectures in hands-on exercises. As such, this study aims to design, develop, and evaluate a virtual chemistry laboratory application for methods of separating mixtures as a remote alternative to face-to-face laboratory activities. A design and development research design was utilized to develop the mobile application. An adopted application evaluation rubric and intrinsic motivation inventory were used to evaluate the app. Based on the results of the evaluation, the application was found to be accurate in terms of concept, and it is accessible due to its offline feature. Similarly, students found the application to be fun and important during their use. This suggests that mobile applications can be potentially used as part of remote strategies to address face-to-face class disruptions brought about by the pandemic. It is recommended that an experimental study be conducted to compare the use of virtual laboratory activities and face-to-face laboratory activities.
As the use of mobile technology increases around the world, there is growing interest in its use in education and training. This is especially true in developing countries, where citizens are acquiring mobile technology rather than computers, bypassing the desktop and notebook computer stages. Educators and trainers will therefore have to develop learning materials for delivery on a variety of technologies, including mobile devices; and teachers will have to be trained on how to design and deliver mobile learning. For these reasons, it is important that standards for mobile learning be set so that high-quality mobile learning materials are developed and learning materials can be shared among educational organisations. This book on the use of mobile technology for flexible delivery is aimed at helping educators and trainers develop and implement mobile learning. It also provides information that researchers can use to conduct research on the use of mobile learning in education and training.
The purpose of this theoretical chapter is to develop a tool that helps educators develop digitally mediated learning (DML) episodes by systematically applying the principles of four paradigms, namely meaningful learning, ubiquitous learning (u-learning), universal design for learning (UDL), and culturally responsive teaching (CRT). The goal is to harness the affordances of each paradigm and combine them into an approach that systematically enhances and enriches DML. This chapter will be relevant for teachers in higher education wishing to complement their face-to-face teaching with carefully designed digitally mediated content capitalizing collaboration, interaction, personal relevance, and projects that can provide creativity-enhancing learning.
Full-text available
Recent progress in wireless and sensor technologies has lead to a new development of learning environments, called context-aware ubiquitous learning environment, which is able to sense the situation of learners and provide adaptive supports. Many researchers have been investigating the development of such new learning environments; nevertheless, the criteria of establishing a context-aware ubiquitous learning environment have not yet been clearly defined, not to mention the strategies of conducting effective learning activities. To resolve these problems, this paper presents the basic criteria, strategies, and research issues of context-aware ubiquitous learning, and identifies the necessary check items as well for the development of such learning environment. Illustrative examples of conducting context-aware ubiquitous learning activities and the requirements of setting up such learning environment are also presented at the end of this paper.
Full-text available
ABSTRACT Inthis paper, we describe the development of a mobile butterfly-watching learning (BWL) system to realize outdoor independent learning for mobile learners. The mobile butterfly-watching learning system was designed in a wireless mobile ad-hoc learning environment. This is first result toprovide,a cognitive ,tool with supporting the independent ,learning by applying ,PDA with wireless communication ,technology ,to extend ,learning outside of the ,classroom. Independent learning consists of self-selection, self-determination, self-modification, and self-checking. To support independent learning, we designed useful butterfly-watching learning subsystems to offer the self-selection, self-determination, self-modification, and self-checking functionality. The study sample consisted of twenty-four five-year students who ,enrolled in natural science course in the Fall of 2003 in Taiwan. ,The study ,lasted fourth months ,(one semester). During the butterfly-watching activity, each learner arbitrarily took a distinct butterfly picture and entered it into his own ,PDA to acquire ,the butterfly knowledge ,anytime and anywhere ,through wireless communication. The potential impacts, limitations, and lessons learned from this study are discussed from both the educational and technological points of view. Mobile outside classroom
Full-text available
Ubiquitous computing and mobile technologies provide much scope for designing innovative learning experiences that can take place in a variety of outdoor and indoor settings. Ubi-learning seeks to extend the use of several technologies by interconnecting them with other mobile devices and learning tools. The visualization tools were developed to enable students to reflect upon their outdoor discoveries in indoor settings. A learning was designed that encouraged children to explore and hypothesize about different habitats found in a woodland. A variety of mobile devices and visualization tools was provided for the children to access and share contextually relevant digital information when indoors and outdoors.
The nature of collaborative learning involves intensive interactions among collaborators, such as articulating knowledge into written, verbal or symbolic forms, authoring articles or posting messages to this community's discussion forum, responding or adding comments to messages or articles posted by others, etc. Knowledge collaborators' capabilities to provide knowledge and the motivation to collaborate in the learning process influence the quantity and quality of the knowledge to flow into the virtual learning community. In this paper, we have developed an ontology enabled annotation and knowledge management to provide semantic web services from three perspectives, personalized annotation, real-time discussion, and semantic content retrieval. Personalized annotation is used to equip the collaborators with Web based authoring tools for commenting, knowledge articulation and exertion by extracting metadata from both the annotated content and the annotation itself, and establishing ontological relation between them. The real-time discussion is used as a bridge to link collaborators and knowledge and motivate collaborators for knowledge sharing by building profiles for collaborators and knowledge (in the forms of content and annotation) during every discussion session, and establishing ontological relation between the collaborators and knowledge for the use of semantic content retrieval. The semantic content retrieval then utilizes the ontological relations constructed from the personalized annotation and real-time discussion for finding more relevant collaborators and knowledge.
Many issues have been identified in outdoor teaching, especially in places that lack the capacity to effectively present information about such subjects as historical relics, rare animals, and geological landscapes. This study proposes an Environment of Ubiquitous Learning with Educational Resources (EULER) based on radio frequency identification (RFID), the Internet, ubiquitous computing, embedded systems and database technologies to resolve such issues. A case study of natural science learning was conducted in classrooms and at the Guandu Nature Park in Taiwan. Participants included elementary school teachers and students. The results of the evaluation in this study show that the proposed EULER significantly improves student motivation and learning. Furthermore, the results of a post-study survey reveal that most student feedback is positive, further indicating the effectiveness of the EULER.
Users of the World Wide Web (Web) have a diverse set of needs, abilities, and goals. To achieve universal usability, the Web today calls for the development of new systems that enable the same content to be adapted for display according to these various needs. This paper presents Aurora, an extensible transcoding system that targets and adapts content in existing Web pages to help the broadest population of users, particularly in the disabled community, to obtain various Web-based services, such as auction, search engine, travel, etc. The system adapts Web content based on semantic rather than syntactic constructs—facilitating navigation by streamlining the Web interface according abstract user goals. In addition, it provides the capability to adapt this content to meet the specific needs of any number of user groups. This paper puts forth a conceptual abstraction, called the transaction model, for conceptually classifying Web data to meet these goals. It discusses how Aurora uses this model, through an XML-based framework, to semantically transcode existing Web content. The result is an alternative, adaptable Web interface that better supports universal usability.
Abstract This paper describes the development processes for a cross-platform ubiquitous language learning service via interactive television (iTV) and mobile phone. Adapting a learner-centred design methodology, a number of requirements were gathered from multiple sources that were subsequently used in TAMALLE (television and mobile phone assisted language learning environment) development. A number of issues that arise in the context of cross-platform user interface design and architecture for ubiquitous language learning were tackled. Finally, we discuss a multi-method evaluation regime to gauge usability, perceived usefulness and desirability of TAMALLE system. The result broadly revealed an overall positive response from language learners. Although, there were some reported difficulties in reading text and on-screen display mainly on the iTV side of the interface, TAMALLE was perceived to be a usable, useful and desirable tool to support informal language learning and also for gaining new contextual and cultural knowledge.
Abstract This investigation describes the concept of mobile learning and the design of Ad Hoc and Mobile classrooms. Four classes of mobile learning and implementation of Ad Hoc and eSchoolbag systems are presented. The paper discusses the development of advanced wireless technologies for building an ad hoc classroom to create a modern and new learning environment. As in a traditional classroom, information technology is developed to provide the teacher with aids, such as a blackboard, a board rubber, coloured chalk, a microphone, a voice recorder, a video recorder, and so on, to support teaching and discussions. Additionally, students are provided with an electronic schoolbag which contains electronic books, a notebook, a parents' contact book, a pencil case, writing materials, sheets, a calculator, an address book, and other items. Taking lessons in a lively, vivid and new learning environment, it is expected that students will improve their learning performance with perhaps less attendance in a physical classroom and they gain the flexibility of being able to learn at their own convenience.
Abstract Practice-based education is gaining a growing popularity in fields as diverse as, for example, software engineering, pedagogy and medical studies. In practice-based education learning takes place across different learning arenas and requires cooperation among all the actors involved in the learning process. However, mobility of students across these arenas impact deeply on cooperation patterns, and therefore on the learning process. In this paper we investigate the usage of shared display systems to promote cooperation among students in practice-based education. Our focus is on teacher education and the paper is based on our experiences with the teacher education programme at our university. Based on our observations of students out in practice, we discuss the importance of common spaces and the role of bulletin boards of different types. We then define high-level requirements for a shared display system to support practice-based education and we illustrate the main concepts with a demonstrator. Strengths and weaknesses of our approach are pointed out through an evaluation of the demonstrator.