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The future center as an urban innovation engine


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Purpose – The purpose of this article is to describe a future center as an urban innovation engine for the knowledge city, to understand the success factors of a future center and how this success can be replicated systematically in the implementation and development of future centers in the future. Design/methodology/approach – Nine future centers were visited and a longitudinal action research-based case study was conducted at the regional Be'er Sheva PISGA Future Center in Israel, within the educational domain. Findings – There are 13 conceptual building-blocks for a future center and the unifying principle is conversations. The PISGA future center put the concept of a future center into action and was guided by six operating principles: values, experiment and learning, organizational structure, partnerships, physical space, and virtual space. They were able to initiate ten new educational projects within the first two years of operation. A conceptual model of a regional future center was developed and tested on the PISGA case, defining the five key ingredients as community conversations, future images, an innovation lab, a knowledge and intelligence center and implementation projects. Research limitations/implications – After two years of testing the findings, only intermediate results are available. Further research is needed to develop and test the concepts and model further. Practical implications – This paper provides building-blocks and a generic model that can be used by the creators of next generation future centers. Originality/value – This paper provides the first generic building-blocks and the first generic implementation and operational model for a future center.
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The future center as an urban innovation
Ron Dvir, Yael Schwartzberg, Haya Avni, Carol Webb and Fiona Lettice
Purpose The purpose of this article is to describe a future center as an urban innovation engine for the
knowledge city, to understand the success factors of a future center and how this success can be
replicated systematically in the implementation and development of future centers in the future.
Design/methodology/approach – Nine future centers were visited and a longitudinal action
research-based case study was conducted at the regional Be’er Sheva PISGA Future Center in
Israel, within the educational domain.
Findings There are 13 conceptual building-blocks for a future center and the unifying principle is
conversations. The PISGA future center put the concept of a future center into action and was guided by
six operating principles: values, experiment and learning, organizational structure, partnerships,
physical space, and virtual space. They were able to initiate ten new educational projects within the first
two years of operation. A conceptual model of a regional future center was developed and tested on the
PISGA case, defining the five key ingredients as community conversations, future images, an innovation
lab, a knowledge and intelligence center and implementation projects.
Research limitations/implications After two years of testing the findings, only intermediate results
are available. Further research is needed to develop and test the concepts and model further.
Practical implications This paper provides building-blocks and a generic model that can be used by
the creators of next generation future centers.
Originality/value – This paper provides the first generic building-blocks and the first generic
implementation and operational model for a future center.
Keywords Education, Innovation, Knowledge management, Cities
Paper type Case study
Now change the perspective. Look forward instead of backward and the creation of value is
revealed to exist in the future, i.e. the time line and your management of the future ‘‘space’’ from
the next few seconds to eternity (Edvinsson, 2002).
An ‘‘urban innovation engine’’ is a term used to describe a system which can trigger,
generate, foster, and catalyze innovation in a city. Typically, it can be used to explain a
co-evolving complex system that includes the interactions between people, relationships,
values, processes, tools, technology, physical and financial infrastructures (Dvir, 2003), from
which emerges novelty, spontaneity, and creativity. This paper puts forward the argument
that properly designed and operated, various types of urban institutions, such as the city
library, the regional museum, the town hall, the stock exchange, the central piazza,
educational institutions and even the local neighborhood cafe
´can be transformed into active
and vibrant innovation engines that impact their environment, engaging citizens and other
stakeholders in educational, cultural and economic innovation activities (Dvir and Pasher,
2004). It is here proposed that urban institutions can also be transformed into a particular
type of innovation engine, namely a future center. To elaborate the conceptualization of the
future center and the significant factors which are required for successful implementation of
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VOL. 10 NO. 5 2006, pp. 110-123, QEmerald Group Publishing Limited, ISSN 1367-3270 DOI 10.1108/13673270610691224
Ron Dvir is the Director of
Innovation Ecology, Israel.
Yael Schwartzberg is based
at the Institute for
Democratic Education,
Israel. Haya Avni is based
at Pisga Be’er Sheva, Israel.
Carol Webb is a research
officer at Knowledge and
Innovation Systems Centre,
School of Applied
Sciences, Cranfield
University, Cranfield, UK.
Fiona Lettice is a Senior
Lecturer at the Norwich
Business School, University
of East Anglia, Norwich,
it, this paper presents the case of a regional educational institute that transformed itself into
an urban innovation engine by adopting the principles of a future center from a growing
number of business and public future centers that were established in the last decade.
The first future center was conceptualized by Leif Edvinsson and established by Skandia, a
Swedish insurance company, in 1997 (Edvinsson, 2003). Since then, additional public and
commercial future centers have been created. Although little has been written on them in the
literature, future centers are known in practice as facilitated working environments which
help organizations prepare for the future in a proactive, collaborative and systematic way.
They are used to create and apply knowledge, develop practical innovations, bring citizens
in closer contact with government and connect end-users with industry. They are used by
government organizations for developing and testing citizen-centered, future-proof policy
options with broad acceptance by stakeholders. They are used by businesses to increase
the customer-driven, user-centered quality of new products and services. The centers also
support employees within these organizations to develop and test new ways of working and
new technical tools. They are also a breeding-ground for innovation, societal renewal and for
enhancing and applying the intellectual capital of organizations, sectors, regions and
Future centers assume different forms in different organizations. There are future centers
currently operating in public administration, in geographical regions, and in multinational
industries. Future centers can be broadly categorized into three groups: corporate
business-oriented future centers; public future centers established by a public
organization such as a ministry or government agency, in order to catalyze future
development in specific domains at the national level; and regional future centers.
Table I categorizes six existing or planned future centers into the three categories identified.
However, it should be noted that some future centers might belong to more than one of the
three categories.
A future center can be thought of as a complex system composed of multiple interlinked
elements, or, to choose another metaphor, as a systemic bridge to the future. Both
metaphors are helpful in order to shift the emphasis of focus onto the fundamental elements
required for future centers and in order to mentally conceive how they function in relation to
the future.
With reference to the complex system metaphor, the complexity science domain provides
the vocabulary with which to articulate evolutionary dynamics and action of interrelated
phenomena over time and space with greater degrees of holism and in terms of
interconnected and intangible factors. Under the conceptual umbrella of complexity
science, the theory of complex adaptive systems (CAS) can be used to describe how
interacting agents in networked systems adapt and co-evolve over time, and who, through
Table I Future centers by category
Category Description Example
Corporate business-oriented future centers Established by commercial organizations, as
an instrument to promote business and
technological innovation, and identify and
trigger future ‘‘growth engines’’
Ericsson Foresight, Sweden Skandia Future
Centre, Sweden
Public future centers – national or
ministerial level
Established by a public organization such as
a ministry or government agency, in order to
catalyze future development in specific
domains at the national level
Country House, Ministry of Economics, The
Netherlands Commissionaire for Future
Generations, the Knesset, Israel
Regional future centers Established by the local authority or a
coalition of regional and national
organizations, in order to promote regional
development based on future oriented
thinking and local entrepreneurship
Momentum, Denmark, Pisga Be’er Sheva,
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their networked interactions, produce novel and emergent order in creative and
spontaneous ways. In this vein, organizational scientists have applied complexity science
to the way networks, organizations and the people in them interact and operate (Beinhocker,
1998, 2001; Regine, 1998; Webb et al., 2006). This shifts attention for example in the
organizational strategy field, to the learning school, where strategy formation is
acknowledged to take place as an emergent process, and the cultural school, where
strategy formation is seen as a collective process (Mintzberg et al., 1998). In both cases, the
focus is on outcomes from networked communities of people. Agents within a complex
adaptive system, or people in networks within and between organizations, are thought to
behave according to simple rules in their local, and random, interactions with one another,
and power is decentralized (Johnson, 2001). According to Stacey (2003, p. 237):
A complex adaptive system consists of a large number of agents, each of which behaves
according to some set of rules. These rules require the agents to adjust their behavior to that of
other agents. In other words, agents interact with, and adapt to, each other.
In this sense, it becomes relevant to look at the interconnecting elements of the system of a
future center. It is even more important to consider how a future center can provide the right
enabling environment to create a conceptual link, or bridge, between the networked
communities of people it involves and the future that they seek to create between them. The
bridge metaphor is key to taking this thought further, and is aided by a literary quote
(Calvino, 1972):
Marco Polo describes a bridge, stone by stone. ‘‘But which is the stone that supports the
bridge?’’ Kublai Khan asks. ‘‘The bridge is not supported by one stone or another’’, Marco
answers, ‘‘but by the line of the arch that they form’’. Kublai Khan remains silent, reflecting. Then
he adds: ‘‘Why do you speak to me of the stones? It is only the arch that matters to me’’. Polo
answers: ‘‘Without stones there is no arch.’
Stones, or building blocks, are a powerful way with which to communicate the important
factors contributing to the essence of what this research concluded was significant about
future centers.
This paper will present the findings from visiting nine future centers and a longitudinal case
study in one regional future center. The data collected was analyzed to identify 13 building
blocks for future centers that are described in this paper. The in-depth case study identified
how a regional future center can be implemented in the educational domain and what it can
achieve. This case study was used in conjunction with the findings from the future center
visits to develop a generic conceptual model for the implementation and operation of a
regional future center, which is presented. Finally conclusions are given to identify the
contribution to knowledge of this research and to identify outstanding research questions.
Research approach
In order to understand more about future center building blocks, a series of research visits
were made to nine corporate, public and regional future centers over a three-year period
from 2002 to 2005. These visits were supplemented by an in-depth longitudinal case study,
carried out by means of a participant observation role at the (regional) Be’er Sheva PISGA
future center. The main researcher involved in the study provided one day of facilitation per
week to the future center over a two-year period. In addition, active involvement with a future
center community of more than 50 members enabled greater insights to be derived through
action research and a focus group style approach. In this context, it was made possible to
visit a diverse range of future centers, and work on the development of the PISGA Future
Center case. For all visits, meetings and focus groups, the conversations and interviews
were noted and later transcribed, so that they could be analyzed for key themes. This led to
the development of the thirteen conceptual building blocks described in the next section,
which correlated with earlier results relating to innovation ecology (Dvir et al., 2002) and
urban innovation engines (Dvir, 2003). The combination of the findings from the nine future
center visits and the detailed longitudinal case study of the PISGA Future Center led to the
development of a generic conceptual model for the implementation and operation of a
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regional future center. This has been developed, applied and tested over a two-year period
within the PISGA Future Center.
Conceptual building-blocks for a future center
The analysis of the data collected during this research led to the identification of 13
conceptual building-blocks for a future center. These are time, physical space, teams and
leadership, tolerance of risk, strategy, virtual space, structured and spontaneous processes,
knowledge management, financial capital, diversity, attention to the future, challenge and
the unifying principle conversations. Each of these is briefly described below.
Building block 1. Time
New ideas require exploration before their value can be demonstrated to others. Innovative
organizations give people the freedom to use some of their time to explore ideas without
having to ask permission (Pinchot and Pellman, 1999). Future centers provide people with
the opportunity to leave their daily routine and dedicate time to thinking and preparing for the
Building block 2. Physical space
In an economy based on innovation, what better use can there be for space than to inspire
creativity? Several innovative organizations believe that creative space both the shared
space and the private office can significantly contribute to the organizational atmosphere
of wild ideas, action, positive chaos, open mindedness, and barrier-breaking behavior
(Ward, 1999; Kelley, 2000). The playful design of most future centers clearly demonstrates
this idea. Almost all future centers are composed of multiple working areas, each featuring a
completely different atmosphere.
Building block 3. Teams and leadership
A strong team as well as visionary leaders are essential building blocks of the future centers
studied. These leaders are usually carefully selected and trained masters of group
processes, facilitation, creativity, change management processes and complementary
skills. The future center was always the vision of (‘ ‘dreamed up by’’) an influential person
from within the organization, who recognized the need to renew the organization – and take
a systematic approach towards this end.
Building block 4. Tolerance of risk
Innovative organizations promote risk taking. Innovation requires learning new things,
experimentation, and pushing the boundaries of the unknown. The leaders of such
organizations invite and reward (clever) risk taking and do not punish mistakes. Failures are
taken as golden learning opportunities. Future Centers encourage out-of-the-box thinking,
breaking assumptions and taking risks.
Building block 5. Strategy
In an innovative environment, the vision and strategic intent of the organization is clearly
communicated to all employees. This joins all creative forces and energies and directs them
towards the strategic benefit of the organization (Pinchot and Pellman, 1999). In our visits to
nine future centers, we discovered that if they were not working closely with the organization
‘‘ An ‘urban innovation engine’ is a term used to describe a
system which can trigger, generate, foster and catalyze
innovation in a city. ’’
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strategy, they might suffer from being seen as too detached from reality and of little practical
value to the organization (in other words, seen as an ‘‘ivory tower’’).
Building block 6. Virtual space
In the typical innovative organization of the twenty-first century, technology has multiple
supportive roles, such as facilitating collaboration between distant members and
streamlining and catalyzing the flow of ideas, as demonstrated forcefully for example by
the British Telecom Ideas Management Intranet system (Lakin, 2001). Nonaka, when
discussing the concept of Ba, a space for knowledge creation, suggests that it can also take
a virtual form, a ‘‘Cyber Ba’’ (Nonaka and Konno, 1998). In one future center in the
Netherlands, extensive use of computing systems to enhance group discussions and
meetings is made. The concept of the virtual future center, as a more accessible alternative
to the physical center, should be further explored.
Building block 7. Structured and spontaneous processes
Academic studies have found that serendipity is key to recurring innovation. Since
serendipity by definition cannot be ordered to demand, innovative companies must enable
and protect the possibility that surprises can occur. Serendipity, intuition, experience,
scanning, and relationships are sources of surprise (Cope, 1998). At the same time, without
a powerful process to capture ‘‘good’’ ideas and turn them into value, most ideas will vanish
without having a fair chance to make their way through a serious evaluation, development
and ‘‘testing funnel’’ phase. Maintaining a degree of tension between structure and creativity
can be useful, and the inherent conflicts between them should not be completely resolved
(Brown and Duguid, 2001). In all future centers, extensive use of robust creativity, innovation
and futurizing supporting methodologies, processes and tools is made some of them
developed by future center teams themselves.
Building block 8. Knowledge management
Management of the existing knowledge of the organization provides a solid foundation for
the creation of new knowledge (Ruggles and Ross, 1997), which should be acknowledged
as being embedded in values and processes as much as in the content this generates. In a
typical future center, the library is located in a central place in order to make the knowledge
resources accessible and symbolize the importance of looking at the past as well as
sideways when preparing for the future. Similarly, most future centers are equipped with
networked workstations to provide access to a virtual knowledge world.
Building block 9. Financial capital
Serious innovation requires significant investment in translating brilliant ideas into viable
products and services. Innovative organizations allocate considerable resources to the
various innovation phases. It was not an accident that Sydkraft’s Internal Innovation Fund
was located within the company’s future center.
Building block 10. Diversity
Similar people will generate similar ideas. Some innovative organizations deliberately
increase diversity in the work force. Diverse experiences, cultural backgrounds,
professions, academic backgrounds, ages, and personalities contribute to the creation of
fruitful dialogues based on multiple perspectives (Naimen, 1998). In the Skandia Future
Center, the team used a third generation model, involving young, middle-aged, and senior
employees, in addition to pensioners in workshops, in order to ensure multiple perspectives.
For the same reason, about 50 percent of the participants at Skandia Future Center’s
activities were from outside the company. Similarly, in the Be’er Sheva PISGA Future Center,
the team insists on what they call a ‘‘360 degree’’ list of participants, with not only educators,
but also business people, academics, artists, and others.
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Building block 11. Attention to the future
In a turbulent environment, there is continuous tension between the day-to-day challenges,
tasks and problems and the need to focus on the future. In organizations that excel at
innovation, the top priority issue is the future. In other companies, most management and
employee attention is directed towards ‘‘fire-fighting’’ and short-term objectives. ‘‘The future
is 14 seconds away’’ argued Leif Edvinsson (2003), who then created the Skandia Future
Center, with the explicit objective of ‘‘turning the future into an asset’’.
Building block 12. Challenge
Open ended, non-structured tasks engender higher creativity than narrow jobs. Most people
respond positively when they are challenged and provided with sufficient scope to generate
novel solutions (Ahmed, 1998). We found that most future centers were established in response
to a serious organizational challenge, like for example, when their mother organization faced a
risk of fierce(r) competition for external players. A key assumption implied by this finding is that
a future center that addresses non-critical issues is not sustainable.
Building block 13. Conversations – the unifying principle
Alan Webber argues that:
Conversations inside and outside the company are the chief mechanism for making change and
renewal an ongoing part of the company’s culture’’ (quoted in Stewart, 2001).
They are a core element of all future centers, and ‘‘community conversation’’ is the core
element of the model of regional future centers subsequently presented.
The next section presents the detailed case study of the Be’er Sheva PISGA Future Center in
Israel, and illustrates how most of these building blocks have contributed to the
implementation, growth and activities of a regional future center within the educational domain.
The Be’er Sheva PISGA Future Center case study
The city of Be’er Sheva is a busy capital in southern Israel with more than 200,000
inhabitants. In 2003, a task force led by the deputy mayor decided to strategically define and
position Be’er Sheva as an ‘‘educating city’’, which is a particular form of a ‘‘knowledge city’’
(Dvir and Pasher, 2004). The task force is focusing on multiple streams of action and
educational intervention programs such as the creation of centers of excellence. The future
center described in this paper is part of the strategic program to turn Be’er Sheva into an
educating city.
The PISGA Future Center is a center charged with the ongoing development of teachers
after their graduation. PISGA is a Hebrew acronym for the ‘‘development of teaching staff’’.
The Be’er Sheva PISGA Future Center is also one of the members of a national network of
more then 20 centers. The center is responsible for developing the teaching staff of Be’er
Sheva and the surrounding region, serving a population of 6,000 teachers, and offering
approximately 100 teacher development courses as well as a wide range of supporting
services and resources.
The history of the PISGA Future Center
In 2002, the Be’er Sheva PISGA team went through a comprehensive process of defining its
identity and core values. Five pedagogical values were identified and agreed upon for
‘‘ A future center can be thought of as a complex system
composed of multiple interlinked elements, or, to choose
another metaphor, as a systemic bridge to the future. ’’
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adoption. Coinciding with this, the Director attended a lecture on future centers and decided
that a sixth value was missing: continuous renewal of the institute, its educational services,
and its pedagogical approach. Growing dissatisfaction by the general public and the
teachers with the current education system reinforced the criticality of renewing the system
and modifying it in line with the emerging needs of the Israeli population in general and the
Be’er Sheva city and region in particular. The challenges were numerous: integration of
Bedouins, integration of new immigrants, global competition, enhancement of technological
and scientific education, and so forth. Charged with the vision of upgrading the teaching
staff development to address these challenges, the PISGA Center Director made the
strategic decision to transform it into the first regional educating city future center in the
world. It then took the PISGA team, facilitated by future center and educational innovation
experts, 12 months to plan the subsequent concept of the PISGA Future Center.
The intensive planning process was required due to the complexity of the challenge, which
was to transform an ordinary teacher development center into a future center and ensure its
sustainability and relevancy to the real needs of the city. However, this long process was
used as an opportunity to achieve three objectives:
To involve stakeholders so that their voices would not only be heard but would also impact
the vision as well as the detailed particularities of the center.
To experiment and create prototypes of some of the methods that would be used in the
different functions of the future center, once established (referred to as ‘‘modeling’’).
To learn-through-planning and discover together the different aspects of the future center.
At each meeting, a standard format was followed. At each meeting, one of the envisioned
methods and tools was tested. For example, in one meeting ‘‘future images’’ of the future
center were created; each group conceptually created and visualized a different vision. For
another meeting, a group visit was made to a remote desert Alpaca Ranch to interview the
rancher on the topic of ‘‘true entrepreneurship’’.
Towards the end of the planning phase, the team decided to propose the planned future
center as an officially recognized experiment of the Ministry of Education, as part of a
prestigious group of about thirty breakthrough educational initiatives sponsored by the
Experiments Department. In September 2004, the experiment was approved and the future
center started its operation.
Putting the concept of the future center into action in the educational domain
The generic concept of the future center was modified to the challenges of the education
system and the missions of the Be’er Sheva PISGA Center and a systematic model was
designed and operated. The model consists of five main modules: community
conversations, future images, a laboratory, implementation space and a knowledge and
intelligence center. These are described in more detail in Figure 1. Although a sequential
process is presented, in real-life situations deviations from this generic process might
frequently occur in order to address different needs, maturity levels and the context specific
situations of end users and targeted challenges.
Operating principles of the PISGA Future Center
The routine operation of the PISGA Future Center, as well its development, is guided by a set
of operating principles. The most influential of these principles, described in detail below,
are: values, experiment and learning, organizational structure, partnerships, physical space
and virtual space.
Values. A future center without solid core values is just a technocratic instrument. The PISGA
Future Center has defined a set of six core values and they provide the pedagogical basis
for its operation. The core values of the center are: renewal, systematic approach, sharing,
needs focus, action learning, and assessment.
Experiment and learning. Before the future center was established, a rough conceptual
model was created. Since then, the model has been continuously upgraded, deepened and
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refined; tools have been enhanced and new ones invented; and, alternative approaches
have been experimented with. For example, the team experimented with multiple alternative
processes for creating conceptual images of the future. The team acts as a real learning
organization. After each action, an after-action review is conducted and lessons learned are
fed into a toolkit repository. Moreover, each weekly meeting of the team includes a short
learning session, where one of the team members presents and discusses a new tool,
method or approach related to the future center operation. The center team also learns from
other future centers, through physical or virtual visits to future centers in other countries and
meetings with the international future center community. The PISGA Future Center
contributes to the international OpenFutures research project as well as benefits from it
through the new methods explored by it. Moreover, as was noted earlier, the future center is
recognized as an official five-year ‘‘experiment’’ by the Experiments Department of the
Ministry of Education, and therefore is expected to continuously experiment with new
pedagogical and organizational approaches and disseminate its learning to other
educational institutions.
Organizational structure. The future center is co-led by the PISGA Center manager and the
‘‘future center experiment’’ leader. In addition, an expert from the Experiments Department
of the Ministry of Education accompanies the center, a steering team steers it, and a team of
two innovation experts facilitate the development process of the future center. The PISGA
Future Center team consists of seven professionals, most of whom work part time. The future
center operates based on a matrixed configuration there are six functional centers, and
each is led, operated and developed by one team member. The functional centers are: The
Knowledge Center, The Innovation Lab, The Physical Space Design, The Learning Space,
Community Conversation and Future Images, and Assessment and Documentation. These
functional centers support concrete projects focused on a specific educational domain and
objective (for example, ‘‘sustainable education 2020’’, ‘‘the physical educational
environment in the future kindergarten’’, ‘‘ICT in education’’ and so on). Again, each
project is led by a team member.
Figure 1 The regional future center concept: a systematic process for addressing future
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Partnerships. The PISGA Future Center does not have ‘‘clients’’. It works in collaboration with
multiple organizations and individuals, based on a systematic ‘‘take-in’’ process which is
exercised at the beginning of each project. The process identifies the expectations of all
actors involved in an educational project and maps the available resources, the basic
assumptions and the ‘‘rules of the game’’. As the available resources are limited, and the
education system is complex and sometimes ‘‘political’’, such collaboration is critical to an
project’s success.
Physical space. A physical environment that encourages a creative and open atmosphere
was an important part of all future centers visited during the course of this research. The
impact of the environment on the creativity of the individual as well as on group dynamics
was well explored. In Be’er Sheva, the central working space was redesigned. Today, it
includes a wide range of working spaces, each offering different opportunities for group
work settings. Using a relatively low budget but a rich set of colors, materials, images and
seating arrangements, a clear sense of ‘‘out-of-the-box thinking’’ was created. It should be
noted that the future center physical environment is not limited to the PISGA building, but it
extends to additional sites and also includes the way in which some activities are conducted
in places like the desert Alpaca ranch, a Perma-culture agriculture farm, and an artist’s
workshop hanger at the Dead Sea.
Virtual space. It was found that face-to-face meetings were critical to the possibility of rich
community conversations occurring. However, the team now explores various eLearning
technologies in order to enhance teaching staff development. Face-to-face meetings are
also complemented with virtual future images workshops, as a way to provide more citizens
with access to future oriented processes.
Projects initiated by the PISGA Future Center
During the first two years of its operation, the PISGA Future Center initiated ten projects, which
focus on diverse fields and challenges of the city educational system. More than 500
stakeholders teachers, supervisors, local industry people, representatives of the Be’er Sheva
municipality, parents and children were involved. Table II briefly describes these projects.
Although there is a systematic operational model in place, PISGA staff do not follow it
rigorously. In the case of some educational challenges, the full process is followed in a
sequential order of a community conversation that creates future images, which are then
developed in the innovation lab and implemented at the urban education system
(implementation space). Other challenges are addressed in a less serial mode, for example
‘‘jumping’’ directly into the innovation lab with a specific idea, without going through the
community conversation phase.
Conceptual model for a regional future center
From the research with the Be’er Sheva PISGA Future Center, we were able to derive that a
Regional future center can serve a knowledge city in multiple ways, whilst complementing
and leveraging the other knowledge-based initiatives of the city. It provides:
BA methodology to intensify the process of future thinking and channel it into action and
BA framework for collaborative creation, shared future-orientated thinking and action of the
three critical players in a true educating city: the extended multi-generation community,
the local authorities and the educators.
BA place to systematically, transparently and continually present the relevant information
related to the vision and development directions of the local educational challenges and
potentials this is a solid basis for future thinking and acting.
BA process to combine, pool, integrate and leverage the diverse tangible and intangible
resources that exist in the city. This creates multi-perspective initiatives and projects.
BAn opportunity to empower the citizen through (effective) participatory democracy.
BA space to shift from linear thinking to spiraling and co-evolving, shared visioning.
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Analysis of the nine future centers visited revealed that no two future centers are the same.
Each is crafted and developed according to the unique set of challenges it addresses; the
environment in which it operates; the tangible and intangible resources available; and the
visions, needs and characteristics of its creators. Perhaps for this reason and the relative
newness of the concept of a future center, no generic implementation or operational model
has been developed for them, even though more than 20 future centers have now been
This research has shown that despite each future center’s uniqueness, there are thirteen
common basic building blocks that can be identified across all of them, as described earlier
in this paper. In addition, the findings identified in the detailed longitudinal case study of the
Be’er Sheva PISGA Future Center, although focused originally within the education domain,
could be generalized to build a generic model for Regional future centers. Figure 2 provides
Table II PISGA Future Center projects
Sustainable Education 2020 An initiative triggered by the Commissionaire of future
education at the Knesset aimed at exploring and creating a
‘‘future image’’ of sustainable education by a group of about
60 students and additional stakeholders. In collaboration
with three colleges for teacher development (Achva, Key
and Washington Hill). The first phase of this initiative will
generate a manifesto for sustainable education based on
six complementary perspectives. The manifesto will serve
as one of the inputs into a national task force focusing on the
future of the Israeli educational system
Information & Communication
Technologies (ICT) in Education
A task force of ICT leaders in the city schools, aimed at
drawing a future image of the smart integration of ICT into
education, creating an assessment tool to support the
realization of this vision
The Physical Educational Environment
in the Future Kindergarten
A group of kindergarten staff, supported by professionals
from disciplines such as interior design, addressed the
challenge of revolutionizing the design of the future
kindergarten, in order to provide the children with a better
educational environment. Ten future images, based on
different perspectives (e.g. democratic education, science,
physiological development, and parental perspectives)
were developed. Each of the kindergarten teachers who
participated in the process adopted one of the future
images and realized it in one space in her kindergarten
Chemistry 2020 The objective of this initiative is to upgrade the way
chemistry is taught in city schools. As a large proportion of
the country’s chemistry industry is located near the city, this
subject is particularly relevant to the Be’er Sheva Pisga
Future Center. Initial steps towards collaboration between
the education system and local industry emerged from this
Science Education The quality of science education is critical to the strategic
position of Israel as a technological powerhouse. However,
in recent years science education has faced serious
challenges in terms of a decline in reputation as well as
limited resources. The objective of this project conducted
by the enthusiastic group of science teachers instructors
and supervisors is to completely renew science educationin
the city. The team has agreed on both long term goals as
well as short term objectives aiming towards tangible
change over the coming year
Additional projects These are numerous and include, for example, ‘‘The
headmasters club’’, ‘‘Teaching staff instructors
development’’, and the ‘‘Children right task force’’
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a rich picture of a generic conceptual model and emphasizes the necessary ingredients (A
to F) for the successful implementation of a Regional future center. These are elaborated in
the corresponding numbered sections below.
(A) community conversations are at the heart of a future center. They address the future
needs, challenges, trends and opportunities of the region or city. All stakeholders in the city
are involved citizens, students, artists, academics, municipal officials, local business
people, pensioners and others. The multiple conversations address the challenges, needs
and future directions of the city. The analogy of ‘‘mixing colours’ ’ guides this element the
mixing of different disciplines, ages, backgrounds and interests yields the best solutions
which are always complex and ‘‘multi-coloured’’.
(B) future images are created in the community conversations which identify and illustrate
the possible developmental directions of the local and global society, economy, and
technology and their implications for the city. The center is used as both a workshop arena to
create future images and as a gallery to present the images to the public. Various
participatory techniques, such as ‘‘knowledge cafe
´s’’ and ‘‘open space events’’ are used.
While the starting point of the Future Images is a large brainstorming session, a more
in-depth analysis and consideration of tangible application potentialities is provided
afterwards, for example in the form of a focused research project into the possibilities offered
by a particularly attractive image. This provides a strong indication that the continuous
traveling and interchanges between future images and present challenges generates
interesting insights and ideas.
(C) the innovation laboratory is where future images are translated into actual actions.
These images trigger invention and exploration of new (or upgraded) concepts, methods,
programs, projects and tools which are developed and experimented with in the ‘‘innovation
lab’’. This is where existing tools and programs are upgraded to suit the region or city vision;
new, future-oriented programs are developed and innovative methods are prototyped. While
some of the work in the lab is done by the future center staff, other initiatives are led by
stakeholders who come to the lab for longer-term periods such as two full weeks, or for one
afternoon every week, to pursue their ideas. In such cases the future center team members
can act as facilitators supporting the development process.
Figure 2 A rich picture conceptual model for implementation of a regional future center
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VOL. 10 NO. 5 2006
(D) the knowledge and intelligence center serves the other modules by providing the
required information for a futurizing and future-orientated process. It provides all users of the
future center with access to the most up-to-date relevant information in the specific field
trends, predictions, state-of-the-art developments around the world, and emerging methods
and tools. This information can be used to create better-informed future images, to develop
future orientated methods without re-inventing the wheel and to stimulate community
(E, F) implementation projects provide the city’s inhabitants with the opportunity for
self-fulfillment and the skills needed to handle the future. Programs are integrated with other
projects developed in the city. Learning and realization of these programs takes place in the
future center itself as well as in other parts of the city (F).
In this paper, a case study was used to elaborate a systematic process to enhance regional
innovation in one specific field, namely, formal education. The process is supported by a
well-defined organizational instrument, the future center. Strong and positive intermediate
results can be reported two years after the birth of the Be’er Sheva PISGA Future Center. Ten
wide-ranging and ambitious educational projects have been initiated. Some of these
projects generated visionary Future Images and are now in the Innovation Lab phase. In
other words, the process of developing concrete educational tools has begun and plans are
in place to translate the future images into reality. Active learning and continuous
development of the future center model, process and supporting tools is apparent.
Approximately 500 stakeholders (teachers, headmasters and others from the local and
national educational system as well as from the academic, business and municipal worlds)
participated in the future center activities. Generally, feedback was very positive, and
participants reported that added-value was gained.
The subsequent contribution to knowledge is manifested in four ways. First, a systematic
model for the implementation and operation of a future center has been developed. Although
more than 20 future centers have now been established in different domains and locations,
there was no articulation of a systematic operational process. In the PISGA Future Center
project, such a model was defined and tested. It is the intention that dissemination of this
model will enable other future centers to learn from the Be’er Sheva PISGA case and adopt
the model or parts of it. Second, the application of the future center concept to a new
domain, namely education, is unique. A wide-range of educational institutions stand to
benefit through adoption of the concept. The education system is critical to society as well as
individual prosperity, and there is an urgent need to review and renew many aspects of the
current education system. Third, the case is a cogent realization of the ‘‘urban innovation
engine’’ concept (Dvir, 2003), as it shows how an existing urban institution can be upgraded
and turned into an important actor that contributes to the renewal and innovation of a city or
region. Fourth, the case is an interesting example of a concrete organizational instrument
that supports the vision of the ‘‘education city’’ (Dvir et al., 2002). Finally, as an example of a
complex adaptive system, the Regional future center concept synthesizes the essence of
co-evolving, adapting agents bringing novelty to bear in their own contexts of present-day
and future relevance in their interactions with each other.
However, some questions remain unanswered by this research. For example, has the PISGA
Future Center generated a new cadre of teachers who are more ‘‘future orientated’’ or has
the Center contributed significantly to the renewal of the regional education system? It is still
too early to answer these questions satisfactorily, although early indicators are positive. New
‘‘ Community conversations are at the heart of a future center. ’’
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research initiatives are currently underway to begin to answer some of the as yet
unanswered questions and to explore this emerging field around future centers and Urban
Innovation Engines in more depth. For example, in May 2006, a consortium funded by the
European Commission, entitled OpenFutures, launched a two year research project to
understand future centers from four perspectives: organizational, methodological, physical
and technological.
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About the authors
Ron Dvir is the founder and general manager of Innovation Ecology. He focuses on research
and consultancy in the areas of innovation management, innovation supporting
environments, innovation engines, knowledge cities and future centers. Ron Dvir is the
corresponding author and can be contacted at:
Yael Schwartzberg is the general manager of the Institute for Democratic Education that
specializes in educational breakthrough innovation. She leads projects in the areas of region
and city renewal and educational systems innovation.
Haya Avni is the general manager of Pisga Be’er Sheva, an institute for the development of
teaching staff. In recent years, she has been leading an experiment to redefine the institute
as an Education future center.
Carol Webb is a Research Officer at Cranfield University in the UK, working on three
projects: developing a short course (Complexity Science for Beginners); MSc level
curriculum development (MI-EIS); and, developing training material for adaptive
management (NeWater).
Fiona Lettice is a Senior Lecturer within Norwich Business School at the University of East
Anglia in the UK. Her research interests cover a range of topics including innovation
management, knowledge management and performance management.
VOL. 10 NO. 5 2006
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... Regions can be described as complex adaptive systems (CAS). CAS are characterised by dynamic properties such as self organisation, emergence, diversity, pattern recognition, edge of chaos, process uncertainty, and dependencies concerning rich interconnections in systems, people, geography, history, technology and time (Dvir et al, 2006;Webb, et al, 2004;Webb et al, 2006;Webb, May 2007 a & b;August 2007 a & b). In harmony with key concepts of complexity science (Allen, 1997;Beinhocker 1998Beinhocker , 2001Dooley, 1996;Fuller, 1999Fuller, , 2000Fuller, , 2001Goodwin, 2003;Griffin, 1998Griffin, , 2002Harkema, 2003;Lewin, 1999Lewin, , 2001Lissack, 1997Lissack, , 1999Morel & Ramunujam, 1999;Stacey, 1996Stacey, , 2000Stacey, , 2001Stacey, , 2003, we can understand the RIS development projects themselves as CAS too, situated in, inextricably linked to, and embedded in the contextual environment of a regional innovation system. ...
... (Webb, August 2007a, p. 9; adapted from Augustine, 2005). Agile Project Management is derived out of the IT industry for software development, and the foundations and principles it is grounded in are coherent with the objectives of projects aiming at the development of a regional innovation strategy (Augustine 2005;Chin 2004;Dvir et al, 2006;Webb, et al, 2004;Webb et al, 2006;Webb, May 2007 a & b;August 2007 a & b). APM brings added value to adaptive implementation strategies by capturing and characterizing project randomness and uncertainty through providing a process-based structure for implementation. ...
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... Some research in Netherlands has, however, also focused on the influence of the design of the physical space in creating innovative atmospheres (van der Lugt, et al., 2007). Others describe Future Centers elsewhere as an ''urban innovation engine'', a system which can trigger, generate, foster, and catalyze innovation in a city (Dvir, et al., 2006). The topics and themes of these sessions are diverse. ...
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In the design of innovative service systems and products, workshop-based collective intelligence has become a widespread method. There are a number of “Future Centers” and design schools discussing effective methods of collaboration among various stakeholders. However, what emerges from these activities is often just dialogue that does not lead to creative ideas. In our graduate school, we have developed a unique methodology for workshop-based innovative design based on both systems engineering and design thinking. Systems engineering is a reliable way of designing systems, whereas design thinking promotes creativity. By combining both these ideas, which are usually assumed to be opposites, a systematic, reliable, and creative methodology is realized. In this chapter, first, the methodology is introduced. Then, examples of the methodology’s applications for education in universities and public Future Centers are shown. Finally, the method’s effectiveness is demonstrated by several examples, showing that it is useful for innovative service-system design.
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Innovation is the process of turning knowledge and ideas into value. An “urban innovation engine” is a system which can trigger, generate, foster and catalyze innovation in the city. This paper describes the concept of the “urban innovation engine”, provides some historical and contemporary examples, and suggests a set of guidelines for turning ordinary urban institutions into innovation engines. The paper has two purposes: to trigger further theoretic and action research and exploration in the domain of urban innovation. In recent years there has been intensive research about the conditions (“ecology”) which enable and catalyze knowledge development and innovation in the business world. A second new focus area in the research of knowledge development is the role of the city as a hub for intensive flows and exchanges of knowledge among its habitants and additional stakeholders. We suggest weaving the learning from the business and urban worlds by attempting to apply the dimensions of innovation ecology models to knowledge cities. More specifically, we look at multiple traditional urban constructs, and show how they might act as significant drivers for creativity and renewal. Typically an urban innovation engine is a complex system that includes people, relationships, values, processes, tools and technological, physical and financial infrastructure. We suggest that what innovation engines really do is to create conversations – which are the foundation of most innovations. We bring some examples and snap-shots from several urban innovation engines such as the museum, the library, the stock exchange, the café, the brownfield, the grand fair, the outlook tower, and the industrial district. The paper conceptualizes the notion of “urban innovation engines”. Based on this concept, it provides a set of guidelines for creating a knowledge city using innovation engines as its building blocks, and innovation ecology elements as an important part of its operating system.
Notes that many companies pay “lip service” to the idea of innovation and stresses that becoming innovative requires an organisational culture which nurtures innovation and is conducive to creativity. Considers the nature of organisational climate and of organisational culture, focusing on factors which make for an effective organisational culture. Looks at the interplay between various organisational factors and innovation and suggests elements which promote innovation. Concludes that the most innovative companies of the future will be those which have created appropriate cultures and climates.
This article introduces the Japanese concept of "Ba" to organizational theory. Ba (equivalent to "place" in English) is a shared space for emerging relationships. It can be a physical, virtual, or mental space. Knowledge, in contrast to information, cannot be separated from the context—it is embedded in ba. To support the process of knowledge creation, a foundation in ba is required. This article develops and explains four specific platforms and their relationships to knowledge creation. Each of the knowledge conversion modes is promoted by a specific ba. A self-transcending process of knowledge creation can be supported by providing ba on different organizational levels. This article presents case studies of three companies that employ ba on the team, division, and corporate level to enhance knowledge creation.