Article

Towards Autonomous Vehicular Clouds

ICST Trans. Mobile Communications Applications 09/2011; 11(7–9):e2. DOI: 10.4108/icst.trans.mca.2011.e2
Source: DBLP

ABSTRACT

The dawn of the 21st century has seen a growing interest in vehicular networking and its myriad potential applications. The initial view of practitioners and researchers was that radio-equipped vehicles could keep the drivers informed about potential safety risks and increase their awareness of road conditions. The view then expanded to include access to the Internet and associated services. This position paper proposes and promotes a novel and more comprehensive vision namely, that advances in vehicular networks, embedded devices, and cloud computing will enable the formation of autonomous clouds of vehicular computing, communication, sensing, power and physical resources. Hence, we coin the term, Autonomous Vehicular Clouds (AVCs). A key features distinguishing AVCs from conventional cloud computing is that mobile AVC resources can be pooled dynamically to serve authorized users and to enable autonomy in real-time service sharing and management on terrestrial, aerial, or aquatic pathways or theatres of operations. In addition to general-purpose AVCs, we also envision the emergence of specialized AVCs such as mobile analytics laboratories. Furthermore, we envision that the integration of AVCs with ubiquitous smart infrastructures including intelligent transportation systems, smart cities, and smart electric power grids, will have an enormous societal impact enabling ubiquitous utility cyber-physical services at the right place, right time, and with right-sized resources.

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    • "Moreover the virtualization concept of cloud computing has made it a buzz word and with the virtue of cloud computing, consumers can have unlimited resources if they can pay for it [6]. Olariu et al. for the first time tossed the term VANET clouds that is the combination of the signature VANET and cloud computing [7]. In VANET clouds, vehicular nodes rent out their resources to the cloud and/or use resources form cloud as well. "
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    ABSTRACT: The multitude of applications and services in Vehicular Ad hoc NETwork (VANET) and cloud computing technology that are dreamed of in the near future, are visible today. VANET applications are set to explode in the next couple of years as a result of the advancements in the wireless communication technologies and automobile industry. Nevertheless, it is speculated that future high-end vehicles will potentially under-utilize their on-board storage, computation, and communication resources. This phenomenon sets the ground for the evolution of traditional VANET to a rather more applications-rich paradigm referred to as VANET-based clouds. In this paper, we aim at a framework of VANET-based clouds namely VANET using Clouds (VuC) and propose a novel secure and privacy-aware service referred to as Traffic Information as a Service (TIaaS) atop the cloud computing services stack. TIaaS provides vehicles (more precisely subscribers) with fine-grained traffic information from the cloud as a result of subscribers’ cooperation with the cloud in a privacy-preserving way. Legitimate VANET users share their frequent whereabouts information referred to as Mobility Vectors (MV) with the cloud infrastructure through gateways (static Road Side Units—RSUs and mobile vehicles with 3/4 G Internet). The gateways forward coarse-grained traffic information (MVs) from vehicles to the cloud whereas after processing, cloud modules construct and re-forward the fine-grained traffic information along with location-based warnings to the subscribers based on their physical locations and moving directions. The communication among vehicles, gateways, and the cloud infrastructure is carried out in a privacy-preserving way. More precisely vehicles share their MVs with cloud infrastructure anonymously. The MVs are hard to link to the sender, until and unless necessary, otherwise. Similarly every vehicle receives fine-grained traffic information in a privacy-preserving manner. The proposed TIaaS keeps the adversaries at bay from abusing users’ privacy and/or constructing profiles against targeted users. Moreover for location confidentiality and privacy, we also propose a novel location-based encryption technique that keeps the insider and outsider adversaries at bay from manipulating the contents of the message. Furthermore, the proposed TIaaS preserves conditional privacy and with the help of an efficient revocation mechanism, revocation authorities can revoke any node in case of a dispute. The proposed TIaaS also introduces the thin-client concept for vehicles where most of the time-consuming processing is offloaded to the cloud and the processing resources of the vehicles can be used elsewhere, for instance for the critical safety related applications. More precisely the cloud processes the big traffic data (BTD) and produces timely, decisive, and meaningful results.
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    • "The unmistakable appeal of cloud computing is that it provides scalable access to computing resources and to a multitude of IT services. Cloud computing and cloud IT services have seen and continue to see a phenomenal adoption rate around the world [4], [5], [17], [27], [28]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Statistics show that most vehicles spend many hours per day in a parking garage, parking lot, or driveway. At the moment, the computing resources of these vehicles are untapped. Inspired by the success of conventional cloud services, a group of researchers have recently introduced the concept of a Vehicular Cloud. The defining difference between vehicular and conventional clouds lie in the distributed ownership and, consequently, the unpredictable availability of computational resources. As cars enter and leave the parking lot, new computational resources become available while others depart creating a dynamic environment where the task of efficiently assigning jobs to cars becomes very challenging. Our main contribution is a fault-tolerant job assignment strategy, based on redundancy, that mitigates the effect of resource volatility of resource availability in vehicular clouds. We offer a theoretical analysis of the expected job completion time in the case where cars do not leave during a checkpoint operation and also in the case where cars may leave while check pointing is in progress, leading to system failure. A comprehensive set of simulations have shown that our theoretical predictions are accurate.
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    • "The main driving force behind the VANET-based clouds is that practically our cars' resources are wasted for most of the time (for instance our cars are parked and remain idle for most part of the day, i.e. tens of hours a day). It would be ideal if the car would be capable of utilizing its processing, computing, storage, and communication resources [6]. The cars could rent out the resources and earn some revenue as well. "

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