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Analysis of the Internet Domain Names Re-registration Market

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Domain names registries play a central role on the Internet by enabling users to interact with services and people, as the world becomes more connected and more complex. Registries list, identify and localize Internet resources and cross-reference them with their owners. They help individuals, companies and organizations to keep track of more information and people, not just from within an organization but, increasingly, among organizations over the Internet. Since the most relevant and profitable domain names are becoming rare and investors are starting to see the value in the accumulation of a Domain Name Portfolio, several markets have started gaining momentum as a means for investors to make a profit from their Domains. The secondary market is the place to shop in today’s domain world, the place where many large corporations and end-users are finding the domains they need to supplement their current on-line business presence. Due to this increasing relevance, this paper will analyze one of the two types of domain names transactions on the secondary market—re-acquisition of dropped domain names. The analysis will be based on data that was collected over a period of 2 years from the registrant name servers databases, namely, the number of dropped domains, the number of re-registered dropped domains and the total number of re-registrations during a certain period of time. Besides the analysis of general trends, re-registered domains are also analyzed in terms of the characters they contain and their Google and Alexa ranks, creating a knowledge base that can help us understand which are the main factors that influence the re-registration of a certain domain name.
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Procedia Computer Science 00 (2010) 000–000
Procedia Computer Science
www.elsevier.com/locate/procedia
WCIT 2010
Analysis of the Internet Domain Names Re-registration Market
Paulo Salvador, António Nogueira*
Instituto de Telecomunicações, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal
Abstract
Domain names registries play a central role on the Internet by enabling users to interact with services and people, as the world
becomes more connected and more complex. Registries list, identify and localize Internet resources and cross-reference them
with their owners. They help individuals, companies and organizations to keep track of more information and people, not just
from within an organization but, increasingly, among organizations over the Internet. Since the most relevant and profitable
domain names are becoming rare and investors are starting to see the value in the accumulation of a Domain Name Portfolio,
sever al mar kets have started gaining momentum as a means for inve stor s to make a profit from their Domains. The secon dary
market is the place to shop in today's domain world, the place where many large corporations and end-users are finding the
domains they need to supplement their current on-line business presence. Due to this increasing relevance, this paper will analyze
one of the two types of domain names transactions on the secondary market - re-acquisition of dropped domain names. The
analysis will be based on data that was collected over a period of 2 years from the registrant name servers databases, namely, the
number of dropped domains, the number of re-registered dropped domains and the total number of re-registrations during a
certain period of time. Besides the analysis of general trends, re-registered domains are also analyzed in terms of the characters
they contain and their Google and Alexa ranks, creating a knowledge base that can help us understand which are the main factors
that influence the re-registration of a certain domain name.
Keywords: Domain name, secondary market, re-registration, rank.
1. Introduction
In the con text of a rapidly gr owing World Wide Web, domain names play an important role. The major reasons
for registering domain names are often inter-linked and include promoting a brand name or product, generating
traffic and/or advertising revenue, and brokering names on the secondary market. The usage of names not based on
keywords will reflect in a larger investment cr eating a recognizable brand. Brands like Google or Twitter, which are
based on non-English words (at the time), had to be built from zero with huge marketing budget overheads. Most
newcomers to the Internet business try to cut some initial expenses by building their new service over some
names/brands based on English (key)words strictly related with their business or based on already existing brands
that were released by others and are TradeMark free. They target brands/names that possess an existing client base
(i.e. daily visits to a particular Internet domain) and/or previous relevant marketing results (i.e. existing links in
*Corresponding author. Tel.: +351 234 377 900; fax: +351 234 377 901.
E-mail address: nogueira@ua.pt.
c
2010 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of the Guest Editor.
Procedia Computer Science 3 (2011) 325–335
www.elsevier.com/locate/procedia
1877-0509 c
2010 Published by Elsevier Ltd.
doi:10.1016/j.procs.2010.12.056
Paulo Salvador and António Nogueira / Procedia Computer Science 00 (2010) 000–000
Internet webpages/blogs/tweets, search engines knowledge and ranking of the domain name).
In the Domain Name Service (DNS) context, there are thr ee main actors: Internet registries, comm only
understood as wholesalers of domain names that maintain a centralized database for each Top-Level Domain (TLD),
Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) [2] accredited registrars or domain name retailers,
which purchase domain name from Internet registries and provide services to registrants and, finally, registrants that
are individual or reseller customers of registrars [1,7,8].
The (primary) domain names market handles only with the registration of new domain names. The primary
domain name market appears relatively mature. It has received considerable attention and benefited from
progressively established rules, largely those introduced by th e ICANN. However, th e more relevant and profitable
domain names are becoming rar e. Internet domain names can be registered for a period of 1 to 10 years and after
that period the registration must be renewed. If a domain name registration is not renewed after a certain period of
time the domain will expire and will become available for registration by anyone (it is called a dropped domain).
The search and acquisition of valuable domain names that are already registered or become available is known as
the Internet domain names secondary market (or after-market), and can be divided in two types of transactions: (i)
domains names sold by their owners and (ii) domains acquired upon their release by their previous owners. Our
study will focus on the later type of transactions.
Currently, the importance of this secondary market is increasing exponentially and already overcame the doma in
names primary market both in the number of registrations but mainly in terms of sales turnover. The importance of
the domain names secondary market forced the domain name retailers to rethink or evolve their business model.
Most retailers do not let (all or the more valuable) names that were not renewed by their clients to enter the deletion
phase from the TLD files; instead, they temporarily register the domain as their own and try to sell the domain with
an higher profit in public or private auction s.
Besides, multiple commercial ventures have appeared to provide multiple services related with the domain names
secondary market. The more relevant new service related with th e domain names secondary market is Drop
Catching. Companies providing this service give their customers the possibility to request the acquisition of a
domain name that will drop soon (this is also known as backorder). Upon this request, the Drop Catching company
will use their computational resources and procedures to automatically try to register the dropped domain name in
the exact instant it becomes available. Domain name auction is another service that facilitates the buying and selling
of currently registered domain names, enabling individuals to purchase a previously registered domain that suits
their needs from an owner wishing to sell. With a domain auction there is no need to wait until (and if) a current
owner allows the registration to lapse before purchasing a domain that someone wants to own. Domain brokerage,
where doma in name brokers can help finding buyers for domain names, is another ser vice associated to the domain
names secondary market. Another related service is domain name appraisal, which is an estimate about the potential
sales price of a particular Internet domain name. Domain name appraisals are highly subjective, since th ey are
estimates and opinions and can considerably var y depending upon the considered elemen ts of the name an d its
extension.
This paper will present a study on the acquisition of dropped domain names, firstly explaining how the domain
names ser vice works and then making a deeper quantitative analysis on th e dropped and re-registered domains: the
number of dropped domains, the number of dropped domains that are re-registered and the total number of re-
registrations during a certain period of time are calculated and analyzed. Then, re-registered domains are analyzed in
several different strands, as th e time they take to be re-registered, the characters they contain and their Google and
Alexa ranks and presence on Internet directories, trying to understan d which are th e main factors that in fluence the
re-registration probability of a certain domain name.
The rest of the paper is organized as follows: Section 2 presents on overview of the main aspects of the Internet
domain names secondary market; Section 3 describes h ow the market data was acquired and presents and discusses
the results and, finally, Section 4 presents the main conclusions.
2. Domain names market value
The number of existing or potential visits to a particular domain name is what defines the domain intrinsic value.
Visitants of a domain originate from three potential sources: (i) Internet search engines, which provide users with a
list of potential interesting web pages based on the users' search keywords and previous knowledge and crawling
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results of a particular domain; (ii) back-links (hyper-links in other webpages linking back to a domain), which may
exist in all Internet content formats (standard webpages, blogs, directories of links, social networks' posts, etc, …)
and (iii) directly typed URLs, since some users type directly in their browsers URL director textbox some generic
terms followed by most common TLD suffixes (mainly .COM) and known URLs (advertised by means of direct or
indirect brand advertising).
The number of registered domains had been growing at an almost constant rate until June 2008 (see Fig. 1), when
we can observe a slight drop on the number of registered domains. Moreover, after July 2008 the growing rate is
lower than the previous ones. These facts are explained by the 2008 economic recession. Nevertheless, the number
of registered domains are still growing and at rates that are higher than the global economy itself. This also reflects
the expansion, based on the natural growth and acquisition of several depleted businesses, of players with more
available monetary resources.
Fig. 1. Number of .COM and .NET domains registered since October 2007 until January 2010.
A domain name value is relative and can be evaluated through different perspectives: (i) the domain's suffix or
top level domain, (ii) the name size and the inclusion of numbers or hyphens, (iii) if it is a word or composition of
dictionary relevant and trendy words, (iv) the variations from known domains, (v) the search engine optimization
(SEO) [4,5] performed for a domain name, measured in terms of search engines ranking and number of back-links.
First, the domain suffix, also called top level domain (TLD), determines the domain purpose and geographical
context [3]. These domains with thr ee (or more) letters are called generic TLD (gTLD) and are used for multiple
proposes: commercial (.COM, .NET), organizations (.ORG), informational (.INFO), business (.BIZ) and mobile
(.MOBI). Some gTLD, such as .EDU, .GOV, and .MIL, are sponsored by designated agencies or organizations and
restrictions are imposed on which registrants may own such domains. These characteristics and rules exclude these
domains from the secondary market.
TLDs with two letters have been establi shed for more than 240 countries or territories and are called "country-
code" TLDs (ccTLDs). When a domain name is created its record is added to the respective TLD z one file. Each
TLD zone file has an organization that is responsible for its management and maintenance. Another player is the
domain name registrar, which is a company accredited by ICANN or by a national ccTLD authority to register
Internet domain names. The registrar role, upon a register request, is to communicate that r egister to the respective
TLD organization and keep a detailed domain registering information in their servers.
The .com gTLD is the most popular and valued top level domain, while others such as .n et and .org are less
popular and ccTLDs like .US, .EU, .UK, .CN, .IN, .FR, etc... are most suitable for regional purposes. Table 1 shows
that the gTLD domains together with the German, Chinese and UK domains represent the large majority of
registered domain s. Consequently, these TLD domains are also the most traded in the secondary market and, due to
their natural purposes, .COM domains are much more valued than all the others. However, Fig. 2 depicts the
geographical distribution of the domain owners, revealing that the domain names business is centered mainly in the
United States, with Germany, UK, Canada and China in a far second position and with all other countries having
just a small share of the business.
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Table 1. Main TLD registries general statistics, July 2009. (source: HosterStats.com)
Country Registered Domains Overall Percentage
.COM 81,030,022 & 47.84%
.DE (Germa ny) 12,935,080 7.64%
.CN (China) 12,545,589 7.41%
.NET 12,293,418 7.26%
.UK (United Kingdom) 7,768,754 4.59%
.ORG 7,616,431 4.50%
.INFO 5,164,116 3.05%
.NL (Netherlands) 3,466,675 2.05%
.EU (Europe) 2,913,452 1.72%
.RU (Russia) 2,224,537 1.31%
.BIZ 2,024,217 1.19%
.BR (Brazil) 1,767,167 1.04%
.IT (Italy) 1,713,469 1.01%
.PL (Poland) 1,501,355 0 .89%
.AU (Australia) 1,443,296 0.85%
.FR (France) 1,436,611 0.85%
.CA (Canada) 1,242,386 0.73%
.ES (Spain) 1,152,615 0.68%
.JP (Japan) 1,098,360 0.65%
.KR (South Korea) 1,019,115 0.60%
.DK (Denmark) 1,009,995 0.60%
.SE (Sweden) 881,337 0.52%
.AT (Austria) 865,757 0.51%
.MOBI 841,571 0.50%
Country Registered Domains
United States 65.3%
Germany 5.8%
United Kingdom 3.7%
Canada 3.4%
China 3.3 .%
France 2.6%
Australia 2.2%
Japan 1.5%
Spain 1.2%
Italy 1.1%
Others 9.9%
Fig. 2. Geographical distribution of registers, October 2009. (source: webhosting.info)
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The use of non-En glish words for domain names may have regional value but the language of the chosen words
should be strictly related with the domain suffix (e.g. German Words with .DE or .AT, French words with .FR, .BE,
or .CA; or Spanish words with .ES, .MX or .CL). Different countries have different constraints regarding to the
entity that can register a ccTLD. These aspects, together with the different countries' potential markets, make some
ccTLD domains virtually absen t from the secondary market or with reduced value.
Short domain names without numbers and h yphens ar e easier to remember, and therefore more valuable. Short
domain names, based on existin g words or in pronounceable terms, are ideal to create new brands by means of
marketing campaigns. Larger domain names may have value if they are composed by existing words strictly related
with the desired area of busin ess or if the domain alr eady profits from previous marketing ca mpaigns endured by
others. A domain name valuation model based on non-SEO characteristics have been presented in [9].
The secondary market clients decide to buy a domain based on trend watching. Domain names that include trend
keywords generate more traffic and greater interest from potential customers. Trends can be identified by (i)
analyzing the records of keywords utilized to perform searches by users and (ii) analyzing news and
technological/sociological reports that may indicate future interests and related words. Domain names based on
words with current (or future) high search numbers have an higher value due to its larger number of potential
interested persons. A domain made available in the secondary market may be based on words that will be trendy in a
near future and therefore have a potential commer cial value.
Another importan t aspect is the relationship between domain names and trademarks. A trademark is a name or
logo used by a company to identify its goods or ser vices. Many trademarks are registered, but a trademark need not
be registered for an owner to protect it. Trademark laws are primarily designed to protect consumers from confusing
one compan y's goods or services with those of an other one [6]. Many companies register domain names that contain
their trade marks (for example, eBay owns www.ebay.com and The Coca Cola Company owns www.cocacola.com
and www.coke.com. Trademark infringement usually involves using someone's trademark on a good or service in a
way that may lead to confusion about the source or affiliation of the goods or services. The same applies to domain
names. If someone operates a website using a domain name that contains someone else's trademark, people seeing
that domain name and/or going to that site are likely to be confused that the site is affiliated with someone else when
it is not. Domain names that may be considered infringing also include intentional misspellings or confusingly
similar names (for example, www.wwwebay.com,www.amizon.com). Just because a company has not registered all
variations of its name or trade mark as domain names, it does not mean that others can use those domain names.
Finally, and perhaps more important, are the SEO performed on a domain name. Domain names already known
and indexed by search engines and/or with a high number of back-links (i.e. hyper-links in other webpages linking
back to that domain) have a much higher market value. When buying a domain name the SEO value is implicitly
included and may significantly reduce additional SEO and marketing costs. Search engines are index software
agents that are programmed to seek for Web sites and categorize them into a cohesive mann er, in order to easily
search for specific information. When visiting a Web site the agent records all the text on ever y page and categorizes
the site based on different criteria. Th e added value of these indexed domains results from the fact that th ey become
more visible and accessible by potential customers.
Domains na mes are not immediately erased from the TLS zone files after their expiration date: they follow the
so-called domain life cycle. Fig. 3 presents the domain name cycle, illustrating the different domain name status and
the transitions that are allowed. If the registrar of a specific domain does not renew the domain registration by the
expiration date, the domain register information remains unchangeable for a period of 0 to 40 days (depending on
the registrar policy). For this period, the standards and ICANN policies do not define a specific domain status, but it
is usually called "expiration" period. When in this status, the domain registration can be renewed by the owner with
a standard registration fee. After the redemption period ends the domain status changes to "redemption period"
during 35 days, the register information is deleted but the remaining domain information is kept on the TLD zone
files. Th e owner can still re-activate and re-register the domain but for a much higher fee (usually a value around
100 euros, although this depends on the registrar). If the owner decides to recover the domain, he must do a
restoration request and the domain will change to a "pending restore" state for 7 days before becoming active again.
Otherwise, the domain name status will change to the "pending delete" status for 5 days, after which the domain
becomes available again for anyone who wants to register it (this event is usually called "domain drop").
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Fig. 3. Domain name cycle.
The Waitin g List Service pr oposed by Verisign, the largest U.S. Internet Registrar, intends to create a waiting list
for expiring domain names, in an effort to add order to the system for doling out deleted names and to make money
at a time when new website purch ases are dwindling. The service allows people who want a domain name th at
someone else owns to pay for the privilege of being first in line to snap it up once it expires. It is easy to understand
that this service would basically put today's drop catchers out of business by giving Verisign a new monopoly on the
distribution of expiring .COM and .NET domains. In fact, this service would require that all registrars apply for
expiring domain names through VeriSign and domain name registrar s and resellers argue that this new scheme
would increase costs and kill their secondary domain name business models.
3. Data Retrieval and Results Analysis
The retrieval of detailed information about all dropped (or soon to be dropped) domain names is extremely
complex an d requires massive computational and n etwork resources due to th e large information that is available
and to its distributed nature between the root TLD organizations an d the different r egistrars. The natural approach to
obtain this information must be a two-step procedure: (i) obtain the root TLD file, which only contains the registered
domains and th e respective registrar and name servers and (ii) query the differen t registrars in order to obta in the
registration details that include owner contacts and creation, last update and expiration dates of the domain. Due to
the complexity of this process, associated with the legal and technical issues created by the massive queering of
name servers, in th is study we used the freely available data provided by th e NameJet.com, which publishes a daily
list with all (.COM and .NET) domains in "pending delete" status and an indication of the deletion date.
After identifying the deleted domains in a particular day, we identify (30 days after the drop date) the eventual re-
registration and respective (re-)creation date of those domains by consulting the registrars name servers database
using the whois service.
Our study analyzed the .COM and .NET domains dropped between October 2007 and January 2010. However,
our detailed ana lysis focuses on the year 2009. Hereafter, all the analysis and statistical results will be related only to
.COM and .NET domains.
Fig. 4 depicts th e evolution of the number of dropped domains since October 2007, together with the percentage
of dropped domains in relation to the overall number of domains. It i s possible to observe that the absolute number
and relative percentage of dropped domains have increased until mid-2009; after this date, we can see a slight drop
or a stabilization of the numbers. This increment on the average number of dropped domains can be explained, first,
by the economic recession that forced many businesses to cease operations, an d second, by the lower cash-flow and
revenue fr om the specialized market players interested in th e commer cialization and exploration of this assets. Fig. 5
depicts an analysis of the absolute number of dropped domains and consequent re-registration within the following
30 days, for chosen weeks between November 2008 and December 2009. The weekly behavior of dropped domains
registrations reveals a low percentage of dropped domain recovery in the last quarter of 2008 and first quarter of
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2009, followed by an increment on the number of re-registrations which have stabilized around 8%-10% until the
end of the year. During th e entire first week of October 2009 we witnessed a constant peak in the percentage of
dropped domains recovery. These facts can again be explained by the economic recession and consequent r ecovery,
the extraordinary numbers observed in October 2009 are explained by the conjugation of three factors: (i) an
increased confidence in the economy and cash-flow availability and (ii) an abnormal number of valuable domain
names dropped as a result of the economic recession.
Fig. 4. Evolution of the absolute number and relative percentage of dropped domains since October 2007.
Fig. 5. Number of dropped domains and consequent re-registration percentage, for chosen weeks between November 2008 and December 2009.
In order to study the time interval between the day a domain becomes available and its re-registration, we
identified all domains dropped in four different weeks (first week of November 2008, January, July and October of
2009) and recorded if and when that domains were re-registered within the following 15 days. The results of this
study are depicted in Fig. 6 to Fig. 9, and reveal that the large majority of recaptured domains are registered in th e
same day they become available. However, it is possible to observe that, in some cases, even 3 to 7 days after the
domains have been dropped there is a high number of d omains bei ng r egistered. On e possible explanation for th ese
events is the existence of some on-line tools/services that identify and classify valuable available domains but, due
to different payment plans, this information is provided not immediately in day 0 but only some time after.
Moreover, domains dropped in a particular day are still being registered almost a year after an d a small fraction were
consistently re-registered ever y day over that period. As can be observed in Fig. 10, the domains that became
available in November 1st 2008 were being registered 300 days after this date, and during that period 10 to 100
different names were registered every day.
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Fig. 6. Domain names re-registration statistics, first week of November 2008.
A deeper analysis of the re-registered domain s in term of the number of characters is depicted in Fig. 11. The
overall distribution of the percentage of domain names re-registered in terms of domain length follows an heavy-
tailed log-normal like distribution with average equal to ~11 characters and is similar to the one observed for all
registered domain names. Moreover, this analysis reveals that the distribution of the domains length in terms of the
number of days between drop and re-registration is similar, with the exception of small domain names (5-6
characters) that are re-registered more frequently in days 0 and 1 after the drop date.
Fig. 7. Domain names re-registration statistics, first week of January 2009.
.
Fig. 8. Domain names re-registration statistics, first week of July 2009.
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Fig. 9. Domain names re-registration statistics, first week of October 2009.
Note that for the smaller domain names (less than 5 characters) the number of available domain names is very
small and therefore no relevant conclusion can be taken. Fig. 12 depicts the percentage of re-registered domains as a
function of the number of da ys between drop and re-registration, taking into account the distinction between domain
names in cluding only letters, only numbers, hyphens and no hyphens. This analysis reveals that names tha t only
include letters and do n ot include hyphens are clearly preferred and mainly re-registered in the same day they
become available.
Fig. 10. Domain names re-registered for names dropped in November 1st 2008.
Fig. 11. Re-registered domain names length distribution, for names dropped between October 1st and 7th, 2009.
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Fig. 12. Re Re-registered domain names analysis in terms of char types, for names dropped between October 1st and 7th, 2009.
Fig. 13, Fig. 14 and Fig. 15 depict the relationship between the rankings of the domain names and the time it
takes for domain names to be re-registered. From the analysis of this data, it is possible to conclude that domain
names with Alexa and Google ranking values are preferred and mostly re-registered in the same day they become
available. Moreover, the best ranking domain names are almost all re-acquired within the first 3 days after they
become available. However, a relevant number of domains without any ranking is also re-registered in the same day
they become available, meaning that the domain ranking is just one more factor that is used to valuate domains and
not a fun damental factor.
Fig. 13. Re-registered domain names analysis in terms of Alexa and Google ranks existence, for names dropped between October 1st and 7th,
2009.
Fig. 14. Re-registered domain names detailed analysis in terms of Alexa rank, for names dropped between October 1st and 7th, 2009.
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Fig. 15. Re-registered domain names detailed analysis in terms Google page rank, for names dropped between October 1st and 7th, 2009.
4. Conclusions
The importance of the domain names secondary market is rapidly increasing and has already overcome the
domain names primary market both in the number of registrations and in terms of the sales turnover. Due to this
increasing relevance, this paper analyze one of the two types of domain names transactions on the secondary mar ket:
the re-acquisition of dropped doma in names. The con ducted an alysis was based on several data collected over a
period of 2 years from the registrant name servers databases: number of dropped domains, number of re-registered
dropped domains and total number of re-registrations during a certain period of time. Besides the analysis of general
trends, re-registered domains were also analyzed in terms of the characters they contain and their Google and Alexa
ranks, creating a knowledge base that can help us understan d which are the main factors that influence the re-
registration of a certain domain name.
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P. Salvador, A. Nogueira / Procedia Computer Science 3 (2011) 325–335 335
... In this paper, we improve the precision of drop-catch research [10,13,17] to a time scale of seconds, instead of days. We show that .com ...
... In related work, domain name re-registrations have been discussed as potential [15,18] or actual [8,12] attacks. Salvador and Nogueira [17], and Miramirkhani et al. [13] studied how registrants select domains to re-register. Miramirkhani et al. found that shorter length, higher age, more traffic, and prior maliciousness all resulted in a higher re-registration probability. ...
Conference Paper
When desirable Internet domain names expire, they are often re-registered in the very moment the old registration is deleted, in a highly competitive and resource-intensive practice called domain drop-catching. To date, there has been little insight into the daily time period when expired domain names are deleted, and the race to re-registration that takes place. In this paper, we show that .com domains are deleted in a predictable order, and propose a model to infer the earliest possible time a domain could have been re-registered. We leverage this model to characterise at a precision of seconds how fast certain types of domain names are re-registered. We show that 9.5 % of deleted domains are re-registered with a delay of zero seconds. Domains not taken immediately by the drop-catch services are often re-registered later, with different behaviours over the following seconds, minutes and hours. Since these behaviours imply different effort and price points, our methodology can be useful for future work to explain the uses of re-registered domains.
... There are many reasons why the fair market value of domain names must be appraised. The manual appraisal of domain names is subjective, time-consuming and expensive [1]. Existing approaches to the application of casebased reasoning (CBR) in the appraisal of assets [6][7][8][9] show three fundamental weaknesses: First, the rules for price adjustment often rely on the experience of experts and are therefore not empirically justified. ...
Conference Paper
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Good domain names have become rare and trading with pre-mium domain names has developed into a profitable business. Domain appraisals are required for many different reasons, e.g., in connection with a loan on a domain name. The aim of this paper is to analyze various methods for estimating prices for domain names. The criteria for this are predictive accuracy, traceability and speed of the appraisal. First, the scientific relevance of the topic is demonstrated based on intensive literature and Internet research. Several approaches based on artificial neural networks (ANNs) and case-based reasoning (CBR) are developed for estimating domain name prices. In addition, hybrid appraisal ap-proaches are introduced that are built up on CBR and which use ANN for improved adaptation and similarity determination. The approaches are evaluated in several configurations using a training set of 4,231 actual domain transactions, which demonstrates their high usefulness.
... The aim of this article is to present results of analysis and modeling of domain registration process. Similar analysis were presented in [2], [3], [4], while the secondary market was studied in [5], however none of these papers covered Poland. Much broader literature is devoted to semantic analysis of domain names, which can be used to assess their qualities [6], [7] or pricing [8], [9]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The paper presents analysis of the domain name reservation process for the polish .pl domain. Two models of various time scale are constructed and finally combined to build long range high resolution model. The results of predic-tion are verified using real data.
Conference Paper
Good domain names have become rare and trading with premium domain names has developed into a profitable business. Domain appraisals are required for many different reasons, e.g., in connection with a loan on a domain name. The aim of this paper is to analyze various methods for estimating prices for domain names. The criteria for this are predictive accuracy, traceability and speed of the appraisal. First, the scientific relevance of the topic is demonstrated based on intensive literature and Internet research. Several approaches based on artificial neural networks (ANNs) and case-based reasoning (CBR) are developed for estimating domain name prices. In addition, hybrid appraisal approaches are introduced that are built up on CBR and which use ANN for improved adaptation and similarity determination. The approaches are evaluated in several configurations using a training set of 4,231 actual domain transactions, which demonstrates their high usefulness.
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In October 1998, the “Internet Corporation for the Assigned Numbers and Names” (ICANN), a global non-for-profit private organisation responsible for the governance of the Internet, was established under Californian Law. The new corporation will be fully operational until October 2000. ICANN represents the global public Internet Community as well as the private industry involved in electronic commerce and has the mandate to coordinate and control the technical protocols of the Internet, the Internet address space, the Internet domain name system (DNS) and the Internet root server system. The article describes the first steps ICANN took after its incorporation and the conflicts the Corporation faced when it made technical decisions that had political implications. It discusses also the need for the development of new governance systems in the information age.
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ICANN has recently announced an "open season" on top-level domains, to start some time in 2009. This will dramatically expand the namespace for Internet domain names, and will allow cities, industries, and companies to register specific top-level domains for themselves. What effect will that have on the companies involved, and on the Internet users? In this column, the author explores that question and gives his opinion on the answer.
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Domain name is a new type intangible of enterprise. For the reason that we don't recognize and measure the domain self-constructed in financial accounting system, there are little study on domain's value estimation and the factors influencing its value. For the absence of value measurement, domain name's valuation management is weak in firm. With the growth of domain trade-off, how to value it become crisis important. We find that traditional estimation methods, such as discount cash flow method etc, ignore some crucial non-financial factors that influence the domain value for instance creativity. We use the semantic theory and content analysis to analyze the value-influence factors which include Domain structure and Meaning and Impression and Creativity etc. Based on the analysis we establish a model which integrate the financial and non-financial factors to value the domain name using fuzzy method. Finally we use the experience data of domain trading to test the factors of influencing the domain value. We find that domain's value actually correlates to the semantic characters. The first contribution of the paper is that it is based on semantic theory and content analysis. The second contribution is we use Econometrics method to investigate the domain's value and find empirical evidence.
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The explosion of interest in registering domain names as trademarks at the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) is described. The potential benefits of e.g. ".com" trademark registrations is explored in the wider context of a massive increase in applications for trademark registrations generally, the rapid expansion of e-commerce, and the registration of many millions of domain names with various authorities. The article concludes with a summary of the corresponding expansion of the USPTO web site to cater for the increasing familiarity of the commercial pubic with the Internet. This includes, for trademarks, three systems - electronic search (TESS), electronic application (TEAS) and electronic information on pending and registered trademarks (TARR).
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Paul Mockapetris is the inventor of the Internet's Domain Name System. This article discusses why domain names are booming on the Net. As originally envisaged, the DNS was restricted to matching domain names and IP addresses, but Mockapetris decided to "overstep" his mandate and design a system that could be extended to include additional data types. As the DNS has grown in scale, its attractions as a distributed database have become increasingly powerful. There are currently some two million DNS servers on the public Internet, and around five times that number behind corporate firewalls contributing to the DNS's caching activity.