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Ergonomic Criteria for the Evaluation of Human-Computer Interfaces • Critères Ergonomiques pour l'Évaluation d'Interfaces Utilisateurs

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Abstract

This article presents the results of an experiment designed to validate a set of ergonomic criteria for the evaluation of human‐computer interfaces. Criteria definitions that were designed in a previous study, were tested in a concept‐identification task. Twenty‐four subjects (12 human factors specialists and 12 nonspecialists) were asked to identify the criterion, within a set of 18 elementary criteria, that was violated for each of 36 usability problems. The results show no difference between groups either in terms of performance times or correct identifications. The mean percentage of correct identifications was 59.85%. This result calls for the refinement of some definitions. A detailed examination of the data and an analysis of confusion matrices permits the identification of categories of well‐defined criteria and categories of criteria that would benefit from improvements in their definitions. These results seem to support the feasibility of an evaluation method based on explicitely defined criteria.
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... L'évaluation des IHM consiste à tester et à valider un système interactif en se basant sur différents critères pour améliorer et affiner sa qualité et assurer son bon fonctionnement. Ces critères tiennent compte des performances globales du système et sont exprimés en termes d'écart entre la production réelle et les objectifs définis (Millot 1987 ;Bastien et Scapin 1992 ;Vanderdonckt 1994). Cet écart peut être mesuré en termes d'utilisabilité du système, de son utilité et/ou accessibilité. ...
... Différentes méthodes et techniques ont été proposées pour guider et assister les équipes projets pendant le processus de développement (Assila 2016 ;Balbo 1994 ;Kolski et GRISLIN 1995 ;Bastien et Scapin 1992 ;Nielsen 1994). Chaque méthode a ses propres exigences et peut être appropriée pour une ou plusieurs étapes du cycle de vie de conception des IHM. ...
... Ce critère fait partie des sous-critères ergonomiques proposés par (Bastien et Scapin 1992). Il concerne les caractéristiques lexicales de présentation des informations sur l'écran pouvant entraver ou faciliter la lecture de ces dernières. ...
Thesis
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Cette thèse s’inscrit dans le domaine de l’ingénierie de l’Interaction Humain Machine (IHM). Elle traite de l’evaluation des IHM. Plus précisement, elle contribue à la classe d’approches d’évaluations comparative. La littérature leur voit comme atouts d’augmenter la quantité et la qualité des critiques lors des évaluations. Cependant, la production d’IHM alternatives pour l’évaluation est coûteuse en l’absence d’outils de génération automatique de ces alternatives.L’objectif de la thèse est d’automatiser la production d’IHM alternatives pour accélérer la convergence vers une IHM de qualité. Il s’agit de définir les transformations à appliquer à une IHM initiale pour générer la meilleure IHM alternative, celle qui, mise en vis-à-vis de l’IHM initiale, permettra de recueillir des retours utilisateur enclins à améliorer la qualité de l’IHM. L’alternative pourrait devenir l’IHM de référence pour itérativement converger vers l’IHM finale.Pour répondre à cet objectif, nous nous sommes premièrement interrogés sur la nécessité ou non de transformer l’IHM : un changement de matérialité pourrait-il suffire?Nous avons exploré la voie d’alternatives vidéo. Nous avons mené une étude expérimentale consistant à présenter aux participants successivement une IHM initiale en version papier puis la même sous la forme d’un film déroulant un scénario d’interaction. Cette étude montre que, dans la version papier, le participant se concentre sur les fonctionnalités offertes par le système et critique principalement son utilité, tandis qu’avec un film il s’exprime davantage sur l’interaction, i.e, l’utilisabilité. Aussi, l’utilisation combinée des deux supports, papier et film, enrichit les résultats. Cependant les critiques se sont limitées à l’IHM proposée sans suggestions alternatives.Nous avons alors étudié la transformation de l’IHM et, inspirés par DesignScape, nous nous sommes interrogés sur le caractère mineur ou majeur que ces changements devaient avoir pour donner une évaluation comparative efficace. Sur la base du cadre de référence CAMELEON(CRC), nous avons identifié trois niveaux d’abstraction possibles pour ancrer les transformations de l’IHM initiale : les tâches utilisateur, l’interface abstraite et l’interface concrète. Les changements aux deux premiers niveaux d’abstraction sont considérés comme des changements majeurs. Les changements au niveau de l’interface concrète sont considérés comme mineurs au regard de leur profondeur dans le CRC. Nous avons mené une expérimentation dans laquelle trois groupes de participants ont évalué comparativement une IHM initiale et une alternative de transformation respectivement au niveau du modèle de la tâche, de l’interface abstraite et de l’interface concrète. L’étude montre que les retours des participants ont été les plus nourris en qualité et en quantité sur la version majeure au niveau de l’interface abstraite.Dans l’optique d’une génération automatique d’alternatives, nous avons défini des règles de transformation de l’interface abstraite consistant à modifier la navigation sans changer la présentation des espaces de travail élémentaires.Nous avons implémenté ces règles dans GRA:FITI, un outil de génération automatique d’IHM alternatives. Il génère trois IHM à partir d’une IHM initiale qui réduisent la navigation globale, ie, la navigation entre les grands espaces de travail de l’IHM, et/ou la navigation locale, i.e, la navigation au sein des espaces de travail élémentaires de l’IHM. L’évaluation montre que :(1)GRA:FITI aide le concepteur à obtenir des critiques pertinentes sur son IHM initiale par des évaluations comparatives,(2)il peut servir de source d’inspiration en phase de conception.En synthèse, la thèse apporte deux contributions : (1)elle définit le type de transformation à appliquer à une IHM pour des évaluations comparatives efficaces et en propose un ensemble de règles, (2)elle propose un outil de génération automatique d’alternatives comme démonstrateur de concept.
... We recorded the errors and problems that the participants encountered while completing the 7 tasks. Each problem encountered was described in a Microsoft Excel file, categorized according to the heuristics of Bastien and Scapin [33] (information density, consistency, and significance of codes), and given a severity rate following the Nielsen Norman Group recommendations [27]: 0=disagreement that this is a usability problem at all, 1=cosmetic problem only-need not be fixed unless extra time is available, 2=minor usability problem: fixing this should be given low priority, 3=major usability problem: important to fix and should be given high priority, and 4=usability catastrophe-imperative to fix this before the product can be released. ...
... In total, we recorded 44 problems encountered by the participants while completing the 7 tasks. Following the Bastien and Scapin [33] grouping method, we clustered them into 17 types of problems (Table 4). Of these problems, none were considered as a usability catastrophe, 50% (22/44) were considered as major usability problems, 48% (21/44) as minor usability problems, and the last 2% (1/44) as not a usability problem at all. ...
... Description of the problem Category (numbered according to Bastien and Scapin [33]) ...
Article
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Background: Advance care planning, including advance directives, is an important tool that allows patients to express their preferences for care if they are no longer able to express themselves. We developed Accordons-nous, a smartphone app that informs patients about advance care planning and advance directives, facilitates communication on these sensitive topics, and helps patients express their values and preferences for care. Objective: The first objective of this study is to conduct a usability test of this app. The second objective is to collect users' critical opinions on the usability and relevance of the tool. Methods: We conducted a usability test by means of a think-aloud method, asking 10 representative patients to complete 7 browsing tasks. We double coded the filmed sessions to obtain descriptive data on task completion (with or without help), time spent, number of clicks, and the types of problems encountered. We assessed the severity of the problems encountered and identified the modifications needed to address these problems. We evaluated the readability of the app using Scolarius, a French equivalent of the Flesch Reading Ease test. By means of a posttest questionnaire, we asked participants to assess the app's usability (System Usability Scale), relevance (Mobile App Rating Scale, section F), and whether they would recommend the app to the target groups: patients, health professionals, and patients' caring relatives. Results: Participants completed the 7 think-aloud tasks in 80% (56/70) of the cases without any help from the experimenter, in 16% (11/70) of the cases with some help, and failed in 4% (3/70) of the cases. The analysis of failures and difficulties encountered revealed a series of major usability problems that could be addressed with minor modifications to the app. Accordons-nous obtained high scores on readability (overall score of 87.4 on Scolarius test, corresponding to elementary school level), usability (85.3/100 on System Usability Scale test), relevance (4.3/5 on the Mobile App Rating Scale, section F), and overall subjective endorsement on 3 I would recommend questions (4.7/5). Conclusions: This usability test helped us make the final changes to our app before its official launch.
... Le premier fait référence à des recommandations générales de conception ergonomique, alors que le second s'attache à énoncer des recommandations spécifiques pour la conception de ressources pédagogiques accessibles. Si ces deux référentiels sont à destination des concepteurs, les heuristiques de Bastien et Scapin (1993) adoptent un point de vue centré sur l'expérience utilisateur, alors que les A2RNE renvoient davantage aux aspects techniques de la création d'un contenu pédagogique numérique. La complémentarité des données recueillies devrait permettre de mettre en lien les difficultés possiblement rencontrées par les utilisateurs atteints d'un trouble de la fonction visuelle avec les choix de conception des éditeurs. ...
... Le critère de l'homogénéité/cohérence est donc partiellement validé. (Bastien et Scapin, 1993), les résultats de notre inspection divergent des siens. En effet, Malti (2018) observe que celui-ci est respecté, alors que ce n'est pas le cas dans la présente inspection. ...
... Indications attestant ou suggérant la difficulté à recherche une information Inspection ergonomique Le critère de l'homogénéité/cohérence est partiellement validé (Bastien & Scapin, 1993) Le critère consultation et navigation obtient un niveau 1 (A2RNE) ...
Thesis
L’objectif poursuivi dans cette recherche est de construire des connaissances spécifiques sur les besoins des élèves ayant un trouble de la fonction visuelle en matière d’accessibilité des manuels scolaires numériques et les solutions possibles pour y répondre. Il s’agit plus précisément d’étudier les caractéristiques spécifiques des modalités d’accès aux manuels scolaires numériques et multimédias par ces élèves et leurs conséquences sur les exigences cognitives associées à leur traitement pour concevoir et évaluer des principes de conception.Plusieurs études complémentaires ont été réalisées pour analyser les besoins des élèves présentant un trouble de la fonction visuelle en matière d’accessibilité pédagogique numérique. Globalement, les résultats indiquent que les élèves non-voyants ne peuvent actuellement pas utiliser les manuels scolaires numériques pour des raisons d’accessibilité technique. Si les élèves malvoyants peuvent accéder aux manuels scolaires numériques et en ont des perceptions positives, dans les faits, ils les utilisent peu, notamment en raison de difficultés liées à l’utilisation d’outils d’agrandissement qui s’accommodent mal de l’organisation de l’information en double page et du manque de multimodalité. Lors de la réalisation de tâches impliquant le manuel scolaire numérique, l’accès agrandi impose aux élèves malvoyants plus d’actions de navigation et davantage de partage attentionnel qu’à leurs pairs voyants, exigences mentales qui génèrent une augmentation de la charge mentale extrinsèque, et subséquemment un plus grand nombre d’abandons, une dégradation des performances, un allongement des temps de réalisation, par comparaison aux élèves voyants. Pour pallier cette difficulté, un principe de solution basé sur les principes d’intégration de l’information et de multimodalité (Mayer, 2014) a été évalué expérimentalement. Les résultats indiquent des bénéfices de la solution sur les mesures d’atteinte du but, de temps de réalisation et de performances mais aussi sur les perceptions subjectives, par comparaison au format classique séparé et unimodal.L’ensemble de ces résultats permet d’enrichir à la fois le champ de recherche de l’apprentissage multimédia qui n’a que peu considéré le cas des apprenants en situation de handicap mais aussi de fournir des recommandations pour la conception de manuels scolaires numériques accessibles.Ce travail de recherche a bénéficié du soutien financier de l’Université Fédérale de Toulouse Midi-Pyrénées, de la Région Occitanie et de la Fondation Internationale de la Recherche Appliquée sur le Handicap.
... Indeed a gesture can cover several different semantic referents at the same times. We'll talk about adaptability -flexibility [2], in the sense that the user can go through several semantic intermediaries, neither to execute a command but to make the recall in memory of the good gesture associated to this command. ...
... Fig.5). Moreover, we could notice a mass voluntary consistency [2] from the participants about the contrary commands (antagonist gestures for contrary commands). ...
... Participants used fine association strategies for this categorization process: they took a great care of the criteria of consistency, significance of codes and error protection [2] (with a choice of more complex gestures for the 'Delete' command, opposite gestures for the 'Forward' and 'Back' commands…). ...
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This paper introduces a study driven in collaboration between France Telecom R&D and the LEI (Laboratoire d'Ergonomie Informatique) of Paris 5 University. This study is related to a transversal research project with France Telecom that aims to conceive new interaction modes and new types of interfaces based on perceptive sensorial experiences of disabled persons. The purpose of this study is to focus on haptic modality and blind users in order to design a usable interface through force feedback and gestures command (first for perception, second for action). 1 Context Software ergonomics is now a day mainly based on visual criteria and principally on eye-hand coordination. Now, if we consider this problem from the point of view of a blind person, interaction principles are not the same [8], [17] (drag & drop is a nonsense for blind users). Therefore, to design directly haptic and/or auditory interface is much more coherent and costless than to adapt or correct an existing visual interface. Nevertheless cohesion between each kind of interfaces should be taking into account. It is called 'design for all' approach. The aim of this study was not to reproduce the feeling of a graphic interface in a haptic way but rather to design and test the bricks of a new interface based on force feedback. Rather than pictograms we suggest to use haptograms that we propose to define in two types: haptObjects and haptoGestures. We choose to present in this paper only the experimental considerations concerning the haptoGestures, i.e. command gestures that allow to manipulate objects and to execute actions. Our final goal was to define gestures properties in order to optimize exploration behaviour, memorization, and redoing. Device used was a pen-based interface (PHANToM device [19], graphic tablet [25]) in which the gesture dynamics (and not only enter positions) was taken into account and made up for the user as the semantics of a command.
... Two complementary methods were deployed: assessment by ergonomic inspection, which consists of identifying interface elements to be improved (Brangier et al. 2015), and user testing sessions. Ergonomic inspection is an assessment approach based on criteria, such as those proposed by Bastien & Scapin (1993), for the assessment of computer devices. This method is generally used to discover and correct design flaws, before carrying out user tests (Bastien & Scapin, 1993). ...
... Ergonomic inspection is an assessment approach based on criteria, such as those proposed by Bastien & Scapin (1993), for the assessment of computer devices. This method is generally used to discover and correct design flaws, before carrying out user tests (Bastien & Scapin, 1993). The result of such an assessment is a set of recommendations based on the representation of a third party who is not the end user. ...
... In the case of the VERTPOM® project, this third party was an ergonomist. The data was collected by assessing the application of the Bastien & Scapin (1993) criteria, by taking notes on discussions with the developers, and by recording them in audio and video format. ...
Article
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Acting to preserve our planet as much as possible is no longer optional in today's world. To do so, Smart Grids within the framework of electrical networks-involving not only Distribution System Operators (DSOs), but also consumers in their Energy Demand Management (EDM) activity-represent an innovative and sustainable solution. However, the integration of Smart Grids into network management or into consumers' homes implies changes at several levels: organizational, social, psychological, etc. This is why it is essential to consider the human factor in the design of the technologies used in these Smart Grids. This paper proposes the integration of DSO operators and consumers within a user-centered evaluation approach in order to design Smart Grids that are sufficiently acceptable to users to enable Positive Energy Territories that produce more energy than they consume. This demonstration will be illustrated by the VERTPOM® project aiming at facilitating the use of renewable energies specific to each territory in order to contribute to the reduction of greenhouse gases and make the territories less dependent on traditional energies, and thus make Picardy (in France) a Positive Energy Territory. This paper presents the user-centered evaluation approach applied to three technologies (i.e., the VERTPOM-BANK® supervision tool intended for DSO operators, the private web portal and the IBox smart meter intended for households) from the upstream design phase to the implementation of the technologies in real-life situations.
... The history of interface design has primarily revolved around Graphical User Interfaces (GUI), resulting in longstanding and familiar frameworks [1]. From Nielsen's 10 usability heuristics to Bastien Scapin's ergonomic criteria for the evaluation of humancomputer interfaces, designers have an array of tools to guide them in their conception of optimal digital experiences [2,3]. With the rise of non-visual user interaction (No-UI), it may be argued that the groundwork for vocal interface design is still in development due to the recency and rapid growth of vocal interface technologies. ...
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The rapid rise of voice user interface technology has changed the way users traditionally interact with interfaces, as tasks requiring gestural or visual attention are swapped by vocal commands. This shift has equally affected designers, required to disregard common digital interface guidelines in order to adapt to non-visual user interaction (No-UI) methods. The guidelines regarding voice user interface evaluation are far from the maturity of those surrounding digital interface evaluation, resulting in a lack of consensus and clarity. Thus, we sought to contribute to the emerging literature regarding voice user interface evaluation and, consequently, assist user experience professionals in their quest to create optimal vocal experiences. To do so, we compared the effectiveness of physiological features (e.g., phasic electrodermal activity amplitude) and speech features (e.g., spectral slope amplitude) to predict the intensity of users’ emotional responses during voice user interface interactions. We performed a within-subjects experiment in which the speech, facial expression, and electrodermal activity responses of 16 participants were recorded during voice user interface interactions that were purposely designed to elicit frustration and shock, resulting in 188 analyzed interactions. Our results suggest that the physiological measure of facial expression and its extracted feature, automatic facial expression-based valence, is most informative of emotional events lived through voice user interface interactions. By comparing the unique effectiveness of each feature, theoretical and practical contributions may be noted, as the results contribute to voice user interface literature while providing key insights favoring efficient voice user interface evaluation.
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Background: Patient experience in emergency departments (EDs) remains often suboptimal and can be a source of stress, particularly in pediatric settings. In an attempt to support patients and their families before, during, and after their visit to a pediatric ED, a mobile health (mHealth) app was developed by a multidisciplinary team based on patient-centered care principles. Objective: This study aims to evaluate the usability (effectiveness, efficiency, and satisfaction) of a new mHealth app, InfoKids, by potential end users through usability testing. Methods: The app was assessed through an in-laboratory, video-recorded evaluation in which participants had to execute 9 goal-oriented tasks, ranging from account creation to the reception of a diagnostic sheet at the end of the emergency care episode. Effectiveness was measured based on the task completion rate, efficiency on time on task, and user satisfaction according to answers to the System Usability Scale questionnaire. Think-aloud usability sessions were also transcribed and analyzed. Usability problems were rated for their severity and categorized according to ergonomic criteria. Results: A total of 17 parents participated in the study. The overall completion rate was 97.4% (149/153). Overall, they reported good effectiveness, with the task successfully completed in 88.2% (135/153) of cases (95% CI 83%-93%). Each task, with the exception of the first, created difficulties for some participants but did not prevent their completion by most participants. Users reported an overall good to excellent perceived usability of the app. However, ergonomic evaluation identified 14 usability problems occurring 81 time. Among these, 50% (7/14) were serious as their severity was rated as either major or catastrophic and indicated areas of improvements for the app. Following the suggested usability improvements by participants, mitigation measures were listed to further improve the app and avoid barriers to its adoption. Conclusions: Usability of the InfoKids app was evaluated as good to excellent by users. Areas of improvement were identified, and mitigation measures were proposed to inform its development toward a universal app for all ED patients visiting a digitalized institution. Its contribution could also be useful in paving the way for further research on mobile apps aimed at supporting and accompanying patients in their care episodes, as research in this area is scarce.
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Depuis une dizaine d’années, l’économie dite « du partage » (‘sharing economy’) se développe. Les entreprises offrant des services d’autopartage, de covoiturage ou de location d’appartements pour une courte durée sont les fers de lance de ce mouvement. Mais le secteur fait face à une série d’échecs d’usage (notamment de services d’autopartage et de vélopartage en libre-service), à une critique de son impact sociétal et environnemental (marchandisation, gentrification, effets rebonds) et à des règles sanitaires drastiques imposées par la pandémie en cours. Pour répondre à ces difficultés, cette communication des recommandations ayant pour objectif d’outiller l’évaluation et la conception d’objets partagés. Dans cette perspective, 7 critères ergonomiques (dit de « partageabilité ») sont proposés pour évaluer et concevoir des produits et services de partage d’objets physiques : Accompagnement, Appropriation Équilibrée, Coopérativité, Décontamination, Durabilité, Gouvernance et Valeur. Afin d’étudier la validité de ces critères, une étude exploratoire a évalué leur mise en application par 13 experts et expertes en ergonomie et facteur humain. Leur utilisation des critères pour catégoriser 40 cas pratiques a été comparée à l’affectation théorique des expérimentateurs. Les résultats indiquent un pourcentage global d’accord des experts avec l’affectation théorique de 85%. En outre, le niveau d’accord entre les experts mêmes a également été mesuré par le coefficient kappa de Randolph (0,75). Ces premiers résultats sont donc prometteurs et amènent à imaginer les étapes de validation suivantes des critères.
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This paper presents research conducted in the area of human factors knowledge collection and organization. Providing that a large amountof human factors engineering data is available now concerning user interface aspects, this research started from the following question: Can this knowledge be transferred to user interface designers, and by which means can this be done? An important part of human factors knowledge is included in recommendations and guidelines. It is the problems with that type of knowledge that this paper focuses on. A first attempt to tackle some of these problems is made by offering a generic model for deciphering recommendations into rules. This model stresses the importance of attributes such as human factors criteria, classes of premises, and conclusions, as well as interface objects. Definitions of criteria for organizing recommendations are offered, and a few examples of rule‐based reasoning are provided. The remaining problems with a rule approach are then discussed according to two dimensions: intrinsic problems and usage problems. In addition, it appears that an approach based on literature recommendations is not sufficient. Other areas that need further work are described, particularly concerning task and interface modelling, and human factors expertise modelling. The paper concludes on the limits and benefits of such an approach.
Book
This report offers guidelines for design of user interface software in six functional areas: data entry, data display, sequence control, user guidance, data transmission, and data protection. This report revises and extends previous compilations of design guidelines (cf. Smith and Mosier, 1984a). If you are a teacher, a student, a human factors practitioner or researcher, these guidelines can serve as a starting point for the development and application of expert knowledge. But that is not the primary objective of this compilation. The guidelines are proposed here as a potential tool for designers of user interface software. If you are a system analyst, you can review these guidelines to establish design requirements. If you are a software designer, you can consult these guidelines to derive the specific design rules appropriate for your particular system application. That translation from general guidelines to specific rules will help focus attention on critical user interface design questions early in the design process. If you are a manager responsible for user interface software design, you may find in these guidelines a means to make the design process more efficient. Guidelines can help establish rules for coordinating individual design contributions, can help to make design decisions just once rather than leaving them to be made over and over again by individual designers, can help to define detailed design requirements and to evaluate user interface software in comparison with those requirements. The design of user interface software will often involve a considerable investment of time and effort. Design guidelines can help ensure the value of that investment.
Article
A survey was conducted of people who had received a report on guidelines for designing user interface software. Analysis of questionnaire responses indicates that respondents considered guidelines useful, that they have used guidelines in various stages of design, and that they plan to use guidelines again. However, respondents also reported significant problems in the practical application of guidelines. Respondents had difficulty locating relevant guidelines within the report, choosing which guidelines would actually be used, establishing priorities among the selected guidelines, and translating generally worded guidelines into specific design rules.