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Ranking very many typed entities on Wikipedia


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We discuss the problem of ranking very many entities of different types. In particular we deal with a heterogeneous set of types, some being very generic and some very specific. We discuss two approaches for this problem: i) exploiting the entity containment graph and ii) using a Web search engine to compute entity relevance. We evaluate these approaches on the real task of ranking Wikipedia entities typed with a state-of-the-art named-entity tagger. Results show that both approaches can greatly increase the performance of methods based only on passage retrieval.
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Ranking Very Many Typed Entities on Wikipedia
Hugo Zaragoza
Yahoo! Research
Barcelona, Spain
Henning Rode
University of Twente
The Netherlands
Peter Mika
Yahoo! Research
Barcelona, Spain
Jordi Atserias
Yahoo! Research
Barcelona, Spain
Massimiliano Ciaramita
Yahoo! Research
Barcelona, Spain
Giuseppe Attardi
Università di Pisa
We discuss the problem of ranking very many entities of dif-
ferent types. In particular we deal with a heterogeneous set
of types, some being very generic and some very specific.
We discuss two approaches for this problem: i) exploiting
the entity containment graph and ii) using a Web search
engine to compute entity relevance. We evaluate these ap-
proaches on the real task of ranking Wikipedia entities typed
with a state-of-the-art named-entity tagger. Results show
that both approaches can greatly increase the performance
of methods based only on passage retrieval.
We are interested in the problem of ranking entities of dif-
ferent types as a response to an open (ad-hoc) query. In
particular, we are interested in collections with many enti-
ties and many types. This is the typical case when we deal
with collections which have been analyzed using NLP tech-
niques such as name entity recognition or semantic tagging.
Let us give an example of the task we are interested in.
Imagine that a user types an informational query such as
“Life of Pablo Picasso”or “Egyptian Pyramids” into a search
engine. Besides relevant documents, we wish to rank rele-
vant entities such as people,countries,dates, etc. so that
they can be presented to the user for browsing.
We believe this task is novel and interesting in its own right.
In some sense the task is similar to the expert finding task
in TREC [2]. However, this task will lead to very different
models, for two reasons. First we must deal with a hetero-
geneous set of entities; some of them are very general (like
“school”, “mother”) whereas others are very specific (“Pablo
Picasso”). Second, the entities are simply too many to build
entity-specific models as is done for experts in TREC [2].
on sabbatical at Yahoo! Research Barcelona.
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Instead, we must develop models on the fly, at query time.
In this sense the models developed are more similar to those
described in [1]. However, here we wish to rank the entities
themselves, and not sentences.
In this paper we explore two types of algorithms for en-
tity ranking: i) algorithms that use the entity containment
graph to compute the importance of entities based on the
top ranked passages, and ii) algorithms that use correlation
on web search results.
To study this task we followed these steps:
we used a statistical entity recognition algorithm to
identify many entities (and their corresponding types)
on a copy of the English Wikipedia,
we asked users to issue queries to our baseline entity
ranking systems and to evalute the results,
we compared the performance of several algorithms on
these queries.
In order to extract entities from Wikipedia, we first trained
a statistical entity extractor on the BBN Pronoun Corefer-
ence and Entity Type Corpus which includes annotation of
named entity types (Person, Facility, Organization, GPE,
Location, Nationality, Product, Event, Work of Art, Law,
Language, and Contact-Info), nominal entity types (Person,
Facility, Organization, GPE, Product, Plant, Animal, Sub-
stance, Disease and Game), and numeric types (Date, Time,
Percent, Money, Quantity, Ordinal and Cardinal). We note
that some types are dedicated to identify common nouns
that refer or describe named entities; for example, father and
artist could be tagged with the Person-Description type.
We applied this entity extractor on an XMLised Wikipedia
collection constructed by the 2006 INEX XML retrieval eval-
uation initiative [3] (625,405 Wikipedia entries). This iden-
tified 28 million occurrences of 5,5 million unique entities. A
special retieval index was then created containing both the
text and the identified entities. The overall processing time
was approximately one week on a single PC. This tagged
collection has been made available [7]; more detailed infor-
mation about its construction and content can be found at
this reference.
The evaluation framework for the task was set up as fol-
lows. First, the user chose a query on a topic that the user
Table 1: Example queries and entity judgedments (see text for discussion).
Query “Yahoo! Search Engine”
Most Important Entities Yahoo, Google, MSN, Inktomi,
Important Entities
Web, crawler, 2004, AltaVista, 2002,, Jeeves, TrustRank, WebCrawler, Search Engine
Placement, more than 20 billion Web, eBay, Worl WIde Web, BT OpenWorld, between 1997 and 1999,
Stanford University and Yahoo, AOL, Kelkoo, Konfabulator, AlltheWeb, Excite.
Related Entities users, Firefox, Teoma, LookSmart, Widget, companies, company, Dogpile, user, Searchen Networks,
MetaCrawler, Fitzmas, Hotbot, ...
Query “Budapest”
Most Important Entities Budapest, Hungary, Hungarian, city, Greater Budapest, capital, Danube, Budapesti K¨
dom´anyi ´es ´
Allamigazgat´asi Egyetem, M3 Line, Pest county.
Important Entities
University of Budapest, Austria, town, Budapest Metro, Soviet, 1956, Ferenc Joachim, Karl Marx
University of Economic Sciences, Budapest University of Economic Sciences, E¨
os Lor´and University
of Budapest, Technical University of Budapest, 1895, February 13, Budapest Stock Exchange, Kispest,
Related Entities
Paris, Vienna, German, Prague, London, Munich, Collegium Budapest, government, Jewish, Nazi,
1950, Debrecen, 1977, M3, center, Tokyo, World War II, New York, Zagreb, Leipzig, population,
residences, state, cementery, Serbian, Novi Sad, 1949, Szeged, Turin, Graz, 6-3, Medgyessy, ...
Query “Tutankhamun curse”
Most Important Entities Tutankhamun, Carnarvon, mummies, Boy Pharaoh, The Curse, archaeologist, Howard Carter, 1922.
Important Entities Pharaohs, King Tutankhamun.
Related Entities Valley, KV62, Curse of Tutankhamun, Curse, King, Mummy’s Curse, ...
knew well and that was covered in Wikipedia. Then the
system ran this query against a standard passage retrieval
algorithm, that retrieved the 500 most relevant passages and
collected all the entities which appeared in them. This is
the candidate entity set which needs to be ranked by the
different algorithms. Finally, the entities were ranked using
our baseline entity ranking algorithm (discussed later) and
given to the user to evaluate. The possible judge assess-
ments were: Most Important,Important,Related,Unrelated,
or Don’t know. The user was asked to rank all entries if
possible, and at least the first fifty. Besides the judgment
labels, users were not given any specific training nor were
they given examples queries or judgments. 10 judges were
recruited and each judged from 3 to 10 queries, coming to a
total of 50 judged queries.
Some resulting queries and judgments are given in Table 1;
with these examples we want to stress the difficulty and sub-
jectivity of the evaluation task. Indeed we realize that our
task evaluation is quite na¨
ıve and may suffer from a number
of problems which we wish to address in future evaluations.
However, this initial evaluation allowed us to start studying
some of the properties of this task, and to compare (however
roughly) several ideas and approaches.
First, we will introduce some notation. Let a retrieved pas-
sage be the tuple (pID, s) where pID is the unique ID of
the passage and sis the retrieval score of the passage for
the given query. Call Pqthe set formed by the Khighest
scored retrieved passages with respect to the query q(in our
case K=500). Let an entity be the tuple (v,t) where vis its
string value (e.g. ’Einstein’) and tis its type (e.g. Person ).
Call Cthe set of all entities in the collection and Cqthe set
of all entities occurring in Pq.
The baseline model we consider is to use a passage retrieval
algorithm and score an entity by the maximum score sof
the passages pID in which the entity appears in Pq. This
is referred to as MaxScore in Table 2. We report a num-
ber of evaluation measures. P@K, MAP and MRR denote
precision at K, mean average precision and mean reciprocal
rank respectively; these measures were computed by bina-
rising the judgments into relevant (for Most Important and
Important labels) and irrelevant (for the rest). DCG is the
discounted cumulative gain function; we used gains 10, 3, 1
and 0 respectively for the Most Important to Unrelated la-
bels, and the discount function used was log(r+1). NDCG
is the normalized DCG.
3.1 Entity Containment Graph Methods
The first set of algorithms are based on the “entity contain-
ment” graph. This graph is constructed connecting every
passage in Pqto every entity in Cqwhich is contained in the
passage. This forms a bipartite graph in which the degree of
an entity equals its passage frequency in passages Pq. Fig-
ure 1 shows two of the entity-containment graph obtained
for the query ’Life of Pablo Picasso’.
Once this graph is constructed we can use different graph
centrality measures to rank entities in the graph. The most
basic one is the degree. This method (noted Degree in Table
2) alone yields a 47% relative increase in MAP and 22% in
NDCG. This is clear indication that the entity containment
Figure 1: Entity containment graphs for the query
“Life of Pablo Picasso”.
(a) Small Graph Detail (3 relevant sentences only):
(b) Full Entity Containment Graph
graph can be a useful representation of entity relevance. We
experimented with higher order centrality measures such as
finite stochastic walks or PageRank but the performance was
similar or worse than that of degree.
We observed that degree-dependent methods are biased by
very general entities (such as descriptions, country names,
etc.) which are not interesting but have high frequency. To
improve on this, we experimented with two different meth-
ods. An ad-hoc method consists in removing the description
types which are the most generic and would seem to be a
priori the less informative. However, doing this did not lead
to improved results (models noted F- in Table 2). Further-
more, this solution would not be applicable in practice since
we may not always know which are the less informative types
of a corpus. An alternative method considered was to weight
the degree of an entity by its inverse entity frequency:
ief := log(N/ne),
where Nis the total number of sentences and nethe number
containing the entity e. This improved the results further,
leading to a 76% relative increase over the baseline in MAP
and 31% in NDCG.
We also tried to improve results by weighting the entity de-
gree computation with the sentence relevance scores. This
approach (noted W- in Table 2) did not improve the results,
despite trying several forms of score normalization.
3.2 Web Search based Methods
For computing the relevance of entities to a given query,
we do not need to be constrained to the text of Wikipedia:
to compute entity relevance, we can rely on the Web as a
noisier, but much larger scale corpus. Based on this ob-
servation, we have experimented with ranking entities by
computing their correlation to the query phrase on the Web
using correlation measures well-known in text mining [6].
This technique has been successfully applied in the past, for
example to the problem of social network mining from the
Web [4, 5].
The difference here is that we are only interested in the
correlations between the query and the set of related entities,
while in co-occurrence analysis one typically computes the
correlations between all possible pairs of entities to create a
co-occurrence graph of entities. Query-to-entity correlation
measures can be easily computed using search engines by
observing the page counts returned for the entity, query and
their conjunction.
We found that of the common measures we tested (Jaccard-
coefficient, Simpson-coefficient and Google distance), the
Jaccard-coefficient clearly produced the best results (see Web
Jaccard in Table 2). It resulted in practice that we obtain
the best results from the search engine when quoting the
query string, but not the entity label. This can be explained
by the fact that queries are typically correct expressions,
while the entity tagger often makes mistakes in determining
the boundaries of entities. Enforcing these incorrect bound-
aries results in a decrease in performance.
The improvement obtained over the baseline (32% relative
in MAP and 6% in NDCG) is however not as good as that
obtained from the entity containment graph. One of the rea-
sons may be that, for some queries, the quality of the results
obtained from searching the Web may be inferior to that
obtained retrieving Wikipedia passages. For such queries,
results obtained after a certain rank are not relevant and
therefore bias the correlation measures. To alleviate this,
we experimented with a novel measure based on the idea of
discounting the importance of documents as their rank in-
creases. Simple versions of this did not lead to an increase
in performance. One of the main problems is that different
queries and entities result in result sets of varying quality
and size. This lead us to try slightly more sophisticated
In order not to penalize documents with lots of relevant re-
sults, instead of using the ranks directly we used a notion
of average precision where the relevant documents are those
returned both by the query and the entity. The method is
illustrated in Figure 2. We compare the set of top Kdoc-
uments returned by the query (thought of as relevant) with
the ranked list of results returned for a particular entity.
Next, we determine which of the documents returned for the
entity are in the relevant set and compute the their average
precision. Computing such an average precision has the ad-
vantage of almost eliminating the effect of K, which should
depend on the query. Indeed, this method greatly improves
the result over the Jaccard and baseline methods (see Web
RankDiscounted in Table 2). This method has achieved a
performance that is on par with degree-based methods that
take ief into account. Nevertheless, we still require the en-
tity extraction and passage retrieval steps to produce the set
of candidate entities.
We have taken the first steps towards studying the problem
Table 2: Performance of the different models (best two in bold).
MaxScore 0.34 0.37 0.28 0.64 67.91 0.64
MaxScore(1 + ief) 0.40 0.39 0.29 0.66 69.92 0.68 6%
Degree 0.50 0.54 0.37 0.96 79.69 0.78 22%
F-Degree 0.50 0.52 0.39 0.95 79.23 0.79 22%
Degree ·ief 0.60 0.63 0.451 0.98 83.89 0.84 31%
F-Degree ·ief 0.57 0.60 0.44 0.98 82.59 0.82 28%
W-Degree 0.48 0.51 0.38 0.92 79.11 0.76 21%
W-Degree ·ief 0.54 0.63 0.42 0.94 82.68 0.81 28%
Web RankDiscounted 0.62 0.65 0.50 0.95 86.34 0.83 30%
Web Jaccard 0.45 0.50 0.340 0.75 78.27 0.71 10%
of ad-hoc entity ranking in the presence of a large set of
heterogeneous entities. We have constructed a realistic test-
bed to carry out evaluation of entity ranking models, and
we have provided some initial directions of research. With
respect to entity containment graphs our results show that
it is important to take into account the notion of inverted
entity frequency to discount general types. With respect to
Web methods we showed that taking into account the rank of
the documents in the computation of correlations can yield
significant improvements in performance.
Web methods are complementary to graph methods and
could be combined in a number of ways. For example, corre-
lation measures can be used to compute correlation-graphs
among the entities; these graphs could replace the entity
containment graphs discussed above. Furthermore ief could
be combined with Web measures. Or we could define a ief
that depends on Web information. Furthermore, it may be
possible to select the candidate set of entities directly from
the search results (or even just the snippets) obtained from a
Web search engine. This would eliminate the need of offline
pre-processing collections. We plan to explore these issues
in the future.
Nevertheless, it is necessary to increase the quality of the
evaluation in order to further quantify the benefits of the
different methods. To this end, we have released to the
public the corpus used in this study and we plan to design
and carry our more thorough evaluations.
For entity extraction, we used the open source SuperSense
Tagger (
For indexing and retrieval, we used the IXE retrieval library
(, kindly made avail-
able to us by Tiscali.
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Street names provide important insights into the local culture, history, and politics of places. Linked open data provide a wealth of knowledge that can be associated with street names, enabling novel ways to explore cultural geographies. This paper presents a three-fold contribution. We present (1) a technique to establish a correspondence between street names and the entities that they refer to. The method is based on Wikidata, a knowledge base derived from Wikipedia. The accuracy of this mapping is evaluated on a sample of streets in Rome. As this approach reaches limited coverage, we propose to tap local knowledge with (2) a simple web platform. Users can select the best correspondence from the calculated ones or add another entity not discovered by the automated process. As a result, we design (3) an enriched OpenStreetMap web map where each street name can be explored in terms of the properties of its associated entity. Through several filters, this tool is a first step towards the interactive exploration of toponymy, showing how open data can reveal facets of the cultural texture that pervades places.
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Social networks are important for the Semantic Web. Several means can be used to obtain social networks: using social networking services, aggregating Friend- of-a-Friend (FOAF) documents, mining text informa- tion on the Web or in e-mail messages, and observing face-to-face communication using sensors. Integrating multiple social networks is a key issue for further uti- lization of social networks in the Semantic Web. This paper describes our attempt to extract, analyze and in- tegrate multiple social networks from the same commu- nity: user-registered knows networks, web-mined col- laborator networks, and face-to-face meets networks. We operated a social network-based community support system called Polyphonet at the 17th, 18th and 19th An- nual Conferences of the Japan Society of Artificial In- telligence (JSAI2003, JSAI2004, and JSAI2005) and at The International Conference on Ubiquitous Comput- ing (UbiComp 2005). Multiple social networks were obtained and analyzed. We discuss the integration of multiple networks based on the analyses.
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We introduce a new, powerful class of text proximity queries: find an instance of a given "answer type" (person, place, distance) near "selector" tokens matching given literals or satisfying given ground predicates. An example query is type=distance NEAR Hamburg Munich. Nearness is defined as a flexible, trainable parameterized aggregation function of the selectors, their frequency in the corpus, and their dis- tance from the candidate answer. Such queries provide a key data reduction step for information extraction, data in- tegration, question answering, and other text-processing ap- plications. We describe the architecture of a next-generation information retrieval engine for such applications, and inves- tigate two key technical problems faced in building it. First, we propose a new algorithm that estimates a scoring func- tion from past logs of queries and answer spans. Plugging the scoring function into the query processor gives high ac- curacy: typically, an answer is found at rank 2-4. Second, we exploit the skew in the distribution over types seen in query logs to optimize the space required by the new index structures required by our system. Extensive performance studies with a 10GB, 2-million document TREC corpus and several hundred TREC queries show both the accuracy and the eciency of our system. From an initial 4.3GB index using 18,000 types from WordNet, we can discard 88% of the space, while inflating query times by a factor of only 1.9. Our final index overhead is only 20% of the total index space needed.
This study evaluated the use of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein (rhBMP-2) with various types of carrier media, and the effect of rhBMP-2 as an adjunct to autogenous iliac crest bone graft in the canine spinal fusion model. BMP induces mesenchymal cells to differentiate into cartilage and bone. The recent availability of rhBMP-2 has created the opportunity to evaluate this material's properties in augmenting autogenous bone graft in spinal fusion. Currently, the most appropriate type of carrier media for rhBMP-2 is undetermined. Bilateral inter-transverse spinal fusions were performed on six canine lumbar spines at L1-L2, L3-L4, and L5-L6, using autogenous posterior iliac crest bone graft at each level, creating a total of 18 segmental fusion sites. All 18 sites were then randomly assigned to one of six fusion methods: autogenous bone graft (ABG) alone, ABG + rhBMP-2, ABG + collagen (Helistat) "sandwich" + rhBMP-2, ABG + collagen (Helistat) morsels + rhBMP-2, ABG + polylactic/glycolic acid sponge (PLGA) sandwich + rhBMP-2, and ABG + open-pore polylactic acid morsels + rhBMP-2. Each material was evaluated for ease of handling and application at the index surgery. The animals underwent computed tomography (CT) scanning of the lumbar fusion sites after 8 weeks. Volumetric measurements of total fusion mass at each level were performed using two-dimensional CT scan slices and a volumetric program supplied by the Siemens Medical System. The animals were killed after imaging studies. The lumbar spine fusion sites were evaluated for integrity of the fusion mass, both visually and with manual mechanical stressing. Crossover of the fusion mass to adjoining levels was also evaluated. Histologic evaluation of all fusion sites was performed. The addition of rhBMP-2 significantly increased bone graft volume as noted on CT scan. Carrier that could be mixed with morselized bone graft offered easier handling and application and all spine segments fused. Polylactic/glycolic acid (PLGA) sites were associated with a greater incidence of voids within the fusion mass. No significant difference in carrier media for rhBMP-2 could be determined. However, PLGA was associated with a higher rate of fusion mass void formation. rhBMP-2, when added to autograft, significantly increased the volume and the maturity of the resulting fusion mass. (C) Lippincott-Raven Publishers.
Immunohistochemical study of expression and localization of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2/4 and type I and II receptors on intervertebral disc. To determine the biologic functions of BMPs and their receptors in the process of degeneration of the intervertebral disc. Biologic and pathologic processes in the cell during the degeneration of the intervertebral disc are as yet poorly understood. The cervical spines of 15 male senescence-accelerated mice aged 8, 24, or 50 weeks were used for histologic and immunohistochemical examination of BMP-2/4 and BMP receptors IA, IB, and II. Immunostaining was performed with the avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex method. Degenerative change was recognized within intervertebral discs of senescence-accelerated mice aged 50 weeks. BMP-2/4 and its receptors were abundant in hyaline cartilaginous cells within the endplate of the vertebrae at 8 and 24 weeks of age. However, the expression of BMP-2/4 and its receptors moved from the hyaline cartilage of the endplate of the vertebrae to fibrous cells within the anulus and to the calcified cartilage at the site of enthesis of mice aged 50 weeks. BMP-2/4 and its receptors may play roles in degenerative change of intervertebral disc.
An economic model was developed to compare costs of stand-alone anterior lumbar interbody fusion with recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 on an absorbable collagen sponge versus autogenous iliac crest bone graft in a tapered cylindrical cage or a threaded cortical bone dowel. The economic model was developed from clinical trial data, peer-reviewed literature, and clinical expert opinion. The upfront price of bone morphogenetic protein (3380 dollars) is likely to be offset to a significant extent by reductions in the use of other medical resources, particularly if costs incurred during the 2 year period following the index hospitalization are taken into account.
The possibility that the non-osteogenic mouse pluripotent cell line, C3H10T1/2 (10T1/2), could be induced to differentiate into osteogenic cells by various hormones and cytokines was examined in vitro. Of a number of agents tested, recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) and retinoic acid induced alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in 1OT1/2 cells. rhBMP-2 also induced mRNA expression of ALP in the cells. Dexamethasone, 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, transforming growth factor-β1 and insulin-like growth factor-I did not stimulate ALP activity. Treatment with rhBMP-2 greatly induced cAMP production in response to parathyroid hormone in IOT1/2 cells. No ALP activity was induced in NIH3T3 fibroblasts treated with rhBMP-2 or retinoic acid. These results indicate that 10T1/2 cells have a potential to differentiate into osteogenic cells under the control of BMP-2.
Osteogenic protein-1 (OP-1 or BMP-7) stimulates new bone formation in vivo and induces cell proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts in vitro. In the present study, we examined effects of OP-1 on the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in primary cultures of fetal rat calvaria (FRC) cells. OP-1 increased the steady-state level of VEGF mRNA by about 3-fold in an OP-1 concentration- and time-dependent manner. The increase in VEGF mRNA level depended on transcription and was sensitive to cell replication. The VEGF mRNA stability was unaffected. The mRNA levels for both types of VEGF receptors, Flk-1 and Flt-1 were low but detectable in FRC cells by RT-PCR and were not changed by OP-1. Inhibition of VEGF synthesis and function by antisense oligonucleotide and by suramin, respectively arrested the OP-1-induced alkaline phosphatase activity and mineralized bone nodule formation. Together with published studies of VEGF on vascular endothelial cells which are usually found in close proximity to osteoblastic cells in vivo, these results suggest that VEGF participates in the OP-1-induced osteogenesis by taking part in bone cell differentiation and by promoting angiogenesis at the site of bone formation.
We present the Flink system for the extraction, aggregation and visualization of online social networks. Flink employs semantic technology for reasoning with personal information extracted from a number of electronic information sources including web pages, emails, publication archives and FOAF profiles. The acquired knowledge is used for the purposes of social network analysis and for generating a web-based presentation of the community. We demonstrate our novel method to social science based on electronic data using the example of the Semantic Web research community.
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Abstract— Expert finding system,is a challenging,problem,in the enterprise environment.,This paper,introduce,our research and experiments,on TREC 2006’s expert searching,track. In our experiments, we find some interesting features of the community structures in the mailing,list network. We also use some,link analysis approaches,to rank the candidates in the social networks. In our experiments, we choose the PageRank algorithm and a,revised,HITS algorithm,as link analysis,methods.,These approaches,give reasonable,results in our experiments.