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Introducing a Public Agency Networking Platform towards Supporting Connected Governance


Abstract and Figures

Connected governance constitutes the current trend regarding the provision of electronic governmental services. In the connected governance paradigm, public agencies share objectives across organizational boundaries, as opposed to working solely supporting autonomous portals in the e-government era. The establishment of connected governance poses new requirements, such as cross-organizational connectivity as well as back-office to front-office integration. Towards supporting this concept, we propose a Public Agency Networking Platform (PANP) facilitating personalized cross-organizational services, based on the concept of life events which represent human situations that trigger public services. The key feature of the platform is the simplification of the process execution workflow, as life events are accomplished through a user orchestrated process combining the functionality of discrete public agency applications. Emphasis has been laid on the citizen data protection by adopting a profile mechanism that enables the citizen to administer his/her own data loaded in his/her profile.
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Introducing a Public Agency Networking Platform towards
supporting Connected Governance
Alexandros Dais, Mara Nikolaidou, Nancy Alexopoulou,
Dimosthenis Anagnostopoulos
Harokopio University of Athens, Department of Informatics and Telematics,
El. Venizelou 70, 17671, Athens
{adais, mara, nancy, dimosthe}
Abstract. Connected governance constitutes the current trend regarding the
provision of electronic governmental services. In the connected governance
paradigm, public agencies share objectives across organizational boundaries, as
opposed to working solely supporting autonomous portals in the e-government era.
The establishment of connected governance poses new requirements, such as cross-
organizational connectivity as well as back-office to front-office integration.
Towards supporting this concept, we propose a Public Agency Networking
Platform (PANP) facilitating personalized cross-organizational services, based on
the concept of life events which represent human situations that trigger public
services. The key feature of the platform is the simplification of the process
execution workflow, as life events are accomplished through a user orchestrated
process combining the functionality of discrete public agency applications.
Emphasis has been laid on the citizen data protection by adopting a profile
mechanism that enables the citizen to administer his/her own data loaded in his/her
Keywords: Connected Governance, Cross-organizational Services, Personalization,
Citizen Profile, Life Events, Governmental Portal, Privacy
1 Introduction
E-government should significantly contribute to government transformation process
towards a leaner, more cost effective government. In particular, personalized electronic
government services are supposed to give public organizations tremendous possibilities
for their e-government strategies [1]. Fully personalized e-government portals, for
example, should provide citizens with exactly those services they need, increasing citizen
satisfaction levels, making communication between governments and citizens more
effective and efficient while reducing bureaucracy. In a move towards efficiency many
countries are in the process of integrating e-government policies and strategies. The
concept of “connected governance” serves towards this direction. Derived from the
whole-of-government approach [1], it aims at improving cooperation between public
agencies as well as deepening consultation and engagement with citizens. Behind the
concept of connected governance is a systematic approach to collect, reuse and share data
and information [1]. For this concept to be accomplished, numerous e-government
interoperability frameworks have been proposed in different countries, such as UK e-
Government Interoperability Framework [2] and NZ e-Government Interoperability
Framework [3].
The existence of a “central portal” acting as a “single access point” for all services,
either cross-organizational or not, is essential for the establishment of the connected
governance paradigm. The way existing services, provided by independent public
agencies, are integrated and coordinated to fulfil citizen requests is also an important
issue. To this end, an approach has been proposed on the concept of “active life event
portal” ([4], [5], [6]). Life events constitute a grouping mechanism of public e-services
according to citizen needs. In particular, each life event corresponds to a workflow
composed by existing e-services. In such a case, a number of issues mainly related to
legal or governance-based obstacles may arise. Such issues mainly concern the transfer
and processing of the citizens’ data among different public agencies and the way the
cross-organizational processes are orchestrated and by whom. Towards this direction, this
paper proposes an alternative approach supporting personalized cross-organizational
services, while focusing on citizens’ awareness and acceptance over the overall workflow
corresponding to a life event. Our approach is based on a platform accommodating
personalized information produced by public agencies with the explicit consent of the
citizen. This constitutes an alternative implementation for personalization in the context
of e-government that ensures authorized usage of citizen data.
The proposed platform resembles a “virtual representative” for citizens using a profile
mechanism. The platform utilizes the life events concept as described in numerous public
sector portals ([7], [8]). Furthermore, it facilitates the maintenance of private citizen’s
folders containing all citizen-related data used during service request processing. The
profile interacts with the public agencies through the Public Agency Networking Platform
(PANP), described in the paper. The platform should not be conceived merely as a way to
facilitate the implementation public e-service portals, but rather as an alternative way of
electronic interaction among citizens and public agencies. Hopefully, the platform could
contribute to the vision of the connected governance and the creation of a public agency
networking system.
This paper is organised as follows: Section 2 provides some background information
regarding the transition from e-government to connected governance. Section 3 explains
how connected governance can be supported. The functionality and architecture of the
suggested Public Agency Networking Platform is presented in section 4, while section 5
discusses an example to illustrate citizen-government interaction through PANP.
Conclusions and future work reside in section 6.
2 Background – From E-Government to Connected Governance
The term e-government or simple “e-gov” concerns the use of information and
communication technologies (ICTs) to improve the activities of public sector
organisations, focusing on services provided electronically (that is via the WWW) to the
public. There are three main objectives of e-government: a) improving government
processes, b) connecting citizens and c) enabling seamless external interactions between
Public Agencies (PAs) at different levels (for example local, federal, European). Access
to supported e-services is provided through e-government portals, either supporting an
individual public agency or more commonly acting as a “single access point” for all e-
services provided at local or federal level, such as DirectGov portal [9] or SIMPLEX
program [10].
DirectEGov is the e-gov portal of the UK public sector. It is considered as one of the
most sophisticated e-gov portals in Europe [1] in terms of integration. It provides “public
services in one place”. It usually redirects the user to the site of the governmental agency
in charge where an on-line form provides the necessary information. The SIMPLEX
program is a transversal instrument that groups and assembles simplification initiatives
with significant impacts in terms of improving the quality of the relationship between the
Public Administration, citizens and businesses in Portugal [10]. One of the key projects
of SIMPLEX program is the Citizens Portal. It aggregates many e-services from different
public agencies and facilitates their grouping and easy access.
The phrase “e-government” has been related to a continuous effort for public sector
modernization since the 90's, but nowadays it is losing its appeal as a slogan or concept.
As reported by the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)
[11], “e-government initiatives in recent years are focusing on issues, such as how to
collaborate more effectively across agencies to address complex intra-government
problems and how to enhance public satisfaction and increase e-service usage”. Public
agencies have traditionally been compartmentalised. As governments are realizing that
continued expansion in e-services is not possible without some kind of integration
between individual public agency information systems, the increasing importance of
cross-organizational coherence has clearly shifted the focus towards managing,
integrating and coordinating government e-services [1]. Whereas the phrase “e-
government” stipulates the need for developing e-services, the concept of “connected
governance” [1] indicates the provision of e-services at the front-end supported by
integration, consolidation and innovation of cross-organisational government processes at
the back-end to improve service delivery. The distinguishing characteristic of connected
governance is that public agencies share objectives across organizational boundaries, as
opposed to working solely supporting autonomous portals in the e-government era.
3 Supporting the concept of Connected Governance
Connected governance is built upon the concept of interoperability, that is the ability of
public agencies to share and integrate information using common standards [1]. The key
features of connected governance are successful service innovation and multi-channel
service delivery. Service integration depends on strategies, policies and architectures that
allow data, IT systems, business processes and delivery channels to interoperate. If
delivery channels and back-office processes are integrated, different service delivery
channels can complement each other, improving the quality of both services and the
delivery to government and citizens simultaneously [12].
As already mentioned, the establishment of connected governance presupposes the
existence of a central portal acting as a single access point for all services, either cross-
organizational or not. Existing services provided by independent public agencies should
be integrated and coordinated in a seamless manner in order to fulfil citizen requests.
Fulfilling citizens’ requests implies that their needs have been effectively identified.
However, government authorities have their own view of the world providing public e-
services either through the central portal or alternative delivery channels. Most existing e-
gov portals, as DirectEGov, group provided services based on areas of interest, to
facilitate the citizen identifying the services that he/she should use to satisfy a particular
need. An alternative approach, as stated earlier, is based on life events. A life event is
defined as “a situation of a human being that triggers public services” [6], such as “fill an
employment application” or “getting married”. In both cases, the citizen should initiate
the corresponding services, which may be executed in the relative public agency
individual site, as in the case of DirectEGov portal [9].
The active life event portal approach ([4], [5], [6]) facilitates the representation of life
events as workflows composed by pre-existing e-services. In such a case, the citizen
initiates a predefined workflow instance, corresponding to the life event describing
his/her situation, e.g. “fill an employment application”. Such an approach promotes the
concept of connected governance. Numerous ongoing research efforts focus on the way
individual services are composed to workflows triggered by life events. Some of the
current EU projects towards this direction are:
Advanced eGovernment Information Service Bus (eGov-Bus) project (www.egov- According to project synopsis, the eGov-Bus is a dynamically adaptable
information system supporting life events experienced by the citizen or business serviced
by European government organizations. Governmental portals are transformed into
virtual agencies, which cluster functions related to the customer’s everyday life,
regardless of the responsible agency or branch of Government. Life event workflows are
defined by the Workflow Process Description Generator (WPDG) based on the domain
ontology pertaining to a life event class presented to the system by a citizen. Existing
natural language technologies will be integrated into the WPDG environment, both
supporting the full text categorisation facility as well as providing the speech
recognition/generation functions.
SemanticGov project ( SemanticGov project utilizes Service
Oriented Architectures paradigm and Semantic Web Services technology to
automatically compose life events on the basis of public service descriptions that are
given in Web Service Modelling Language (WSML). The architecture proposed by
SemanticGov is based on the Pan-European E-Government Services (PEGS) [4] and uses
concepts and technologies related to Web Service Modelling Ontology. The PEGS
infrastructure includes the service requestor, the front-office application, the application
layer and service providers. The application layer includes such modules as Service
Discovery, Service Composition, Data mediation, and Process Mediation [5].
OneStopGov project ( The project aims at specifying,
developing and evaluating an active life-event oriented, integrated, interoperable single
sign-on platform for online one-stop government. This platform is accompanied by a
coherent framework for realising and exploiting online one-stop government at all levels.
Active life events are modelled in Business Process Modelling Notation (BPMN). Their
definitions are expressed in Business Process Execution Language for Web Services
(BPEL4WS). The public services are specified in Web Service Description Language
(WSDL) and handled by a Universal Data Description Interface (UDDI) [6].
The main goal of the above projects is to facilitate government service delivery to
citizens in an automated and seamless fashion. The citizen has a “black box” view of
each life event, since he/she is informed about the outcome without having any notion of
individual workflow steps. Thus, a number of issues mainly related to legal or
governance-based obstacles may arise concerning the transfer and processing of the
citizens’ data among different public agencies and the way the cross-organizational
processes are orchestrated and by whom. Legal obstacles refer to collecting and storing
data on user characteristics. In many countries, the transfer and processing of citizen’s
data between different agencies of the public sector is prohibited by the legislation, thus
making cross-organizational cooperation unfeasible, even though such effort is
technologically safe. Governance-based obstacles relate to the question “what
department, administration, ministry, and ministers are responsible for what?” [13]. This
question is particularly relevant when implementing cross-organizational services that
combine several processes of different public agencies. Where should each service be
executed? Who is responsible for the citizen’s data exchanged between public agencies?
To overcome such difficulties, we propose that the citizen should obtain a “white box”
view of the services provided to him/her through the central portal. That is, the citizen
should be able to monitor individual steps of the workflow triggered by each life event,
give his/her consent before initiating each individual service offered by different agencies
and be actively involved in where, how and for how long individual data will be stored
while his/her request is being processed. Such an approach may increase citizen’s trust to
the provided services [14].
An additional aspect of connected governance is the enhancement of public
satisfaction and increase of e-service usage. A way to augment citizen satisfaction from
government services is the provision of personalization capabilities. The objective of a
web personalization system is to “provide users with the information they want or need
without expecting from them to ask for it explicitly” [15]. To achieve these objectives,
web personalization process usually consists of (a) the collection and pre-processing of
Web data, including content, structure, usage and user profile data, (b) the analysis and
discovery of correlations between such data, and (c) the determination of the
recommendation methods for hyperlinks, queries, products and user interface [16]. The
means to analyse the Web data include demographic filtering, collaborative filtering,
content -based filtering, case-based reasoning, rule-based filtering, Web mining and some
hybrid approaches [17]. The main idea behind these algorithms is to compare the
navigational behaviour of an active user with previous users in order to cluster similar
users and detect user patterns.
Personalization, in the context of the connected governance paradigm should be
revised. The user profile should provide personalized dynamic information about the
public agencies in question with the explicit consent of the user. None of the information
that the profile contains should be shared with the recommendation engine for the
necessary statistical reasoning, even thought this could be done anonymously. This
notion is a way to prohibit the privacy violation and enhance the trust between the
platform and the citizen. Furthermore is compliant with the Directive 1995/46/EC on
Data Protection (section VIII) and the Directive 2006/24/EC on Data Retention (Article
7). The citizens, through their profiles, should feel that they are the exclusive
administrators of the information that is loaded into the profile. However, as discussed in
[13] and [18], there are obstacles towards the personalization of electronic services
provided by the public sector. These obstacles concern both the citizen and public
agencies and are analytically discussed in [13]. Some of the most important ones
concerning the citizen are: a) access mechanism of services, b) control the user has over
the whole process, c) privacy of sensitive user data, d) trust and e) acceptance of the
delivery channels and the back-end processes. Some of the most important ones
concerning public agencies relate to legal, process-based, financial, governance-based
and technical issues. Building a connected governance platform overcoming most of the
identified obstacles should lead to a more personalised citizen view of electronic services
offered, which would consequently enhance public satisfaction and increase e-service
4 Public Agency Networking Platform
The aim of our effort is to suggest an alternative approach for connected governance
focusing on personalization and citizen acceptance issues. Thus, a “white box” view of
the provided services is adopted. To this end, we propose an integration platform, named
Public Agency Networking Platform (PANP), ensuring a single sign-on access to cross-
organizational services in a personalized fashion based on life events. Cross-
organizational life events are accomplished through the citizens’ active involvement, thus
enhancing citizens’ trust in the platform. Another key feature of the platform is the
modular design which enables the use of the platform in every administrative level (local,
federal, European). In the following, PANP proposed functionality is analytically
Through PANP, citizens are able to create a profile and progressively arrange his/her
private space included in the profile by integrating applications specifically implemented
for this purpose by public agencies. Public Agency applications can be considered as the
main execution component of the platform and are executed within PANP. They act as
gateways between the citizens and the public agencies. They can be installed and
uninstalled in the citizens’ profile, with his/her consent, in a modular fashion. The profile
can be considered as a private virtual folder where citizens’ data from the government
agencies can be stored either permanently or temporarily, e.g. during a life event
processing. Special effort has been made so as the platform to be compliant with the
Directive 1995/46/EC on Data Protection (section VIII), the Directive 2006/24/EC on
Data Retention (Article 7) and the Directive 2002/58/EC on Privacy and Electronic
Communications. In the conceptual level, the owner of the profile and the data it contains
is the citizen himself. In the physical level, the platform should be hosted by a commonly
accepted and independent authority, constitutionally and legislatively responsible for the
protection of citizens’ personal data. Additionally, it is up to the citizen to define whether
his/her sensitive data will be permanently stored within the platform or be acquired in
real time from the public agencies, upon citizens’ log-in, and stored in a temporal session.
Citizens have full control on all the data and applications stored or used in their
profile. In that sense, the accomplishment of a life event is user-orchestrated. To
accomplish a specific life event, one or more public agency applications may need to be
integrated in the profile. The communication between them is accomplished by the
information they obtain or store within the profile. Thus, each public agency application
has no notion of the existence of others, while the workflow corresponding to a single life
event is formulated based on data exchange performed within the profile, fully controlled
by the citizen. A recommendation mechanism assists citizens to identify the proper
applications needed to accomplish a specific life event. Citizens can be authenticated by a
central authentication mechanism in PANP. However, user authentication may be
independently performed for a specific application either via standard login/password
fashion or using electronic signature stored in a certificate, if additional security is needed
by the corresponding public agency.
It is worth mentioning that cross organizational interoperability is achieved through
the user profile that acts as a “meeting point” or a “point of interaction” for the public
agencies to interact. A profile mechanism as such, can replace the government-to-
government interaction with multiple government-to-citizen interactions. The platform
should provide the necessary tools so that the applications can be integrated and
consequently seamlessly present the information to the citizen. This can involve news
feeds, notifications and alerts.
The platform provides two main interfaces, one for citizens and one for public agencies.
PANP interacts with citizens using profiles, while public agencies interact with it using
the Public Agency Application Discovery and Integration (PAADI) registry. Profiles are
created based on the Profile Management mechanism. Profile management updates the
citizens’ profiles based on the public agency applications they have installed. In a similar
fashion, PAADI is administered by the PAADI Management module, which is
responsible for ensuring public agency applications authentication and availability. Alerts
and Feeds Mechanism supply the profile with the public agencies’ news feeds. Public
agencies news feeds, also available through PAADI, can be considered as a personalized
way of communicating with the citizens. They include information such as notifications
about the tax filling or the payment of a public fee. Alerts are urgent notifications. The
Recommendation Mechanism is a part of the personalization features provided by the
platform. This module assists the citizen to arrange his/her profile, for example install the
necessary applications to accomplish a life event. Upon removal of an application, this
module will notify the citizen for the possible implications on the execution of the
depended applications. The recommendation mechanism uses semantic tags to identify
the related piece of information for a specific task and consequently proposes the
applications to be added.
All the modules mentioned before are based on a platform-specific API and PANP
ML. The proposed API should utilize web services of government agencies,
corresponding to applications registered in PAADI. It should act as a gateway between
custom agency web services and the platform. The main concern in API implementation
focuses on confidentiality, data integrity, and availability of information. While
confidentiality deals with the unintentional disclosure of information outside the
authorized parameters, data integrity assures the trustworthiness of the information, and
availability ensures that the information is made available to requesting authenticated
clients. The mark-up language (PANP ML) should contain the required tags to implement
citizen’s profile. Thus, it should contain presentation and semantic tags facilitating
citizen-related data presentation and exchange between public agency applications. The
implementation of the PANP ML is still an open issue as many requirements should be
fulfilled concerning the way the information is extracted and retrieved from the user’s
profile data and the way the processed data is represented to the user. It should also be
extendable. The framework is supported by proper Authentication, Data Integrity,
Availability and Authentication mechanisms. An overall view of the proposed framework
is presented in figure 1.
Communication between the citizen and the PANP may be done using HTTPs/SSL
mechanisms. After registering for the first time, the citizen is asked to ensure the validity
of some personal information that is preloaded by the corresponding agencies, for
example social security number. He/she is also asked to change the initial password to a
new sophisticated one. Then, the citizen may search for a public agency application in the
PAADI. The applications have been implemented by the IT sector of the agencies using
PANP ML and the platform API. Before the application is installed in the user profile, it
requires the user consent to use the profile data. This is crucial to enforce citizen’s data
and privacy protection acts. Citizens may add as many applications as possible, thus
initiating multiple connections with the public agencies. In order to accomplish a life
event, the citizen orchestrates the relative applications already installed in his/her profile.
We believe that this approach will simplify the complex process execution mechanisms
proposed in the related projects and will enhance the citizens’ trust to the platform.
Fig. 1. Public Agency Networking Platform
The anticipated benefits will affect both citizens and public agencies. From the citizen
point of view, the benefits, compared to other approaches such as active life event
portals, come in the form of the explicit information management and user orchestration,
as far as profile applications are involved. This assumption requires the user to obtain a
clear view and knowledge of his/her profile applications involved every time a service is
requested, i.e. a life event appears, and especially the data required and produced by
them. The recommendation mechanism may assist the citizen to include in his/her profile
all the public applications needed to service a specific life event. PANP approach may
also contribute to overcome personalization obstacles, identified in [13], from the
citizen’s point of view as discussed in Table 1.
Table 1. User Obstacles to personalization [13] and PANP proposed solution
Obstacle Solution
Control The citizen has full control of both his/her data and public
applications that will use them.
Privacy Profiles are private by default. Additionally, every action made to the
citizen profile requires explicit consent.
Trust The citizen owns his/her data and is responsible for the use or the
misuse. The only concern is addressed to the reliability of the public
agency in charge to administer the platform.
Acceptance We can not predict the acceptance of the platform. However, at first,
some motives should be given to the initial users so as the network
effects to take place.
Access Single sign-on vision supports user accessibility. The platform could
be easily deployed to mobile devices for further use.
Alerts and
Data Inte
From the public agencies point of view, along with the increased efficiency and quality of
public service delivery, many legal and technical issues can be resolved as shown in
Table 2.
Table 2. Organizational obstacles in the personalization [13] and PANP proposed solutions
Obstacle Solution
Legal The user owns his information and is responsible for the use or the
misuse. Every action made to his profile (application installation and
information access) requires his explicit consent.
Process based The public agencies will maintain their infrastructures concerning the
processes they accomodate. However interfaces will have to be
implemented so as to offer their applications in the PANP Platform. It
is assumed that this is less demanding than altering the internal
infrastructures to offer cross-organizational services. We believe that
this approach will require the minimum of public agencies’ process
re-engineering, as web service interfaces will interact with the
platform through the API and the PANP mark-up language. No
business process orchestration is needed as the platform is user
Financial The implementation of the required interface can be regarded as an
extra cost. However, overall the use of the platform will eliminate the
need of having a personalized portal in every public agency, thus
reducing cost.
The user himself is responsible to orchestrate the application
Technical The user profile acts a common place for the public agencies to post
the user information. The installed applications can access the user
information. With this approach, no common databases are required to
share the cross-organizational data .
5 A C2G example
To illustrate the benefits of PANP approach, let us assume an example involving a new
PANP user, named Helena Pap. Helena wants to accomplish a specific life-event, i.e. to
fill an application for a job opening in the public sector. It is worth mentioning that
employment and job seeking is considered as a common e-government service,
implemented in most government portals. Helena has graduated from the Department of
Informatics of the University of Athens and holds an M.Sc from the Harokopio
University of Athens. She has been working as freelancer for three years, as certified by
the Public Insurance agency. In the real world, Helena would collect the necessary
transcripts from different public agencies and submit an application to personnel
selection agency. The whole procedure should recur in case Helena wishes to apply for a
new job opening. The conventional way to submit such an application is presented in
figure 2, as UML activity diagram.
Fig. 2. Conventional procedure of applying for a job opening in the Personnel Selection Agency
In the electronic world the procedure is simplified. Upon log-in in PANP, Helena enters
her profile. Some personal data (name, surname, ID number) have already been uploaded
and Helena is asked to check their validity. Since Helena’s task is to apply for a job
opening, she searches the PAADI and adds in her profile the “Apply for job position”
application, specifically implemented for the job opening in question by Personnel
selection agency. Helena is informed by the Recommendation mechanism that her profile
should contain some specific information concerning her B.Sc and M.Sc studies and her
experience for the application to use. The information concerning the B.Sc can be
obtained using “Issue pf a UoA BSc transcript” application that initiates the interaction
with the University of Athens. The application explicitly requires Helena’s consent to use
her personal data. Then, a corresponding web service initiated in the University of Athens
site receives her name, surname and ID number and returns her degree title, grade and
date of graduation, which are stored in her profile. Helena is able to decide whether the
results will be permanently or temporary available within her profile or whether they
should be periodically update or not. Consequently, she adds a similar application created
and registered in PAADI by the Harokopio University of Athens that provides
information about her M.Sc. Then, Helena installs “Issue an experience certificate”
application initiating a channel with the public insurance agency that proves her
experience. The agency returns and posts the information that Helena has been insured
for 3 years in her profile. The “Apply for job position” application can now be performed
using all her profile information mentioned above. Explicit user consent is required. The
information is transferred to the Personnel selection agency for further processing and a
receipt is returned and posted in her profile. When the period for submitting job
applications expires, Helena will be notified with an alert from the Personnel selection
agency concerning the outcome. Unfortunately, Helena is not qualified for this job
opening, but a month later, the Personnel selection agency issues a new job opening.
PANP recommendation mechanism can notify her for this. To do so, it uses her profile
information after acquiring her consent, thus implementing personalisation services. The
only thing Helena has to do is to add the application for the new job opening in her
profile. The information about her bachelor and master degree remains the same, while
the information about the insurance time is altered and a month is added to her overall
insurance period. The example is demonstrated in figure3.
Fig. 3. The “Application for Job opening in the public sector” Example
In the above picture, a user orchestrated workflow is depicted to accomplish a job
application in the public sector. Multiple applications are installed gathering the required
user information from the public agencies. It should be mentioned that there is no
interaction among them. Data exchange is implemented through the user profile.
6. Conclusion - Future Work
The current trend in the provision of the e-government services is described by the
concept of the connected governance. Towards supporting this concept, we presented a
Public Agency Networking Platform (PANP) facilitating personalized cross-
organizational services. PANP a) assures the platform extensibility and modularity, b)
eases the integration with existing e-government infrastructures as the platform relies on
well defined existing mechanisms as web services and c) is compliant with the main law
regulations and directives especially in the area of security and data protection as the user
holds his/her own data in his profile and every action made in the platform requires
his/her explicit consent. In contrast to other platforms and integration frameworks, PANP
simplifies the process execution workflow as life events are accomplished through a user
orchestrated process combining the functionality of discrete public agencies applications.
Our future work involves the implementation of a prototype. The platform API
libraries should be implemented and the semantic and presentation tags of the PANP
mark up language should be defined. It is our intention to provide a quite flexible and
safe infrastructure for the public agencies IT departments to implement PANP
applications. In addition, security issues will be thoroughly examined. Finally, we will
further explore information extraction from the profiles, as it remains an open research
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... These techniques are essentially related to how e-services are organized in portals. We distinguish two approaches: Life event based portals [19] [20]: By definition, a life event is "a situation of a human being that triggers public services" [6], for example: getting married, getting retired, changing address, or applying to a job. It constitutes a grouping mechanism of public e-services according to citizen needs. ...
... which is a dynamically adapted information system supporting daily event life of users. The last example is the Public Agency Networking Platform (PANP) [20] which aims at facilitating personalized cross-organizational services. We take advantage of all the above initiatives in order to propose a solution that is adapted to the Moroccan context. ...
Conference Paper
E-Government plays a crucial role in modernizing public sectors and developing social and economic life of citizens. To raise these challenges, our country has adopted since 2009 the e-Moroccan strategy that aims to facilitate the access and the use of administration services. One of the main issues of this strategy is to ensure interoperability between all administrations and to provide services that are tailored to each citizen profile. To support the e-Morocco solution, we draw in this article a framework for the implementation of a personalized e-government. Our solution is based on three components: an interoperability platform called WASSIT which is a mediation system that provides data integration and dynamic composition of e-services, a personalization platform called 2P-Med that customizes services to each user profile, and finally a single sign portal that offers a transparent and secure access to all administration services. In addition to this framework, we highlight a set of measures and best practices that should insure the success of our proposal in the Moroccan context
... Second, a smart city is a connected city; the same is true for any other smart government initiative (Dais et al. 2008). The individual data generated by sensors must be linked, so that government services that use these data can achieve remarkable public value for citizens. ...
Since 2014, the question of the implementation of the Internet of Things has been crucial in France. Public authorities have created arenas where digital entrepreneurs and politicians can discuss the evolution of the Internet of Things. In January 2017, the National Assembly published a report on the economic and social consequences of the adaptation of the Internet of Things. This chapter analyzes the political discourse that gives legitimacy to the implementation of the Internet of Things in France. The digital entrepreneurs are the privileged actors of this implementation; their social recognition by the French Parliament and the labelling campaigns (French Tech) reinforce the myth of technological innovation. The field of the critical analysis of discourse is mobilized to evaluate the spread of this new myth in France and the analysis of the legitimization of the digital entrepreneurs. This case study reveals how European countries tackle new digital policies in order to control the evolution of the Internet of Things and the field of artificial intelligence.
... Second, a smart city is a connected city; the same is true for any other smart government initiative (Dais et al. 2008). The individual data generated by sensors must be linked, so that government services that use these data can achieve remarkable public value for citizens. ...
In its simplest form, smart government can be understood as the combination of new technologies and organizational innovation strategies to further modernize the public sector. Within this development, the Internet of Things (IoT) often forms a key technological foundation, offering government authorities new possibilities for interaction with citizens and local communities. On the one hand, citizens can indirectly participate in governmental services’ value creation by using public infrastructure or (un)knowingly sharing their data with the community. On the other hand, smart government initiatives may rely more intensively on citizens’ active participation to improve public service delivery, increase trust in government actions, and strengthen community sentiment. In this chapter, we discuss active and passive participation scenarios of smart government initiatives and explain how sensor-based systems may enhance citizens’ opportunities to participate in local governance. We present two practical cases from Switzerland demonstrating these two citizen involvement modes. We argue that active and passive participation of citizens and other stakeholders play a key role in generating necessary data for algorithmic decision-making to enable personalized interaction and real-time control of infrastructure in the future. We close with a discussion of the possibilities and boundaries of the IoT in the public sector and their possible influences on citizens’ privacy and policy-making.
... However, in our opinion, often its use is based on technological optimism and does not take into account the complex structure of the public state. The platform, of course, is a technologically advanced tool and a base for using large data with various applications for connected governance [8]. However, the platform is not only a technology, but also a convenient basis for representing the state as a ground for civil activity. ...
The formation of the digital government nowadays belongs to the main directions of reforming public policy and governance. In Russia, the Federal Target Program “Digital Economy” is planned to be implemented with a conjugate transition from electronic to digital government. At the heart of the formation of the digital government is the idea of the state as a platform that allows to effectively implement state functions and services on a new technological basis. The technocratic approach that dominates this idea is accompanied by the conviction that effective public policy and governance is possible almost without a person and public relations. The paper aims to critically analyze the technocratic cultural values of the state as a platform. Adequate answers to the political challenges of the digital government (values of control, centralization, excessive governability, etc.) are possible when integrating a new culture of political opportunities for co-production and the emerging system of state governability through cooperation.
... However, what is the impact of technology? Could social technology contribute to establish a smart community helping its members in their effort to lose weight and maintain weight loss [24]? Who should be part of this community? ...
Smart Communities understand the potential of Internet technology, and make a conscious decision to adopt this technology to transform life and work in significant and positive ways. Smart communities could be effectively supported by social network solutions, though specific issues should be explored to efficiently model the behaviour of community member, in a way similar to the way they interact in the real world. In this chapter, we focus on MedWeight Smart Community, built to support volunteers trying to maintain weight loss. It enables them to be members of a community composed by both other volunteers and nutrition experts, taking into consideration the way support groups are formed in the real world. To support MedWeight smart community, a corresponding social network platform was built, extending the typical social network model to support roles, relations and complex content dissemination and interaction policies.
... Our interest is in participatory innovation platforms which match business with citizens with the purpose of supporting innovation-driven urban economic development. Such innovation platforms primarily perform four major functions: (i) providing open access and encouraging broad-based stakeholder involvement; (ii) enhancing individual, group, and community creativity; (iii) facilitating open dialogue and sharing; and (iv) supporting convergent thinking, decision-making and policy integration [33,63,[68][69][70][71]. Through such functions platforms bring added value to local knowledge processes, which are critical to the innovativeness and smartness of local economic development. ...
Full-text available
This article discusses the idea of city as a platform. The analysis focuses on the forms and implications of citizen involvement in publicly-supported participatory innovation platforms that facilitate urban economic development in the welfare society context. The discussion opens with a review of the smart city discourse, which in the context of economic development policy translates into cities' need to support innovativeness by creating smart environments. Participatory innovation platform is a prime example of such an environment. The empirical section discusses three cases, those of the Finnish cities of Helsinki, Tampere, and Oulu. The analysis shows that platformization in the first half of the 2010s became a strategic focal area supported by national and EU programs. Platforms are used to support both urban revitalization and economic development, of which the former is based on representative and the latter on instrumental modes of participation. Platforms are well integrated with city governments, even though they vary greatly in terms of organizational forms and scopes. Democratic culture, welfarism, and redistributive policy provide contextual support for platformization by strengthening social inclusion, taming the growth machine, and easing the tensions between pro-growth and anti-growth coalitions.
... However, what is the impact of technology? Could social technology contribute to establish a smart community helping its member in their effort to lose weight and maintain weight loss [24]? Who should be part of this community? ...
Conference Paper
Social networks have been established as a prominent model for communication and interaction between individuals, as well as among members of communities or organizations. However, as the need to support on-line vibrant communities constituting of different individuals, having different roles, privileges and capabilities, is constantly increasing, alternatives to the typical social network model should be explored. Smart communities could be effectively supported by social network technology, though specific issues should be explored to efficiently model community member behavior as they interact in the real- world. In the paper, we focus on MedWeight smart community, built to support volunteers trying to maintain weight loss. It enables them to be members of a community composed by both other volunteers and nutrition experts, taking into consideration the way support groups are formed in the real-world. To support Medweight smart community, a corresponding social network platform was built, extending the typical social network model to support roles, relations and complex content dissemination policies.
The advancement of various computer technologies has led to the migration of traditional governance to e-governance that enables the citizens to access the government services through Internet. Although, Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) act as backbone for e-governance in helping the government meet its citizens' needs through efficient service delivery, e-governance lacks the crossagency communication as the e-services are offered by the government agencies independently. A better version of e-governance is c-governance (connected governance) in which the government agencies are connected and offer an integrated service to the citizens. Cloud is now a leading technology that enables collaboration across agencies and seamlessly integrated services. This chapter suggests the importance of adopting cloud technologies for c-governance and presents a discussion of the existing government clouds of Singapore and UK. A c-governance framework is also presented to illustrate how the cloud deployment and service models can be adopted for c-governance.
This chapter discusses responses to severe structural problemsfaced by postindustrial cities in developedcountries. The driving force behind this development is deindustrialization and the need to find ways for compensating the job losses in manufacturing. The research question is: how can smart platforms support innovative local economic restructuring. The chapter starts by discussing the restructuringchallenge and introducing smart city as a framework for responding to such a challenge. The following section directs attention to platforms that support local policy making and governance, shedding light on the question of how platform approach contributes to the success of urban restructuring. Discussion is explorative and thus mainly theoretical, but utilizes exemplifications of local platform design. In addition, discussion is concretized by taking a closer look atone of the “innovation factories”of Tampere, the New Factory and one ofits platforms, Demola, which exemplify thenew trend in platform building. They highlight how platforms may help in increasing smartness in local economic restructuring.
An effective e-government platform provides greater access to government services among citizens, businesses, and tourists. However, most e-government portals lack in integration and interoperability. This problem causes each government agency has its own portal. It prevents to provide services in a single access point. This paper proposes a one-stop e-government architecture that integrates one-stop portal, e-government service application, and e-government service provider. The architecture provides seamless integration and interoperability of e-government services among different government agencies using hybrid distributed e-government architecture. Finally, this work presents the proof-of-concept of the proposed architecture and a prototype case study in the Malaysian One-Stop E-government (MyOneEG) system as a case study.
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The growing interest in e-Government raises the question of how governments can increase citizen adoption and usage of their online government services. e-Government becomes especially important given its potential to reduce costs and improve service compared with alternative traditional modes. Citizen trust is proposed to be an important catalyst of e-Government adoption. By investigating online tax services, already available and used extensively in the West, we propose several ways in which governments can increase citizen trust and thus encourage the adoption of this new and potentially significant mode of government service. The proposed e-Government adoption model also takes in account issues of cultural variables, risk, control and technology acceptance. Institution-based trust, such as an independent judicial system with appropriate legal powers, is proposed to be the major tactic to build trust in e-Government. In addition, among new users of online government services, characteristic-based and cognitive-based antecedents should be crucial; general psychological dispositions and knowledge of the process should also engender trust. Among experienced users, on the other hand, it is suggested that the nature of previous interactions with the e-Government system should be the major predictor of trust, and hence of continued use. These propositions are elucidated, as they apply to different cultures and to high-intrusive versus low-intrusive government services. This study has practical implications for the design of mechanisms for the adoption of e-Government.
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The public sector more and more deploys personalized e-government services. Personalization offers great opportunities to make communication more effective and efficient, to infer and predict citizens' behavior and to even influence behavior. However, some drawbacks must be considered. Important organizational barriers hinder the implementation of personalized e-government services and important user obstacles, such as access, trust, control, and privacy, have to be overcome to make fruitful use of those personalized e-government services.
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The article focuses on cognitive modeling for games and animation The article deals with the issue of personalization of Internet services, employing web mining. Personalization technology involves software that learns patterns, habits, and preferences. On the Internet, its use is primarily in systems that support electronic-business. Observational personalization is a category of personalization that attempts to elude the need for users to divulge any personal information. There are three principal components to observational personalization; analytics, representation, and deployment. Web mining provides tools to analyze web log data in a user-centric manner such as segmentation, profiling and clickstream discovery. The success of personalization on the web depends on the ability of the personalization community to promote responsible use of the technology by e-business. The article presents a foray into articles dealing with the issue of deploying Web mining in personalization technology.
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Web personalization is the process of customizing a Web site to the needs of specific users, taking advantage of the knowledge acquired from the analysis of the user’s navigational behavior (usage data) in correlation with other information collected in the Web context, namely, structure, content and user profile data. Due to the explosive growth of the Web, the domain of Web personalization has gained great momentum both in the research and commercial areas. In this article we present a survey of the use of Web mining for Web personalization. More specifically, we introduce the modules that comprise a Web personalization system, emphasizing the Web usage mining module. A review of the most common methods that are used as well as technical issues that occur is given, along with a brief overview of the most popular tools and applications available from software vendors. Moreover, the most important research initiatives in the Web usage mining and personalization areas are presented.
Conference Paper
Interoperability between public administrations receives nowadays a lot of attention. Also in the European Union interworking is high on the priority list, but the challenges to achieve the European administrative space is enormous. Many research projects are undertaken, especially in the domain of semantic interoperability. Many of these efforts seem to start from a technical solution rather than from an actual business problem. By taking a narrow view on the problem space, they only promise limited support for the many challenges in the domain of interoperability and innovation of e-government services. In this paper we present a business driven approach that looks promising in enabling entire classes of interoperability solutions
Conference Paper
Life event portals are considered as the core element of the overall egovernment software infrastructure. Active life event portals are the most advanced incarnation of such portals able to process concrete life events related to specific citizen needs. Despite several realisation of ’supposed to be’ active life event portals, there is still a challenge how to design such portals to: a) assure their flexibility, b) easy integration with existing e-government infrastructures, c) be compliant with the law regulations, d) apply well defined SOA standards and existing components. As a step forward to satisfy the above requirements, we propose an architecture for active life event portals based on generic workflow approach. This SOA based architecture benefits from the most promising technologies and is compliant with the recent relevant standards. A first verification of this architecture has been done in the EU OneStopGov project aiming at implementation of the one-stop government concept.
Conference Paper
In this paper we propose a way to facilitate the issue of discovering the eGovernment services that address a citizen's need. This approach is implemented in an application, which we call a semantic portal. The semantic portal is part of our SemanticGov project architecture. The portal's components and its architecture are presented and explained. The portal's conceptual modeling is based on the generic public service object model of governance enterprise architecture (GEA) while Web service modeling ontology (WSMO) is used as the semantic Web services framework for application implementation. . We describe the ontologies required using the Web service modeling language (WSML). The reasoning tasks are performed accordingly using a WSML reasoner. Goals are WSMO elements that describe aspects related to user desires. The input to the application consists of information regarding the user's profile, i.e. age, marital status etc., while the output is a concrete WSMO Goal that expresses the citizen's need. This Goal is forwarded to the discovery engine, which has to discover all the services that address this Goal and return them to the citizen.
The e-government imperative: Main findings
  • Oecd
From e-Government to Connected Governance
  • Un E-Government Survey