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Affect in Web Interfaces: A Study of the Impacts of Web Page Visual Complexity and Order



This research concentrates on visual complexity and order as central factors in the design of webpages that enhance users' positive emotional reactions and facilitate desirable psychological states and behaviors. Drawing on existing theories and empirical findings in the environmental psychology, human-computer interaction, and marketing research literatures, a research model is developed to explain the relationships among visual complexity and order design features of a webpage, induced emotional responses in users, and users' approach behaviors toward the website as moderated by users' metamotivational states. A laboratory experiment was conducted to test the model and its associated hypotheses. The results of the study suggested that a web user's initial emotional responses (i.e., pleasantness and arousal), evoked by the visual complexity and order design features of a webpage when first encountered, will have carry-over effects on subsequent approach behavior toward the website. The results also revealed how webpage visual complexity and order influence users' emotions and behaviors differently when users are in different metamotivational states. The salience and importance of webpage visual complexity and order for users' feelings of pleasantness were largely dependent on users' metamotivational states.
Deng & Poole/Impacts of Web Page Visual Complexity and Order–Appendices
By: Liqiong Deng
Richards College of Business
University of West Georgia
1601 Maple Street
Carrollton, GA 30118
Marshall Scott Poole
Department of Communication
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
1207 W. Oregon Street
Urbana, IL 61801
Appendix A
Experimental Stimuli
We conducted two pilot studies to select the appropriate e-commerce website type and contents for the homepage stimuli. The purpose of Pilot
Study 1 was to select a website category with which subjects are not familiar, for which they show neither liking nor disliking, but have some
interests in browsing. Unfamiliarity with the website was required because familiarity with a certain category of website may influence
perceived complexity of (Radocy and Boyle 1988) and liking for the webpage stimuli (Bornstein 1989; Zajonc 2000). We needed a website
for which subjects showed neither liking nor disliking so that the manipulation of webpage stimuli in the experiment could be assumed to be
the major influence on their reported emotional responses and approach tendencies. To have some degree of interest in browsing the website
is necessary for subjects to engage in experiential web-browsing activities with the webpage stimuli. Based on the results of Pilot Study 1, we
selected the gifts website as the context for the experimental stimuli. Then, we conducted Pilot Study 2 to identify appropriate gift items to
be included in the webpage stimuli. Thirteen gift items, which were shown to elicit neutral affect in the subjects and to be of some interest to
the subjects for browsing or purchase, were selected for the website.
Utilizing Geissler et al.’s (2001) findings regarding the influence of amount of text, number of links, and number of graphics on user’s perceived
complexity of webpage, we designed four levels of complexity (complexity increases from level 1 to level 4) into the experimental stimuli by
manipulating the number of links, number of graphics, and amount of text (see Table A1).
We also manipulated webpage order at three levels (order increases from level 1 to level 3) by arranging the layout of webpage elements.
According to our definition of order, webpage order is related to the logical organization, coherence, and clarity of webpage content. We used
logical organization as a starting point for our design of webpage stimuli at lower and higher levels of order, since logical organization is the
most fundamental component upon which coherence and clarity are built. upon. Three levels of webpage order were operationalized and
designed into the webpage stimuli through the following steps:
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Table A1. Manipulation of Webpage Visual Complexity
Level 1 Complexity Level 2 Complexity Level 3 Complexity Level 4 Complexity
Number of Links 12 16 33 54
Number of Graphics 2 4 8 14
Number of Text 33 40 57 118
First, we identified the webpage elements to be included in the webpage stimuli that are designed at a certain level of complexity.
Second, we determined the logical position of each webpage element in the web space in order to make them obviously identifiable or easily
recognizable by users. This was achieved by arranging the placement of webpage elements in the web space following the conventions of
website design. A user generally draws on his/her memory of past experience with websites as a reference when navigating websites. There-
fore, we operationalized logical organization by conforming to the conventional guidelines for arranging the positions of different webpage
elements in relation to each other in the web space. For instance, to comply with the habit of browsing a webpage from top to bottom and left
to right, we (1) placed the company name in the most prominent webpage location, the top left corner, (2) put the primary navigation bar on
the top of webpage just to the right of company name, (3) positioned the content navigation menu on the left of webpage below the company
name, and (4) placed the content area in the center of webpage to the right of content navigation menu and below the primary navigation bar.
The webpage stimuli designed at this stage were labeled as Level 2 Order, which served as basis for the design of other two levels of order:
Level 1 Order and Level 3 Order.
Third, we designed Level 1 Order by using free-form layout of webpage elements, each of which was displaced from its logical position so
as to attain a low level of order without any sense of logical organization.
Fourth, Level 3 Order was built on the Level 2 Order by applying the alignment and grouping design tools to associate similar or related
elements and differentiate unrelated elements.
To test the effectiveness of our manipulation of webpage visual complexity and order, we performed Pilot Study 3, in which two independent
samples of subjects were recruited. One sample was assigned to rank order the webpage stimuli according to their paired similarities, and the
other sample rated each webpage on its degree of complexity and order as well as their preference for it under telic and paratelic meta-
motivational states. The MDS (multidimensional scaling) results of Pilot Study 3 demonstrated the effectiveness of our manipulations of
webpage visual complexity and order as factors accounting for the perceptual similarity/dissimilarity among the webpage stimuli and
influencing the perceived complexity and order of the stimuli as well as subjects’ preference for them.
The 12 homepage stimuli are presented below.
Bornstein, R. F. 1989. “Exposure and Affect: Overview and Meta-analysis of Research 1968–1987,” Psychological Bulletin (106), pp.
Geissler, G., Zinkhan, G., and Watson, R. 2001. “Web Home Page Complexity and Communication Effectiveness,” Journal of the Association
of the Information Systems (2:2), pp. 1-46.
Radocy, R., and Boyle, D. 1988. Psychological Foundations of Musical Behavior, Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas Publisher.
Zajonc, R. B. 2000. “Feeling and Thinking: Closing the Debate over the Independence of Affect,” in Feeling and Thinking: The Role of
Affect in Social Cognition, J. P. Forgas (ed.), New York: Cambridge University Press, pp. 31-58.
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Stimulus C101 Stimulus C102
Stimulus C103 Stimulus C201
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Stimulus C202 Stimulus C203
Stimulus C301 Stimulus C302
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Stimulus C303 Stimulus C401
Stimulus C402 Stimulus C403
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Appendix B
Scenarios for Induction of Telic and Paratelic States
Scenario for Induction of Telic State
One of your friends’ birthday is just around the corner. You want to buy a gift for him/her, but you don’t have a lot of time to shop around.
You plan to spend 10 to 20 minutes. So, you think of going to a gift website on the Internet to buy a birthday gift for your friend. In order to
quickly find a gift for your friend online, you turn on the computer, open Internet Explorer, and go to the Google search engine. You search
for gift websites by typing in “gifts” in the keywords space. You click on the first website link in the resulting list. As the website homepage
loads on your computer screen, you start looking through the webpage.
Scenario for Induction of Paratelic State
It is shortly after noon on a Saturday. You’re surfing on the Internet at home. You’re not looking for anything specific online. Instead, you’re
taking your time browsing various websites and checking out some fun stuff. All you want to do is to spend several enjoyable hours online
by yourself. As you’re browsing the Internet looking for fun and enjoyment, a banner advertisement for a gift website attracts your attention.
You want to visit the website and see if you can find some interesting stuff for your friends. You click on the banner, which opens another
IE window. As the website homepage loads on your computer screen, you start browsing through the webpage.
Appendix C
Instrumental Scales
Arousal (–3 = significantly, –2 = quite, –1 = slightly, 0 = neither, 1 = slightly, 2 = quite, 3 = significantly)
The webpage makes me feel stimulated/relaxed (R).
The webpage makes me feel calm/excited.
The webpage makes me feel frenzied/sluggish (R).
The webpage makes me feel unaroused/aroused.
The webpage makes me feel jittery/dull (R).
The webpage makes me feel wide-awake/sleepy.
Pleasantness (–3 = significantly, –2 = quite, –1 = slightly, 0 = neither, 1 = slightly, 2 = quite, 3 = significantly)
The webpage makes me feel happy/unhappy (R).
The webpage makes me feel annoyed/pleased.
The webpage makes me feel satisfied/unsatisfied (R).
The webpage makes me feel melancholic/contented.
The webpage makes me feel hopeful/despairing(R).
The webpage makes me feel uncomfortable/comfortable.
Approach–Avoidance Tendency (7 = strongly agree, 6 = agree, 5 = somewhat agree, 4 = neutral, 3 = somewhat disagree, 2 = disagree, 1 =
strongly disagree):
I would enjoy visiting this website.
I like to spend much time browsing this website.
I would try to leave this website as soon as possible (reversed).
I would avoid getting back to this website after I have left it (reversed).
I want to avoid exploring or investigating this website (reversed).
I like this website.
I would avoid any unplanned activity in this website.
I would be satisfied with this website.
I would have a positive attitude toward this website.
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Table D3. Factor Loadings and Item Reliability
Constructs and Their Indicators
Loading T Value SE
Arousal 0.92
Arsl1 0.75 17.81 0.053
Arsl2 0.80 19.46 0.050
Arsl3 0.82 20.47 0.044
Arsl4 0.75 17.82 0.052
Arsl5 0.81 19.91 0.046
Arsl6 0.69 15.91 0.050
Pleasantness 0.93
Plst1 0.72 17.30 0.046
Plst2 0.88 23.28 0.048
Plst3 0.83 21.18 0.050
Plst4 0.78 19.27 0.046
Plst5 0.82 20.92 0.048
Plst6 0.72 17.24 0.051
Approach/Avoidance Behavior 0.98
Apb1 0.95 27.05 0.060
Apb2 0.92 25.62 0.060
Apb3 0.94 26.46 0.060
Apb4 0.94 26.44 0.059
Apb5 0.92 25.25 0.060
Apb6 0.93 25.78 0.061
Apb7 0.85 22.37 0.061
Apb8 0.96 27.22 0.060
Apb9 0.95 26.69 0.061
Perceived Order 0.91
Ordr1 0.87 23.04 0.062
Ordr2 0.84 21.46 0.060
Ordr3 0.93 25.60 0.062
Ordr4 0.88 23.56 0.059
Ordr5 0.89 23.99 0.067
Perceived Complexity 0.81
Cmplx1 0.85 21.99 0.069
Cmplx2 0.90 23.85 0.063
Cmplx3 0.90 24.05 0.065
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Table D4. Cell Descriptive Statistics for Dependent Variables
Arousal Pleasantness Approach Tendency
Mean Std. Dev. Mean Std. Dev. Mean Std. Dev.
Level 1 OR
Level 1
Telic -0.44 0.60 -0.06 0.74 1.82 0.63
Paratelic -0.18 0.75 -0.11 0.43 1.58 0.37
Level 2
Telic 0.51 0.72 -0.43 0.86 2.09 1.00
Paratelic 0.58 0.52 0.21 0.50 2.98 1.12
Level 3
Telic 1.11 0.87 -0.85 0.80 1.94 0.74
Paratelic 0.89 0.55 0.62 0.72 3.59 1.49
Level 4
Telic 1.33 0.66 -1.28 0.65 1.32 0.22
Paratelic 1.06 0.36 0.21 0.95 2.59 1.40
Level 2 OR
Level 1
Telic -1.15 0.62 0.60 0.71 3.63 1.48
Paratelic -0.99 0.72 -0.83 1.08 2.24 1.00
Level 2
Telic -0.52 0.55 0.72 0.67 3.85 1.25
Paratelic -0.46 0.41 0.49 0.27 3.67 0.51
Level 3
Telic -0.02 0.54 0.98 0.74 4.52 1.49
Paratelic 0.28 0.87 0.67 0.78 4.03 1.43
Level 4
Telic 0.48 0.57 0.52 0.74 3.58 1.39
Paratelic 0.58 0.45 1.20 0.85 4.67 1.73
Level 3 OR
Level 1
Telic -1.16 0.52 0.78 0.61 4.16 1.25
Paratelic -1.19 1.10 -1.10 1.18 2.02 0.84
Level 2
Telic -0.68 0.59 0.70 0.68 3.81 1.36
Paratelic -0.39 0.54 0.24 0.31 3.08 0.63
Level 3
Telic -0.81 0.49 1.60 0.52 5.62 0.70
Paratelic -0.47 0.37 0.41 0.66 3.77 1.32
Level 4
Telic 0.20 0.65 0.82 0.64 4.06 1.47
Paratelic 0.21 0.61 0.81 0.51 4.28 1.18
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... De tal modo, la disposición de los datos parece responder a secciones específicas, que incluyen detalles propios de la asociación o federación ("sobre nosotros"), igual que un eje muy particular como el bienestar y la responsabilidad para quien ya retornó o está en vías de retorno ("trámite de emigrantes", "ayudas", "objetivos" o "actividades"). Esto obedece a las necesidades de los denominados sitios web "informativos" (Deng y Poole, 2010), cuyo diseño está orientado a una temática nuclear sobre la que los niveles y las secciones están vinculados de manera directa (Ryan y Jones, 2009). En este sentido, las estructuras mostradas por las webs analizadas revelan, como en otras investigaciones (Lavie y Tractinsky, 2004;Deng y Poole, 2010), que la disminución de la complejidad, el orden visual y la reunificación informativa a una extensa página central también es propia de este tipo de webs. ...
... Esto obedece a las necesidades de los denominados sitios web "informativos" (Deng y Poole, 2010), cuyo diseño está orientado a una temática nuclear sobre la que los niveles y las secciones están vinculados de manera directa (Ryan y Jones, 2009). En este sentido, las estructuras mostradas por las webs analizadas revelan, como en otras investigaciones (Lavie y Tractinsky, 2004;Deng y Poole, 2010), que la disminución de la complejidad, el orden visual y la reunificación informativa a una extensa página central también es propia de este tipo de webs. Además, las páginas de retornados y retornadas que se evaluaron parecen seguir las necesidades identificadas en otros estudios (Vásquez et al., 2019), en los que la importancia reside en la ubicación del usuario o usuaria, la facilidad con la que puede acceder a la información, así como en la condensación de esta última en pocos clics. ...
... Es por ello que las categorías y subcategorías vistas en la dimensión de arquitectura web hacen concluir que se trata de espacios con una alta densidad informativa, bien organizada e intuitivamente dispuesta, donde se privilegia el acceso y la funcionalidad, pero donde la comunicación o la actualización quedan considerablemente más obsoletas. Respecto a la navegación, el uso y la conexión, las webs muestran, en general, una subdivisión del portal en las secciones que se encuentran en el banner superior, lo que hace que los apartados del site queden visiblemente delimitados y la navegación sea fácil e intuitiva, igual que coherente con los objetivos de estas zonas informativas (Deng y Poole, 2010). En esta línea, las webs estudiadas dejan ver, en su mayoría, una organización eficiente en el uso de sus diferentes espacios. ...
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[Objetivo] Esta investigación tiene como objetivo profundizar en el análisis de los atributos de la arquitectura web y la navegabilidad de los sitios web destinados a proporcionar información a las personas retornadas españolas. [Metodología] Se trata de un estudio empírico de carácter exploratorio, con un diseño cualitativo que se sustenta sobre una base estadístico-descriptiva, en el cual se exponen frecuencias absolutas y frecuencias relativas. El análisis cualitativo se ha realizado a través de un examen manual apoyado por la herramienta Atlas.Ti y con base en un modelo teórico empíricamente fundado. Se examina un corpus compuesto por 16 sitios web relativos a las asociaciones y federaciones españolas activas de retornados y retornadas, durante los años 2019-2021, lo que supone la totalidad de las páginas web de las asociaciones y federaciones objeto de estudio. [Resultados] Los sitios web analizados muestran un comportamiento homogéneo en cuanto a estructura, interfaz y términos de navegabilidad. Utilizan formatos semejantes a los blogs actuales, pero con una baja actualización de su contenido. Se trata de espacios con una densa acumulación informativa dispuesta con formatos de hipervínculo o documentación adjunta. [Conclusiones] Se concluye que la arquitectura y navegabilidad de las páginas web de las asociaciones y federaciones españolas de retornados y retornadas se caracterizan mucho más por su homogeneidad que por los elementos diferenciadores. Este trabajo abre el camino a futuros estudios comparativos y relacionales que permitan el análisis de semejanzas y diferencias entre sitios web, así como de la caracterización de sus estructuras comunicativas.
... Defined as the number of elements in an image and the detail of information these elements deliver (Deng and Poole 2010), visual complexity is conceptualized as two dimensions: feature and compositional complexities (Pieters, Wedel, and Batra 2010;Donato and Adig€ uzel 2022). Feature complexity reflects the density and number of perceptual features in an image (Lazard and Mackert 2014), which denote the amount of material and heterogeneity of elements (Berlyne and Peckham 1966). ...
... However, there must be a balance in the use of multimedia objects. Excessive use of these elements may cause distractions and have a negative impact on website usability [120,121]. Images or videos with large file sizes can significantly affect download times, particularly at slower connection speeds, owing to the substantial number of bytes required. The loading speed of graphics and multimedia should be optimized to prevent slow loading times so that users do not get frustrated and abandon the website [101,122,123]. ...
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The aim of this study is to conceptualize website usability and develop a survey instrument to measure related concepts from the perspective of end users. We designed a three-stage methodology. First, concepts related to website usability were derived using content analysis technique. A total of 16 constructs measuring website usability were defined with their explanations and corresponding open codes. Second, a survey instrument was developed according to the defined open codes and the literature. The instrument was first validated using face validity, pilot testing (n = 30), and content validity (n = 40). Third, the survey instrument was validated using explanatory and confirmatory analyses. In the explanatory analysis, 785 questionnaires were collected from e-commerce website users to validate the factor structure of website usability. For confirmatory factor analysis, a new sample collected from 1086 users of e-commerce websites was used to confirm the measurement model. In addition, nomological validation was conducted by analyzing the effect of website usability concepts on three key factors: “continued intention to use”, “satisfaction”, and “brand loyalty”.
... Individual characteristics can moderate the relationship between visual complexity and consumer responses, such as individuals' shopping motivation (Orth and Wirtz, 2014), sensation-seeking (Jang et al., 2018a), fashion involvement (Jang et al., 2018b), cognitive style (e.g., field dependence, Wang et al., 2020), and motivational state (Deng and Poole, 2010). The present research posits that the perception of vice and virtue attributes within products may serve as a moderating variable in the relationship between visual complexity and consumer evaluations. ...
... We drew on established items for our mediators of Competence (Sheldon et al., 2001) and Sensation (Deng & Poole, 2010;Sheldon et al., 2001). We also collected data for demographics (i.e., participants' Age and Gender) and control variables from the extant literature that we considered most relevant to increase the robustness of our findings. ...
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To motivate visitors to engage with websites, e‐tailers widely employ monetary rewards (e.g., vouchers, discounts) in their website designs. With advances in user interface technologies, many e‐tailers have started to offer gamified monetary reward designs (MRDs), which require visitors to earn the monetary reward by playing a game, rather than simply claiming the reward. However, little is known about whether and why gamified MRDs engage visitors compared to their non‐gamified counterpart. Even less is known about the effectiveness of gamified MRDs when providing certain or chance‐based rewards, in that visitors do or do not know what reward they will gain for successfully performing in the game. Drawing on cognitive evaluation theory, we investigate gamified MRDs with certain or chance‐based rewards and contrast them to non‐gamified MRDs with certain rewards in user registration systems. Our results from a multi‐method approach encompassing the complementary features of a randomised field experiment (N = 651) and a randomised online experiment (N = 330) demonstrate differential effects of the three investigated MRDs on user registration. Visitors encountering either type of gamified MRD are more likely to register than those encountering a non‐gamified MRD. Moreover, gamified MRDs with chance‐based rewards have the highest likelihood of user registrations. We also show that MRDs have distinct indirect effects on user registration via anticipated experiences of competence and sensation. Overall, the paper offers theoretical insights and practical guidance on how and why gamified MRDs are effective for e‐tailers.
... Color, images and shapes are among the features of the layout that can arouse users' emotional responses, an aesthetic sense or a favorable impression. Deng and Poole (2010) argued that the information system landscape is shifting from task efficiency-focused to pleasure-seeking, prompting online service providers to allocate more resources to refining the visual design features of the webpage and system interface. The authors further contend that high complexity and low order webpage can be emotionally gratifying as it fulfills the need for a stimulating experience. ...
Purpose The surging entrance of new mobile payment merchants into the growing market has prompted the need for an in-depth understanding of loyalty formation to retain customers. This study examines customers' loyalty generation process in mobile payment services by exploring the serial effect of cognitive drivers (i.e. brand awareness, perceived quality, brand image, perceived value and layout) on affective response, satisfaction and loyalty. Design/methodology/approach A survey using self-administered questionnaires was conducted. The data was collected from 370 consumers who have experience using mobile payment services in Vietnam. The data were submitted to partial least square structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) and artificial neural networks (ANN) analysis. Findings The results indicated that all the proposed cognitive drivers show significant impacts on affective response, which, in turn, translates into satisfaction and loyalty. The post-hoc analysis revealed enjoyment as the vital affective response in determining satisfaction. Moreover, the multigroup analysis indicated that the relationship between affective response and satisfaction is stronger for the female group. In addition, the ANN's nonlinear result revealed complementary insight into the importance of cognitive drivers. Originality The current study revealed both linear and nonlinear mechanisms that explicate the roles of cognitive drivers and affective responses in fostering loyalty toward mobile payment merchants. The findings add to the existing literature that emphasizes consumers' initial mobile payment adoption.
In this article, we investigate how the visual, interactional, and interactive verbo-visual selections are utilized to qualify Arabic clickbait thumbnails to get extra views. To this end, we drew upon Kress and Van Leeuwen’s multimodal analysis and Hyland’s meta-discourse framework. The data comprised 100 Arabic YouTube clickbait thumbnails selected from five Arabic channels. Our analysis revealed that a fake clickbait is an ensemble of collaborative modes, each of which reflects an interplay of interactional, compositional, and representational strategic selections. Thumbnail creators tend to structure their thumbnails visually by frequently selecting negative representational actional and reactional processes to induce viewers to click the videos for further information. To accentuate the representational metafunction, the content creators opted for enticing engagement markers and interactive linguistic cataphoric cues that lead the viewers to search for the referents disguised in the videos associated with thumbnails. Emojis, sequences of exclamation marks, and consecutive dots were also used as pressure tactics to click the videos. Such results will hopefully contribute to recognizing fake visual media and raise vulnerable viewers’ awareness against such fake videos.
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T HOSE of us who are researchers in psychology are privileged to be working on the most interesting phenomena imaginable. But I fancy that there are times when we do not really look at them. Or rather, we are taught to look at them in certain ways, using certain concepts and certain techniques, so that sometimes we miss things that are obvious to everyone except psychologists. In trying to understand some psychological process or another we have a tendency to look first at what previous researchers have done and thought, so that afterwards we cannot help but look at these processes through their eyes. To put this in psychological terms, we acquire sets and then cannot easily discard them and look at the world afresh to see how things really are. This produces, to borrow a phrase from a classic paper by William James (1899), 'a certain kind of blindness'. I want to support this argument with a couple of examples taken from my own field: personality and motivation. Limitations of the trait concept My first example is the notion of a trait – the central concept in all psychometric work on personality. I do not wish to deny that there may indeed be certain consistencies in people's ways of seeing the world and acting in it. But I do think that this is only a limited and relatively uninteresting part of their psychology: the interesting part is the way in which people change. It is, I think, obvious to all except psychometricians, that we are very different kinds of people at different times in everyday life, and that this is the essence of what makes us human. Personality is dynamic not static: we are more like dancers than statues. Tell someone that a test they have taken shows that they are extraverted and they will probably respond (as I have found on many occasions) that this may be true sometimes, but sometimes they are also introverted. Try actually looking at people. Look at yourself. Nor does this changeability depend in any simple way on changing situations, as many behaviourists and social psychologists would have it. We can act in the very same situation in very different ways at different times. A person might be extraverted at a dinner party on one occasion, and introverted on another – possibly even on the same evening! The reason for this seems to be that there is an ever-changing internal context to our actions as well as external environmental forces. We want different things at different times and, partly as a consequence, we see things differently. In this respect our personalities are shifting and inconstant.
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In this article, we attempt to distinguish between the properties of moderator and mediator variables at a number of levels. First, we seek to make theorists and researchers aware of the importance of not using the terms moderator and mediator interchangeably by carefully elaborating, both conceptually and strategically, the many ways in which moderators and mediators differ. We then go beyond this largely pedagogical function and delineate the conceptual and strategic implications of making use of such distinctions with regard to a wide range of phenomena, including control and stress, attitudes, and personality traits. We also provide a specific compendium of analytic procedures appropriate for making the most effective use of the moderator and mediator distinction, both separately and in terms of a broader causal system that includes both moderators and mediators. (46 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Imagine walking through an unfamiliar city. As you proceed, the surroundings change from what you see in Figure 1 to what you see in Figure 2. You might evaluate the change as unpleasant, feel less safe, and change your behavior, walking faster or leaving the area. In contrast, had you passed by the scene in Figure 3, you might evaluate it favorably, feel a calming change in emotion, and you might slow down or enter the area to savor the experience. In each case, environmental cues, which you may not have noticed, affected your appraisal of the scene, emotions, inferences, and behavior. This chapter is predicated on the conviction that the visual character of buildings has important impacts on human experience—aesthetic impacts.
This study examines the role of aesthetic design in Web-based stores. Designing Web-based stores involves the application of knowledge from diverse fields such as marketing and human-computer interaction. We integrate research findings from different areas to propose that the role of aesthetics can be examined using a conceptual framework that takes into account the contingent nature of the consumer, the product, and the shopping process. We also suggest that two subdimensions of Web aesthetics, termed "classical" and "expressive," may aid in understanding and shaping consumer behavior on the Internet. We develop theoretical arguments and propositions, and present some examples to illustrate our approach as to the different products that can be sold under different Web designs.
1. Introduction The study of emotion Types of evidence for theories of emotion Some goals for a cognitive theory of emotion 2. Structure of the theory The organisation of emotion types Basic emotions Some implications of the emotions-as-valenced-reactions claim 3. The cognitive psychology of appraisal The appraisal structure Central intensity variables 4. The intensity of emotions Global variables Local variables Variable-values, variable-weights, and emotion thresholds 5. Reactions to events: I. The well-being emotions Loss emotions and fine-grained analyses The fortunes-of-others emotions Self-pity and related states 6. Reactions to events: II. The prospect-based emotions Shock and pleasant surprise Some interrelationships between prospect-based emotions Suspense, resignation, hopelessness, and other related states 7. Reactions to agents The attribution emotions Gratitude, anger, and some other compound emotions 8. Reactions to objects The attraction emotions Fine-grained analyses and emotion sequences 9. The boundaries of the theory Emotion words and cross-cultural issues Emotion experiences and unconscious emotions Coping and the function of emotions Computational tractability.