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Including landmarks in routing instructions
Abstract and Figures
This article addresses the problem of incorporating cognitively salient landmarks in computer-generated navigation instructions. On the basis of a review of the existing literature in the domain of navigation with landmarks, the article develops algorithms for generating routing instructions that include references to landmarks. The most basic algorithm uses a new weighting model to annotate simple routes with references to landmarks. A key novel feature of this algorithm is that it depends only on commonly available data and generic capabilities of existing web mapping environments. A suite of extensions are also proposed for improving the cognitive ergonomics of the basic landmark instructions. A case study, implemented within a national online routing system, demonstrates practicality of the approach. The article then concludes by reviewing a range of further issues for future work.
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