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Implementing Enterprise Resource Planning Systems: The Role of Learning from Failure

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Abstract

ERP implementations remain problematic despite the fact that many of the issues are by now quite well known. In this paper, we take a different perspective from the critical success factors and risks approaches that are common in the information systems discipline to explain why ERP implementations fail. Specifically, we adapt Sitkin's theory of intelligent failure to ERP implementations resulting in a theory that we call “learning from failure.” We then examine from the viewpoint of this theory the details of two SAP R/3 implementations, one of which failed while the other succeeded. Although it is impossible to state, unequivocally, that the implementation that failed did so because it did not use the approach that was derived from the theory, the analysis reveals that the company that followed many of the tenets of the theory succeeded while the other did not.
... It was noticed by many authors that folates are important factors in helping the transferring of carbon as doners and acceptors which can engaged in purines, pyrimidines, and amino acids synthesis (Scott et al., 2000;Dhonukshe-Rutten et al., 2009, andBlancquaert et al., 2010). Moreover, Stakhova et al., (2000) stated that the foliar spraying of folic acid enhanced the, photosynthetic rate in the leaves, seed weight and yield of pea (Pisum sativum). ...
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This study was performed during 2019 and 2020 seasons on seven years old “Flame seedless” grape trees (Vitis vinefera L.). The trees were cultivated at 3 meters apart between rows and 2 meters between trees in the same row in a calcareous soil under drip irrigation system in a private orchard located at Nubaria, Beheira governorate, Egypt. The trees were sprayed three times, before flowering, during the full bloom and three weeks later with the following treatments: Control spray with water only, Fulvic acid at 1000, 1500 and 2000 ppm, Folic acid (vitamin B9) at 100, 150 and 200 ppm, Seaweed extract at 2000, 3000 and 4000 ppm. Besides, the combinations of 1000 ppm Fulvic acid +100 ppm Folic acid+ 2000 ppm Seaweed extract, 1500 ppm Fulvic acid + 150 ppm Folic acid + 3000 ppm Seaweed extract and 2000 ppm Fulvic acid + 200 ppm Folic acid + 4000 ppm Seaweed extract were also applied. The obtained results demonstrated that the foliar spray of Folic acid, Fulvic acid and Seaweed extract and their combinations improved weight, length, width, size and number of clusters. Furthermore, they also increased extremely weight of 100 berries and consequently the yield per vine in kg and the yield in ton per hectare, weight of juice, the percentages of total sugars, and total soluble solids as compared to control in the two seasons. The effect of Fulvic acid on the previous mentioned parameters was higher than the effect of Seaweed extractor Folic acid and its effect was better by the increasing the applied concentration where the best one was 2000 ppm, which gave the best results more than the other applied treatments in the two seasons. The best combination was Fulvic acid 2000 ppm + Folic acid at 200 ppm + Seaweed extract 4000 ppm.
... Specifically, contextual conditions influence the technical structure by shaping its constituent elements, which manifested in our case study in the form of ERP knowledge and perceived influence. The effect of context on ERP knowledge is both supported by our findings (e.g., in Eras 2-4, ERP knowledge was enhanced by the lessons learnt and experience gained from the prior ERP implementation outcome of the previous era/s) and well-established in the literature (e.g., Scott and Vessey 2000). Likewise, our finding that context affects perceived influence (e.g., the organizational culture that emphasizes respect for hierarchy led to the perception that the top management was the most appropriate stakeholder group to drive ERP implementation in Era 1) echoes the work of Beck and Plowman (2009), who used the example of the space shuttle Columbia disaster to argue that contextual factors such as culture can influence the beliefs of organizational members in relation to their ability to influence the process of sensemaking, to the extent that some would choose to defer to authority even when they possesses the relevant expertise. ...
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Organizational sensemaking is crucial to enterprise resource planning (ERP) implementation. This is because it enables the focal organization to gain an understanding of the unique contextual issues within and surrounding the organization, and continuously monitor and reinterpret these issues so that the approach to ERP implementation can be modified or realigned accordingly. Yet, little attention has been paid to studying the nature and implications of this process. Using a case study of the ERP implementation journey of Shanghai Tobacco Corporation, a Chinese state-owned enterprise, this paper explores the different ways in which organizational sensemaking can unfold in the context of ERP implementation. Analyses of our data suggest that the process of organizational sensemaking is influenced by a sensemaking structure, which consists of a technical structure (i.e., the technical foundation for sensemaking) and a social structure (i.e., the behavioral norms and relational ties surrounding sensemaking). The sensemaking structure, in turn, is influenced by the contextual conditions surrounding ERP implementation. With its findings, this study contributes a process model of ERP implementation from a sensemaking perspective to complement the existing research, and provides indications to practice on the effective implementation of ERP systems.
... These models were developed mostly around the context of Enterprise Systems (Baskerville et al. 2000;Davenport 1998Davenport , 2000Davenport et al. 2004;S. M. Lee and Lee 2012;Scott and Vessey 2000;Tan and Pan 2002) and serve as success frameworks in the broader area of Technology Management. Still, assessment of IT project success can be challenging as costs, risks and benefits can be underestimated (Bhattacharya et al. 2012;Bhattacharya and Seddon 2011;Dalcher 2012Dalcher , 2015Engelbrecht et al. 2017;Marchewka 2009). ...
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The popularity and potential of FinTech for generating business value has been highlighted in an evolving number of studies. Nevertheless, there is still ambiguity on the success of such disruptive technologies. To address this gap, this paper draws on a case study of an IT vendor in Japan. We interview key stakeholders involved in the case project to (i) explore the success factors of FinTech applications adopted by non-financial organisations, (ii) illustrate the applicability of the multi-dimensional project success framework in FinTech projects, and (iii) highlight the importance of the FinTech Project Management field that warrants further investigation. We contribute to the IT Project Management field, where we extend the theoretical background with aspects of FinTech adoption and success. We also inform practice in terms of lessons for managers to improve the existing processes and assist their organisations in business transformational initiatives using FinTech.
... • Formulate appreciate strategy to deal with stakeholder: The strategy of SM is the behavior of wherewith the project directors addresses various stakeholders needs (Karlsen, 2002). Thus, many researchers repeated the urgency to address the implementation strategy by a gradual approach (Cliffe, 1999;Gupta, 2000;Scott & Vessey, 2000;Motwani et al., 2002;Robey et al., 2002;Mandal & Gunasekaran, 2003). • Additionally, 'Stakeholders' reactions to the strategies' is a vital factor when project managers make decisions regarding the strategies to deal with stakeholders (Freeman et al., 2007). ...
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This paper attempts to contribute towards investigating the existing literature base of stakeholder management (SM), provide a compilation, and define any gaps in this area. Besides, explore different groups of critical success factors (CSFs) and grouping these actors. This study is based on reviewing the literature. Therefore, more than a hundred research papers were searched by the key terms specified in a preceding literature review. Succeeding tours of abstract research surveys resulted in forty-two research papers being picked for the compilation. SM constructs were identified, and the following crucial analysis defined the literature base gaps. The most notable outcomes are the absence of research that has studied BIM-based stakeholder management, especially in mega projects. Additionally, further investigations are still required to study the SM influence throughout the different stages of the project life cycle and study the impact of project type and contract type in SM. However, there is still considerable debate about the SM nature and merits approach. This study presents a comprehensive gathering of all earlier identified SM processes through a structured approach. Additionally, a more realistic and practical methodology for the development and implementation of SM will emerge, and twenty-seven CSFs associated with SM in construction projects are identified. The study is expected to have a theoretical contribution to this subject, especially in the context of the Qatari construction industry. Keywords: Construction industry; Implementation; Stakeholder engagement; Management; Stakeholder management; Critical success factors (CSFs)
... Although prior research has alluded to the benefits of IS success in bolstering firms' financial performance (Deveraj and Kohli 2003;Melville et al. 2004), evidence of the negative consequences of IS failure is also prevalent within extant literature (Scott and Vessey 2000;Pan et al. 2008). Delone and McLean (1992) hence advanced a framework that elucidates determinants of IS success and failure, which they later extended to include the dimension of 'Service Quality' to give credence to the essential role of service providers in ensuring IS success. ...
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Information systems success has always been a prominent topic in IS research. As providers of high quality IS services, service-oriented firms acquire sustainable long-term competitive advantages through innovation in core competencies. Particularly, Professional Services Firms (PSFs), are harnessing technological advances to re-orientate their business to concentrate on the delivery of IT-enabled services. However, success continues to be elusive for PSFs due to the heterogeneity, inseparability, intangibility, and perishability of services. Consequently, this study attempts to uncover the drivers of innovation success or failure in IT-enabled professional services. Embracing a comparative case study approach, we analyzed both successful and failure cases of IT service innovation in Capgemini Netherlands. Through synthesizing dual-factors theory, we advocate a tri-factorial view of the NSD process whereby we distinguish among hygiene, enabling, and inhibiting factors for each of the three phases of planning, development, and launch in NSD. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.
Book
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Information systems are part and parcel of organizations. Yet, organizations often struggle to realize the benefits that motivate their introduction of these systems. To derive benefit from a new information system, it must be integrated into the structures and processes of the organization. That is, the system must be organizationally implemented. This book is about organizational implementation, which requires thorough preparations but also continues long after the system has gone live: (1) During the preparations, the implementation is planned. This phase includes specifying the effects pursued with the system, adapting the system and organization to each other, and obtaining buy-in for the planned change. (2) At go-live, the system is put to operational use and the associated organizational changes take effect. This phase is about insisting on the planned change even though go-live is normally hectic and accompanied by a productivity dip. (3) During continued use after go-live, implementation continues as design in use. This phase is long and improvisational. It includes following up on effects realization, but it is just as much about embracing the opportunities that emerge from using the system. Apart from covering the three phases of organizational implementation, the book inserts implementation in an organizational-change context and discusses barriers to implementation as well as boosters of implementation. The book concludes with an outlook to larger-scale issues beyond the implementation of one system in one organization and with an overview of the competences needed in the implementation team, which runs the organizational implementation.
Chapter
Since deployment of Enterprise Systems (ES) such as Enterprise Resource Planning systems (ERPs) within enterprises, both Large Enterprises (LEs) as well as Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) have increased and continue to increase, making it increasingly desirable to measure the degree of utilization of ERP systems in enterprises. One reason for this interest is that no benefits are realized if the systems are not used; since ERPs are massive investments, they need to show benefits, or at least be able to measure the benefits. However, to be able to do so, there is a need to explain ERP systems utilization and the factors that influence ERP utilization. This chapter provides an explanation of factors influencing ERP systems utilization by testing a research model building on four dimensions: volume, breadth, diversity, and depth. The contributions of the research are: First, it provides support for the notion of diffusion found in the theory of network externalities where a critical mass is necessary to achieve benefits. This can be used to better understand failures in ERP projects. Second, the use of volume, breadth and depth provide insights for use as a construct and the need to treat it more rigorously. Third, the study contributes to our understanding of the many aspects of use of IT, such as ERPs, and potentially contributes to value and firm performance from ERP utilization.
Chapter
Enterprise resource planning (ERP) implementations in multinational manufacturing companies have experienced various degrees of success. This article investigates factors influencing the success of ERP implementations in multinational manufacturing companies in the Malaysian Free Trade Zone. The results indicate that enterprise-wide communication and a project management program are key factors influencing the success of ERP implementations, while other factors such as top management support as well as teamwork and composition are not as critical to the outcome. Organizational culture is a moderator of the relationships between enterprise-wide communication, a project management program, and the success of ERP implementations.
Chapter
The main purpose of this study is to investigate the digital impacts of user training and education and perceived usefulness on the ERP systems acceptance and the contribution of the ERP systems towards the improved financial performance of Saudi firms. The survey is conducted on the ERP users, who are working in Saudi-based companies. The ERP users are selected for the survey by having been using the ERP modules for various digital tasks including finance and accounting, material management, human resource management, quality management, and sales and distribution. The research findings show that digital training and perceived usefulness both have a positive relation with the acceptance of the ERP systems.