ArticlePDF Available

How much is too little? Privacy and smart cards in Hong Kong and Ontario



In this article, we analyze the notion of privacy - how it is conceptualized and implemented as a constitutive element of identity - in two different cultures: Hong Kong, a Special Administrative Region (SAR) of the People’s Republic of China (PRC), and Ontario, Canada. By examining the two jurisdictions of Hong Kong and Ontario, we argue that, in addition to institutional structures, differing cultural notions of privacy affect the acceptance of new information and communication technologies (ICTs). For our comparison, we focus on one potentially privacy-invasive technology, smart cards, and discuss the factors that contribute to their adoption and use in the two regions selected, including one’s conceptualization of digital identity and privacy, and the role of consultation and public debate.
How much is too little? Privacy
and smart cards in Hong Kong
and Ontario
354 Journal of Information Science, 31 (5) 2005, pp. 354–364 © CILIP, DOI: 10.1177/0165551505055400
Stuart G.M. Bailey
Collaborative Program: Faculty of Information
Studies/Knowledge Media Design Institute, University of
Toronto, Canada
Nadia Caidi
Faculty of Information Studies, University of Toronto,
Received 25 September 2004
Revised 9 March 2005
In this article, we analyze the notion of privacy – how it is
conceptualized and implemented as a constitutive element
of identity – in two different cultures: Hong Kong, a Special
Administrative Region (SAR) of the People’s Republic of
China (PRC), and Ontario, Canada. By examining the two
jurisdictions of Hong Kong and Ontario, we argue that, in
addition to institutional structures, differing cultural
notions of privacy affect the acceptance of new information
and communication technologies (ICTs). For our compari-
son, we focus on one potentially privacy-invasive tech-
nology, smart cards, and discuss the factors that contribute
to their adoption and use in the two regions selected, includ-
ing one’s conceptualization of digital identity and privacy,
and the role of consultation and public debate.
Keywords: privacy; technology; anonymity; govern-
ment; Ontario; Hong Kong; smart card; consultation;
digital self
1. Introduction
New information technology disintegrates national
borders; international traffic in personal data is a central
feature of commercial life. [1]
In the contemporary landscape, where information and
communication technologies (ICTs) are widely used by
business and government, data travel around the globe
nearly instantaneously. This creates certain consider-
ations for an individual’s identity: will personal infor-
mation collected in one location be used in a consistent
manner while in another? Will an individual’s personal
data be subject to different laws depending on where
his or her digital footprint lands? Why should it matter
at all whether there is congruency across jurisdictions
The nature of transborder data flow means that data
protection legislation must take into account these
questions of privacy. Contiguity of data protection
across national borders is problematic at best, despite
international efforts to provide a common ground.
Moreover, the adoption of new technology, such as
smart card technology, may be affected by cultural
assumptions, values and attitudes towards identity and
Concepts of privacy and identity do not cross borders
as effortlessly as data about an individual do. The
presence and use of ICTs forces us to consider the
relationship between an individual’s identity and
privacy in new terms. Relying on a single, static notion
of privacy may do more harm than good as we
Correspondence to: Nadia Caidi, Assistant Professor, Faculty
of Information Studies, University of Toronto, 140 St George
Street, #646 Toronto, Ontario M5S 3G6, Canada. E-mail:
collectively move from paper-based information man-
agement into digital information management. Privacy
is a contextual concept; its interpretation changes
based on the environment in which the concept is
engaged. The ability to manage personal borders in
changing environments helps us distinguish ourselves
from others, and enables us to manage our own
identities by exerting some degree of control. Privacy is
the interest that is engaged when those borders are
breached. Remedies help us to recover from these
breaches, the same way clothes may offer a remedy for
nakedness. In the domain of personal information,
breaches occur when an individual’s personal infor-
mation is used without that person’s knowledge or
consent, especially when used for an unreasonable
purpose. To mitigate these risks, policy and law makers
turn to an international set of fair information prin-
ciples, which are used to guide the use of personal
information so that breaches are minimized.
As privacy has moved from a relatively simple ‘right
to be let alone’ [2] towards a right to informational
self-determination [1] over data about oneself, it has
become, in the words of one observer, ‘a frustratingly
protean concept’ [3]. Management of one’s identity has
become equally challenging. Individuals must not
only guard against the use and disclosure without
consent of their personal information, but also its
collection. Over the past decade the rise in identity
theft has been meteoric. It is now one of the chief
concerns of law enforcement and a major problem for
government-issued identification; in 2004 the US
Federal Trade Commission reported that identity theft
affects 10 million citizens annually, and accounted for
$52.6 billion in costs accrued by business for 2004
alone [4].
In this article, we examine the notion of privacy in
Hong Kong, a Special Administrative Region (SAR) of
the People’s Republic of China, and Ontario, Canada,
two jurisdictions that have similar data protection
frameworks and a similar level of consumer acceptance
for new technology. By doing so, we argue that (other
things being equal) government-initiated consultation
plays an important role in developing a comprehen-
sive, practical and shared concept of privacy, which
allows us to navigate the changing digital landscape.
While we do make references to private sector imple-
mentations of smart card technologies, the focus of the
article is on the role of public sector consultation and
how it affects the development of a shared concept of
privacy. We examine how this shared concept affects
the adoption of new and potentially privacy-invasive
technologies like smart cards. Our findings indicate
that, in an age of increasing sensitivity towards privacy
concerns, smart card initiatives must be open and
transparent in both the design of the architecture and
the consultation process with users in order for the
new initiative to be embraced.
2. Framing privacy in Hong Kong and
Privacy has been addressed by many before us and yet
it continues to evade a concise definition. Some
conceive of privacy as having four ‘dimensions’:
privacy of the body; privacy of personal behaviour;
privacy of personal communications; and privacy of
personal data, also known as informational privacy [5].
Despite the criticism that doing so risks invoking an
antiquated conceptualization of privacy, we refer to the
elements of privacy as articulated by Alan Westin’s
seminal book, Privacy and Freedom. In it, Westin
proposes four categories that help us apprehend the
concept of privacy: solitude, intimacy, anonymity and
reserve [6]. Westin’s conceptualization of privacy
remains compelling in part because it allows us to
examine an issue that remains sensitive in many
countries: anonymity. Anonymity is the ability to
remain unnoticed in public. North America continues
to show some sensitivity to this issue in particular. Half
a century after introducing the concept in his book
1984, George Orwell’s ‘Big Brother’ continues to evoke
strong feelings and makes regular appearances in
books, movies, radio, and television when describing
the power of the state [7, 8]. The war on terror waged
by the US (and other countries) has also contributed
significantly to the impression that the state will
exercise powers which are only weakly curbed by civil
rights. Moreover, as we found in our research, many
Hong Kong government documents use Westin’s
language. We feel that this provides a meaningful link
between Eastern and Western conceptions of privacy
and it is particularly relevant to our examination of
shared understanding of ‘privacy’ in that anonymity is
curiously absent from definitions of privacy in Asian
2.1. Hong Kong
Whereas in Ontario there is a fairly well established
tradition of privacy concerns both in law and in
culture, there are conflicting opinions about the
prevalence of privacy in traditional Chinese, and by
extension, contemporary Hong Kong culture. One
Journal of Information Science, 31 (5) 2005, pp. 354–364 © CILIP, DOI: 10.1177/0165551505055400
How much is too little?
privacy commissioner for Hong Kong indicated that
protection of personal data in Hong Kong is a matter of
culture and that Chinese people have not historically
possessed a strong concept of privacy [9]. Privacy as a
term is relatively new: interestingly, the characters that
altogether form the concept of data protection are
‘hide’, ‘private’, and ‘right’. While it is true that data
protection and privacy rights are relatively new,
studies show that privacy is nevertheless in the top five
concerns of citizens in the region [10].
When it comes to privacy, Hong Kong citizens’ con-
ceptions of privacy seem to share the qualities of
solitude, reserve, and intimacy enunciated by Westin
[6] in 1967, but seem to differ with regard to the
cultural desire for anonymity that seems to be more
prevalent in the West [11]. Chan’s excellent review of
familial privacy in Hong Kong shows that there are
empirical data to suggest the nuclear family unit is the
centre of individual privacy for Hong Kong citizens,
something that differs from the Chinese model where
the extended family is included in the familial sphere
[11]. As Chan notes: ‘Only anonymity, the capability to
remain unrecognized in a public [sic], does not apply
to the Chinese conception of privacy. The reason for
this is that anonymity has never been regarded as a
problem in Chinese society because people prefer to be
recognized and praised for their conduct or achieve-
ments by fellow clansmen and neighbours’ [11, p. 2].
While Liang [12, cited in 11, p. 15] argues that the
Chinese have not had concepts of privacy rights and
freedoms in the past, Chan points out that Hong Kong
is situated between the Chinese model and the Western
model, and shows that ‘individual rights of privacy are
subject to one’s status within a social group’ [11, p. 5].
Other sources show that the ‘right to privacy’ as a
means of protecting personal interests is ambiguous in
Chinese society and that the Chinese define ‘public’
and ‘private’ in abstract ethical terms [13], thus leading
Fahey to note that the ‘interpretation of privacy is cul-
turally specific’ [14, cited in 11, p. 2]. To Chan,
however, ‘zones of privacy’ (such as privacy and
boundaries in the family) are ‘culturally specific to
context, and . . . are believed to be constantly defined
and redefined in relation to trends in social change.’ In
the Hong Kong concept of privacy, these zones are
managed through asymmetric relationships (e.g. king–
vassal, father–son, husband–wife), and
the dominant in a dyad relationship can acquire the infor-
mation he/she wants from the other party because it is con-
sidered justifiable and natural to do so. A reversal of this
is an offence. Therefore, individual rights of privacy are
subject to one’s status within a social group. [11, p. 5]
When conceived of in these terms, invoking privacy
interests as a means for protecting rights to informa-
tional self determination seems odd to a Western eye,
because it seems to be an ineffective means of exerting
one’s control.
The variance of cultural and lifestyle norms indicates
that individuals’ preferences and social habits may
play a part in determining how comfortable that person
is in embracing new technology [15]. The cultural
values held by a group also play a significant role in the
adoption of new technologies. The developments in
e-commerce, for instance, build on the trust factor
inherent in many transactions, along with the long-
standing tradition of bargaining. Indeed, Chinese
culture relies heavily on the socialization effect of on-
site commerce (i.e. friendly conversations between the
vendor and the customer), which encourages business
success through the quality of personal relationships
Similarly, the fact that Hong Kong is so far ahead of
Ontario in its acceptance of smart card technology
seems to be supported by the fact that the notion of
anonymity is not as prevalent in the Hong Kong notion
of privacy. Cultural and lifestyle norms in Hong Kong
do not invoke anonymity as strongly as elsewhere – for
example, Ontario – and so the adoption of smart card
technology may have one less hurdle to overcome.
Residents of Hong Kong have had to carry
immigration-related identification since the late 1940s
and the government of Hong Kong is currently in the
process of re-issuing the existing cards with a multi-
application smart card called the Hong Kong Smart ID
card (HKID) [17]. The government plans to have the re-
issue complete by 2007. The card will be used for
immigration purposes but also has non-immigration
applications such as e-Cert (electronic certification for
virtual transactions), library card, and driving license-
related functions (the last being planned for around
2006). The presence of non-immigration applications
on a government-mandated identification card has
raised privacy concerns amongst citizens of Hong Kong
[18], and so as part of its implementation, the govern-
ment undertook a consultation process in order to ease
the smart card into general use. The government has
acknowledged that privacy is important to citizens of
Hong Kong and has taken steps to demonstrate compli-
ance with Hong Kong’s privacy legislation and best
practices. As an example of its policies of openness, the
government posted the Privacy Impact Assessment for
smart cards on its website. The consultation process
was intended to help the adoption of smart cards by
providing citizens with a common language to address
356 Journal of Information Science, 31 (5) 2005, pp. 354–364 © CILIP, DOI: 10.1177/0165551505055400
mutually held concerns. In turn, this allowed indi-
viduals gradually to reach a collective understanding of
the issues created by the uses of these new technol-
ogies. A common language is helpful in identifying and
framing concerns. Consequently, the common language
established a familiarity with the issues, and in turn
eased the adoption of technology – even though that
technology may be privacy-invasive.
The process of consultation helps build this common
language for privacy concerns. By virtue of the consul-
tation process taking place, citizens in Hong Kong have
had the opportunity to engage collectively in a
common discourse about privacy rights. The govern-
ment has provided details about the architecture of the
system, and has made public statements about what
they will and will not do with an individual’s personal
information. Given that Hong Kong has adopted smart
cards so widely, and Ontario has a more cautious
attitude, one can wonder about the extent to which
socio-cultural factors affect the adoption of new tech-
nologies such as smart cards.
2.2. Ontario, Canada
A multicultural and modern society, Canada is one of
the many countries in the world that has implemented
data protection legislation. As with all other countries
responding to the rapid growth of information com-
munications technology, Canadians have been faced
with integrating prevailing assumptions, beliefs and
values with the emerging digital environment.
Despite the almost ubiquitous loyalty cards in the
Canadian marketplace, Canadians have shown that
they are disturbed when it comes to allowing an
organization to track their activities, habits and
personal information. Smart card initiatives in Canada
have not been anywhere near as successful as they have
elsewhere in the world (such as the Hong Kong’s
Octopus card). In the mid-1990s, Mondex, an elec-
tronic cash-replacement initiative run by MasterCard,
was an illustration of this Canadian paradox. Although
Mondex was not any more privacy-invasive than any
other card, the gray zone between what kind of
personal information would (or could) be collected and
what an individual would have the right to control and
protect was enough to create a climate of suspicion
around the card’s daily use. It was ‘as if the technology
was introduced primarily for the purpose of gathering
more personal data’ [19]. Similarly, an initiative in
2002 to develop the Ontario Smart Card (and its
national equivalent in 2004) was met with an uproar.
Greater transparency in the Mondex smart card tech-
nology would perhaps have helped its acceptance and
adoption. As it was, the lack of transparency and
accountability on the part of the system designers and
owners of the technology (Mondex) prevented it from
being embraced sufficiently to reach the stage of
stabilization required for a new technology to be
adopted – people simply did not trust it, and since they
saw no reward for doing so, they let the idea die on the
vine [19].
3. Legislative frameworks
The protection of privacy is addressed both in common
law and in data protection legislation. Although
common law approaches to privacy are not universal,
they apply to Hong Kong and Canada, as both jurisdic-
tions are heavily influenced by the British system. This
article focuses on data protection legislation (common
law issues as they relate to privacy can be found else-
where [1, 9, 20]).
Data protection legislation in Canada and Hong Kong
is guided by international principles and standards that
have developed over the past few decades. The most
important influences on the contemporary data protec-
tion discourse are based on:
(1) the Fair Information Practices;1
(2) the guidelines developed by the Organization for
Economic Co-Operation and Development
(OECD) in 1980 [21]; and
(3) the European Union’s Data Directive of 1995 [22].
The latter provides a comprehensive framework
binding member states and outlines the obligations of
countries seeking to do business with European
members [1]. These three standards are effectively the
cornerstones of contemporary data protection legis-
lation around the world. The OECD Guidelines are
based on the fair information principles, which are
intended to give an individual – within some limits,
such as health or safety emergencies – a framework for
the collection, use, disclosure, retention and disposal
of personal information [23]. Canada and Britain are
both member countries of the OECD.
As early as 1980 the OECD recognized that, although
national laws and policies differed, there was a shared
and compelling economic interest in facilitating the
transborder flow of information while protecting
privacy interests. The eight principles published in the
Guidelines Governing the Protection of Privacy and
Transborder Flows of Personal Data are intended to
level the playing field for those organizations – in both
the public and private sectors – that handle or process
Journal of Information Science, 31 (5) 2005, pp. 354–364 © CILIP, DOI: 10.1177/0165551505055400
How much is too little?
personal data [23]. These agreements were, however,
introduced as much in the interests of enabling trans-
border data flow as protecting privacy.
Both Canada’s Personal Information Protection and
Electronic Documents Act (PIPEDA) and Hong Kong’s
Personal Data Privacy Ordinance (PDPO) function as
‘privacy laws’ by means of protecting against the unau-
thorized collection, use, or disclosure of personal data.
Both also give individuals the ability to access their
personal information, and both provide oversight
through the establishment of a Privacy Commissioner.
Whereas the PDPO applies to both the public and
private sectors, PIPEDA applies to the commercial
sector only, and is aided by a number of public sector
statutes and regulations for the purpose of data protec-
tion in the public sector.2The PDPO
covers any data relating directly or indirectly to a living
individual (data subject), from which it is practicable to
ascertain the identity of the individual and which are in a
form in which access or processing is practicable. It applies
to any person (data user) that controls the collection,
holding, processing or use of personal data. [24]
PIPEDA applies to identifiable information about an
individual, with some exceptions. One strong critique
of Canada’s legislation, however, is that it rests on a
complaint-based system: in order for wrongs to be
addressed under PIPEDA, an individual must know
(1) there has been an infringement of personal
privacy, and that
(2) certain kinds of complaints can be made to
enforce compliance.3
But if Canadians are unable to determine that a
breach of privacy rights has occurred, then they will
not complain. If they do not complain, then there are
no repercussions for those who infringe privacy. If
there are no repercussions, there is little incentive to
comply with data protection legislation (that is to say
the repercussions may be so insignificant as to make
not complying easier than complying). Because privacy
rights have in many ways been born out of marketplace
interests, government regulation is necessary to ensure
a fair playing field for all competitors, the same as
might be expected for other kinds of trade and
commerce. Government has taken the first step of intro-
ducing data protection legislation and making the
Privacy Commissioner an Officer of Parliament – a
process that did involve consultation with privacy
experts and industry leaders – but successful data pro-
tection legislation in Canada needs help from regular
citizens. Just like Hong Kong, Canada needs a public
discourse about privacy rights, a common language to
identify issues and frame shared concerns. If indi-
viduals are able to identify the body that goes with
their digital identity, they are also better able to
negotiate or navigate its use or protection – better able
to pick out its wardrobe, one might say.
4. ‘Selling’ the idea of smart cards: a
comparative analysis
Hong Kong and Ontario share many similarities, such
as an existing data protection legislation, a strong focus
on the economy, an active press, and an involved
research and academic community. Similarly, both
Hong Kong and Canada have been considering smart
card use at various points in time. Hong Kong has
moved forward with such initiatives while Canada still
falters in its implementation and adoption of smart
card technology.
4.1. Diffusion of smart cards
Since their invention in 1974 by French journalist
Roland Morentic, smart cards have been widely
adopted in France, Spain, Holland (all of whom are
world leaders in smart card use) and so on [25]. In
1998, Europe accounted for 73 percent of worldwide
smart card use. According to industry analysts, Asia’s
growth in smart card use was expected to represent 24
percent of global markets by 2003. Growing from
US$1.5 billion in 1999, the 2003 global market for
smart cards was expected to be US$8 billion [26].
Smart cards are now found in GSM phone technology,
satellite television receivers, student identification,
casino e-cash, and multi-use identification badges.
Smart cards are plastic wallet-sized cards embedded
with a computer chip capable of storing and retrieving
information. Smart card technology can also serve as a
verification device for identity management schema, or
as an electronic wallet. The ability to connect a few
databases and make smart cards a de facto surveillance
tool is obvious. Smart cards are also tools of conven-
ience, and their ease of use is a common reason for
their adoption. But it is likely that there is more than
one reason for a society to adopt the widespread use of
smart card technology.
In Hong Kong, mobile commerce has emerged as a
viable option for purchasing items without having to
carry any cash. It has proved to be a very attractive
option for making purchases. The ubiquitous Octopus
card [27] is a metropass of a sophisticated nature.
358 Journal of Information Science, 31 (5) 2005, pp. 354–364 © CILIP, DOI: 10.1177/0165551505055400
Introduced in 1997, by 2000 there were 6.4 million
cards in circulation performing 4.5 million transactions
daily [28]. They can store over US$100, can be re-
loaded and the balance easily checked at add-value
stations, and can be used on a networked system of
retailers and services throughout Hong Kong. There
are a number of factors that affect smart card adoption
in Hong Kong, including ease of use, convenience,
efficiency, reduction of clutter, better service, and
e-commerce potential. As Ure notes,
In a fast-paced, indeed hyperactive, society like Hong Kong
consuming delay is regarded as a major inconvenience,
especially during rush hours, so a premium is placed upon
the immediacy of micro-payment where the item in
question is routinely consumed with very high frequency.
Taking advantage of this market is therefore a com-
pelling business opportunity for Hong Kong busi-
nesses. The Octopus system has now made its way into
7-Eleven and Starbucks for micro-payments, and its
radio frequency identification (RFID) technology is
small enough to fit into special Octopus watches and
rings. The system also connects 23 separate categories
of service, from paying for laps at the swimming pool
to gaining access to the workplace, to vending
machines, cake shops, fast food, retail, and parking.
With an annual growth rate of 5% GDP for the last 20
years, Hong Kong seems a likely market for the poten-
tial future use of smart card technology.
In Canada, the Mondex initiative was a similar
attempt to introduce smart cards in Ontario from 1997
to 1998 [30]. Mondex, however, was never successfully
introduced in Ontario. A number of reasons were
advanced to explain this failure: the prohibitive cost of
entry that provided little demonstrable benefit to users;
a lack of interest from consumers that translated into
disincentive for merchants; and the general lack of
interest from users who did not buy into the idea. Some
suggest that these combined factors led to the abandon-
ing of the Mondex initiative [19]. Other sources
indicate that Mondex’s failure in the marketplace was
a result of a lack of sustainable financial backing [30].
Ultimately, the Mondex initiative seemed to have failed
to engage consumers sufficiently with a valuable
product that could convince them to adopt it for
regular use. It is interesting to note that at the exact
same time as consumers in Ontario were rejecting the
Mondex card, Hong Kong was seeing the introduction
of both the government’s Hong Kong ID card and the
Octopus card: within the first eight weeks of being
made available, the population of Hong Kong had
snatched up two million cards – 16 times the number
of Hong Kong passports [31]. In 1998 Master Card Inter-
national reported that, since its introduction in late
1997, 110,000 customers in Hong Kong had applied for
Mondex cards, and that 6000 merchants were already
on board [32].
Technologies such as smart cards have the ability to
collect, store, and recall large amounts of personal data.
Misuse of personal information presents a threat to
adoption of smart cards because it represents a loss of
ability to control one’s personal information. Overcom-
ing this hurdle (e.g. by negotiating this tension between
convenience and privacy) is essential if one is serious
about ‘selling the idea’ of the smart card and eliciting
interest from potential users – something neither the
Mondex nor the Ontario government’s Smart Card
Project ever succeeded in achieving.
In Hong Kong, various claims of adequate privacy
protection have been made:
Smart cards, with on-card intelligence and processing
capabilities, are uniquely capable of enabling compliance
with strong privacy guidelines and of enforcing the privacy
and security policies [set by the health care organization].
Smart cards can protect personal information that is on the
card, provide authenticated information access, and
authenticate the legitimacy of other components during a
transaction. When used appropriately and correctly, smart
cards are the most privacy-protective of any ID card tech-
nology and provide unique features that both improve the
system’s security and protect the individual cardholder’s
privacy. [33]
These and other bolder claims – for example, that
smart cards will reduce fraud or enhance security – are
looked on with cautious scepticism by the privacy
community. While it may be true that smart cards offer
enhanced security features, security does not equal
privacy. Privacy is indeed contextual: the application
of its protective principles must involve a judgement
call on behalf of the person controlling the information.
4.2. The role of consultation
Much can be learned from examining the role of con-
sultation in the process of informing users about smart
card technology leading up to its adoption. We
examined newspaper articles, published reports, con-
ference proceedings, industry statistics, promotional
material, and information published by government to
assess the differences between Hong Kong and
Ontario’s approach to consulting with the public when
introducing smart cards. Our findings point toward the
potential of a well-conducted consultation process in
Journal of Information Science, 31 (5) 2005, pp. 354–364 © CILIP, DOI: 10.1177/0165551505055400
How much is too little?
enabling a common language to identify privacy
concerns. An open and informed public debate has the
advantage of focusing the attention of a large user base
on a particular discourse – privacy – and can help
initiate the dialogue needed in order to develop a
common language for privacy interests. Once this
common language is adopted by a potential user base,
the introduction of new technologies like smart cards
may not seem as foreign or threatening to users because
they have more access to information about the poten-
tial and the pitfalls.
4.2.1. Consultation in Hong Kong. From 1996, when
the Basic Law of Hong Kong was reformed to bring in
the PDPO [1], to a conference in 2002 at the University
of Hong Kong organized by the Hong Kong Centre for
Comparative and Public Law, the government in Hong
Kong has shown its efforts to be open and transparent
about the use of smart card technologies. The sub-
committee for research on the PDPO received 80
submissions by various special interest groups such as
the Consumer Council, the Journalists Association, the
Society of Accountants, the Association of Banks, and
the Direct Marketing Association [1]. The 2002 Hong
Kong University forum – convened to discuss the ROP
(Registration of Persons) Amendment’s provisions
among other smart card issues – was attended by
government officials, privacy scholars, lawyers,
researchers, and human rights advocates. The govern-
ment’s presence at conferences such as these, the pub-
lication of material on its website addressing privacy
concerns, and the active part it took in the smart card
debate in Hong Kong’s media4point to the multiple
attempts to engage the public on privacy and smart
card issues.
Many criticisms of the smart cards in Hong Kong
were expressed in the public discourse. Evidence of
this can be seen in conference materials, journal
articles, news media, and government communi-
cations. The Privacy Commission, for instance, indi-
cated its concern for the security of the personal
information while in the care of the HKID initiative.
Security, the Privacy Commissioner has argued, is not
synonymous with privacy and security provisions do
not necessarily address all aspects of privacy [9]. The
contextual nature of privacy was raised, particularly
with regard to provisions that facilitate an individual’s
information self-determination. A prominent voice in
the Hong Kong debate, Graham Greenleaf, made a sub-
mission to the Privacy Commissioner about concerns
that use of the proposed non-immigration applications
of the card was not voluntary [35, cited in 9]. Greenleaf
went on to note that, because there was no Privacy
Impact Assessment planned for the card, it was likely
that the use of the card by private sector organizations
would slowly creep in to the government-mandated
system. Concerns about the 1997 hand-over of control
of Hong Kong from Britain to the People’s Republic of
China were also raised as areas of concern over the
governance of the card regime.
To these criticisms and concerns, the government
replied that the technology was still untested, which
meant that it was difficult to produce an assessment on
its impact on privacy interests [9, 35]. However, in
response to public concerns, the government altered
the smart card’s planned applications [9]. Measures
were taken to:
(1) limit the amount of personal information stored
on the card itself, and ensure the storage of
personal data on back-end systems of those
government departments concerned (i.e. personal
information will not be shared indiscriminately
between government departments);
(2) make the enhanced features of the card (non-
immigration related applications such as a
driver’s license, library card, storage of digital
e-Cert and change of address information) volun-
tary instead of mandatory; and
(3) limit access to personal information on the card or
accessed through the card. Personal information
stored on the card would be encrypted, and ‘only
authorized persons will have access to the data on
the card’ [34, p. 13].
Despite Hong Kong being a Special Administrative
Region of the PRC, a factor from which one may
conclude a lesser degree of democracy, Hong Kong’s
implementation of a smart card project has on the
contrary proved to be open, transparent, and respon-
sive to public concern and criticism. The Hong Kong
government seemed forthcoming about hearing public
concerns and addressing them in a transparent manner.
The government responded to the concerns of the
Privacy Commissioner by demonstrating changes to the
information architecture for the project and attempting
– within limits so as to preserve safeguards – to show
transparency about the system’s design [9]. The fact
that such a debate exists may have contributed to
raising the profile of privacy in the minds of citizens
and potential users, which may have ultimately
affected their understanding of the card’s multi-
application potential. The government’s own consulta-
tion process has engendered this public discussion
and, despite there still being many detractors and many
concerns left to fully address, the fact that discussion
360 Journal of Information Science, 31 (5) 2005, pp. 354–364 © CILIP, DOI: 10.1177/0165551505055400
took place publicly provides a forum where regular
citizens – those ultimately affected by what the card
can do – have a voice in its adoption.
4.2.2. Consultation in Ontario, Canada. In contrast to
Hong Kong, the Ontario Smart Card Project, which pre-
sumably took place in a North American setting, with
its assumptions of broad and democratic participation,
was shrouded in secrecy, in attempts to control the
media, and a significant lack of administrative trans-
parency [36].
The Ontario Smart Card Project (OSCP) was intended
to be a multi-application smart card that would intro-
duce and enable efficiencies in the delivery of govern-
ment service. The card was intended to ‘replace OHIP
[Ontario Health Insurance Plan] cards, drivers’
licenses, birth certificates, hunting and fishing licenses,
and other cards that provide access to government
services’ [7].
Consultation for the Ontario Smart Card, which took
place in 2000–1, was twofold: with industry groups
and with the public. The former was instrumental in
the government’s process of developing a smart card
strategy. The latter, although planned for in later stages
of the project, never took place to any meaningful
degree. In her comprehensive review of the Ontario
Smart Card Project, entitled Smart Card, Weak Effort?
Krista Boa [37] recounts the history and development
of the OSCP. Through freedom of information requests
spanning an entire year, Boa pieced together enough
information to truly understand what the project
The process of consultation can take many forms: in
the private sector, consultation can be considered as
market research with focus groups; in the public sector
consultation means canvassing the opinions of con-
stituents in order to draft laws or policies that are
representative of the wishes of the people [38]. Never-
theless, as Boa points out, ‘For information to be useful
in the consultation process, the OECD argues that it
must be ‘complete, objective, relevant, easy to find and
understand’ [37, p. 69]. Using the government’s own
documents Boa shows how the government sought to
control the message about the card (‘to maintain [a]
reactive approach and low media profile’ ostensibly
aimed at the public so that government could assemble
its background players from key stakeholders before
‘going public’ [37, p. 87]). Boa’s work shows that the
OSCP was anything but consultative.
Indeed, no documents for consultation with the
public were released, although ‘the project planned to
conduct open public consultations in 2001 or 2002
based on a consultation paper that was to provide
details about the card’ [37, p. 92]. The OSCP was
cancelled before public consultation could occur;
consultation was planned for the later stages, and
‘there is no evidence in the FOI documents and indexes
that the consultation paper was drafted’ [37, p. 92]. The
opinion polling and surveying that did take place with
the public was with less than 1000 people (in a
province of 11 million). In fact, although the Ontario
government at the time did plan to have a consultation
process including a discussion paper, requests for
feedback, and advertising of the consultation with a
cover letter to all ‘key stakeholders’, the government
actually tried to minimize the amount of information
the public received. Despite not reaching the consulta-
tion phase because of the project’s cancellation in
January 2001, government documents obtained by Boa
show that the government preferred a four-week circu-
lation of proposals without public hearings because it
would ‘achieve[s] consultation goals . . . within a fairly
controlled process and reasonable timeframe’ [37,
p. 107].
Taking this position put the government 180 degrees
from advice given to it by privacy advocates, who
argued that consultation should be done in the design
phase, and that ‘open, public consultation should
occur after the project is capable of making available
detailed information on the infrastructure design and
the card architecture, as well as the PIA [Privacy
Impact Assessment] results’ [39, as cited in 37, p. 130].
Even the government’s hand-picked pollsters reported
from their surveys that ‘the results distinctly show that
increasing the public’s access to information about the
project and the technologies increases their level of
confidence in the project.’ Indeed, privacy advocates in
Ontario argued at the time that ‘The potential risks of
smart card based systems to personal information
privacy, predominantly in the form of increased poten-
tial for surveillance, warrant public consultation based
on publicly available information about what is being
considered and what is at stake’ [39, as cited in 37,
p. 137]. Furthermore, in the words of Roger Clarke,
‘Public concerns about privacy-invasive and repressive
applications of information technology must be
reflected not only in the designs implemented by
scheme operators, but also in policies implemented by
governments’ [40]. The Privacy Commissioner of
Canada at the time himself said that he was ‘not
opposed to the use of smart-technology, just as long
as the information it contains or access to it is suf-
ficiently segregated and secured’ [41]. Indeed, public
consultation requires that the designers actually listen;
Journal of Information Science, 31 (5) 2005, pp. 354–364 © CILIP, DOI: 10.1177/0165551505055400
How much is too little?
otherwise the process becomes ‘political choreography’
[42, cited in 37, p. 147]. The government committed
itself on a number of occasions to the protection of
privacy, but was never forthcoming about the technical
aspects of the card. Biometrics were considered, but
were deemed too contentious to proceed with [43].
Consultation has taken place at the federal level for
PIPEDA (for which industry and special interest groups
were primarily consulted), and for Canada’s proposed
National ID Card. And to be fair, the Ontario govern-
ment did undertake extensive consultation for drafts of
provincial privacy legislation – the provincial Personal
Health Information Protection Act (PHIPA) being one
result of this consultation process. The consultation
process for the National ID Card in Canada was
suspended and only ever produced an interim report
[44], but reappeared periodically in the news [45, 46].
Ultimately, though, the legislatively mandated
outreach functions of the Privacy Commissioners in
Canada and the provinces notwithstanding, neither the
provincial government in Ontario nor the federal
government of Canada have meaningfully engaged the
public in debate about the use of smart card technology.
5. Lessons learned
So, why is it that Hong Kong has such a high rate of
adoption of smart card technology when Ontario does
not? What accounts for such high use of this potentially
privacy-invasive technology in one jurisdiction while
in the other it is relatively unsuccessful?
Undoubtedly, there are many factors that come into
play when considering early adopters of smart card
technology (for example, convenience, reducing clutter
in the wallet). However, cultural attitudes toward
privacy (how people feel about it or how they make
sense of it) and the nature of the public debates around
it are, we argue, equally important to take into con-
sideration. After all, technology is shaped by society
and society in turn is shaped by it. Hong Kong and
Ontario seem to have had different understandings of
what constitutes privacy (for example, the importance
of anonymity) as well as different experiences with the
consultation process. The fact that the government in
Hong Kong took active steps to engage the public in
debate about smart card applications and to respond to
its concerns by designing the technology in such a way
as to demonstrate built-in transparency, accountability,
and safeguards demonstrates the effects that such a
consultation process can have. This interaction
between public and government enhances the way that
regular citizens understand how privacy works in their
daily lives, lives that are very much entwined with the
flow of personal data. In Ontario, relatively little
dialogue between architects and users occurred, and in
response the new technology was viewed with scepti-
cism and distrust, leading to an anaemic public dis-
cussion about the consequences of using smart card
technologies. The result has been a perceived lack of
transparency and confusion in Ontario about the real
motives and incentives for implementing and using
smart card technology.
Since 2003, a Toronto-based company called Dexit
has entered the marketplace. Dexit is an RFID-based
contactless cash-replacement micro-payment program
where users pay for anything up to $100 worth of trans-
actions per day at fast food restaurants, drug stores, and
coffee shops in downtown Toronto. By mid-2004,
32,000 users had signed up for an account. Dexit
operated much like a pre-paid mobile phone, which
makes the April 2004 deal between Bell Canada and
Dexit for national distribution an interesting develop-
ment. Have attitudes changed in Ontario since the
failed Mondex initiative? Has there been sufficient
public discussion about smart card technology to allow
users to overcome scepticism and adopt their wide-
spread use as Hong Kong has done? We will watch in
anticipation over the near future to see whether things
are changing in Canada. Future studies could focus on
adoption rates and cultural attitudes towards privacy,
and by so doing cast empirical light on the study of the
elusive digital subject in Canada.
The process of broad public consultation is an
important dimension of the development of a collective
framing of privacy because it focuses attention and
creates consensus on shared values, terminology, and
understanding of protection measures (such as best
practices or legislation). Consultation has the after-
effect of providing a common base level for under-
standing the issues and the language. One pitfall for
consultation is that it may be limited to specialists and
subject-matter experts (in this case privacy experts), the
general public not being actively engaged. However,
government-initiated consultation may also have the
effect of injecting increased transparency into the
domain of specialists and making complex issues more
accessible for public debate. (This may not be a
responsibility that government necessarily wants, the
Ontario Smart Card Project being one example of how
a political initiative was unenthusiastically stick-
handled through the province’s bureaucracy.)
In this article, we have argued that citizens in
Hong Kong have a better notion of what their digital
362 Journal of Information Science, 31 (5) 2005, pp. 354–364 © CILIP, DOI: 10.1177/0165551505055400
identities comprise. This, in turn, enables them to
make more informed decisions about adopting smart
card technologies. We acknowledge that this may not
be the only reason, but with regard to privacy, it seems
important to provide users with the information and
knowledge to assess the potential and challenges that
new technologies may have for one’s personal infor-
mation. Better informed decisions can then be made
regarding the negotiation of one’s personal boundaries
or digital identities.
The authors would like to thank the following indi-
viduals for their comments at various points of the
research for this article: Guy Herriges, Andrew
Clement, Lisa Austin, Ian Kerr, Roger Clarke, Krista
Boa, Adam Fiser, Rong Wu, Colin Johnston, The
Toronto East Asia Library at University of Toronto, The
Hong Kong Centre at the University of Toronto, and
Adam Norman.
(1) See US Department of Health, Education and Welfare,
Records, Computers and the Rights of Citizens, a Report
of the Secretary’s Advisory Committee on Automated
Personal Data Systems, U.S. Department of Health, Edu-
cation and Welfare (now Health and Human Services),
published by MIT Press in 1973.
(2) In Ontario, those that apply are the Freedom of Infor-
mation and the Protection of Privacy Act R.S.O. 1990,
c. F.31, the Municipal Freedom of Information and Pro-
tection of Privacy Act R.S.O. 1990, c. M.56, and in the
health sector, the Personal Health Information Protection
Act. S.O. 2004, chapter 3, Schedule A; at the federal level:
the Privacy Act R.S. 1985, c. P-21, and the Access to
Information Act R.S. 1985, c. A-1.
(3) PIPEDA section 5(1) requires organizations to comply
with the principles in Schedule 1; section 11(1) gives an
individual the ability to file a complaint for a contraven-
tion of the privacy principles; and Principle 10 – Chal-
lenging Compliance gives an individual the ability to
challenge an organization’s compliance with the privacy
protection principles in the Act.
(4) ‘Our objective is to make use of the smart ID card to
provide more convenient, user-friendly and value-added
services and to drive the wider use of information tech-
nology in the community. There has been extensive
public consultation and we are fully aware of the
concerns expressed over choice and privacy’ [34, p. 13].
[1] R. Wacks, Data privacy: reforming the law, Hong Kong
Law Journal 26 (1996) 149–51.
[2] S.L. Warren and L.D. Brandeis, The right to privacy,
Harvard Law Review 4 (1890) 193–220.
[3] R. Wacks, Privacy and anonymity, Hong Kong Law
Journal 30(1) (2000) 177–83.
[4] Federal Trade Commission, Identity Theft Focus of
National Consumer Week (2005). Available at: www. (accessed 4 July
[5] Management Board Secretariat, Government of Ontario,
Privacy Impact Assessment Guidelines (Queen’s Printer,
Toronto, 2001). Available at:
english/fip/pia/pia1.pdf (accessed 6 September 2004).
[6] A. Westin Privacy and Freedom (New York, Atheneum,
[7] T. Boyle, Smart card chills privacy experts, The Toronto
Star (15 January 2001) 06.
[8] F. Chan, Privacy chief warns of identity theft, South
China Morning Post (Hong Kong) (4 March 2000) 2.
[9] R.C.Y. Chung, Hong Kong’s ‘smart’ identity card: data
privacy issues and implications for a post-September
11th America, Asian-Pacific Law & Policy Journal 4(2)
(2003) 518–68.
[10] Q. Chan, New smart cards prompt serious privacy
concerns, South China Morning Post (Hong Kong) (8
August 2000) 14.
[11] Y.K. Chan, Privacy in the family: its hierarchical and
asymmetric nature, Journal of Comparative Family
Studies 31(1) (2000) 1–17.
[12] S. Liang, Zhongguo Wenhua Yaoyi [The Essence of
Chinese Culture] (Joint Publishing Company Limited,
Hong Kong, 1987).
[13] Y. Jin, Zhongguo ren dui siyinquan de lijie [Chinese idea
of privacy right], Ming Pao Monthly (February: 1994)
[14] T. Fahey, Privacy and the family: conceptual and empiri-
cal reflections, Sociology 29(4) (1995) 687–702.
[15] Visa Research, Consumers say smart cards can revolu-
tionize way to pay, The Asian Banker Journal (17
August 2001).
[16] A.M. Efendioglu and V.F. Yip, Chinese culture and e-
Commerce: an exploratory study, Interacting with Com-
puters 16(1) (2004) 45–62.
[17] Government of Hong Kong S.A.R., Smart ID. Available
at: (accessed 30
August 2004).
[18] C. Ong, Smart ID cards may cut time to track down
disease; tagging technology touted as means of catching
up with potential virus carriers, South China Morning
Post (Hong Kong) Technology Post (8 April 2003) 1.
[19] F. Stalder, Making Money: Notes on Technology as
Environment (PhD Thesis, Faculty of Information
Studies, University of Toronto, 2001).
Journal of Information Science, 31 (5) 2005, pp. 354–364 © CILIP, DOI: 10.1177/0165551505055400
How much is too little?
[20] L. Austin, Privacy and the question of technology, Law
and Philosophy 22(2) (2003) 119–66.
[21] OECD, Guidelines on the Protection of Privacy and
Transborder Flows of Personal Data (1980). Available at (accessed 5 July 2004).
[22] European Commission, Directive 95/46/EC of the
European Parliament and of the Council of 24 October
1995 on the protection of individuals with regard to the
processing of personal data and on the free movement
of such data, Official Journal of the European Com-
munities: Legislation 281/23 (1995).
[23] OECD, Guidelines Governing the Protection of Privacy
And Transborder Flows of Personal Data, Annex to the
Recommendation of the Council, 23rd September 1980
Part II: Basic Principles of Application (OECD, Paris,
2002) 14.
[24] Office of the Privacy Commissioner for Personal Data,
Hong Kong, The Ordinance at a glance. Available at:
(accessed 4 July 2004).
[25] M. Loh Ho-sang, High security spurs technology: Hong
Kong lags behind in smart card savvy, South China
Morning Post (Hong Kong) (5 December 1995) 14.
[26] S. Abrahams, Asia setting a smart pace in adopting card,
South China Morning Post (Hong Kong) (29 June 1999) 5.
[27] Octopus Card website. Available at: www.octopuscards.
com/eng/index.jsp (accessed 28 August 2004).
[28] P. Leung, Octopus enters fast-food shops, South China
Morning Post (Hong Kong) Business Post (22 July
2000) 3.
[29] J. Ure, Mobile commerce in Hong Kong: a research
paper, [presented to the] E-Mob Research Conference,
Center for Telecom Management, Davidson Conference
Center, Los Angeles, CA., USA (15 January 2003).
[30] S. Craig and R. Blackwell, Mondex pulls plug on Guelph
pilot project, Globe and Mail (31 October 1998). Avail-
able at
(accessed 29 August 2004).
[31] K. Sinclair, Octopus keen to stretch its tentacles, South
China Morning Post (Hong Kong) (27 October 1997) 23.
[32] Overwhelming response to Mastercard’s Mondex smart
cards in Hong Kong, Malaysia Economic News (17
February 1998).
[33] Smart health cards: HIPAA and beyond, Smart Card
Talk 9(8) (2004). Available at: www.smartcardalliance.
org/newsletter/august_04/feature_0804.html (accessed
24 August 2004).
[34] C. Yau, Secretary of Information, Technology and Broad-
casting, Access to personal data on smart card will be
strictly controlled, South China Morning Post (25
January 2002). [Letter to the Editor]
[35] G. Greenleaf, Summary submission concerning the
“Smart” ID card and the Registration of Persons
(Amendment) Bill, LegCo Paper No. CB(2) 2620/
01–02(01) (2002). Available at:
1e-scan.pdf (accessed 5 July 2004).
[36] T. Hamilton, ‘Smart card’ plan gets the scissors, The
Toronto Star (22 January 2002) A04.
[37] K. Boa, Smart Card, Weak Effort?: Consultation in the
Ontario Smart Card Project (MISt thesis, Faculty of
Information Studies, University of Toronto, 2003).
[38] OECD, Citizens as Partners: Information, Consultation
and Public Participation in Policy-making (OECD, Paris,
[39] A. Cavoukian, Open Letter to David H. Tsubouchi, Chair
of Management Board Secretariat (2001). Available at:
(accessed 15 May 2002).
[40] R. Clarke, Chip-based ID: Promise and Peril (1997).
Available at:
IDCards97.html (accessed 14 June 2004).
[41] T. Hamilton, Privacy abuses too easy with card; smart
card rapped by Privacy Commissioner, The Hamilton
Spectator (27 March 2001) D03.
[42] G. Cheeseman and H. Smith, Public consultation or
political choreography? The Howard government’s
quest for community views on defense policy, Aus-
tralian Journal of Internal Affairs 55(1) (2001) 88–100.
[43] A. Clement, Ontario’s project on ‘smart card’ a bad idea,
The Toronto Star (10 July 2001) A17.
[44] House of Commons Standing Committee, A National
Identity Card for Canada? Report of the Standing Com-
mittee on Citizenship and Immigration, Interim report
October 2003. Available at
cimmrp06-e.pdf (accessed 15 July 2004).
[45] J. Bronskill, Ottawa to issue digital passport, The
Toronto Star (19 July 2004).
[46] J. Bronskill, I.D. proposals spark concern, The Toronto
Star (6 September 2004).
364 Journal of Information Science, 31 (5) 2005, pp. 354–364 © CILIP, DOI: 10.1177/0165551505055400
... The term "digital footprints" was coined by Bailey and Caidi (2005), who discussed the influence of smart card-based systems for privacy in Hong Kong and Ontario. One could thus say that the term's origin lies in the fields of surveillance and privacy, although these were not the only aspects researched regarding digital footprints. ...
... As mentioned, Bailey and Caidi (2005) and Witte (2006) were among the first researchers to identify the phenomenon of the digital footprint. Bailey and Caidi recognized that the use of smart card systems is very privacy-invasive. ...
... Some of these criteria cannot be described or measured using scientific methods, but they must be seen in the light of the social context and culture of the person measuring (Bailey and Caidi, 2005;Capurro, 2005;Freude and Freude, 2016). It must therefore be stated that a quantitative measurement of digital footprints is simply impossible. ...
Full-text available
By combining the concepts of privacy, big data, and digital footprints related to the field of education, the current thesis demonstrated that decisions about the use of particular software tools have a societal relevance. Decisions must not only be based on juridical or economical criteria but must also include additional aspects, such as individual, cultural, and moral perceptions in regard of privacy. This work is unique in developing a method for the evaluation of digital footprints. Based on the state of art of research and the findings from this study, a model was developed and proposed that operationalizes how particular digital tools and services can be evaluated in regard of their contribution to the digital footprints of an individual. By virtue of the ease in using the model, called "Digital Footprint Estimation Model," individuals can better reflect upon the effects of digital tools. The model can further assist decision makers, like educational authorities or teachers, to choose between alternative products and can serve as suggestion for further development of acceptable applications. For this purpose, the results of this research have been embodied in a practical application. Through a sequential explanatory mixed methods study, the privacy attitude, perceived usefulness of digital tools, digital footprint awareness, digital footprint experience and digital footprint practice of Austrian teachers in regard of demographic variables and the use of particular software tools were investigated. Unlike previous studies, this study also scrutinized the relationships among the variables of the digital footprint, so this study made a significant contribution to the concept of the digital footprint. The study represents a valuable contribution to practice, as it derives recommendations for action for the Austrian school system based on the qualitative and quantitative results.
... Yet smart cards remain poorly accepted among citizens ( Smith, 2005), as evidenced by notable examples of launch failures (e.g. Bailey and Caidi, 2005;Truman et al., 2003). Research on smart card adoption also is scarce and usually focused on specific kinds of services, such as mandatory smart IDs ( Chan et al., 2010) or university cards ( Lee et al., 2003), which limits its applicability to resolve adoption refusals in public services. ...
... Our analysis, based on a Spanish sample, instead implies an intermediate level of group identity relevance. Previous research already indicates differences in smart card adoption depending on national culture ( Lee et al., 2003); consultation processes should prepare and adapt the launch of these services to match different cultural attitudes ( Bailey and Caidi, 2005). In this line, the post hoc analysis revealed that place identity is formed based on cultural, historical and political factors. ...
This chapter introduces the concept of m-government and its implications for both citizens and public institutions. Although m-government is currently in an initial phase of development, its potential in the relationship between the public sector and the citizen is obvious because of, for example, the large number of mobile phone users among the public. In addition, the development of m-government initiatives generates a good number of bene?ts for the public sector that operates it as well as for the public, who experience improved accessibility to electronic public services. Because of this, this chapter analyses m-government initiatives developed by the Zaragoza City Council (Spain) in order to describe its bene?ts, implications for the relationship between the City Council and the citizen, and the future perspectives of these initiatives. We have speci?cally chosen a country like Spain due to the fact that mobile telephone usage is widespread and, at the same time, local government level has been chosen as the citizen participates more in the relationship with the public sector when it is at the local level.
... National cultural dimensions are pertinent to the context of user acceptance of sensor-based hospital technology because, in the healthcare environment, the perception of surveillance as well as ethical and privacy-related concerns about the use of patient data differs among national cultures (Bailey & Caidi, 2005; 12 Spiekermann, 2008). A case in point is the launch, reception, and occasional discontinuance of medial health records systems in some countries (Lapointe & Rivard, 2005). ...
... National cultural dimensions are pertinent to the context of user acceptance of sensor-based hospital technology because, in the healthcare environment, the perception of surveillance as well as ethical and privacy-related concerns about the use of patient data differs among national cultures (Bailey & Caidi, 2005; discontinuance of medial health records systems in some countries (Lapointe & Rivard, 2005). Additionally, the implementation failures may be exacerbated in hospital environments in which users degrees of power differ, affecting user acceptance. ...
Sensor-based systems have healthcare transformation potential but acceptance problems jeopardize their diffusion. We theorize that perceived technology threats induce anxiety and diminish usage intentions. We use data from the pre-implementation phase in German and Australian hospitals to explore the formation of three types of anxieties, their impact on usage intentions, and the relationships between them and national culture. We find negative effects of relational and work-related anxieties on usage intentions while surveillance anxieties show no association. The anxieties can be partially linked to national culture characteristics. Our findings support implementation initiatives and offer a deeper understanding of technology-induced anxieties.
... Despite the fact that almost three decades later many users in citizen-to-government or business-to-government interactions prefer telephone or front desk over website (Østergaard Madsen & Kraemmergaard, 2018;Reddick & Anthopoulos, 2014;Reddick & Turner, 2012;Van den Boer, 2014) we see that governments further digitize their service landscape (Pieterson, Ebbers, & Østergaard Madsen, 2017). As a matter of fact, several government organizations are on a strategy where the use of technology (Bailey & Caidi, 2005;Ng-Kruelle, Swatman, Hampe, & Rebne, 2006;Smith, 2005) or digital channels (Ebbers, van de Wijngaert, & Lange, 2016;Østergaard Madsen & Kraemmergaard, 2016) is more or less mandatory. As it happens, mandatory online services are common practice in countries such as Denmark and the Netherlands for delivering businesses services. ...
Full-text available
Due to the massive uptake of online communication, people receive countless notifications on a given day. Governments also send more and more information via computer mediated communication instead of writing a paper letter to citizens. As a consequence, governments are increasingly exposed to the risk that citizens do not notice or act upon notifications that refer to governmental (sometimes legally binding) messages. This in turn may result in non-compliant behavior. Through a vignette study in three large scale surveys held in the Netherlands in 2015 and 2016, we have investigated how the channel (paper letter channel vs. e-mail channel that notifies that there is a digital letter available at a web portal) influences the speed with which people intend to read the actual content of a message while taking digital skills and expectations of the contents of a message into account. Results show that the channel has a significant and strong impact on the speed with which citizens read the contents of the message. This means that there is a risk that the efficiency gains that are won by communicating electronically are lost in effectiveness due to increased non-compliance because people do not actually see the government information that is sent to them. Therefore, it is important to think of new ways to effectively notifying people of new information in an online environment.
... Most existing studies in the LBS domain were conducted using a single sample but prior information systems (IS) studies have cautioned that the same behaviour of a given model cannot be guaranteed across cultures (Aleke, Ojiako, andWainwright 2011, Tan et al. 2010). For instance, comparing between Hong Kong and Canada, Bailey and Caidi (2005) found that differences in cultural notions of privacy may affect the acceptance of IT-based innovations. Privacy is a serious concern in Australia but less so in Bangladesh Dwivedi 2014). ...
Full-text available
The purpose of this study is to establish and examine the significance of a consumer acceptance and continuance model for location-based services (LBSs) through the integration of perceived entertainment gratification (PEG) and perceived application quality (PAQ) with the technology acceptance model (TAM). By arguing that behavioural intention (BI) does not automatically lead to actual use (AU), we investigated the moderating effect of facilitating conditions (FC) on the relationship between BI and AU. A quantitative study was conducted in Australia and Bangladesh; data were obtained from multiple sources by systematic sampling of the distribution of questionnaires. For data analysis we applied the partial least square (PLS) method. The results indicate that, in both Australia and Bangladesh, perceived usefulness (PU), PEG and PAQ have significant influence on user attitude (UA), which has a subsequent effect on BI. Interestingly, perceived ease of use (PEoU) does not have a direct effect on UA but indirectly influences it through PU—confirming the mediating effect of PU. Further, FC has a moderating effect between BI and AU. The implications of these findings and directions for future research directions are also discussed.
... Based on the revised new product adoption model, we have five main constructs: promotion, perceived product attributes, consumer innovativeness, perceived risk, and intention of using. The measurement items under a specific construct are derived from a comprehensive literature review and discussion with a senior expert: promotion (Bliss, 1996;Hancock & Humphrey, 1998;Lambert et al., 2005;Worthington & Hallsworth, 1999), perceived product attributes (Aubert & Hamel, 2001;Bailey & Caidi, 2005;Elliot & Loebbecke, 1998;Mcelroy & Turban, 1998;Plouffe, Vandenbosch, & Hulland, 2001;Worthington & Hallsworth, 1999), perceived risk (Featherman & Pavlou, 2003), consumer innovativeness (Plummer, 1974), and user's intention (Table 1; Moore & Benbasat, 1991;Plouffe, Vandenbosch, & Hulland, 2001). A 5-point Likert scale is used in the questionnaire. ...
Full-text available
The importance of using multipurpose smart cards in transit systems has been recently recognized by users and transit operation agencies. However, only a few studies have focused on users' perspectives when researching the use of multipurpose smart cards in transit systems. This study thus adopts the revised new product adoption model and considers the specific characteristics of transit use as a research framework to examine the effects of constructs on consumer intention to use smart cards in transit systems. The first stage of the study employs structural equation modeling (SEM). Critical attributes identified during the first-stage survey are then extracted to design the stated preference method questionnaire for the second stage. During this stage, user choice behavior is investigated and changes in the adoption rates of different payment alternatives are predicted under various scenarios. Data from two metropolitan areas are then analyzed and compared. SEM analysis results reveal that consumer use intention is significantly influenced by perceived product attribute, promotion strategy, and perceived risk. The last one is demonstrated to have an effect on perceived product attribute for consumers in terms of metropolitan difference. Initial card cost, transit fare, consumption discount, and personal information protection are further considered as critical factors that affect the possible adoption rate of smart card use in transit systems based on the analytical results obtained by the mixed logit model. The sensitivity analysis results indicate that reducing transit fare and protecting personal information significantly impact adoption rate changes of different payment alternatives. This study also offers several managerial implications and suggests future research directions.
RFID plays a critical role in the improvement of supply chain management and consumer applications. This chapter introduces a brief history of RFID and how it works. The recent shift of incorporating RFID into consumer-oriented products has raised serious concerns of customer privacy and security. These concerns are rooted in the fact that consumers are typically unaware that their purchases are being tracked and monitored, as well as the fear of private information being hacked or stolen via insecure RFID systems. This chapter provides a theoretical debate over the privacy rights and addresses the consumer role in the RFID technology. This chapter concludes that the government must ensure legislation to maintain protections on the individual's security and privacy in the society.
The adoption of information and communication technology (ICT) applications for the development of innovative, sustainable, and smart cities has become a new model for municipal cooperation between government and corporations. Smart cities contribute to social stability and economic prosperity by encouraging and enabling corporations to invest their resources and expertise in the cities, and by providing more prosperity and contentment for their citizens. Smart city services provide citizens with an improved living environment and increase their overall quality of life. Since the citizens are the users of the services, it is vitally important that their ideas and perspectives are taken into account during the planning and management of such services. This study surveyed citizens in Taiwanese cities that had all participated in the Intelligent Community Forum smart city campaigns at least once. The findings reveal that citizens are willing to accept and use ICT-based smart city services if the services are designed with innovative concepts that secure their privacy and offer a high quality of services. The more they use the services, the higher the quality of life achieved. The only factor that does not influence citizens' acceptance and usage of ICT-based smart city services is their city engagement. The study contributes to the academic literature and also provides practical pointers for cities and technology suppliers embarking on smart city initiatives.
This study extends privacy concerns research by providing a test of a model inspired by the ‘Antecedents – Privacy Concerns – Outcomes’ (APCO) framework. Focusing at the individual level of analysis, the study examines the influences of privacy awareness (PA) and demographic variables (age, gender) on concern for information privacy (CFIP). It also considers CFIP’s relationship to privacy-protecting behaviours and incorporates trust and risk into the model. These relationships are tested in a specific, Facebook-related context. Results strongly support the overall model. PA and gender are important explanators for CFIP, which in turn explains privacy-protecting behaviours. We also find that perceived risk affects trust, which in turn affects behaviours in the studied context. The results yield several recommendations for future research as well as some implications for management.
RFID plays a critical role in the improvement of supply chain management and consumer applications. This chapter introduces a brief history of RFID and how it works. The recent shift of incorporating RFID into consumer-oriented products has raised serious concerns of customer privacy and security. These concerns are rooted in the fact that consumers are typically unaware that their purchases are being tracked and monitored, as well as the fear of private information being hacked or stolen via insecure RFID systems. This chapter provides a theoretical debate over the privacy rights and addresses the consumer role in the RFID technology. This chapter concludes that the government must ensure legislation to maintain protections on the individual's security and privacy in the society.
This article examines the nature of privacy in the family. It provides an empirical illustration of privacy zonings within the private sphere of the family that is based on survey data from 414 Chinese residents in Hong Kong. The results of the analysis point to two main features in the respondents' conception of privacy: first, the permeability of interpersonal boundaries shows a hierarchical pattern linked to the intimacy hierarchy between the individual and the other family members; second, the level of desire for privacy is different between counterparts in dyad relationships, such as husband-wife, parent-child, brother-sister. Although differences do not occur across an privacy components, they appear to be connected to the asymmetric power structure in the traditional Chinese family.
This paper offers a critical assessment of the distinction between the public and the private spheres as often used in family studies. In place of the focus on a single public/private dichotomy which is common in sociological usage, it points to the multiple, cross-cutting, context-specific zones of privacy found in social life. It provides an empirical illustration of the nature and effects of such zones of privacy by examining some instances of social policy development in Ireland in the present century where questions of family privacy were very much at issue. It concludes by suggesting that the public/private dichotomy should be understood not as an objective division of the world into two spheres, but as a flexible cultural image which is put to use in wide variety of situations so as to serve a great diversity of interests and purposes.
On 27 June 2000, the Howard Government released a public information paper on defence which set in train a process of public consultation in which the people's views were sought on a range of defence and defence-related issues. This paper examines why the Government chose to go to the people, how and by whom the community consultation was conducted, who was consulted and listened to, and how what was heard at the public meetings component of the process was both interpreted and reported. The paper concludes that the public consultation process was more about politics than policy; it is inappropriate for the Government to claim or imply that it has heard from the 'Australian people' or even 'the majority of the community' on the issues raised; and the consultation process and its outcomes are not entirely risk-free for the Government and the defence establishment.
This article examines the nature of privacy in the family. It provides an empirical illustration of privacy zonings within the private sphere of the family that is based on survey data from 414 Chinese residents in Hong Kong. The results of the analysis point to 2 main features in the respondents' conception of privacy: first, the permeability of interpersonal boundaries shows a hierarchical pattern linked to the intimacy hierarchy between the individual and the other family members; second, the level of desire for privacy is different between counterparts in dyadic relationships, such as husband–wife, parent–child, brother–sister. Although differences do not occur across all privacy components, they appear to be connected to the asymmetric power structure in the traditional Chinese family. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Technology is not simply eroding our privacy — it may also be forcing us to rethink what we mean by privacy. Increasingly, what we are worried about are practices that involve collecting, using and disclosing information that is not sensitive or intimate and that is increasingly collected in public — concerns that do not easily fall within the domain of traditional privacy theory. This article argues that technology need to force us to reinvent privacy although we must sharpen and clarify what we mean by privacy and why we are concerned about losses of privacy. The account I offer takes being subject to the public gaze as the paradigmatic case of a privacy loss and argues that insulation from the public gaze protects two important aspects of individuality. This account provides a justification for privacy that accomplishes several goals: it takes us beyond simply appeals to social conventions, and it allows us to more clearly differentiate between privacy and the reasons why privacy may be overridden, as well as between privacy and emerging issues regarding information uses and misuses that are not best described as privacy issues — problem that I argue plague alternative accounts.
Differing characteristics of local environments, both infrastructural and socio-economic, have created a significant level of variation in the acceptance and growth of e-commerce in different regions of the world. This paper focuses on the impact of these infrastructural and socio-economic factors on e-commerce development in China. The findings provide insights into the role of culture in e-commerce, and the factors that may impact a broader acceptance and development of e-commerce in China. In this paper, we present and discuss our findings, and identify changes that will be required for broader acceptance and diffusion of e-commerce in China. Cultural issues such as ‘socializing effect of commerce’, ‘transactional and institutional trust’, and ‘attitudes toward debt’ were determined to be the major impediments to e-commerce in China. However, our research also shows that, even though their means for payment are different, the most enlightened, able, and sophisticated consumers in China participate in e-commerce in the same frequencies as the mainstream e-commerce consumers in the US.