Article

A Stochastic Order of Shape Variability with an Application to Cell Nuclei Involved in Mastitis

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Abstract

Variability of shapes of bidimensional closed curves is a key matter in many fields of research. A statistical order of bidimensional shape variability is introduced in this paper. For such a purpose a special class of random elements is considered. The order is defined on such a class and the main properties of the order are analyzed. Such an order involves the curvature of a special parameterization of bidimensional closed curves. The new order can be used as a basis for implementing statistical procedures, such as hypothesis testing on variability of shapes. An example is developed by means of the image analysis of cell nuclei, namely the shapes of cell nuclei in mastitis-affected cow milk and non-affected cow milk are compared.

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I Functional on Stochastic Processes.- 1. Stochastic Processes as Random Functions.- Notes.- Problems.- II Uniform Convergence of Empirical Measures.- 1. Uniformity and Consistency.- 2. Direct Approximation.- 3. The Combinatorial Method.- 4. Classes of Sets with Polynomial Discrimination.- 5. Classes of Functions.- 6. Rates of Convergence.- Notes.- Problems.- III Convergence in Distribution in Euclidean Spaces.- 1. The Definition.- 2. The Continuous Mapping Theorem.- 3. Expectations of Smooth Functions.- 4. The Central Limit Theorem.- 5. Characteristic Functions.- 6. Quantile Transformations and Almost Sure Representations.- Notes.- Problems.- IV Convergence in Distribution in Metric Spaces.- 1. Measurability.- 2. The Continuous Mapping Theorem.- 3. Representation by Almost Surely Convergent Sequences.- 4. Coupling.- 5. Weakly Convergent Subsequences.- Notes.- Problems.- V The Uniform Metric on Spaces of Cadlag Functions.- 1. Approximation of Stochastic Processes.- 2. Empirical Processes.- 3. Existence of Brownian Bridge and Brownian Motion.- 4. Processes with Independent Increments.- 5. Infinite Time Scales.- 6. Functional of Brownian Motion and Brownian Bridge.- Notes.- Problems.- VI The Skorohod Metric on D(0, ?).- 1. Properties of the Metric.- 2. Convergence in Distribution.- Notes.- Problems.- VII Central Limit Theorems.- 1. Stochastic Equicontinuity.- 2. Chaining.- 3. Gaussian Processes.- 4. Random Covering Numbers.- 5. Empirical Central Limit Theorems.- 6. Restricted Chaining.- Notes.- Problems.- VIII Martingales.- 1. A Central Limit Theorem for Martingale-Difference Arrays.- 2. Continuous Time Martingales.- 3. Estimation from Censored Data.- Notes.- Problems.- Appendix A Stochastic-Order Symbols.- Appendix B Exponential Inequalities.- Notes.- Problems.- Appendix C Measurability.- Notes.- Problems.- References.- Author Index.
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