Article

Effects of constructing versus playing an educational game on student motivation and deep learning strategy use

Authors:
  • Radboud University, Nijmegen and Leiden University, the Netherlands
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Abstract

In this study the effects of two different interactive learning tasks, in which simple games were included were described with respect to student motivation and deep strategy use. The research involved 235 students from four elementary schools in The Netherlands. One group of students (N = 128) constructed their own memory ‘drag and drop’ game, whereas the other group (N = 107) played an existing ‘drag and drop’ memory game. Analyses of covariance demonstrated a significant difference between the two conditions both on intrinsic motivation and deep strategy use. The large effect sizes for both motivation and deep strategy use were in favour of the construction condition. The results suggest that constructing a game might be a better way to enhance student motivation and deep learning than playing an existing game. Despite the promising results, the low level of complexity of the games used is a study limitation.

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... Since computer games have become an integral part of the daily lives of children (Gee, 2003;Granic, Lobel and Engels, 2014;Olson, 2010;Prensky, 2001), there has been interest in digital games for educational purposes (Denner, Campe and Werner, 2019;Ke and Abras, 2013). The review of the literature has shown that games can facilitate learning through increased motivation (Boyle et al., 2016;Connolly et al., 2012;Vos, Meijden, and Denessen , 2011;Wrzesien and Alcaniz Raya, 2010) and provide "immersive and compelling social, cognitive, and emotional experiences" (Granic, Lobel and Engels, 2014, p.1). A number of studies also highlighted the impact of game playing on children's learning, suggesting that games can offer play opportunities that are very important for promoting children's development in numerous areas including, Mathematics, literacy and critical thinking (Boyle et al., 2016;Evans et al., 2013;Habgood, Ainsworth and Benford, 2005;Shin et al., 2012). ...
... As a result of the growing emphasis on teaching children 21 st century skills, a few studies have explored transferrable skills such as collaboration, communication, and problem solving that children develop when they design their own computer games (Bermingham et al, 2013;Ching and Kafai, 2008;Denner and Werner, 2007). Simultaneously, the popularity of teaching children how to code has inspired researchers to think about the relationships between computer game making, CT and metacognitive awareness (Games and Kane, 2011;Vos, Meijden, and Denessen, 2011). Thus, empirical research into facilitating CT through game design, or using game making as a space for children to develop metacognitive skills, is still limited, which is why I have chosen to make it the focus of this study. ...
... Self-regulation as a metacognitive function also is a crucial element of the metacognitive process, as was mentioned earlier in this chapter. Although Vos, Meijden and Denessen (2011) share some important points, they were not able to provide an insight into the students' learning process as they did not use any structured qualitative data. ...
Thesis
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This thesis examines children’s thinking, learning and metacognition when designing their own computer games. The study aims to understand more about what kind of learning takes place, and how it emerges whilst children are authoring their own computer games. The aim is to get an insight into the cognitive processes students exercise that activates the ‘thinking for learning’, in particular in relation to the role of the teacher and digital game making activities as a learning space. Whereas mainly case studies and design-based research projects have been used as methodologies to study learning with digital game making, this study gives an ethnographic account by observing children’s problem-solving activities from moment to moment. Field notes were collected by examining the language and the context children use for their ‘self’ explanations and group discussions, the gestures, the culture of their relationship with their teacher, peers and technology in their classroom settings. A metacognitive skills self-report instrument was created and used to investigate the metacognitive skills that children develop whilst working on their games. The data were collected for a period of eight months, through participant observations, in-depth interviews, informal conversations and video recordings of children’s group discussions in a primary school in London. Learning logs and problem-solving sheets were introduced for the ten focus children to record their thinking when solving problems. During this research there were many opportunities to observe the changes in a child’s reasoning over time, which provided an insight into children’s mental activities. The study found that game design activities have many learning benefits for children. The main themes that are emerged from the study include metacognitive awareness; CT; learning in curriculum subjects; and developing transferrable 21st century skills. Furthermore, the role of conversation in triggering thinking processes and self-regulated learning are discussed using data from the study. Although the study provides insight into different aspects of learning during game design, it also highlights the difficulty in evaluating these different learning benefits. The results contribute to the growing body of knowledge about how to evaluate children’s computational skills by providing a multiple evaluation model and a Metacognitive Skills Instrument (MSI) for measuring metacognitive skills that children develop whilst making their computer games. The challenges and limitations of these methods are discussed to form questions for the future studies.
... Another factor that affects the motivation of individuals is the complexity of the work and the relatedness they feel with the work they participate in [16]. An example of task complexity affecting motivation is the research by Vos et al., where they divide elementary school students into two groups: those who will construct a game and those who will play an already constructed game [16]. ...
... Another factor that affects the motivation of individuals is the complexity of the work and the relatedness they feel with the work they participate in [16]. An example of task complexity affecting motivation is the research by Vos et al., where they divide elementary school students into two groups: those who will construct a game and those who will play an already constructed game [16]. The research results concluded that the students who constructed a game felt more motivated than the students who only had to play due to the higher complexity of the task [16]. ...
... An example of task complexity affecting motivation is the research by Vos et al., where they divide elementary school students into two groups: those who will construct a game and those who will play an already constructed game [16]. The research results concluded that the students who constructed a game felt more motivated than the students who only had to play due to the higher complexity of the task [16]. ...
... Students' way of processing the information (deep or surface approach) during the learning process may be a factor that affects learning outcome (Marton & Säljö, 1976). Students' learning approach was found to relate to not only learning factors (including learning motivation and peer interaction) (Shin et al., 2019;Vos et al., 2011), but also HOTS (Phan, 2011). This reveals that learning approach may be the mediator in the relationship between students' learning motivation, peer interaction, and HOTS. ...
... In contrast, students who adopted a surface approach based their learning on extrinsic motivation for positive and negative reinforcement (Marton & Säljö, 1976). Vos et al. (2011) found that students' intrinsic motivation in game-based learning positively related to deep learning approach. Asikainen and Gijbels (2017) verified that surface approach to learning refers to students selectively memorizing, based on motives or intentions that are extrinsic to the real purpose of the task-such as a fear of failure or keeping out of trouble. ...
... At the same time, deep approach was significantly and positively related to higher order thinking skills. Previous research supports these findings (Phan, 2011;Shin et al., 2019;Vos et al., 2011). One interesting result of this study found that EM does not have any negative relationship with HOTS and deep approach. ...
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Collaborative inquiry-based learning (CIBL) is a notable instructional method used to nurture students’ higher order thinking skills. Few studies, however, have examined the mediating effect of learning approach (i.e., deep approach and surface approach) as an essential component in collaborative inquiry-based learning and the association between learning factors and higher order thinking skills. The present study conducted a semester-long survey of 80 college students who had studied using the collaborative inquiry-based learning approach. The mediating effects of learning approach on the association between four learning factors (i.e., intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, collaboration, and communication) and higher order thinking skills were examined using Partial least square (PLS) analyses. The results showed that deep approach served as a significant mediating variable in the relationship between the four learning factors and higher order thinking skills, while the surface approach did not. This study also found that collaboration was the only learning factor that had both indirect (via deep approach) and direct effects on higher order thinking skills. The fact that the relationship was examined in the collaborative inquiry-based learning context may explain the reasons for this. The findings of the study have practical implications for educators, indicating that guiding students to use the deep approach as often as possible may prove beneficial. Instructors can help students who use surface approach to gradually adjust to deep approach with careful instructional scaffoldings. Educators should also provide students with more opportunities to collaborate during inquiry-based learning activities.
... After a while, a second viewer from each group can come and read the sheet for more details and so on. Memorizing and explaining orally what is written as mathematics, understanding what is crucial to remember compared to what is not so important, communicating with peers, are skills worked in this method [42]. ...
... A player flips two cards, if they are associated, she/he can have a try at a third one or pick them up. Wins the student with most cards [42]. ...
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This introduction presents Active Learning Methodology, surveying its history, main existing tools and supporting evidence, with an emphasis on mathematics and higher education, in particular engineering studies. This work is part of the DrIVE-Math project, developing innovative mathematical teaching strategies in engineering studies.
... Online learning in the form of learning videos can improve learning experiences, motivation, and student activities [14]. Types of technology learning media such as games can increase students' interest in learning mathematics [15][16] [17], increase student motivation [18], Increase students' problem-solving abilities [19], and student learning outcomes [20]. The type of learning media, such as power points can increase self-confidence but do not have a positive effect on the development of student motivation [21]. ...
... An attractive media display and the content of mathematical material that is optimally packaged will affect students' interest, and motivation in learning and students' views of mathematics material will be positive. Multimedia technology can increase students' motivation and interest in learning mathematics [ [18]. Students will be able to learn while having fun [22]. ...
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Technology learning media has been used in learning mathematics in junior high school. The aim of this study is to describe the responses of junior high school students toward the use of technology learning media. This type of research is a survey study. Participants were 100 junior high school students. Data collection techniques using open-ended questionnaires. Data were analysed using descriptive quantitative method. The gathered data were classified into advantages and disadvantages category to explain how the participants react to their experience in using technology learning media in mathematics classroom. The results showed that the students gave positive responses towards the use of learning media in mathematics classroom since it is interesting, helpful and increased the technology literacy of the students. However, some also reported that the use of media could be difficult, especially the one which asking for internet access, decrease the use of textbook and limit their interaction with classmate. Also, looking too long to the screen can be dangerous for the eye’s health. The findings indicate that their learning style influenced students’ responses. Different styles lead to varying perceptions of the use of learning media in studying mathematics.
... It promotes the initiative and creativity of students, and there are constant trial and error and modification iterations in the game production process. This process cultivates students' problem-solving ability and deep understanding of knowledge (Vos, N., van Der Meijden, H., & Denessen, E. 2011) . ...
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The knowledge of deep learning experts, the cultivation of high-order thinking and the input of emotions are the goals pursued by current education. Game-based learning refers to the use of appropriate tools to build games to support student learning. This approach provides learners with powerful contextual and real-world questions that effectively stimulate students' interest in learning and motivation to learn. Develop high-level thinking and creativity in the process of design, development and debugging to achieve deep learning. The study collected the test scores of the students, the final works and the programming notes. Through qualitative and quantitative analysis, the results are as follows: The game design-based learning is enough to promote students' deep understanding and application of programming knowledge; in terms of thinking, the experimental group performance There are more complex task interactions and problem solving; in terms of emotions, the experimental group has invested more time energy and expressed more interest. At the same time, the study found that collaboration can make up for the lack of learning methods to a certain extent and improve students' thinking level. This method provides an idea for improving the current programming teaching.
... Research suggests that young people learn science concepts more deeply when they engage in the design, not just the play, of digital media (Kafai, 2009;NRC, 2011). Indeed, learning by design approaches have been shown to support multiple facets of learning including motivation (Vos et al., 2011), content understanding (Doppelt et al., 2008;Honey and Kanter, 2013), and engagement (Doppelt et al., 2008;Honey and Kanter, 2013;Fisher et al., 2014). Learning by design can situate LBAR production in the interdisciplinary and authentic space of one's own community, which, in the context of AR Girls, can engage participants in the practices of computational thinking and science (e.g., Litts, Lewis and Mortensen, 2020). ...
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Taking part in creating location-based augmented reality (LBAR) experiences that focus on communication, art and design could serve as an entry point for art-oriented girls and young women towards career pathways in computer science and information communication technology. This conceptual paper presents our theory-based approach and subsequent application, as well as lessons learned informed by team discussions and reflections. We built an LBAR program entitled AR Girls on four foundational principles: stealth science (embedding science in familiar appealing experiences), place-based education (situating learning in one’s own community), non-hierarchical design (collaborations where both adults and youth generate content), and learning through design (engaging in design, not just play). To translate these principles into practice, we centered the program around the theme of art by forming partnerships with small community art organizations and positioning LBAR as an art-based communication medium. We found that LBAR lends itself to an interdisciplinary approach that blends technology, art, science and communication. We believe our approach helped girls make connections to their existing interests and build soft skills such as leadership and interpersonal communication as they designed local environmentally-focused LBAR walking tours. Our “use-modify-create” approach provided first-hand experiences with the AR software early on, and thus supported the girls and their art educators in designing and showcasing their walking tours. Unfortunately, the four foundational principles introduced considerable complexity to AR Girls, which impacted recruitment and retention, and at times overwhelmed the art educators who co-led the program. To position AR Girls for long-term success, we simplified the program approach and implementation, including switching to a more user-friendly AR software; reducing logistical challenges of location-based design and play; narrowing the topic addressed by the girls design; and making the involvement of community partners optional. Overall, our initial work was instrumental in understanding how to translate theoretical considerations for learning in out-of-school settings into an LBAR program aimed at achieving multiple complementary outcomes for participating girls. Ultimately, we achieved better scalability by simplifying AR Girls both conceptually and practically. The lessons learned from AR Girls can inform others using LBAR for education and youth development programming.
... They are utilized at all the stages of education including primary (Papanastasiou et al., 2017), secondary (Earp et al., 2015), tertiary (Rodrıguez-Cerezo et al., 2014), as well as industrial training (Riedel & Hauge, 2011). It has been used to teach diverse topics in the fields such as science (Dias & Agante, 2011), mathematics (Kim & Chang, 2010), social science (Furi o et al., 2013), and language (Vos et al., 2011). They promote inquisitiveness while providing a novel, fun, and challenging environment, presumably stimulating learning (Griffiths, 2002). ...
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Detection and responding to a player’s affect are important for serious games. A method for this purpose was tested within Chem-o-crypt, a game that teaches chemical equation balancing. The game automatically detects boredom, flow, and frustration using the Affdex SDK from Affectiva. The sensed affective state is then used to adapt the game play in an attempt to engage the player in the game. A randomized controlled experiment incorporating a Dynamic Bayesian Network that compared results from groups with the affect-sensitive states vs those without revealed that measuring affect and adapting the game improved learning for low domain-knowledge participants.
... Finally, the Ranking Scoreboard could be accessed to see and compare the performance of individual players. Based on the learning by playing model, if students could not get the right answer, the items would appear again randomly; that is, they could learn from trial and error to eventually get the answers right so as to get a better score (Vos et al., 2011). ...
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Gestalt perception relates to inferring a holistic scene from separate elements. Using this theory, an application game named Gestalt Puzzle was designed for students to play by recognizing a few parts of an image to reason the whole image of a particular object. Cognitive style can be divided into field independence (FI) and field dependence (FD) depending on individuals’ ability to identify minor components of a whole image. To understand the gameplay learning effect, this study explored how players’ field-independent cognitive style (FI-CS) interacted with their gameplay performance as the two types of cognitive styles were mediated by their self-efficacy and gameplay anxiety in a competition setting. Data from 112 sixth-grade students were collected for confirmatory factor analysis with structural equation modeling. First, participants completed a trial to familiarize themselves with the functions and mechanism of the game; second, all of the participants were divided into teams to compete against each other for 15 minutes by identifying Chinese paintings; they then completed a questionnaire. The results of this study indicated that FI-CS was positively related to gameplay self-efficacy, but negatively related to gameplay anxiety; perceived utility value could be positively predicted by gameplay self-efficacy, but negatively predicted by gameplay anxiety; and perceived value was positively related to game performance. Moreover, FI-CS was positively related to perceived value mediated by gameplay self-efficacy and gameplay anxiety. The implication of this study is that the Gestalt perception game may engage FI-CS learners with higher levels of gameplay self-efficacy, perceived value, and performance, but a lower level of gameplay anxiety. The present study findings imply that teachers can use Gestalt perception games to promote students’ learning of Taiwanese culture.
... The construction task might have been more authentic or meaningful than playing a game and invoking students' activities more. Additionally, constructing a game demands more student activity and stimulates a deep learning approach more than playing a game [18]. ...
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Serious Games indicate positive effects on pre-K and K-6 students and scaffold learning in a more engaging and motivating approach. Research has shown that Serious Games provide students with variety, the potential for widening participation, and the ability to work at their own pace. Serious Games based Learning has proven its added value in almost every aspect of the curriculum knowledge, skills, and attitudes, namely, Reading, Writing and Language learning, Geometric and Mathematical thinking, Strategic and Reasoning abilities, Critical thinking, Problem solving and Creativity, Executive Control skills, Physics, Geography and Science courses.
... Digital games, by presenting learning activities in significant contexts controlled by the learner, have the capability to trigger curiosity and interest towards the educational subject [50]. Moreover, recent research [15,29] evidences that involving students in the creation of their own games may enhance their interest toward the addressed topic, a sense of ownership and a better understanding of the value of what is learned. ...
Conference Paper
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... Some studies claim that we need to get a better understanding about how games and its elements affect outcomes such as engagement (Hamari et al., 2016). This cluster considers all kind of outcomes that can result from working with games and its elements such as engagement and motivation that are central outcomes to analyze the effectiveness of games (Muntean, 2011;Vos, van der Meijden, & Denessen, 2011). As our study focusses on education and learning, we considered performances as another outcome. ...
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In recent years, using game concepts for educational purposes in digital environments has become continually more popular and relevant. Games can be used to motivate and engage users in regular system use and, in the end, support learners in achieving better learning outcomes. In this context, different kinds of game concepts exist, such as gamification or serious games, each with a different perspective and usefulness in digital learning environments. Because developing and using with game concepts in digital learning environments has recently become more important, and developing them is still not fully established, questions arise about future research directions involving games in digital learning. Therefore, this study aims to identify the state of the field and determine what is relevant when using game concepts in digital learning. To achieve this goal, we present the results of a bibliometric analysis considering more than 10,000 articles between 2000 and 2019 and summarize them to develop a research agenda. This agenda supports researchers and practitioners in identifying avenues for future research. We contribute to theory by providing a detailed understanding of the relevance of game concepts in digital learning. We propose a research agenda to assist researchers in planning future approaches with and about gamification concepts in digital learning. Practical implications are proposed by demonstrating what should be considered when using game concepts in learning environments.
... Educational games in a narrow sense are electronic games specially developed for educational purposes (Moreno-Ger et al., 2008). Educational games in a broad sense not only involve traditional games (Vos et al., 2011), but also include all educational software, teaching aids, toys with the characteristics of both education and fun. Educational games should be developed by considering the objectives and functions of education. ...
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The design, implementation, and outcome of game-based learning for learners with disabilities have not been sufficiently examined systematically. Particularly, learner-based and contextual factors, as well as the essential roles played by various stakeholders, have not been addressed when game-based learning applications are used in special education. Therefore, a systematic literature review using the Activity Theory (AT) was conducted to analyse studies about game-based learning for learners with disabilities. Content analysis of 96 studies reported relevant information with respect to each activity component—(a) subject (learners with disabilities), (b) technology (game-based learning applications), (c) object (target skills or behaviours), (d) rules (implementation procedure and performance measures), (e) community (learners with disabilities, special education professionals, and parents), (f) division of labour (among learners, professionals, and parents) and (g) outcome (performance of target skills or behaviours). Furthermore, this study identified existing gaps from the reviewed studies, including occasional lack of parental engagement, difficulty of standardising performance measures due to the heterogeneity of learner profiles and contradictions (e.g., opposing views among experts on the role of educational games in social interactions). Finally, recommendations were made under each activity component. The study concluded that both general and domain-specific guidelines should be created for each disability category proposed in this review to assist practitioners who wish to use game-based learning with learners with disabilities.
... Game theory and deep learning concepts have been widely used in the education field also. Vos et al. [95] have combined game theory and deep learning to understand students' motivation in education. Urbani [101] has combined game theory and deep learning for music genre classification. ...
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This paper provides a comprehensive overview of the applications of game theory in deep learning. Today, deep learning is a fast-evolving area for research in the domain of artificial intelligence. Alternatively, game theory has been showing its multi-dimensional applications in the last few decades. The application of game theory to deep learning includes another dimension in research. Game theory helps to model or solve various deep learning-based problems. Existing research contributions demonstrate that game theory is a potential approach to improve results in deep learning models. The design of deep learning models often involves a game-theoretic approach. Most of the classification problems which popularly employ a deep learning approach can be seen as a Stackelberg game. Generative Adversarial Network (GAN) is a deep learning architecture that has gained popularity in solving complex computer vision problems. GANs have their roots in game theory. The training of the generators and discriminators in GANs is essentially a two-player zero-sum game that allows the model to learn complex functions. This paper will give researchers an extensive account of significant contributions which have taken place in deep learning using game-theoretic concepts thus, giving a clear insight, challenges, and future directions. The current study also details various real-time applications of existing literature, valuable datasets in the field, and the popularity of this research area in recent years of publications and citations.
... The items were modified to suit the BSG playing context and the environment in Taiwan. The items used to measure service, system, information quality, user satisfaction, and reuse intention were primarily adapted from Wang et al. (2019), while the items used to measure model-reality fit were mostly adapted from Vos et al. (2011) andTao et al. (2015). In addition, the items used to measure learning effectiveness were adapted from Premkumar and Bhattacherjee (2008) and Liaw (2008), and those used to measure entrepreneurial self-efficacy were mainly adapted from Cox et al. (2002). ...
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Business simulation game systems (BSGs) have become an important learning tool for higher education in business and management fields in recent years. However, few studies have investigated how BSG systems affect perceived learning effectiveness and entrepreneurial self-efficacy (ESE). Based on the previous information systems literature, this study developed and validated a BSG systems success model. The newly proposed success variable of model-reality fit, which was conceptualized as the fit between the BSG model and the real-world business environment, was also examined. Data collected from 152 college students in Taiwan was tested against the research model using the partial least squares (PLS) approach. The results indicate that system quality and model-reality fit positively influence user satisfaction, which in turn promotes reuse intention, learning effectiveness, and ESE, while service quality and information quality do not. Furthermore, service quality and model-reality fit play a critical role in determining reuse intention, although system quality and information quality do not have a significant effect on reuse intention. Other than the insignificant impact of user satisfaction on ESE, the results also confirm that user satisfaction and reuse intention positively predict learning effectiveness and ESE.
... Other factors that may influence CS learning are motivation and engagement. Previous research has shown that high motivation and engagement encourage higher achievement in CS (Ke, 2014;Robertson & Howells, 2008;Vos et al., 2011). Thus, identifying student variables will allow a determination of whether certain learning components are appropriate or essential to incorporate into CS curricula and whether they adequately promote students' motivation and engagement. ...
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Incorporating computer science (CS) into K–12 education has been highlighted in recent years as an important way to promote computational thinking skills. The aim of this study was to investigate teachers’ experiences with a new CS curriculum and address challenges to teachers during implementation. This study was designed to evaluate CS curriculum implementation in order to inform CS practices. Interview and survey data were collected and analyzed. Findings showed that teachers had high confidence in teaching CS; however, they sought professional development to acquire content knowledge and instructional strategies to effectively engage students in learning. As for the curriculum and students, the scope of the curriculum needed to be adjusted along with students’ prerequisite skills and knowledge. As for the context, some schools did not have appropriate facilities. Recommendations for implementing CS curricula and implications are discussed.
... Educational games in a narrow sense are electronic games specially developed for educational purposes Habgood and Ainsworth, 2011). Educational games in a broad sense not only involve traditional games (Vos et al., 2011) (such as origami, seven-piece puzzle, messaging game, etc.), but also include all educational software, teaching aids, toys with both the characteristics of education and fun, for example, electronic game tables developed for educational use, commercial games with educational value, and some interesting educational software, etc. Educational games should be developed by considering the objectives and functions of education. ...
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Game-based learning (GBL) can allow learners to acquire and construct knowledge in a fun and focused learning atmosphere. A systematic literature review of 42 papers from 2010 to 2020 in this study showed that the current difficulties in implementing GBL in classrooms could be classified into the following categories: infrastructure, resources, theoretical guidance, teacher’s capabilities and acceptance of GBL. In order to solve the above problems, the study constructs a technology enhanced GBL model, from the four parts of learning objective, learning process, learning evaluation, and smart classroom. In addition, this study adopted the Delphi method, inviting a total of 29 scholars, experts, teachers and school managers to explore how to implement GBL in smart classrooms. Finally, the technology enhanced GBL model was validated and the utilization approaches were provided at the conclusion part.
... To increase the appeal of classrooms to students and enhance learning outcomes, educators have increasingly employed emerging gameful and playful approaches, such as gamification [14,15], serious games [16,17], simulations [18,19] and roleplay [20,21] into their pedagogy and learning environments in an effort to make education more engaging and efficient for students (e.g., [22]). One of these practices is adding stories, storytelling and role play to teaching, which teachers and educational professionals have long utilized to make learning more relevant for students. ...
Conference Paper
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For decades, educators have been exploring various ways to, not only educate, but also to create engaging classrooms and to foster positive social experiences amongst students. To these ends, many educators have now taken steps towards utilizing storification in their pedagogy and classrooms in order to appeal students and positively impact their social relationships. Research, grounded theory methods, 10-day ethnographic fieldwork, participatory observations, interviews with 11 educational staff and focus groups with 79 students at a middle school employing a Harry Potter story theme, this research implies that storification can hinder antisocial behavior. The values and messages teachers delivered through the employed story and change of learning environment and pedagogy manifested teacher dedication and effort to students, which fostered their prosocial behavior in the school.
... However, it is often uncertain whether players are learning while they are having fun. [21] Games that promote higher-order thinking and social competences are often academically demanding. They provide new perspectives for players to practice and develop an idea and social skills. ...
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In the 2018 Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) results, the Philippines scored the lowest in reading comprehension and the second lowest in mathematics and science. PISA result is also corresponding to the learners' performance in the National Achievement Test, DepEd realizes the pressure of addressing the issues and gaps in attaining the quality of primary education in the Philippines. Therefore, to improve the educational system in the country, the Department of Education (DepEd) continuously implements innovations, particularly in science, where different programs and curricula introduce to appraise the educational standards. Educators have worked on different instructional materials to upgrade the quality of education. Various instructional materials need efficient and enjoyable learning and teaching engagement.
... Educational games are described as games created with the main purpose of enhancing the educational processes. The enhancement is usually achieved with improved engagement, motivation, and interest in learning [1], which, in turn, are results of playfulness, collaboration [2], elements of challenge, competition, and immersion [3], which can be found in different digital games. Furthermore, it is believed that besides boosting interest and motivation, making the learning more enjoyable activity, educational games could also improve students' attitudes toward in-class participation and the learning process itself [4], which could have a long-term positive impact on the entire student education path. ...
Conference Paper
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From an educational point of view, the design of digital games, especially the so-called serious games, is a powerful tool that can improve engagement and motivation, help students develop digital literacy skills, and deepen their understanding of the domain, which could eventually have a positive impact on the overall learning process. For this reason, game development is increasingly being incorporated into the learning process and more and more educators are using this strategy to improve the quality of their teaching. Given the inherent multidisciplinarity and complexity of such projects, the design of game design-based learning activities, as well as their assessment, is not an easy task. As a result, many approaches have been developed, some of which rely on existing, proven models such as Bloom's Taxonomy, while others incorporate the principles of project-based learning or motivational design processes. This study provides an overview of the different approaches to the design and assessment of game-based learning systems and activities, outlining their main features and characteristics.
... The active learning strategy is the approach whereby students make efforts to have some practical experience in their study (Warburton, 2003). Active learning can be taken to mean how students practice deep inquiry into the meaning of learning, focusing on integration and reflection methods (Vos et al., 2011). Previous research has pointed out that the completion of a master's degree and active learning approaches are highly related (Drennan, 2010). ...
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... Game mechanics recommended being used in educational materials are collection, points, leaderboards, levels, status, feedback, achievements, and epic meaning (González & Area, 2013). Game features motivate students to learn, practice, solve the given tasks and participate on the computer-supported collaboration platform such as asking/ answering questions and receiving help (Issa & Jusoh, 2019;Knutas et al., 2019;Vos et al., 2011). ...
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This study examines the applicability of Self-Determination Theory (SDT) to explain intention to adopt Lifelong Learning (LLL) of employees and its antecedents (gamification and an organiza-tion's online learning readiness). Self-determination and online learning readiness are conceptualized as second-order factors according to their literature supports. The proposed research model is tested using data collected from 255 full-time workers/ employees in Thailand. SEM is applied to evaluate both the measurement model, to measure variables to latent variables, and the structural model, to link latent variables to one another. The results indicate that gamification (game elements) together with an organization's online learning readiness (resource readiness, education readiness, and environment readiness) indirectly influence employees' LLL intention via their self-determination (autonomy, relatedness, competence). Researchers and practitioners could apply the research model and the findings to enhance formal and informal learning of employees online. This study expands the gamification as a pedagogical factor in LLL context and applies e-learning readiness as an institutional factor and self-determination as an individual factor to explain employees' intention to further adopt online learning. Adding external factors i. e. game elements and organizational support could enhance employees' intrinsic motivation affecting their LLL adoption.
... Studies have shown that students develop a range of skills in the process of designing games. In K-12 contexts, examples reported in the literature included problem-solving in elementary science learning (Hwang et al., 2014), critical thinking skills in high school biology learning (Yang & Chang, 2013), and deep learning strategies for knowledge retention (Vos et al., 2011). In a higher education context, engineering students developed creativity, problem-solving, and time and project management skills through game design projects (Marasco, Gatti Junior, Kim, Behjat, and Eggermont, 2017). ...
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In this chapter, we conceptualize design thinking by examining two dominant discourses, which we call descriptive and prescriptive perspectives. The descriptive perspective aims to understand the way designers think and work but has been criticized for its absence of a clear definition of design thinking. On the other hand, the prescriptive perspective considers design thinking as a method to innovate and create value. The prescriptive design thinking perspective has been criticized for presenting a simplistic vision of design, which people without any previous training, knowledge, and skills in relevant disciplines may use out of context. This chapter attempts to provide a look “inside the box” by re-conceptualizing design thinking, not as a “doer method” but a cognitive process with a long research tradition. We argue for a synthesis of both perspectives in teaching and learning practices. In doing so, we present a pedagogical approach grounded in game-based learning to mediate an integrative perspective to design thinking, using an example from a higher education business class.KeywordsDesign-thinkingDesign cognitionGame-based learningIntegrative design-thinkingBusiness studies
... Additionally, there is a consensus among many empirical studies that deep learning can be boosted by conducting efficient instructional strategies along with information technology, for example, educational games, creative podcasts, etc. (Vos et al., 2011;Pegrum et al., 2015). Pertaining to language education, with ubiquitous technology application, growing attention is paid to the supporting impacts of technologies on deep language education and learning (Beckett and Iida, 2006;Tochon et al., 2014;Du and Qian, 2022). ...
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This study aims to (1) develop and validate the four-dimension model hypothesis of deep learning to better understand deep learning in language education; (2) investigate and promote deep learning by conducting a survey involving 533 college students in the online learning English as a foreign language (EFL) teaching context in China. Concretely, this study initially synthesized theoretical insights from deep learning in the education domain and related theories in the second language acquisition and thus proposed the four-dimension model hypothesis of deep learning involving the motivation of deep learning, the engagement of deep learning, the strategy of deep learning, and the directional competence of deep learning. This study subsequently undertook a questionnaire survey utilizing a standardized instrument to confirm the model hypothesis and further investigate the current status and salient differences in students' deep learning in online EFL teaching. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA), confirmation factor analysis (CFA), and Pearson's correlation test validated a positively correlated four-dimension model of deep learning with high composite reliability and good convergent validity. Moreover, the descriptive and inferential statistics revealed that the level of students' deep learning marginally reached the median, with the lowest mean of directional competence and the highest mean of motivation; students manifested more instructional motives, neglect of deploying skilled-based cognitive strategies, and deficiency of language application skills, etc.; there existed some significant differences between deep learning and four sub-dimensions across the grade, English proficiency, EFL course, and vision groups. Eventually, this study proffered primary reasons and five appropriate strategies to scaffold and promote students' deep learning in online EFL teaching. Hopefully, this study will be a pioneering effort to clear away the theoretical muddle of deep learning construct in language education and be illuminating to further improve effectiveness in the online EFL teaching context.
... The research findings show that the positive effects of deep approach to learning on self-efficacy and employability confirm to the research results from Burga et al. (2020), Dolmans et al. (2016), Peng and Chen (2019), Varunki et al. (2017), verified that the deep approach to learning helps students obtain more psychological and substantive results. In addition, different from the research of Vos et al. (2011), Peng and Chen (2019), this research uses socioeconomically disadvantaged students as a sample to better understand the contribution and role of socioeconomic status factors in student learning models, and explain how socioeconomically disadvantaged students can acquire the knowledge and skills they need through correct learning methods instead of recitation or mechanical learning methods. ...
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Higher education plays the role of cultivating talents in national development and meets the talent sources needed by the development of the state, industries and enterprises. Besides, for students, higher education can provide stimuli to improve the development of family and personal career. Especially for socioeconomically disadvantaged Students, higher education means the main factor for turning over the Socio- Economic Status. Universities endow students with abundant employment skills, so as to make them more confident in contending with the challenges in the job market. However, innate pessimism or negative attitudes and cognition may exist in socioeconomically disadvantaged Students, thereby providing effective learning context to improve their learning engagement. This study explores the influence on students’ career decision status from deep approach to learning, problem-based learning, self-efficacy and employability. A total of 627 valid questionnaires are collected in this study. PLS-SEM was adopted to verify the structural relationship in data analysis via SmartPLS. The results indicate that deep approach to learning and problem-based learning have significant impacts on students’ self-efficacy and employability; self-efficacy has significant impacts on employability and career decision status; employability has significant impact on career decision status; and that self-efficacy and employability play significant mediating roles in the research framework.
... Although the number of researches strictly dedicated to the effectiveness of digital game-based learning in teaching critical thinking have remained relatively low, some of the most recent and significant research findings were included in the following. First, Vos et al. (2011) have found in previous literature that digital game-based learning offers a setting for students to engage in critical thinking. Second, Dickey (2005) claims that learners use analytic skills and apply critical thinking to game play as they navigate their gaming experience. ...
Article
The present research examined the effect of digital role-playing game-based learning on high school students’ critical thinking ability. Playing a digital game designed with RPG Maker and whose story lines featured critical thinking questions, a total of 32 high school student participants were given a learning context to practice critical thinking skills repeatedly. A quasi-experimental design was implemented to explore how students’ performances in critical thinking skills and their learning motivation changed after participation in a four-day workshop camp. The results of the study showed that student participants achieved significant progress both in overall critical thinking performance and in learning motivation. Similar studies on the effectiveness of digital game-based learning on learning performance and learning motivation among students were also compared in lieu of the results of the present study. Both the quantitative and qualitative results of this study not only agreed with a majority of previous research findings on students’ learning performance and learning motivation, but revealed some distinctive pedagogical qualities among different skills of critical thinking. Practical suggestions were also provided to help future studies and instructional designs of digital game-based learning achieve effective learning and enhance learning motivation among students.
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Active student engagement, teaching via experience in real-life settings and learning by doing, are pedagogical strategies appropriate to improve student-reasoning skills. By building models, performing investigations, examining and explaining experimental results, using theoretical and computational thinking, constructing representations, undergraduates can acquire a deeper understanding of fundamental disciplinary concepts while reinforcing transversal abilities. In this framework, Engineering courses should be designed with the final objective to develop practical skills, focusing on hands-on activities. This contribution presents two different inquiry-based learning environments recently experienced at the University of Palermo in the context of bioelectronic and biomedical Engineering. The first study describes a laboratory activity about digital ophthalmologic signal classification; the second laboratory focuses on the analysis of the prefrontal cortex activation during a memory task using functional Near InfraRed Spectroscopy (fNIRS). We introduce and discuss the learning workshops, with the research objective of improving current instruction and training in Engineering courses. Indeed, this contribution aims to suggest a conceptual framework in the form of a structured elective suite of modules tailored to meet the needs of Engineering graduates. The outcomes of both studies seem to highlight that self-directed learning activities could enhance students’ enthusiasm to learn and engagement in engineering investigations, contributing to improve the achievements of students and acquire a more effective learning approach.
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Background This exploratory study engaged teams of elementary and middle school students in the collaborative design of digital games. Game design is theoretically examined in this study as a form of knowledge-creating learning that is characterized by collaborative efforts to advance a shared object of activity, i.e., the game being designed. Using mixed methods, we examined how students experienced the game design project and how the project fostered connected learning, that is, integration of students’ personal interests and supportive peer relations with their schoolwork, and how their self-assessed digital competences developed. Methods The digital competences of 98 comprehensive school students across Finland were traced using pre- and post-questionnaires. The post-questionnaires also included validated measures on connected learning. Quantitative methods were used to analyze structured measures, and qualitative methods were used to analyze open-ended measures. Findings Students experienced game design as an inspiring, challenging activity. Game design engaged student teams in sustained, collaborative efforts to create shared digital artifacts. Their efforts involved a great deal of mutual support and knowledge sharing. Participation also improved students’ self-reported technical and artistic digital competences. The game design project fostered informal, interest-driven, sociodigital participation; inspired learning engagement; and improved schoolwork practices. Contribution The game design project appeared to be a pedagogically meaningful way of engaging students in knowledge-creating learning and of connecting students' formal and informal learning. The project sparked students’ motivation to learn, fostered digital competences, and enriched the learning environment.
Article
This study aims at identifying the impact of the strategy of learning by playing on students' acquisition of spelling performance skills and their attitudes towards it among the second grade students in Jordan. The study sample consisted of 96 students. The results showed statistically significant differences between the experimental and control groups in the acquiring the spelling performance skills and the scale towards spelling in favor of the experimental group. The results indicated that there were no statistically significant differences due to gender in the acquiring the spelling performance skills and the scale towards spelling, and that there was no effect of interaction attitudes between group and gender.
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This study describes an action research study conducted by a teacher who used a digital game generator as a tool to develop thinking skills among primary school students with learning difficulties. Ten 4th-grade students participated in the programme. The students met with the teacher twice a week for six months. The meetings included creating games using the “Sort the paperwork” game generator. During the programme, the teacher documented the students’ responses in class, her reflections on the process, and parents and teachers’ responses, in her research journal, a common method of participatory action research. This documentation underwent qualitative analysis to identify the contribution of game creation to the students. The findings indicate three main aspects of improvements in students’ skills and performances: (1) Improvement in students’ thinking skills and cognitive functioning, (2) Improvement in performance and behavioural aspects, (3) Improvement in emotional aspects. The study provide evidence that using online game generators as tools to promote learning skills is effective to students with learning difficulties.
Article
Background Educational board games have been receiving attention from educators in recent years. Designing the rules of board games based on cognitive theory, and further analysing educational board games from more dimensions are important issues that warrant further study. Purpose The research designed a board game called Chemistry Story to promote students’ learning of the concept of element combination in chemical substances. The design of the cognitive mechanism of the board game was based on three cognitive design principles, namely schema connection theory, attention, and cognitive scaffolding. Sample The participants were 48 eighth-grade students in Taiwan. Their average age was 13.8. Design and methods A one-group pretest-posttest design was adopted. The research explored students’ learning achievement, flow, and acceptance after using this board game for learning. Moreover, this research analysed the differences in students’ flow while playing with game components made of different materials (paper, wood, and plastic), and explored the relationship with learning achievement, perceived usefulness, and perceived ease of use. Results The results showed that students’ concept of element combination in chemical substances improved through playing this board game. In addition, students had considerable engagement and acceptance of the board game’s learning activities with the game components made of different materials. The results of the correlation analysis showed that students with low academic achievement were more likely to feel that Chemistry Story was helpful to their studies. It was also found that the wooden material components brought abetter sense of engagement and game acceptance. Conclusion When designing educational board game products, we should not only consider the target knowledge of the board game and the design of the game mechanism, but also consider the students' feelings about the materials used to make the components, and choose materials that can bring students a better learning experience, so as to enhance the positive influence on their learning.
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This study explored whether participation in a high school STEM game design enrichment program influenced students’ discussions of their project goals and success. In our sample, seven students participated in the game design program, while ten received traditional instruction. Post-interviews were conducted using a semi-structured protocol in order to capture students’ lived experience in a rich, meaningful way. Transcripts were qualitatively coded by two researchers. Connections between codes were analyzed using epistemic network analysis. Based on experience grouping, we investigated whether there was a difference in how students discussed 1) their projects? and 2) their success? Our findings revealed that students who received traditional instruction discussed performance goals, while game design participants discussed learning goals. Game design participants also discussed persistence in relationship to their success; the traditionally instructed students did not attribute their success to persistence. Overall, our combined results indicate that students who received traditional instruction were performance-oriented, while game design participants were mastery-oriented. Designing STEM games is one potential method for helping students develop the mastery orientation that they need for success in future STEM careers and for their future in general.
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This study proposes a mobile application as a new approach for first-year student orientation to promote knowledge of library services using the gamification concept. The application is based on mobile devices with GPS to locate students, allowing them to catch, collect, and battle monsters around the library with questions on library service instructions. To evaluate the learning effectiveness of the approach, we performed a comparative experiment in which the control group used e-learning, while the experimental group used the mobile application of the CMU Journey. We evaluated the pre-and post-test scores, delayed 1-month post-test scores, and intrinsic motivation based on the IMI questionnaire. The results demonstrated that the preference for gamified experience among students can enhance knowledge retention and intrinsic motivation compared to other groups.
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Within the booming context of teaching learners the so-called 21st-century skills, tutoring teachers in novel teaching methods, approaches, and evaluation strategies, coupled with the massive trending use of games and gamification tactics, merge a necessity for teachers to be able to join together a series of requirements if they want to keep up-to-date as a part of the 21st century educational curriculum. In the quest to find activities that motivate English language students at the Language Center in the Autonomous Metropolitan University at Iztapalapa and Azcapotzalco campuses, it was decided to use a game-oriented activity. In many cases, a game-based approach has been used as a pedagogical activity that transmits knowledge; however, the possibility to create knowledge and to use games as evaluation tools has been set aside. Having analyzed learners’ perspective on the overall activity, it was decided that the assessment strategy needed deeper examination so that an implementation model could be proposed. It was considered that the rubrics used had the opportunity to be enriched. Thus, the types of rubrics and their characteristics were further investigated so that the rubrics initially used could be re-elaborated and improved. After the theoretical research, it was concluded that even though rubrics pose a positive assessment tool, they do need thorough planning and evaluation.
Article
This study investigated players' emotional responses to performance feedback in an educational game under cooperative and competitive structures. A 2 × 2 repeated-measures experiment was conducted with the task structure (cooperative and competitive) and the task demand (low and high) as independent variables. Thirty-two students from a university campus participated in the experiment. We designed a memory game involving a humanoid robot as a co-player, manipulating cooperation and competition between the human player and the robot. Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) scanner was employed to monitor the participant's prefrontal cortex activity. The subjective experience was measured with questionnaires. fNIRS results showed that, compared to negative feedback, positive feedback led to increased activations in the orbitofrontal cortex and rostromedial cortex regardless of the task demand. Additionally, compared to competitive structures, cooperative structures caused increased activation in the left rostromedial region in low-demand tasks. Furthermore, participants reported a more positive self-evaluation in competitive than cooperative structures but more positive evaluation toward the robot in cooperative than competitive structures.
Article
Understanding protein subcellular localization is vital and indispensable in proteomics research. Molecular biology and computer science developments have enabled the use of computational approaches to identify proteins in cells. An excellent method for locating proteins is confocal microscopy, used by the Human Protein Atlas (HPA). By categorizing human proteins, it can assist researchers in better comprehending human pathophysiology and assist doctors in automating medical image interpretation. Human protein Atlas comprises millions of images annotated with single or multiple labels. However, only a few methods for automated prediction of protein localization have been developed, and they mostly concentrate on single-label classification. Therefore, a recognition system for multi-label classification of HPA with acceptable performance should be developed. Hence, this study aims to develop a deep learning-based system for the multi-label classification of HPA. Specifically, two architectures have been proposed in this work for automatically extracting features from the images and predicting the localization of the proteins in 28 subcellular compartments. First, a convolutional neural network has been proposed, which has been trained from scratch and second an ensemble-based model using transfer learning architectures has been proposed. The results demonstrate that both models are effective in classifying proteins according to their location in the major cellular organelles. Yet, in this study, the proposed convolutional network outperforms the ensemble model in classification of images with multiple simultaneous protein localizations. Three performance metrics standards—recall, accuracy, and f1-score—were used to assess the models. The proposed convolutional neural network beats the ensemble model by achieving recall of 0.75, precision of 0.75 and f1-score of 0.74.
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Serious games offer a magnificent potential for developing future skills along with the 21st‐century learning ecosystem. A close nexus between the design and effectiveness of serious games is still argued. In this regard, the current study provides a systematic literature review on serious game design approaches with a special focus on future skill development. A systematic review protocol, including planning, conducting, and reporting stages, is followed to comprehensively interpret the existing studies. Applying quality controls, 32 serious game studies which include a practical serious game design approach are selected. For providing a more systematic analysis, these approaches are then categorized based on the intended outcome of the serious game that the approach aims to facilitate. It is found that 8 (25%) of these design approaches support at least one future skills, among which problem‐solving as well as collaboration and teamwork are the most commonly supported ones. It is also discovered that clear goals and interactivity, used in 6 (75%) and 5 (63%) of the 8 design approaches respectively, are the most commonly implemented game design elements. Considering the significant literature gap on the implementation of serious games for future skills development, this study consequently provides valuable insights for the game designers, software developers, educational technology researchers, and engineering educators in various domains.
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Objective: A technology-assisted teaching tool with interactive features may improve the outcomes of illegal drug-use prevention strategies. This study explores augmented reality (AR) and paper board games incorporating a brief antidrug educational program for students without drug-use problems to increase their antidrug knowledge, attitude, life skills, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, and intention to avoid using drugs. Materials and Methods: A total of 600 students were recruited, and 578 completed the intervention program and pre-and post-tests. The participants were randomly assigned to one of the following three groups: AR board game, paper board games, and comparison groups. The brief educational program consisted of two sessions. Generalized estimation equations were used to assess group differences in outcome variables. The paired t-tests were used to assess improvements in outcome variables of the two experimental groups. Results: The study found that the students who received the brief educational program featuring the AR board game was significantly different from the comparison group in outcome variables, including antidrug knowledge (P = 0.001), life skills (P = 0.004), subjective norms (P < 0.001), perceived behavioral control (P < 0.001), and intention (P = 0.02). The group with the paper board games also revealed similar findings as to the AR board game group in outcome variables, except for antidrug knowledge. There were no group differences in antidrug attitude between experimental and comparison groups. Conclusion: The results of this study support the efficacy of the two types of board games incorporated with a brief educational program. Results suggest that schools can adopt AR or paper board games as learning tools to assist in drug-use prevention programs and reduce the likelihood of students using illegal drugs.
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In the era of artificial intelligence, computational thinking (CT) has become a key skill that digital citizens should possess in the 21st century. There has already been a popular research trend to integrate CT into school curriculum, especially in the STEM field. However, there are still limited large scale research studies on the bidirectional relationships between primary schoolers’ STEM academic achievement and CT skills, and so is language academic achievement, especially with the longitudinal research methods. This study adopted correlation analysis and cross-lagged regression analysis in a longitudinal study to separately explore the bidirectional predictive effect of STEM academic achievement, language academic achievement, and CT skills of 1,487 Chinese primary school students in grades 4-6 (11-12 years old), and explored the moderating role of gender. The results showed that there were significant bidirectional predictions between students’ STEM and language academic achievements and CT skills, which further confirmed the feasibility and advantages of integrating CT in STEM and language subjects. In addition, gender only played a moderating role in the predictions of students’ CT skills on their language academic achievement. Implications for reducing the gender differences in STEM and CT fields are also discussed. The research results will provide references to integrating CT into the curriculum of basic education and improving the development of primary school students’ CT skills and promoting STEM teaching practice.
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More and more educators are adopting simulations for teaching students and training individuals.A more comprehensive model proposing key simulation features is needed for simulation designers and educators. The aim of the study is to propose a theoretical model for examining simulation features in digital-based learning and the impact of simulation features on higher-order thinking. Data was collected from 301 business management students from two universities. Study One focused on a university in the U.S. (North America) and Study Two focused on a university in Peru (South America). The findings; confirm that the three key components comprising simulation features are: simulation design, simulation; interactivity, and simulation realism. The results also support the operationalization and conceptualization of simulation features as a multi-factor, higher-order construct. Lastly, simulation features have an impact on higher order thinking skills, including critical thinking and reflective thinking. Educators and content developers should ensure they consider the specific simulation features discussed in this research when designing and selecting simulations.
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Since Wing Communications of the ACM, 49, 33–35, (2006) popularized computational thinking (CT) as a skill for every student, it has gained significant traction as an approach to bring computer science tools and practices into K-12 classrooms. At the same time, teachers often see the relevance of CT as a tool to introduce problem solving and thinking strategies in the classroom. Despite the increasing use of CT in K-12, questions remain about its role in supporting teaching and learning of disciplinary ideas. While CT can be used to bring computer science to all students, we believe that it can serve a bigger purpose to explicitly teach metacognitive strategies, which play a significant role in academic outcomes. In the paper, we discuss the connections between CT and metacognition and how CT could support the development of metacognition in K-12 classrooms.
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Digital technologies in combination with creative activities have been introduced in schools as a strategy for learning and teaching activities offering scaffolding opportunities. Additionally, digital game-based learning (DGBL) activities have also been tried out in schools in recent years, as well as different mobile technologies, with the ambition to create smart learning. In this study, we aim to explore how school children’s collaborative interactions, while engaged in problem-solving activities using smart and mobile technology, unfolds. Drawing from a contextual perspective on learning, our study combines theoretical views on joint participation, affordances and sense of community in relation to collaborative interactions. Questions posed in this study are: (1) In what ways do children’s digital game design activities drive and/or support collaborative interactions while engaged in problem-solving activities? and (2) How are children’s digital game design ideas manifested during game design activities involving smart mobile technology? The study is based on a case where a creative workshop involving 22 Swedish third-grade children (9-10 years of age) participating in game design activities carried out in a pedagogical lab setting. By employing a thematic analysis, the results of the study show that the children deployed different orientations in their collaborative interactions, and that a sense of community emerged when the children worked on solving the problem of designing and producing a joint digital game idea, using mobile technology. On the basis of this, we argue that, when designing for educational activities involving smart mobile technology, it is pivotal to be aware of the pedagogical context, since this aspect of the design creates meaningful collaborative interactions; it is only then smart mobile technology becomes smart. These results have important implications for the methodological field of including smart mobile technology in learning situations.
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Digital educational games (DEGs) constitute an effective teaching approach, particularly when they are used in combination with collaborative learning scenarios. However, when changes are made in the teaching and learning process, teachers are responsible to apply and realize them in practice. Therefore, it is vital to understand their views and attitudes on the matter, regardless if they are pre-or in-service teachers. In this work, a questionnaire was used for gathering data from 263 undergraduate students from Departments of Education in Greece, regarding their views about the use of DEGs for collaborative learning. It was found that their attitude was between neutral and slightly positive. On the other hand, their intention to use DEGs for collaborative learning was positive. It was also found that whether they consider DEGs useful and their attitude toward DEGs, were significant determinants of their intention to use them. Gender and the frequency of playing games had an impact on how useful they consider DEGs to be, while age had an impact only on pre-service teachers' attitudes toward the use of DEGs for collaborative learning.
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This paper presents a pilot study on the evaluation of instruments for data gathering for an epistemic game development competition for high school students. The initial results show that a significant percentage of the students who participated in the competition appear to exhibit a skillset of professional attitude, software-related knowledge, and employability traits, and this skillset may be attributed to the intervention. The data was validated through a two-method triangulation technique that utilized expert evaluation and participant interviews. The data analysis shows early indicators of the desired learning outcomes, although a more thorough methodology is needed to verify this. Furthermore, the competition acts as an awareness campaign that promotes computer science studies through a gamification process. It is proposed that competitions of this type are held and evaluated on an annual basis to maximize the benefits and to further prepare students to acquire early in their studies a skillset that will make them the innovators of the future society.
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This study aims to investigate the factors that enable or hinder the implementation of game development activity in the instructional process. One instructor and 15 gifted students between the ages of 11 and 15 took part in the study. The students developed computer games related to science topics using MS Kodu game engine within the implementation process. According to the findings, it is seen that instructional practices have great importance, and the instructor plays a key role in the activity. Making and playing games have been the greatest motivation resource for students. In addition, the social environment can be an important tool in sustaining students' motivation levels. The students' negative attitudes toward educational game topics and non-computer activities hinder the successful implementation of the activity. The MS Kodu game engine might be appropriate for novice designers but not be enough for teaching programming concepts. Team-based game development activity is believed to be useful for developing advanced games and increasing the level of interaction between students.
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This chapter provides an overview of minority experience and the development of gaming technology all over the world. The use of gaming for education and entertainment is not limited to the United States, but globally gaming and education is viewed positively. This positive altitude needs to be explored to develop new educative and engaging strategies for minorities. In this chapter, the authors explore the use of gaming technology in other countries of the world. The countries are Canada, Spain, the Philippines, Norway, Korea, China, and South Africa.
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Positive student engagement is a prerequisite for students’ educational success. In this study, a microanalytic approach was used to explore patterns in teachers’ use of specific motivating teaching behaviours from the perspective of self-determination theory in relation to indicators of students’ positive engagement. The lessons of 52 teachers were observed and event-based coded. Results showed that specifically asking motivating questions and providing positive feedback and support during exercises were associated with subsequent positive student engagement. Unexpectedly, some demotivating teaching behaviours were also found to relate to positive student engagement, although to a lesser extent. Implications and directions for future research are discussed.
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The article begins by reviewing the theoretical bases for the contention that advanced computer-based educational gaming can provide powerful learning experiences, and overviews the limited research on the use of such games. Although studies to date have generally supported their value, most of the published investigations have methodological limitations. Critical process data are typically not collected, and unreliable student and teacher self-reports are heavily relied on in evaluating the educational efficacy of many games. To address these and other limitations, the authors have developed research software that can remotely and unobtrusively record screen activity during game play in classroom settings together with synchronized audio of player discussion. A field trial of this data collection system in which 42 college students were studied as they played a coursework-related Web-based learning game is described, and the article discusses how the trial outcomes concretely demonstrate the methodological advantages the tool offers researchers.
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This experiment examined the effects on the learning process of 3 complementary strategies—contextualization, personalization, and provision of choices—for enhancing students' intrinsic motivation. Elementary school children in 1 control and 4 experimental conditions worked with educational computer activities designed to teach arithmetical order of operations rules. In the control condition, this material was presented abstractly. In the experimental conditions, identical material was presented in meaningful and appealing learning contexts, in either generic or individually personalized form. Half of the students in each group were also offered choices concerning instructionally incidental aspects of the learning contexts; the remainder were not. Contextualization, personalization, and choice all produced dramatic increases, not only in students' motivation but also in their depth of engagement in learning, the amount they learned in a fixed time period, and their perceived competence and levels of aspiration. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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“Deep learning” represents student engagement in approaches to learning that emphasize integration, synthesis, and reflection. Because learning is a shared responsibility between students and faculty, it is important to determine whether faculty members emphasize deep approaches to learning and to assess how much students employ these approaches. This study examines the effect of discipline on student use of and faculty members’ emphasis on deep approaches to learning as well as on the relationships between deep approaches to learning and selected educational outcomes. Using data from over 80,000 seniors and 10,000 faculty members we found that deep approaches to learning were more prevalent in Biglan’s soft, pure, and life fields compared to their counterparts. The differences were largest between soft and hard fields. We also found that seniors who engage more frequently in deep learning behaviors report greater educational gains, higher grades, and greater satisfaction with college, and that the strength of these relationships is relatively consistent across disciplinary categories.
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This study examined the effects of a computer game on students' mathematics achievement and motivation, and the role of prior mathematics knowledge, computer skill, and English language skill on their achievement and motivation as they played the game. A total of 193 students and 10 teachers participated in this study. The teachers were randomly assigned to experimental and control groups. A mixed method of quantitative and interviews were used with Multivariate Analysis of Co-Variance to analyze the data.The results indicated significant improvement of the achievement of the experimental versus control group. No significant improvement was found in the motivation of the groups. Students who played the games in their classrooms and school labs reported greater motivation compared to the ones who played the games only in the school labs. Prior knowledge, computer and English language skill did not play significant roles in achievement and motivation of the experimental group.
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The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of the introduction of educational videogames into the classroom, on learning, motivation, and classroom dynamics. These effects were studied using a sample of 1274 students from economically disadvantaged schools in Chile. The videogames were specifically designed to address the educational goals of the first and second years of school, for basic mathematics and reading comprehension. The sample was divided into experimental groups (EG), internal control groups (IC) and external control groups (EC). Students in the EG groups, used the experimental video games during an average of 30 h over a 3-month period. They were evaluated on their acquisition of reading comprehension, spelling, and mathematical skills, and on their motivation to use video games. Teachers’ expectations of change due to the use of video games, their technological transfer, and handling of classroom dynamics, were assessed through ad hoc tests and classroom observations. The results show significant differences between the EG and IC groups in relation to the EC group in Math, Reading Comprehension and Spelling, but no significant differences in these aspects were found between the EG and the IC groups. Teacher reports and classroom observations confirm an improvement in motivation to learn, and a positive technological transfer of the experimental tool. Although further studies regarding the effects of learning through videogame use are imperative, positive effects on motivation and classroom dynamics, indicate that the introduction of educational video games can be a useful tool in promoting learning within the classroom.
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This paper introduces a framework for using Game Theory tournaments as a base to implement Competition-based Learning (CnBL), together with other classical learning techniques, to motivate the students and increase their learning performance. The paper also presents a description of the learning activities performed along the past ten years of a course where, in five of them, Competition-based Learning has been used. Finally, the experience gained is described together with an analysis of the feedback obtained from the students' surveys. The good survey results, and their similarity along the years, suggest that the combination of game theory with the use of friendly competitions provides a strong motivation for students; helping to increase their performance.
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The purpose of this study is to explore the effects of the meta-cognitive strategies on the academic and gaming achievements. Exploring the effects of those achievements on the social problem solving of students is also of interest. For this purpose, the MMORPG Gersang was used. The participants, consisting of ninth graders, played the game until they all reached the third level to ensure that they have the same gaming ability prior to gaming for the study. Three meta-cognitive strategies were developed: self-recording, modeling and thinking aloud. Those strategies are specially related to gaming activities and applied in pre-gaming activities, gaming activities, and post-gaming activities. Three meta-cognitive strategies were set as independent variables. The social problem solving ability was set as a mediating variable, and academic achievement and scores in the game were chosen as dependent variables. The path between meta-cognitive strategies and both academic achievement and game performance by mediating social problem solving abilities were discovered. The social problem solving ability, which is the mediating variable, affects the academic achievement and the game performance very strongly. These results imply that a commercial game playing in conjunction with meta-cognitive strategies can be an effective way to increase students’ performance both in learning and gaming by keeping them involved. Talking and observation activities such as thinking aloud and modeling are more effective than writing activities in enhancing the students’ achievements both in learning and gaming.
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Good computer and video games like System Shock 2, Deus Ex, Pikmin, Rise of Nations, Neverwinter Nights, and Xenosaga: Episode 1 are learning machines. They get themselves learned and learned well, so that they get played long and hard by a great many people. This is how they and their designers survive and perpetuate themselves. If a game cannot be learned and even mastered at a certain level, it won't get played by enough people, and the company that makes it will go broke. Good learning in games is a capitalist-driven Darwinian process of selection of the fittest. Of course, game designers could have solved their learning problems by making games shorter and easier, by dumbing them down, so to speak. But most gamers don't want short and easy games. Thus, designers face and largely solve an intriguing educational dilemma, one also faced by schools and workplaces: how to get people, often young people, to learn and master something that is long and challenging--and enjoy it, to boot.
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Computer games are today an important part of most children’s leisure lives and increasingly an important part of our culture as a whole. We often, as adults, watch in amazement as children dedicate hours to acting as football coaches, designers of empires, controllers of robots, wizards and emperors. In the past, computer games have been dismissed as a distraction from more ‘worthy’ activities, such as homework or playing outside. Today, however, researchers, teachers and designers of learning resources are beginning to ask how this powerful new medium might be used to support children’s learning. Rather than shutting the door of the school against the computer game, there is now increasing interest in asking whether computer games might be offering a powerful new resource to support learning in the information age. This review is intended as a timely introduction to current thinking about the role of computer games in supporting children’s learning inside and out of school. It highlights the key areas of research in the field, in particular the increasing interest in pleasurable learning, learning through doing and learning through collaboration, that games seem to offer. At the same time, the review takes a measured tone in acknowledging some of the obstacles and challenges to using games within our current education system and within our current models of learning. It goes on to propose some ways in which designers, researchers and educational policy makers might draw on the growing body of research in the field to create learning resources and environments that go beyond a sugar-coating of ‘fun’ to the full engagement that computer games seem to offer so many children today.
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Research into student learning has been based on two main theoretical sources: information processing (IP), and contextually based work on students' approaches to learning (SAL). The cross-fertilisation has been valuable, but it has led to ambiguities and misunderstandings, evident in the recent literature, about constructs, methodology, and of particular concern here, the development and interpretation of inventories of learning/study processes. The basic issue revolves around a conception of student learning as taking place within-the-student, as IP models appear to assume, or within-the-teaching/learning-context, as the SAL tradition emphasises. It is suggested that student learning is best construed within a teaching/learning context that functions as an 'open system', a model that brings some clarity to the use and interpretation of study process inventories, and that locates their value in yielding functionally useful data to researchers, teachers, and staff developers.
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Theories of learning changed dramatically during the 1980s and 1990s. These changes reflect new beliefs and assumptions about how humans learn and develop understandings of complex phenomena. To a large extent, these new theories expand our understanding of human learning rather than replace traditional theories of learning, which are still relevant in certain situations. Different types of learning exist, and different theories are most appropriate for different learning outcomes and situations. Distinguishing between learning and understanding, similarities and differences between traditional theories of learning and contemporary, constructivist theories of understanding are discussed. In addition, the relationship between theories of learning and different educational paradigms is discussed. Every educational system incorporates a theoretical model of student learning and the nature of knowledge. The implications of these models (which can be implicit or explicit) are examined with regard to understanding how individuals learn both in and outside of school.
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Describes an attempt to identify different levels of processing of information among groups of Swedish university students who were asked to read substantial passages of prose. Ss were asked questions about the meaning of the passages and also about how they set about reading the passages, thus allowing for the examination of processes and strategies of learning and the outcomes in terms of what is understood and remembered. It was posited that learning has to be described in terms of its content. From this point differences in what is learned, rather than differences in how much is learned, are described. It was found that in each study a number of categories (levels of outcome) containing basically different conceptions of the content of the learning task could be identified. The corresponding differences in level of processing are described in terms of whether the learner is engaged in surface-level or deep-level processing. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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This empirical research surveys first year tertiary business students across different campuses regarding their perceived views concerning traditional, blended and flexible instructional approaches. A structural equation modeling approach shows traditional instructional modes deliver lower levels of student-perceived learning quality, learning experience and learning skills. A combination of on-line and face-to-face learning approaches, embedded across each course, yields far higher levels of total learning effects, and to explain differences in instructional approaches, a ‘Cone of Learning’ continuum is presented and discussed. Theoretical and practical research implications, and the measurement, theoretical and management aspects of future research options are presented. Tertiary institutions can adopt the approaches herein to assist in the development and build of smart targeted learning solutions – ones more in-line with the perceived needs of their respective student year levels and groups.
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In this study, we used think-aloud verbal protocols to examine how various macro-level processes of self-regulated learning (SRL; e.g., planning, monitoring, strategy use, handling of task difficulty and demands) were associated with the acquisition of a sophisticated mental model of a complex biological system. Numerous studies examine how specific micro-level SRL processes such as judgments of learning or prior knowledge activation are related to learning outcomes. However, it is also valuable to look at these processes in macro-level aggregates because efficacy and use of micro-level strategies can vary due to individual differences. Two hundred and nineteen high-school and middle-school students produced think-aloud protocols while learning with a hypermedia environment. We transcribed and coded participants’ learning sessions for the use of micro- and macro-level SRL processes. Participants’ developmental level, prior knowledge, and monitoring behaviors were associated with posttest mental model sophistication. These results illustrate that monitoring is a key SRL process when developing an understanding of a complex science topic using hypermedia.
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Formative computer assisted assessment has become increasingly attractive in Higher Education where providing useful feedback to large numbers of students can be difficult. However, the nature of such assessments has often been limited to objective questions such as multiple-choice. This paper reports on the development and initial trialling of a more innovative, formative use of computer assisted assessment in a Higher Education context. The European funded PePCAA (Pedagogical Psychology Computer Assisted Assessment) project developed a series of scenario-based computer-delivered formative assessments of pedagogical psychology for teachers and trainee teachers, using a range of software features, including the addition of confidence measurement. The project had a two-fold aim: to provide a tool to improve understanding of pedagogical psychology and to explore the potential of more innovative techniques of computer assisted assessment to motivate students and to assess deeper learning. The combination of computer-delivered formative assessment with innovative question styles and confidence ratings is believed to be unique for pedagogical psychology. Scenarios were based on realistic classroom situations and focused on problem solving or on utilising best practice. The PePCAA Learning Assessment Circle (PLAC) provided a framework for indexing the kinds of processes required of users. In the UK, small scale trialling involved a total of 23 teacher trainees such that each assessment was attempted by about seven participants. Participants completed evaluation questionnaires after each assessment. Responses from learners indicated that the UK scenarios were generally very well received and had at least partly achieved the aim of stimulating deeper learning. Transfer of assessments between countries proved more difficult than expected. The next stage of development should be to conduct a larger pilot, thus allowing full investigation of the reliability and validity of the assessments. There is also scope for further development of the PePCAA approach and for its application in other subjects.
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In this study, we examined how high-school students utilized a hypermedia learning environment (HLE) to acquire declarative knowledge of a historical topic, as well as historical thinking skills. In particular, we were interested in whether self-regulated learning (SRL; Winne & Hadwin, 1998; Zimmerman, 2000) processing was related to the acquisition of declarative knowledge and historical thinking. We found that, using the HLE, participants did learn from pretest to posttest, and that they most often engaged in strategy use SRL processes. However, the frequency of participant use of planning SRL processes, not strategy use, was predictive of learning. This study has implications for how educators use HLEs to foster historical thinking skills, and suggests that scaffolding planning skills may facilitate students’ use of computers as cognitive and metacognitive tools for learning (Azevedo, 2005; Lajoie, 2000).
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Although dissatisfaction with the limitations associated with tests for statistical significance has been growing for several decades, applied researchers have continued to rely almost exclusively on these indicators of effect when reporting their findings. To encourage an increased use of alternative measures of effect, the present paper discusses several measures of effect size that might be used in group comparison studies involving univariate and/or multivariate models. For the methods discussed, formulas are presented and data from an experimental study are used to demonstrate the application and interpretation of these indices. The paper concludes with some cautionary notes on the limitations associated with these measures of effect size.
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Developing children as successful learners is a key aim of A Curriculum for Excellence in Scotland. This paper presents qualitative results from an eight week exploratory field study in which a class of ten year olds made their own computer games. The analysis focuses on the development of aspects of successful learning as identified in the curriculum: enthusiasm and motivation for learning, determination to reach high standards of achievement, independent and group learning, and linking and applying learning in new situations. As teachers have an important role in facilitating and supporting learners as they use technology, the paper concludes with a discussion of implications for classroom practice.
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In this paper, we introduce an electronic collaborative learning environment based on Interactive Instructors of Recreational Mathematics (IIRM), establishing an alternative approach for motivating students towards mathematics. The IIRM are educational software components, specializing in mathematical concepts, presented through recreational mathematics, conceived as interactive, recreation-oriented learning objects, integrated within the environment. We present the architecture of the learning environment which integrates communication services that support the interaction processes of the learning community, through instant messaging, chat rooms, and multi-player math games. Through the environment’s interface of their personal workspace, students have access to several easy-to-use mechanisms that allows them to customize its content, its layout, and its appearance. At internal levels, the functionality of IIRM is enhanced with features supported by the environment infrastructure. We evaluated different aspects of the learning environment in three short, motivation-oriented math courses given to Mexican high-school students. The results indicate that the use of the IIRM-based electronic learning environment, positively affects student attitudes towards mathematics. We believe that this approach has the potential to promote the mathematics learning process, basically on its motivational aspects.
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This study examined computer game development as a pedagogical activity to motivate and engage students in curriculum-related literacy activities. We hypothesized that as a consequence, students would improve their traditional reading and writing skills as well as develop new digital literacy skills. Eighteen classes of grade 4 students were assigned to either an experimental or control group. Both groups studied the same curriculum unit over a 10 week period, however, in addition the experimental group developed computer games related to the unit using a game development shell. An analysis of pre- and post-unit scores on two standardized literacy test batteries revealed that the experimental students performed significantly better on one of the subtests, a measure of logical sentence construction (p = .002). Field notes and teacher interview data indicated that game development helped improve student content retention, ability to compare and contrast information presented, utilize more and different kinds of research materials including digital resources, editing skills, and develop an insight into questioning skills.
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The implementation of a computer game for learning about geography by primary school students is the focus of this article. Researchers designed and developed a three-dimensional educational computer game. Twenty four students in fourth and fifth grades in a private school in Ankara, Turkey learnt about world continents and countries through this game for three weeks. The effects of the game environment on students’ achievement and motivation and related implementation issues were examined through both quantitative and qualitative methods. An analysis of pre and post achievement tests showed that students made significant learning gains by participating in the game-based learning environment. When comparing their motivations while learning in the game-based learning environment and in their traditional school environment, it was found that students demonstrated statistically significant higher intrinsic motivations and statistically significant lower extrinsic motivations learning in the game-based environment. In addition, they had decreased focus on getting grades and they were more independent while participating in the game-based activities. These positive effects on learning and motivation, and the positive attitudes of students and teachers suggest that computer games can be used as an ICT tool in formal learning environments to support students in effective geography learning.
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This study investigated how different contexts for learning affect the development of memory-enhancing strategies in children. In particular, the effect of embedding a memory task in a game context was examined using computer games. Children from 4 to 7 years old took part in one of two computer games (one exogenous and one endogenous; Lepper, 1985) and corresponding more formal "lesson" conditions (simply instructions to remember). The game contexts stimulated much greater observed rehearsal. At each age level the number of rehearsers nearly doubled. However, when covert rehearsal was also included, there was no such dramatic effect. Rehearsers recalled more items than nonrehearsers in both contexts, but recall in the games was less than for the lessons. While the game conditions were more interesting to children, we speculate that they may have been more difficult due to multiple goals and various distracting components. Thus the manipulation of task and interest variables may be insufficient to elicit spontaneous rehearsal in children not otherwise so inclined. Individual differences among children and design-specific aspects of the situation must also be considered.
How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School What do inventories of student learning processes really measure? A theoretical review and clarification
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Learning design by making games: children's development of design strategies in the creation of a complex computational artifact
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Kafai, Y. B. (1996). Learning design by making games: children's development of design strategies in the creation of a complex computational artifact. In Y. Kafai, & M. Resnick (Eds.), Constructionism in practice: Designing, thinking and learning in a digital world (pp. 71–96). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Literature review in games and learning. Bristol: Futurelab. www.futurelab.org.uk/resources
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Kirriemuir, J., & McFarlane, C. A. (2004). Literature review in games and learning. Bristol: Futurelab. www.futurelab.org.uk/resources/documents/lit_reviews/Games_Review.pdf Retrieved December 7th 2009 from.
Literature review: deep learning with technology in 14-to 19-year-old learners for Becta. http://research. becta.org.uk/index.php?section¼rh&catcode¼_re_rp_02&rid¼17171 Retrieved Teaching for meaningful learning
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Abbott, I., Townsend, A., Johnston-Wilder, S., & Reynolds, L. (2009). Literature review: deep learning with technology in 14-to 19-year-old learners for Becta. http://research. becta.org.uk/index.php?section¼rh&catcode¼_re_rp_02&rid¼17171 Retrieved August 10th 2010 from. Barron, B., & Darling-Hammond, L. (2008). Teaching for meaningful learning. In L. Darling-Hammond, B. Barron, P. D. Pearson, A. H. Schoenfeld, E. K. Stage, T. D. Zimmerman, G. N. Cervetti, & J. Tilson (Eds.), Powerful learning: What we know about teaching for understanding. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Teaching for meaningful learning
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Barron, B., & Darling-Hammond, L. (2008). Teaching for meaningful learning. In L. Darling-Hammond, B. Barron, P. D. Pearson, A. H. Schoenfeld, E. K. Stage, T. D. Zimmerman, G. N. Cervetti, & J. Tilson (Eds.), Powerful learning: What we know about teaching for understanding. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Literature review: deep learning with technology in 14-to 19-year-old learners for Becta
  • I Abbott
  • A Townsend
  • S Johnston-Wilder
  • L Reynolds
Abbott, I., Townsend, A., Johnston-Wilder, S., & Reynolds, L. (2009). Literature review: deep learning with technology in 14-to 19-year-old learners for Becta. http://research. becta.org.uk/index.php?section¼rh&catcode¼_re_rp_02&rid¼17171 Retrieved August 10th 2010 from.
The many faces of constructivism. Educational Leadership
  • Perkins