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Examining the impact of off-task multi-tasking with technology on real-time classroom learning

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... Media multitasking resides within the attentional control construct (e.g. Wood, Zivcakova, Gentile, Archer, De Pasquale & Nosko, 2012), and within the broader umbrella of self-regulation (e.g. Hagger, Wood, Stiff & Chatzisarantis, 2010). ...
... Specific to students, studies routinely suggest a positive correlation between media distracted behavior and comparatively poorer scholastic performance (Kraushaar & Novak, 2006;Rosen, Lim, Carrier, & Cheever, 2011;Sana et al., 2013;Wood et al., 2012). In a repeated controlled experiment, Wood et al., (2012) found a strong correlation between diminished performance and student multitasking. ...
... Specific to students, studies routinely suggest a positive correlation between media distracted behavior and comparatively poorer scholastic performance (Kraushaar & Novak, 2006;Rosen, Lim, Carrier, & Cheever, 2011;Sana et al., 2013;Wood et al., 2012). In a repeated controlled experiment, Wood et al., (2012) found a strong correlation between diminished performance and student multitasking. Considering the neurological limitations related to multitasking performance, it is not surprising that multitasking comes at the detriment of performance. ...
Thesis
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Students are increasingly more distracted and off-task with technology. While contemporary research has clearly argued the pervasive nature and problematic effects of media distracted behavior, research has yet to identify and validate, by way of a real-world experiment, an efficacious and promising practical or pedagogical response. This dissertation study used a quasi-experimental, longitudinal experiment to test regulating smartphone applications that purport to mitigate distracted technology use and heighten the student attention. To test whether or not different regulating applications “work” as purported, this study examined two different regulating applications and their effects on the media distracted behavior, student engagement, behavioral regulation, perceptions of technology dependency, and course performance. The experiment included first-year college students enrolled in a mandated entry- level science course at a medium-sized public STEM and applied science university. Stratified random assignment permitted experimental, contamination, and control treatment group comparisons. Long-term motivation effects (including student-held feelings with self-efficacy, expectancy-value, and achievement goals) were also considered. Last, varying application affordances and design approaches were contrasted by way of feelings related to self- determination. The results of quantitative and qualitative data analyses indicated that applications sporadically and minimally lowered student reported media distracted behavior in and outside of class, but had no effect on engagement, behavioral regulation, or perceived dependency on technology. Unexpectedly, there was a negative effect on Chemistry motivation, as students reported lower expectancy-value, more negative achievement goals, and lower self-efficacy. Last, application use negatively affected student performance in the course as those asked to use regulating applications generally performed poorer as compared to those in the control and contamination groups. Challenging the promising assertions of regulating applications, the results of this dissertation suggest that rather than alleviate the problem, these particular apps may actually exacerbate media distraction’s negative effects by also diminishing engagement, regulation, achievement, and motivation.
... On the other hand, several studies [20,67] in the classroom show that laptops can act as a major source of distraction. The students can use it for different purposes like gaming, social networks, etc., which promotes aimless use of technology. ...
... But, these past studies in higher-education classroom suffer from many limitations. Most studies conducted in the past were with controlled classroom conditions [67,53,1]. It does not reflect the environment of a real world higher education classroom. ...
... Multitasking while using laptop is common in a classroom [67,28,53], occurs frequently and has a detrimental impact on student learning (or performance) [67,28,53]. Wood et al. [67] examined the impact of multitasking in lectures on 145 undergraduate students. ...
Thesis
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Attention span of students in a classroom is very short. To overcome this, different active learning methodologies have been used in the past. Active learning keeps the students busy and engaged throughout the lecture. It breaks the lecture into certain time intervals by intermixing breaks, demonstrations and questions after each interval. For using active learning, clickers and laptops are commonly used in higher education classroom. Most experiments in higher education classroom studying different characteristics of students like learning performance and attention, use clickers and laptop. But, most of these experiments are in a controlled setting, not scalable and compromise the privacy of students. We overcome these problems in an active learning setup in the higher education classroom where we use a web-mediated teaching tool called ASQ. ASQ is a web application that helps to give presentation in a classroom where the presenter has control over the flow of the presentation. ASQ also allows the presenter to interleave the presentation with questions, videos and other interactive JavaScript components. Anyone can anonymously join a presentation in ASQ using a web browser. ASQ tracks the activity of every student interaction by generating event logs each second. In the previous work using ASQ, it has been shown that these logs could be used to infer the attention level of students in the classroom. The goal of this thesis is to gather insights about the fine-grained study behaviour of students in a higher education classroom by analyzing these event logs.We investigate (i) the effect of lecture elements (like the difficulty, relative positioning and spacing of questions; and duration of discussion in the slides) on study behaviour (like attention level, performance and reaction time while answering questions) of students; (ii) the relationship that might exist between attention percentage of students and their participation in the in-class questions; (iii) if students are taking external help when answering questions during the lecture and the relationship that might exist between their tendency to take external help with the difficulty of questions. We conduct our study in a classroom of around 300 students, for 15 lectures in the Web and Database Technology course at TU Delft taught by 2 instructors. We find significant effect of (i) spacing of questions on reaction time and instructor on performance; (ii) length of discussion time associated with a slide on the attention level of students which agrees with past studies; (iii) relative positioning of questions on the performance of students. However, we do not find significant effect of difficulty of questions on performance and reaction time of students while answering these questions. We also find significant effect that students with more attention percentage participate more in the in-class questions. Finally, we find that students take external help while answering questions but the tendency to take external help does not depend on the difficulty of questions.
... Endnu et eksempel på brudflader er studerendes brug af computere. Internationale undersøgelser fra en raekke forskellige videregående uddannelser viser, at studerende ofte bruger sociale medier i undervisningen på måder, der står i modsaetning til den didaktiske hensigt med undervisningen (Bellur et al., 2015;Donlan, 2014;Ragan et al., 2014;Rocca, 2010;Wood et al., 2012). ...
... Deres studier peger desuden på, at selvom studerende selv vurderer at kunne multitaske, forringer de ikke-studierelaterede aktiviteter deres udbytte af undervisningen (Barks et al., 2011). Flere andre undersøgelser peger også på, at studerendes ikke-studierelaterede brug af computere kan have en negativ indflydelse på deres faglige udbytte (Clayson & Haley, 2013;Ravizza, Hambrick, & Fenn, 2014;Sana, Weston, & Cepeda, 2013;Wood et al., 2012). Som Wood et al skriver: "…attempting to attend to lectures and engage digital technologies for off-task activities can have a detrimental impact on learning." ...
... Som Wood et al skriver: "…attempting to attend to lectures and engage digital technologies for off-task activities can have a detrimental impact on learning." (Wood et al., 2012). ...
Research
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Based on participant observations of teaching and interviews with the students and teachers involved, this doctoral thesis examine the relationship between teachers' pedagogical intentions and actual student participation in university classrooms. The study focus on second semester BA-courses at Roskilde University, where the teaching is organised with a large number of students in each class. Applying a sociocultural perspective, the thesis is conducted with a new developed conceptual framework based on the concept of learning space.
... Students' lack of focus is particularly problematic because learning generally occurs when students exhibit sustained attention (Wei et al., 2012). Conversely, multitasking with personal technology in class hinders or, at least, slows learning (Rosen, 2010;Sana et al., 2013;Wood et al., 2012) because attention is not sustained. Grades, which are used as a measure of cognitive learning (Bloom et al., 1956), often suffer when a student is distracted. ...
... Grades, which are used as a measure of cognitive learning (Bloom et al., 1956), often suffer when a student is distracted. Multiple studies show student grades decline when students text, post to social media, or multi-task during schoolwork, due to the distractions inherent in these activities (Barks et al., 2011;Kuznekoff & Titsworth, 2013;Martin, 2011;Sana et al., 2013;Wood et al., 2012). Together, the research suggests personal technology use in undergraduate classrooms can be detrimental to student learning. ...
... Students themselves believe personal technology devices negatively affect sustained attention (Attia et al., 2017), and some students favor policies limiting device use to prevent distractions (McCoy, 2013). Additional studies find student grades suffer when they multitask with personal technology because it distracts them (Barks et al., 2011;Kuznekoff & Titsworth, 2013;Martin, 2011;Sana et al., 2013;Wood et al., 2012). Personal device use also challenges students' ability to maintain attention while studying (Rosen et al., 2013), and when students shift attention between schoolwork and technology use, cognitive ability may be impaired and hinder academic performance (Leroy, 2009). ...
Article
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College instructors desiring classrooms free from learning distractions often enforce personal-technology-use policies to create what they think is an optimal learning environment, but students tend not to favor restrictive personal technology policies. Which type of personal technology classroom environment maximizes student satisfaction, learning, and attention? We surveyed 280 business communications students in two types of classrooms: a personal technology-restricted environment and a free-use environment. We evaluated student perceptions of cognitive learning, sustained attention, and satisfaction with the course as well as the technology policy governing their classrooms. Students believed they achieved greater cognitive learning in non-restricted personal technology classrooms and perceived no significant difference in sustained attention. Although students may be more satisfied with a free personal-technology-use policy in the classroom, overall satisfaction with the course did not significantly differ according to the classroom environment. We discuss the importance of sustained attention and policy satisfaction for enhancing student course satisfaction in classrooms with both technology policy types.
... In literature, the concept of multitasking has been used as a possible explanation for the negative relationship between cell phone use and academic performance (Jacobsen and Forste, 2011;Junco and Cotton, 2011;Karpinski et al., 2013;Kirschner and Karpinski, 2010;Rosen et al., 2013;Wood et al., 2012). According to these studies, students who use a variety of electronic media while in class, including mobile phone find it difficult to learn. ...
... According to these studies, students who use a variety of electronic media while in class, including mobile phone find it difficult to learn. Such students recorded lower scores on follow up tests as compared to their colleagues who did not engage in such multitasking (Wood et al., 2012). Another study that utilised a hierarchical regression to measure the relationship between multitasking and college GPA found that multitasking with particular reference to Facebooking and texting had a negative influence on college GPA after controlling for such variables as time used in preparing for class, student's internet skills, sex, and actual high school GPA (Junco and Cotton, 2012). ...
... An experimental study found that students who used Facebook while attending class lectures obtained lower scores compared with students who did not (Wood et al., 2012). A few other papers also focused on Facebook use (Busalim et al., 2019;Feng et al., 2019;Wakefield & Frawley, 2020); however, in recent years students mostly use their smartphones for other more popular social networking sites besides Facebook and messaging so the focus has shifted to overall smartphone usage intensity. ...
... For example, spending time in entertainment and social networking (apps and sites like Facebook and Twitter) each had an independent and substantial negative relationship with college GPA. Our finding of the negative relationship between time spent on social networking and GPA is also consistent with previous studies on the relationship between social networking and grades (Wood et al., 2012;Junco, 2012;Judd, 2014; see also a work linking problematic social media use to lower productivity, Rozgonjuk et al., 2020). ...
Article
This study was designed to measure the impact of smartphone usage among college students on their current academic success. We report the results from a survey among 99 undergraduate student iPhone users in a large Midwestern U.S. university. The survey combines objective smartphone use time directly obtained from Apple's ScreenTime feature with official GPA and ACT/SAT scores from university records. We evaluate how GPA and self-reported measures of academic success are determined by ACT/SAT scores, demographics, school-related variables, study-related variables, socio-economic variables and time spent using one's smartphone. Our results suggest that one additional hour of phone use per day lowered current term GPA by 0.152 points on average. Time spent using a smartphone significantly reduces GPA and self-reported measures of academic productivity.
... In literature, the concept of multitasking has been used as a possible explanation for the negative relationship between cell phone use and academic performance (Jacobsen and Forste, 2011;Junco and Cotton, ISSN Karpinski et al., 2013;Kirschner and Karpinski, 2010;Rosen et al., 2013;Wood et al., 2012). According to these studies, students who use a variety of electronic media while in class, including mobile phone find it difficult to learn. ...
... According to these studies, students who use a variety of electronic media while in class, including mobile phone find it difficult to learn. Such students recorded lower scores on follow up tests as compared to their colleagues who did not engage in such multitasking (Wood et al., 2012). Another study that utilised a hierarchical regression to measure the relationship between multitasking and college GPA found that multitasking with particular reference to Facebooking and texting had a negative influence on college GPA after controlling for such variables as time used in preparing for class, student's internet skills, sex, and actual high school GPA (Junco and Cotton, 2012). ...
... Further self-report studies also found a negative relationship between the use of social media and the grade point average (Karpinski et al., 2013;Rosen,et al., 2013). Turning to experimental evidence, Wood et al. (2012) compared the performance after a 20-min lecture presentation on research in a 15-items quiz between an experimental group using a smartphone (texting, emailing, MSN messaging and Facebook) with three control groups (enforced paper-and-pencil note-taking, enforced word-processing note-taking and a natural use of technology condition). The control groups outperformed the smartphone group, indicating that mobile phone use may be detrimental to learning performance. ...
... Another reason for the unexpected result of not finding a direct effect on learning performance may be that, in previous experiments focussing on reading/learning tasks, the interruptions were linked to texting (Conard & Marsh, 2014;Dietz & Henrich, 2014;Gupta & Irwin, 2016;Wood et al., 2012) and, in their cognitive demands, were thus very similar to the main task. Playing a simple game may be less disruptive than texting in these contexts because reading a text (as main task) and playing a smartphone game (as a disruptive task) are less similar. ...
Article
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In this study, we investigated whether the use of smartphone games while reading a text reduces learning performance or reading speed. We also examined whether this is affected by push notifications. Ninety-three students were randomly assigned to three learning conditions. In the gaming group (G), participants played a game app for 20 s at 2-min intervals while reading. In one subgroup, the game app sent push notifications (GN+); in the other subgroup, no notifications (GN−) were sent. In the control group (C), participants did not play a game. After the reading, participants took a multiple-choice quiz. We compared quiz scores and reading times of the groups (G) and (C) and within the gaming group (GN+, GN−) and observed no differences. Since the statistical non-significance of these tests does not entail the absence of an effect, we conducted equivalence tests, which did not demonstrate equivalence either. The experiment ensured high internal validity, yet remained inconclusive. Reasons for the similarity of performance in all groups could be non-specific exercise effects (all participants owned a smartphone), low similarity between the tasks, low variance of participants’ ability and motivation (high achieving, low ADHD scores) or low game complexity. Future research should address these questions.
... Despite the several advantages of digital devices for learning in higher education, such as having quick access to online information, taking pictures of important content during class [6], taking notes and organizing content, or downloading necessary resources [7], the downsides of digital media usage in class cannot be ignored: prior research disclosed that students who use digital devices in class show worse overall performance compared to students who do not use the respective technologies [2,[8][9][10]. However, although the data about the exact user behavior vary, there is much proof for the distracting effect of media use while learning [9,11]. ...
... Even though students also use their mobile phones for activities related to the content of the class [6], the negative effects on learning prevail [9][10][11]36]. ...
Article
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Using various digital devices, and being faced with digital interruptions is a given for students not only in traditional university classes but also in blended learning courses. Hence, this study (N = 201) at an Austrian university of applied sciences investigated students’ perceptions of digital device use and the digital interruptions that they face during webinars and on-campus sessions. Results show that students primarily use the same types of digital devices during webinars and on-campus sessions, i.e., computers for course-related (CR) activities, and smartphones for non-course-related (NCR) activities. Results further indicate that while the majority of students are aware of the interruptive impact that NCR activities have on their learning, the effect on others seems to be a blind spot. The reasons for NCR activities are manifold. Moreover, results suggest that students have difficulties in assessing the actual time spent on NCR activities during webinars.
... As technological convergence has increased, students' multitasking using ICT has become a concern. Junco and Cotten (2012) and Wood et al. (2012) found that students often engage in multitasking using ICT such as Web-surfing, Facebook monitoring, or instant messaging in daily life as well as during schoolwork. They further indicated that multitasking when using ICT negatively impacted the students' the overall GPAs of undergraduates. ...
... The main research findings provide several insights. First, SE in technology use positively influenced SE in an online learning environment, which supports the recent research findings of Wei and Chou (2020 (2012) and Wood et al. (2012) have pointed out, these behaviours may lower learning engagement in an online learning setting. ...
Article
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Background Due to the global COVID‐19 pandemic, online learning became the only way to learn during this unprecedented crisis. This study began with a simple but vital question: What factors influenced the success of online learning during the COVID‐19 pandemic with a focus on online learning self‐efficacy? Objectives The purpose of this study was to examine the structural relationship among self‐efficacy (SE) in time management, SE in technology use, SE in an online learning environment, and learning engagement. Methods The participants of the study were 1205 undergraduates who were enrolled in a residential undergraduate program in South Korea in spring semester, 2020. The online survey was administered to collect data for this research and the survey results were analyzed using structural equation modeling. Results and Conclusions SE in technology use had a significant but negative influence on learning engagement and had a positive impact on SE in an online learning environment. SE in time management had a significant positive impact on SE in an online learning environment and learning engagement. SE in an online learning environment also significantly influenced learning engagement. Implications SE in technology use itself did not enhance learning engagement. In addition, indirect effects of SE in technology use and SE in time management on learning engagement through SE in an online learning environment were confirmed in this study. This indicates the influential role of SE in an online learning environment on learning engagement of online learners.
... Kraushaar & Novak (2010) used spyware to track use of digital devices in their study of laptop use during a lecture-style management information systems class, finding that noncourse-related applications were active and open about 42% of the time and that the degree of non-course-related use predicted course grades, with text messaging lowering performance the most. Wood, et al. (2012) compared four device groups (Facebook™, texting, email and MSN Messenger) to three non-device control groups (no devices, pencil and paper note-taking, word processing note-taking, and a "natural use" control group that had complete discretion to use or not use their devices. Wood found that the participants who did not use any technologies in the lectures outperformed students who used some form of technology, and that Facebook™ and MSN Messenger were more likely to hurt learning than others conditions. ...
... Clearly students find it difficult to resist device use. Only 57% of the participants adhered to instructions to use only the assigned device during lecture (text, MSN Messenger, Facebook™ or email) when participating in a short term study (Wood et al., 2012). What's worse is that offering anytime access to the lecture does not bridge the gap created by device distractions. ...
Article
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The literature shows that unguided device use in the classroom decreases academic outcomes for a broad range of students. However, the literature does not address potential harms to graduate students. We investigate where highly motivated graduate students in a professional MPA program would be vulnerable to the same device distraction effects as undergraduate and grade school students. Four sections of Advanced Taxation were assigned to either "device-prohibited" or "device-permitted" (natural use). Those assigned to the device-prohibited sections earned 17% higher course grades, an effect size greater the undergraduate studies. Surprisingly, GPA and device use interacted, with those at the high end of the GPA showing the greatest disadvantage from device use. The evidence indicates that it is not the least academically prepared students who are the most vulnerable to device distractions, but rather the more accomplished students, although the declines were found for all levels of academic achievement.
... May and Elder (2018) suggested that the purpose of multitasking, rather than multitasking itself, creates the negative learning outcomes. Wood et al. (2012) compared note taking on a piece of paper versus Microsoft Word together with multitasking. Multitasking conditions included texting, emailing, Instant Messaging (IM), and Facebook. ...
... Students habitually using laptops in class report low satisfaction with their education, are more likely to multitask in class, and are more distracted (Wurst et al., 2008). Laptop use negatively related to multiple learning outcomes including course grade, focus on lectures, reported clarity of lectures, exam performance, and comprehension (Fried, 2008;Kraushaar & Novak, 2010;Wood et al., 2012). Interestingly, laptop multitasking not only harms the multitaskers, but also distracts the nearby peers, affecting their learning negatively (Fried, 2008;Sana et al., 2013). ...
Article
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Aim/Purpose: This article aimed to design and evaluate a pedagogical technique for altering students’ classroom digital multitasking behaviors. The technique we designed and evaluated is called course-based undergraduate research experience (CURE). With this technique, the students wrote a research article based on a multitasking experiment that the instructor conducted with the students. The students conducted a literature review, developed their own research questions, they analyzed experiment data, and presented results. This study evaluated the how the CURE contributed to student multitasking behavior change. Background: Multitasking is defined as doing more than one thing at a time. Multitasking is really the engagement in individual and discrete tasks that are performed in succession. Research showed that students multitasked very often during courses. Researchers indicated that this was a problem especially for online teaching, because when students went online, they tended to multitask. Extant research indicated that digital multitasking in class harmed student performance. Multiple studies suggested that students who multitasked spent more time finishing their tasks and made more mistakes. Regardless of students’ gender or GPA, students who multitasked in class performed worse and got a lower grade than those who did not. However, little is known about how to change students’ digital multitasking behaviors. In this study, we used the transtheoretical model of behavior change to investigate how our pedagogical technique (CURE) changed students’ digital multitasking behaviors. Methodology: Using a course-based undergraduate research experience design, a new classroom intervention was designed and evaluated through a content analysis of pre- and post-intervention student reflections. As part of the course-based undergraduate research experience design, the students conducted a literature review, developed their own research questions, they analyzed experiment data, and presented results. This study evaluated the how teaching using a course-based undergraduate research experience contributed to student multitasking behavior change. Transtheoretical model of behavior change was used to investigate how our pedagogical technique changed students’ digital multitasking behaviors. Contribution: The paper described how teaching using a course-based undergraduate research experience can be used in practice. Further, it demonstrated the utility of this technique in changing student digital multitasking behaviors. This study contributed to constructivist approaches in education. Other unwanted student attitudes and behaviors can be changed using this approach to learning. Findings: As a result of CURE teaching, a majority of students observed the negative aspects of multitasking and intended to change their digital multitasking behaviors. Sixty-one percent of the participants experienced attitude changes, namely increased negative attitude towards multitasking in class. This is important because research found that while both students and instructors believed off-task technology use hinders learning, their views differed significantly, with more instructors than students feeling strongly that students’ use of technology in class is a problem. Moreover, our study showed that with teaching using CURE, it is possible to move the students on the ladder of change as quickly as within one semester (13 weeks). Seventy-one percent of the students reported moving to a higher stage of change post-intervention. Recommendations for Practitioners: Faculty wishing to curb student digital multitasking behaviors may conduct in-class experimentation with multitasking and have their students write a research report on their findings. Course-based undergraduate research experiences may make the effects of digital multitasking more apparent to the students. The students may become more aware of their own multitasking behaviors rather than doing them habitually. This technique is also recommended for those instructors who would like to introduce academic careers as a potential career option to their students. Recommendation for Researchers: Researchers should explore changing other unwanted undergraduate student behaviors with course-based undergraduate experiences. Researchers may use the transtheoretical model of change to evaluate the effectiveness of techniques used to change behaviors. Impact on Society: The negative outcomes of digital multitasking are not confined to the classroom. Digital multitasking impacts productivity in many domains. If techniques such as those used in this article become more common, changes in multitasking intentions could show broad improvements in productivity across many fields. Future Research: This paper constitutes a pilot study due to the small convenience sample that is used for the study. Future research should replicate this study with larger and randomized samples. Further investigation of the CURE technique can improve its effectiveness or reduce the instructor input while attaining the same behavioral changes.
... However, in the context of lectures, there is no chance to stop or rewind when interruptions occur. In a Canadian study (Wood et al., 2012), an experimental group using a smartphone (texting, emailing, MSN messaging and Facebook) and three control-groups (enforced paper-and-pencil note-taking, enforced word-processing note-taking and a natural use of technology condition) took a 15-item quiz after a 20 min lecture presentation and all of the control groups fared better than the group using social networks on the smartphone during the lecture. These results have been replicated with different experimental designs (Conard & Marsh, 2014;Dietz & Henrich, 2014;Gupta & Irwin, 2016). ...
... All students of a Marburg University with age over 18 years and unrestricted abilities of seeing, hearing and movement of the fingers were permitted to participate. The sample size was determined with reference to comparable studies (Conard & Marsh, 2014;Dietz & Henrich, 2014;Wood et al., 2012) that examined the effect of texting or Facebook use during a lecture-style video and used sample sizes ranging from n = 21 to n = 56 per group. Informed consent was provided by 98 participants. ...
Article
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Many university students use mobile phones during study tasks for unrelated activities. It is known that using social networking while studying reduces the learning performance. The objective of the present study was to investigate whether using smartphone games during a lecture reduces the learning performance, and whether this is influenced by receiving push notifications. Ninety-three students were randomized to three conditions: In two gaming conditions (G), participants played a custom-made gaming-app (20 s) at 2-min intervals while watching a video mimicking a lecture. In one subgroup (GN+), the game app sent push notifications; in the other (GN-), no notifications were sent. Participants in the control group (C) watched the lecture without playing. Subsequently, participants answered multiplechoice questions and estimated their own quiz performance. Comparing the quiz scores and subjective performance estimates of the three groups showed that the learning performance in GN+ was lower than in C (d = 0.51); no other differences were observed. Participants’ subjective performance estimations remained unaffected by the experimental condition. Possible implications of the divergence of the subjective estimate and objective performance are discussed, as well as limitations, such as the low complexity of the game used and the short lecture duration, not reflective of typical lectures.
... For example, both extended mindwandering (Galéra et al., 2012;Yanko & Spalek, 2014) and non-extended mind-wandering (Hancock et al., 2003) impair driving performance. Learning in a classroom setting was found to be impaired by both extended mind-wandering (Hembrooke & Gay, 2003;Spence et al., 2020;Wood et al., 2012) and non-extended mind-wandering (Risko et al., 2013;Wammes et al., 2016). Moreover, reading comprehension was found to be impaired by both extended mind-wandering (Liu & Gu, 2020) and non-extended mind-wandering (Feng et al., 2013;McVay & Kane, 2012;Smallwood, 2011). ...
Article
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Smartphone use plays an increasingly important role in our daily lives. Philosophical research that has used first-wave or second-wave theories of extended cognition in order to understand our engagement with digital technologies has focused on the contribution of these technologies to the completion of specific cognitive tasks (e.g., remembering, reasoning, problem-solving, navigation). However, in a considerable number of cases, everyday smartphone use is either task-unrelated or task-free. In psychological research, these cases have been captured by notions such as absent-minded smartphone use (Marty-Dugas et al., 2018) or smartphone-related inattentiveness (Liebherr et al., 2020). Given the prevalence of these cases, we develop a conceptual framework that can accommodate the functional and phenomenological characteristics of task-unrelated or task-free smartphone use. To this end, we will integrate research on second-wave extended cognition with mind-wandering research and introduce the concept of ‘extended mind-wandering’. Elaborating the family resemblances approach to mind-wandering (Seli, Kane, Smallwood, et al., 2018), we will argue that task-unrelated or task-free smartphone use shares many characteristics with mind-wandering. We will suggest that an empirically informed conceptual analysis of cases of extended mind-wandering can enrich current work on digitally extended cognition by specifying the influence of the attention economy on our cognitive dynamics.
... Tindell and Bohlander, (2012) highlighted in their research that the fast growth of technology helps the students to learn new information and can score high marks in schools. Wood et al. (2012) observed the impact of learning through electronic media has increased even attending college classroom lectures. The students can collect information from various sites and update their knowledge. ...
Article
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Online teaching is becoming a necessity for the students to learn things in the Covid19. Many of the educational institutions are still closed due to the pandemic, but the learning process is in progress with the support of online teaching. It helps the students to learn courses from their teachers, complete assignments, and equip themselves. The purpose of the study is to find out the effectiveness of online teaching among the students of semi-urban areas. The research behind choosing the topic is to analyze the impact of online teaching on students learning and the facilities available to access the content online. In this study, the researcher studies the effectiveness of online teaching among the students in semi-urban areas of Nagapattinam district, South India. The researcher has chosen 117 samples to measure the effectiveness of online teaching in educational institutions. The research has reached the conclusion based on the results.
... For instance, Kim et al. (2019) assessed objective log data and found that first-year college students spent over 25% of their time during class operating their smartphones: every 3-4 min, they were distracted by their smartphone for over a minute. Engaging in off-task behavior on digital devices (such as texting) during learning environments has demonstrated detrimental effects on learning in various studies (Gingerich & Lineweaver, 2014;Mendoza et al., 2018;Waite et al., 2018;Wood et al., 2012). These findings are eye-opening in light of learners' limited cognitive resources (e.g., Cowan, 2016): Cognitive resources bound by off-task behavior are unavailable for deep processing the given learning material. ...
Article
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The rising prevalence of online courses and ubiquitous smartphone use pose challenges to researchers and instructors. Open questions concern the effectiveness of digital interventions under unsupervised non-lab conditions, as well as potential associations between interruptions, smartphone usage, and learning. We experimentally tested a web-based training intervention based on video examples and self-explanation prompts with 53 undergraduate teacher students (training condition, n = 27 versus control condition, n = 26). Despite the unsupervised non-lab conditions with potential distractions and interruptions, we found the expected effect on learning outcomes. More interestingly, this effect was completely mediated by self-explanation quality. Furthermore, the effect of self-explanation quality on declarative knowledge was moderated by the number of interruptions during the web-based learning. Moreover, we implemented a simple yet valid method to assess the learners’ mean daily smartphone usage time. To do that, we relied on logging-functions most smartphones already have preinstalled. We detected moderate, negative correlations between the learners’ mean daily smartphone usage and their task engagement (i.e., mental effort and lack of interruptions) during our intervention. Our findings emphasize how effective it is to self-explain video examples, and how important it is to not get interrupted during web-based learning.
... Thus, there is also a vision in which the popularity of mobile phones is not synonymous with making good use of them. In relation to this idea, there is research that shows the relationship between the use of mobile phones on school premises and lack of concentration, of reflection and criticism, or poor school performance by students, which seriously affects their school performance as a whole [26][27][28][29]. Likewise, the literature also provides the possible relation between the use of these devices in the school and the increase of cases of school bullying and cyberbullying [30][31][32]. ...
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Today's young people spend most of their time in contact with mobile devices. Their excessive use carries many risks, such as addiction, cyberbullying and social disruption. Based on this, this study analysed the mobile phone use of young Czechs between 7 and 17 years old (n = 27.177) and assessed the differences in their behaviour according to the mobile device use policies of their schools. The results show that the use of mobile phones was linked to the one of the social networks, YouTube and videogames for the most part. Similarly, those young people who had them at school preferred to use them, instead of practicing sports or social activities. On the other hand, in the centres in which the use of mobile phones was prohibited, they felt bored and without activities to do. Therefore, it will be necessary for schools to implement educational policies that encourage activities and areas of social interaction in the school, especially during recess. However, at the same time, it is recommended not to prohibit the use of technological devices in the educational centre, since this fact encourages students to use them secretly and increases their desire to use them. To this end, its use in the classroom is advocated from an educational perspective, thus promoting collaborative learning and increasing student motivation.
... A substantial number of studies has shown that multitasking with digital devices, including laptops and mobile phones, remarkably affects students' learning performance. For instance, Wood et al. (2012) reported that students who multitasked with these devices during lectures underperformed their peers who were not multitasking. Likewise, Lau (2017) studied university students in Hong Kong and found that social media multitasking was detrimental to students' learning. ...
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Framed by social learning theory, the study examines a set of personal and social factors determining off-task social media multitasking inside university classrooms. We aim to clarify the relationships between social media multitasking and self-efficacy, intrinsic motivation, multitasking preference as well as peer distraction, and to elucidate the interactive relationships between these factors. Questionnaire data from 203 university students in China show that academic self-efficacy fully mediates the association between intrinsic motivation and off-task multitasking. Moreover, multitasking preference partially mediates the association between peer distraction and off-task multitasking during class time. The findings of the study contribute to a deeper understanding of why students multitask during class, which can inform the development of strategies for combating social media distraction and enhancing students’ learning engagement.
... Aktivierungsbefunde legen nahe, dass Videospielerfahrung insbesondere die Fähigkeit zur Aufrechterhaltung der Reaktivität des neuronalen Belohnungssystems verbessern könnte (Lorenz, Gleich, Gallinat, & Kühn, 2015). Einige Autoren führen das Potenzial von Videospielen, schon innerhalb relativ kurzer Zeit (einiger Tage oder Wochen) zu Veränderungen von Hirnstrukturen und -funktionen zu führen, darauf zurück, dass die in den Spielen angestoßenen Belohnungsprozesse in besonderem Maße neuronale Plastizität anregen, von der dann auch die Entwicklung kognitiver Verarbeitungsfähigkeiten profitiert (Bavelier & Green, 2019; Kilgard & Merzenich, 1998 Wood et al., 2012). Hirnbildgebungsstudien legen darüber hinaus nahe, dass sich auch die neuronalen Mechanismen von Lernprozessen mit und ohne Distraktion durch Multitasking-Anforderungen unterscheiden (Foerde, Knowlton, & Poldrack, 2006). ...
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Die psychologische Forschung beschäftigt sich zunehmend mit den Wechselwirkungen zwischen der Nutzung digitaler Spiele und der Intelligenzentwicklung bei Kindern und Jugendlichen. In diesem Beitrag werden die Befunde der biologisch-psychologischen Kognitionsforschung zur Wirkung von Gaming auf Aufmerksamkeitsprozesse und exekutive Funktionen sowie die Befunde der klinisch-psychologischen Wissenschaft zu kognitiven Entwicklungseinbußen durch eine süchtige Videospielnutzung integriert. Für spezifische kognitive Fähigkeiten wie Verarbeitungsgeschwindigkeit, Aufmerksamkeitskontrolle und räumliche Kognition sind positive Effekte von Videospielen gut belegt. Medien-Multitasking dagegen wird mit schwächeren exekutiven Funktionen in Zusammenhang gebracht und beeinträchtigt die Leistung in parallel durchgeführten Aufgaben. Häufiges Gaming führt zu strukturellen Veränderungen im mesolimbischen Belohnungssystems, die sich auch bei Menschen mit einer süchtigen Videospielnutzung finden. Solche hirnstrukturellen Veränderungen werden mit einer Sensitivierung des Belohnungssystems und der Aufrechterhaltung süchtigen Computerspielverhaltens in Verbindung gebracht, das mit Entwicklungseinbußen und reduzierten akademischen Leistungen assoziiert ist. Zur Integration der Befunde aus den Bereich Kognition und Sucht wird ein Modell zur wechselseitigen Beeinflussung von Intelligenz und Mediennutzung vorgestellt, in dem Aufmerksamkeitskontrolle, Belohnungssensitivität sowie ein Entscheidungsprozess, der erwartete positive gegen mögliche negative Verhaltenskonsequenzen abwägt, als vermittelnde Faktoren postuliert werden. Wir nehmen an, dass eine hohe Belohnungssensitivität und niedrige Aufmerksamkeitskontrolle Risikofaktoren für ungünstiges Mediennutzungsverhalten darstellen, das unproduktives Medien-Multitasking, exzessives Gaming und süchtige Videospielnutzung sowie Leistungseinbußen aufgrund der Vernachlässigung anderer Lebensbereiche (Schule, Studium, Beruf) einschließt. Auf der anderen Seite stellen eine moderate Belohnungssensitivität sowie eine hohe Fähigkeit zur Aufmerksamkeitskontrolle Schutzfaktoren dar, die den zielgerichteten Einsatz digitaler Medien und die kontrollierte Nutzung begünstigen. Wir gehen davon aus, dass die Intelligenz eine wichtige Rolle für das individuelle Muster der Mediennutzung und ihre Folgen spielt.
... Further, the finding supports the claims of Wood, et al. (2012) who states that offering different kinds of technology in the classroom can motivate students to use technology more often. When teacher use different technologies, students become more involved in learning the subject and their passion for learning increases. ...
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Dynamic Education (DynEd) International Inc. is a leading provider of Interactive Language Program designed to enhance learners’ English communication skills. This study aimed to determine the effect of the DynEd’s Reading course on reading proficiency and reading motivation of the students in Mindanao State University-Maguindanao during 2nd Semester of A.Y. 2017-2018. The study was conducted with the college students taking Job Enabling English Proficiency (JEEP) Start 2 courses. Sixty students were randomly selected among the eligible students to take Reading for Success course of the DynEd courseware. In this study, single group experimental with pretest and posttest design was used. The reading section of a TOEFL and Motivation for Reading Questionnaire (MRQ) by Wang and Guthrie (2004) were used as research instruments. The results showed that before DynEd Reading course was introduced, the students’ reading proficiency level was described as low. However, after the 8-week long intervention using courseware, the students’ reading proficiency level increased to intermediate level. Moreover, the students’ intrinsic and extrinsic reading motivation level before and after the intervention were all found out to be in “motivated” level. It was also found out that comparison between the pretest and posttest in reading proficiency and intrinsic reading motivation were significant. It was then concluded that the DynEd Reading course is effective in improving the reading proficiency level and intrinsic reading motivation of the college students. The result implies that DynEd courseware is an effective tool to enhance the reading skills of the students.
... Media multitasking (e.g., by messaging or listening to podcasts) has also been shown to increase reading time (Fox et al., 2009;Bowman et al., 2010) and, in some cases, affect comprehension and memory of read material (Armstrong and Chung, 2000;Srivastava, 2013). Moreover, media multitasking in the classroom has been associated with poor learning of course content, especially when media is being used for course-unrelated activity (Hembrooke and Gay, 2003;Fried, 2008;Rosen et al., 2011;Wood et al., 2012;Demirbilek and Talan, 2018;Wammes et al., 2019;Jamet et al., 2020). ...
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Media multitasking entails simultaneously engaging in multiple tasks when at least one of the tasks involves media (e.g., online activities and streaming videos). Across two studies, we investigated one potential trigger of media multitasking, state boredom, and its relation to media multitasking. To this end, we manipulated participants’ levels of state boredom using video mood inductions prior to administering an attention-demanding 2-back task during which participants could media multitask by playing a task-irrelevant video. We also examined whether trait boredom proneness was associated media multitasking. We found no direct evidence that state boredom leads to media multitasking. However, trait boredom proneness correlated with greater amounts of media multitasking in Experiment 1, but not in Experiment 2. Surprisingly, in both experiments, post-task ratings of state boredom were equivalent across conditions, alerting us to the short-lived effects of video mood inductions and the boring nature of cognitive tasks.
... On the other hand, using computers in the learning process enables students to engage in online chatting with peers and their teacher about course matters. Sometimes this chatting is irrelevant (Kay and Lauricella, 2011) and creates multitasking behaviours that may negatively influence learning outcomes (Bowman et al., 2010;Wei et al., 2014;Wood et al., 2012). However, the useful chat application does enable students and teachers to easily communicate with each other (Calvo et al., 2014). ...
... Employing technology to support learning has its advantages; nonetheless, there could be limitations as well. First, technology itself can be a distraction which makes students overly focus on technology rather than learning [10] [11]. Second, technology can be costly. ...
... In this study, it was determined that students who prefer multitasking and who have a high level of technology and media dependency spend more time playing video games. In the literature, multitasking has been shown to have an effect on individuals' attention structure (Wood et al., 2012). On the other hand, video games provide attention control to individuals with basic cognitive features such as multi-object tracking, transitioning from one task to another, and mental rotation (Bediou et al., 2018;Boot et al., 2008). ...
Article
Sustained attention, a fundamental function of attention, also plays an important role in determining the effectiveness of other aspects of attention, such as selective attention, divided attention, and general cognitive capacity. Effective recognition, learning, and memory cannot be achieved in a learning process that does not involve sustained attention. This study, therefore, aims to define the relationships between the sustained attention level of students in higher education and their media and technology usage behaviors. This study of 198 university students was designed using quantitative methodology. A computerized sustained attention test (~65 hours) and the media and technology usage scale were used as data collection tools. According to the findings, there is a significant relationship between sustained attention levels and playing multi-user games. With the data obtained from this research, it is aimed to create a roadmap based on learner characteristics in order to define user profiles and customize designs accordingly.
... Human information processing, however, is insufficient to attend to multiple stimuli and to perform simultaneous tasks (e.g. Wood et al., 2012), and research on multitasking has shown that media use while performing other activities is associated with increases in the time needed to carry out the primary task and loss of accuracy, attention and concentration (van der Schuur et al., 2015;Junco & Cotten, 2011;Kushlev et al., 2016). ...
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Over the past decade smartphones have permeated all domains of adolescents’ everyday lives, with research dominated by “smartphone addiction.” This study compares one of the most used measures of smartphone addiction with a new alternative measure, the smartphone pervasiveness scale for adolescents (SPS-A), which focuses on the frequency of smartphone use at key social and physiological moments of daily life. A sample of 3,289 Italian high school students was used to validate the two constructs and compare their suitability for research on academic performance. SPS-A was moderately correlated with smartphone addiction, showed measurement invariance (across ethnic origins, parental education, and gender), and negatively predicted language and math test scores. SPS-A is a non-pathologizing instrument suitable to analyzing the role of smartphone use in academic achievement in combination with students’ social background.
... On the other hand, using computers in the learning process enables students to engage in online chatting with peers and their teacher about course matters. Sometimes this chatting is irrelevant (Kay and Lauricella, 2011) and creates multitasking behaviours that may negatively influence learning outcomes (Bowman et al., 2010;Wei et al., 2014;Wood et al., 2012). However, the useful chat application does enable students and teachers to easily communicate with each other (Calvo et al., 2014). ...
... The focus of current studies is to examine the effectiveness of various approaches at detecting and sustaining attention of students in online learning (Bennike et al., 2017;Pan et al., 2020;Jang et al., 2020;Conrad and Newman, 2019). Limited studies on influencing factors investigated only one or two factors related to sustained attention, such as technology application, emotions and cognitive load (Wood et al., 2012;Hidi and Renninger, 2006;Lavie, 2010). Therefore, the purpose of the study was to identify multiple factors influencing sustained attention of nursing students in online learning and to integrate these factors and examine how they interacted to affect sustained attention using a structural equation modelling (SEM) approach. ...
Article
Background Sustained attention is a key variable affecting nursing students' academic performance during online learning process. However, factors contributing to sustained attention remain to be determined. Aims To analyze the path relationships among the influencing factors for nursing students' sustained attention in online learning using a structural equation model. Design A cross-sectional survey was administered. Methods Nursing students from 35 nursing schools in China were invited to participate in this survey study. Once participating in nursing programs and receiving online learning, they were eligible for the study. The data were collected online via the Questionnaire Star platform from March 29 to April 19, 2020. A structural equation modelling (SEM) approach was utilized to analyze the relationships between sustained attention and influencing factors (situational interest, anxiety, cognitive load, technology efficacy and professional identity). Furthermore, multi-group SEM analysis was conducted to examine whether the model equally fitted nursing students in different levels of programs. Results A total of 1089 nursing students completed the questionnaires. The majority (77.3%) were female and the mean age (SD) was 21.9 (4.4) years. A half (50.3%) were enrolled in the undergraduate programs. Results suggested that situational interest (β = 0.19, 95% CI: 0.14, 0.24) and anxiety (β = −0.70, 95% CI: −0.76, −0.64) directly affected sustained attention. Both technology efficacy (β = 0.22, 95% CI: 0.15, 0.28) and professional identity (β = 0.20, 95% CI: 0.14, 0.26) had conferred indirect effects on sustained attention through academic emotions (i.e., situational interest and anxiety). The cognitive load directly affected sustained attention (β = −0.15, 95% CI: −0.20, −0.09) and indirectly affected sustained attention through anxiety (β = −0.32, 95% CI: −0.37, −0.26). There was no significant difference in the model fit among nursing students in various programs, including diplomatic, associate and bachelor's degree and above programs (∆χ2 = 27.228, p = 0.611). Conclusions Technology efficacy, professional identity, situational interest, anxiety and cognitive load are identified as the main elements affecting nursing students' sustained attention. This model is equally suitable for nursing students in different levels of nursing programs. During the process of online learning, students' attributes, emotions and cognition should be considered to help students achieve learning goals in nursing education.
... As secondary goals we selected those related to phone use. This selection was based on the growing literature showing that multitasking with phones and electronic devices in general is particularly prevalent, especially among the youth (Brown & Cantor, 2000;Jacobsen & Forste, 2011;Roberts et al., 2005;van Der Schuur et al., 2015;Wood et al., 2012). Moreover, studies show that most of phone use during class serves other than class-related purposes-with social purposes (as represented by texting, using social media, or emailing) being the most prevalent ones (Burns & Lohenry, 2010;Junco, 2012;Junco & Cotten, 2012)-and it is one of the major distractors from academic activities (Chen & Yan, 2016;Grinols & Rajesh, 2014). ...
Article
With the constantly increasing popularity of human multitasking, it is crucial to know why people engage in simultaneous task performance or switch between unfinished tasks. In the present article, we propose that multitasking behavior occurs when people have multiple active goals; the greater their number, the greater the degree of multitasking. The number of currently considered goals is reduced where one goal's significance overrides the others, reducing the degree of multitasking. We tested these hypotheses in a series of six studies in which we manipulated either goal activation or goal importance and investigated how this affected the degree of multitasking. The results showed that the more active goals participants actively entertained, the more likely they were to plan to engage in multitasking (Studies 1 and 5), and the more often they switched between tasks (Study 2). They also multitasked more under high interruption condition assumed to activate more goals than low interruption condition (Study 3). Further, we demonstrated that the degree of multitasking was significantly decreased by reducing the number of simultaneously considered goals, either via increasing the relative importance of one of the goals (Study 4) or via inducing greater commitment to one of the goals through a mental contrasting procedure (Study 5). Study 6, carried out in an academic context, additionally showed that the importance of a class-related goal negatively predicted media multitasking in class. The results thus show that goal activation is the underlying mechanism that explains why people multitask. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).
... Linking back to the distinctions I suggested in the discussion of transience, the findings of Wammes et al (2019) reflect a task-specific effect of media multitasking on subsequent memory for content from a particular lecture, and indeed, other earlier studies had shown similar task-specific effects of media multitasking on memory in educational contexts (eg, Rosen et al 2013;Wood et al 2012). However, we can also ask whether there are additional domain-specific or domain-general effects of media multitasking. ...
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Human memory is prone to error and distortion. It has been proposed that memory's misdeeds can be classified into seven categories or ‘sins’. This article discusses the impact of media and technology on four memory sins: transience (forgetting over time), absent-mindedness (lapses in attention that produce forgetting), misattribution (attributing a memory to the wrong source), and suggestibility (implanted memories). Growing concerns have been expressed about the negative impact of media and technology on memory. With respect to transience, I review research regarding the impact of the Internet (ie, Google), GPS, and photographs. Studies have documented impaired memory following specific tasks on which people rely on media/technology (eg, poor memory for a route after using GPS), but have revealed little evidence for broader impairments (eg, generally impaired memory in GPS users), and have also documented some mnemonic benefits (eg, reviewing photos of past experiences). For absent-mindedness, there is strong evidence that media multitasking is associated with poor memory for a target task (eg, a lecture) because of attentional lapses, suggesting evidence that chronic media multitasking could be associated with broader memory problems, and emerging evidence that technology can help to reduce certain kinds of absent-minded errors. Regarding misattribution and suggestibility, there is clear evidence that manipulated or misleading photos are associated with false memories for personal events and fake news, but no evidence of broader effects on susceptibility to memory distortion. Further study of the impact of media and technology on the memory sins is a fruitful pursuit for interdisciplinary studies.
... In this regard, Junco and Cotten (2012) found that using Facebook and texting while doing schoolwork were associated negatively with self-reported grade point average (GPA) of college students negatively. Similarly, some studies revealed that university students who used Facebook and other media types while studying and attempting to learn during a lecture obtained lower academic performance than students who did not (Gabre & Kumar, 2012;Wood, Zivcakova, Gentile, Archer, De Pasquale & Nosko, 2012). These studies indicated that self-reported use of media during in class and while doing schoolwork has been related to lower academic performance. ...
Article
Prevalence of using social media services while learning, studying and doing homework is increasing rapidly among adolescents in the digital age. Although there is evidence for negative consequences of multitasking with social media, little is known about impact of social media multitasking from perspective attention control of self‐regulation. This study examined the mediating role of attention control as a component of self‐regulation in the link between social media multitasking and academic performances in a sample of adolescents who were recruited from high school students (N = 637). A correlational research design was used in the study. To examine study hypothesis, a mediation model was tested using simple mediation analysis in macro PROCESS (model 4). Results have revealed that attention control of self‐regulation mediated the negative relationship between multitasking with social media and academic performances of the students. Multitasking with social media was a negatively significant predictor of academic performance, whereas attention control positively predicted academic performance. It implies that more frequent multitasking behavior with social media had lower attention control and poorer academic performances. The conclusions of the study suggest a critical role for attention control in decreasing negative effect of multitasking with social media on academic performances of adolescents in high school setting. Implications and suggestions for future studies are proposed.
... The sequential multitasking perspective assumes that people cannot encode and process more than one stimulus at a time. From this point of view, multiple tasks are sequentially performed, one at a time, through rapid attention switching between multiple stimuli [9]. Other scholars see multitasking as the result of divided attention, assuming that people can process multiple stimuli concurrently instead of switching between tasks [10]. ...
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Despite many studies on the effect of MM on advertising, previous studies on MM considered MM a homogenous phenomenon. Further, whether and how media-related factors predict different modes of MM and how this behavior affects ad processing has been unknown. To fill this gap, the purpose of this study was to examine (a) the effect of program-genre on the occurrence of different modes of media multitasking (MM; utilitarian MM vs. hedonic MM) and (b) how different modes of MM influence the way viewers process ads on the primary screen (i.e., computer screen). A lab-based experiment yielded data for testing the hypotheses. The findings suggest that findings suggest that MM can be classified into two distinct modes: utilitarian MM and hedonic MM. Further, the findings show that participants who watched the sitcom tended to engage in a higher amount of utilitarian MM than those who watched the suspenseful drama; however, both groups engaged in a comparable amount of hedonic MM. The findings also indicate that participants who watched the sitcom demonstrated a lower level of ad memory than those who watched the suspenseful drama. The current study provides meaningful theoretical implications. Further, this study provides useful implications for advertising practitioners and marketers.
... As classes often incorporate multiple modes of conveying content that can be utilized simultaneously, students find it increasingly desirable to multitask. Multitasking in the classroom has been shown to distract students and reduce performance (Wood et al. 2012;David et al. 2015;Chiang and Sumell 2019) and to negatively impact their social success (Xu et al. 2016). ...
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Technological improvements have changed the way class content is delivered and absorbed, with new modes of communications and collaboration creating viable alternatives to the traditional classroom. While online learning has many benefits in terms of greater flexibility and convenience, the lack of face-to-face interaction creates potential consequences in the form of greater propensity for procrastination in completing coursework. This paper investigates whether traditional methods of mitigating these habits by way of nudging is enhanced using techniques that motivate students to be more engaged with class content. We introduce microcommitments, small daily tasks delivered with a soft commitment device and social accountability. We randomly assigned 276 students in an online course into a treatment or control group to isolate the effects of microcommitments on delaying the completion of assignments. Our results indicate that engaging students with course content, using a microcommitment, significantly reduces procrastination. Students are nearly twice as likely to complete at least some of the assigned work more than a week prior to the due date as opposed to leaving all of the work for the last week.
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Teacher and student perceptions of using technology enhanced learning (TEL) in higher education have received growing attention, particularly during COVID-19, however existing studies are mainly discipline-specific. This study adopts a holistic cross-disciplinary approach. It compares teacher and student perceptions on defining TEL, promotors and barriers for its use, and solutions offered for better use of TEL in the future. Both qualitative and quantitative data were collected from an Australian university. A total of 75 teachers and 48 students completed an online survey, and of these participants, 24 teachers and 29 students participated in follow-up focus group interviews that included Kahoot! surveys. Quantitative results show that teacher and student perceptions on TEL were generally aligned except that self-reported technology savviness and confidence was rated higher than how students and staff rated each other. Qualitative analyses reveal that both teachers and students identified the main promoters for TEL as being: modern and expected in higher education, while being equalising, efficient, engaging, authentic, collaborative and flexible. The common barriers for using TEL were identified as fear, time, organisational culture, knowledge and technical/support issues, along with the perceived pitfalls of distraction, and superficial student learning. Solutions offered for TEL in the future from staff focused on the institution and a desire for strategic, pedagogical and holistic approaches, while students focussed on the accessibility, flexibility and collaborative potential of TEL. This cross-discipline pre-COVID-19 study of TEL perceptions offered by teachers and students has contributed to knowledge in this area by identifying barriers and solutions for TEL common to all disciplines that have the potential to be applied to whole of institution strategic approaches for the more effective use of TEL in teaching and learning in higher education. Student accessibility to TEL and the development of pedagogically sound digital learning resources bringing together educational developers and discipline experts are of particular relevance during and post-COVID-19.
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Interactive technology use (e.g., Internet and video games) can promote children’s educational access and achievement. However, excessive technology use, particularly for entertainment, may adversely affect children’s educational development. This study examined the relationship of the amount of entertainment-related interactive technology use and school engagement and performance using two-wave survey data collected from a nationally-representative sample of middle school students in China (N = 9,949, 48% girls, Mean age = 13.5 years). Results showed that nearly 40% of children used interactive technology for entertainment/non-schoolwork-related activities on school days, and 62% of them used for entertainment/non-schoolwork-related activities on weekends. Multilevel mixed models revealed that excessive use of technology for entertainment/non-schoolwork-related activities (i.e., 1+ hours on a school day and 4+ hours daily on weekends) was significantly, adversely associated with all outcomes one year later, including lower test scores on Chinese, Math, English, and cognitive competencies, lower educational aspirations, and higher likelihoods of truancy, lacking concentration in class, and boredom at school. Potential reasons for the findings as well as their implications for research and interventions are discussed. Findings will inform the development of feasible and effective guidelines to help parents, teachers, and schools regulate interactive technology use among school-aged children.
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Psychological research is increasingly concerned with the interactions between the use of digital games and the development of intelligence in children and adolescents. This paper integrates the findings of neurocognitive research on effects of gaming on attentional processes and executive functions as well as the findings of clinical psychological studies on cognitive consequences of addictive gaming. For specific cognitive abilities such as processing speed, attentional control, and spatial cognition, positive effects of video games are well documented. Media multitasking, on the other hand, is associated with weaker executive functions and impairs performance in tasks performed in parallel. Frequent gaming leads to structural changes in the mesolimbic reward system that are similar to those found in people with addicted video game use. Such brain structural changes are associated with sensitization of the reward system and maintenance of addictive computer game behavior, which is associated with developmental decline and reduced academic performance. To integrate findings from the fields of cognition and addiction, we present a model of the reciprocal influence of intelligence and media use in which attentional control, reward sensitivity, and a decision-making process that weighs expected positive against possible negative behavioral consequences are postulated as mediating factors. We hypothesize that high reward sensitivity and low attentional control represent risk factors for adverse media use behaviors that include unproductive media multitasking, excessive gaming and addictive video game use, and performance decrements due to neglect of other life domains (school, college, work). On the other hand, moderate reward sensitivity and a high ability to control attention represent protective factors that favor the controlled and purposeful use of digital media. We assume that intelligence plays an important role in the individual pattern of media use and its consequences.
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Este trabajo se hace eco de un animado debate, que está presente en los últimos años en el ámbito de la educación superior, sobre si hay que permitir o se debe prohibir el uso de dispositivos móviles por los estudiantes en el aula. A fin de facilitar una toma de decisiones más informada, se revisa en profundidad la evidencia empírica existente hasta la fecha sobre la relación entre el uso de dispositivos móviles en las aulas y el rendimiento académico de los estudiantes. Se proporciona también nueva evidencia empírica sobre dicha relación, considerando ciertos aspectos que han sido ignorados por la investigación previa, como son la asignatura que se enseña, las características/intereses de los docentes, el año de estudio o el tamaño de la clase. Los resultados dispares del análisis empírico realizado, así como de la evidencia disponible, sugieren que el uso de estos dispositivos móviles y su relación con el rendimiento académico es un asunto complejo que debe ser analizado cuidadosamente. Se sugiere que la cuestión de si el uso de dispositivos móviles debe permitirse o prohibirse en el aula debería reemplazarse por cómo los docentes pueden sacar el mejor partido posible del uso de tales dispositivos en sus clases. Además, se presentan otras propuestas que pueden ser especialmente útiles en un contexto educativo como el actual, que está muy condicionado por la crisis de la COVID-19.
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Although multitasking with laptops and mobile phones has become endemic on university campuses, we still don’t have adequate understanding of this phenomenon. There is especially a lack of qualitative studies offering detailed and rich description of how and why students multitask. This exploratory study provides a nuanced understanding of in-class multitasking with smartphones and laptops. The study involves sixteen students from a comprehensive university in Hong Kong in in-depth interviews. The results indicate that the university students mainly multitask with mobile phones on activities unrelated to the ongoing class. Lectures and peer presentation are reported as the activities students felt least engaged with. The study has revealed a new type of multitasking behavior, that is learning-related yet off-task. The multitasking behavior also fluctuates on an array of factors associated with motivation, classroom context, and the presence of technology.
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This article first situates media multitasking in the changing media ecology. Then, grounded in concepts of stress and flow, limited capacity, and threaded cognition, it develops a four-dimensional theory of media multitasking intensity. Based on the key aspects of media multitasking intensity, the subsequent section proposes two primary influences (executive functioning and self-regulation) and one primary outcome (general stress). An application example focuses on several media multitasking issues and the stress outcome for adolescents within their family environment. The final section suggests a few key methodological implications for studying the theory of media multitasking intensity (self-report, and both temporal and social contexts). The theory of media multitasking intensity generates insights about the functional (i.e., valuable) variation within experiences of media as they overlap with and interrupt experiences of the physical and mediated world.
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This study proposed and tested a conceptual model of academic expectation stress, sleep quality, and attention in EFL class. These variables did not receive much attention in previous studies but are considered important to medical students’ attention in EFL class. Data were collected from 496 medical students from a medical university in Taiwan. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) technique was used to examine the path effect in the research model. The results found that (1) higher academic expectation stress leads to higher attention in EFL class; (2) higher academic stress causes poorer sleep quality; (3) poorer sleep quality leads to lower attention in EFL class. A mediator was also identified in this model: sleep quality was found to partially mediate the relationship between academic expectation stress and attention in EFL class. The results may advance the current literature in medical education and applied linguistics by moving a step closer to understand these three variables.
Chapter
The presence of technology on college campuses has increased rapidly in recent years. Students come to the classroom with a variety of technological devices including smart phones, tablets, or laptops and use them during academic activity. For this reason, there are many researchers who, in recent times, have been interested in the problems derived from digital distraction in higher education. In many cases, researchers have conducted studies and surveys to obtain first-hand information from the protagonists, that is, from university professors and students. Despite the efforts, there are many questions that still remain unanswered. The authors are aware of the enormous challenge that the use of technology poses in the university classrooms and want to delve into the causes and consequences of student digital distraction and the strategies that can be used by instructors to curb student digital distraction without deteriorating student-instructor rapport in the context of higher education.
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This chapter examines the distractive potential of digital devices and summarizes existing scholarly work in this area. The chapter begins with a background on the overall problem of distractions caused by digital devices and how this problem has changed over time. This is followed by a detailed accounting of the digital distractions research, emphasizing the role of message relevance in this process, as well as discussion of research that has examined the interplay between note-taking and digital distractions. The last major section summarizes scholarly work and additional sources that provide examples of how mobile devices, and technology more broadly, can be used in the classroom to help support student learning.
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Students are distracted by mobile technology in the classroom when learning from lectures and outside the classroom when studying. Students are susceptible to distractions because they are not fully engaged in learning. In the classroom, they record notes mindlessly that capture just one-third of important lesson ideas. When they study outside the classroom, they study information in a piecemeal fashion and employ mindless repetition strategies. These weak and unengaging learning strategies open the door for digital distractions. One potential means to engage students in meaningful learning and to offset digital distractions is an integrated strategy system called SOAR, which stands for select, organize, associate, and regulate. This chapter describes SOAR and how instructors can maximize SOAR's components to curb digital distractions by improving student note taking in the classroom and study behaviors outside the classroom. The chapter concludes by specifying how instructors can teach students to SOAR on their own.
Article
Purpose The autonomous governments of two regions in Spain established mobile bans in schools as of the year 2015. Exploiting the across-region variation introduced by such a quasi-natural experiment, this study aims to perform a comparative-case analysis to investigate the impact of this non-spending-based policy on regional Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) scores in maths and sciences and bullying incidence. Design/methodology/approach The authors apply the synthetic control method and diff-in-diff estimation to compare the treated regions with the rest of regions in Spain before and after the intervention. Findings The results show noticeable reductions of bullying incidence among teenagers in the two treated regions. The authors also find positive and significant effects of this policy on the PISA scores of the Galicia region that are equivalent to 0.6–0.8 years of learning in maths and around 0.72 to near one year of learning in sciences. Originality/value To the best of the author’s knowledge, this is the first empirical study analysing the impact of mobile phone bans in schools on bullying cases, exploiting variation across regions (or other units), years and age intervals. Besides, the scarce formal evidence that exists on the consequences of the mobile phones use in students’ academic achievement comes from a micro perspective, while the paper serves as one more piece of evidence from a macro perspective.
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Mobile devices are the necessary part of equipment for the busy life of modern people. Recent studies revealed that students use mobile phones in the educational environment more and more often. But there is a gap in empirical works related to the issue of what exactly do Russian students do with their smartphones during the class and how is this smartphone use connected to their academic motivation. In this study authors aimed to examine different aspects of smartphone usage by Russian university students during class in association with academic motivation, satisfaction with education, and indicators of problematic smartphone use. The study involved 437 participants aged between 17 and 34 years, 70,02% female. The findings revealed that students who used smartphones for academic purposes had expressed intrinsic academic motivation and learning achievements. Generally, students had sooner positive intentions towards smartphone use during the class and tended to disclaim distracting forms of smartphone use. Results have shown that students who actively used smartphones while learning, less satisfied with their education. Problematic smartphone use had a strong association with distracting forms of smartphone use during the class.
Article
Studies on social media generally fail to capture the concurrent influence of social media usage and altruistic behaviour (helping others) on academic performance of students. Based on the organisational citizenship behaviour (OCB), and the interconnectedness of the attention capacity, conservation of resources, and resource allocation theories, we examine and explain how student citizenship behaviour (SCB) and the use of social media influence the academic performance of university students. Data were collected from 231 university students enrolled in business degree programmes at the National University of Lesotho. The Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) and Smart PLS 3 were used to analyse data. The findings revealed an insignificant relationship between the usage of social media and academic performance. The results also showed that helping others using social media (SCB) had positive and significant impact on students’ academic learning and performance. The study builds on and extends our understanding of social media usage in learning by introducing SCB as a desirable behaviour by which students can improve their academic performance through helping others. Managerial and theoretical implications are also discussed.
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The present meta-analysis aimed to synthesize the extant research on the influence of longhand (written) versus digital notetaking methods, unconfounded by distractions, on performance, and to identify key potential moderators of such effects. After a systematic literature search, we obtained 77 effect sizes from 39 samples in 36 articles and conducted a multilevel meta-analysis complemented with robust variance estimation. Overall, results showed a mean effect size (mean estimated g = -0.008, 95% CI: -0.18, 0.16) that was not significantly different from zero, suggesting no effect of notetaking approach. Moderator analyses, justified by effect sizes with significant heterogeneity, demonstrated only three significant moderators referring to the topic covered, the learning objectives, and the duration of the material. Overall, however, the present results suggest that an apparent advantage of longhand notetaking reported in some previous studies can be explained at least partially by distractions from notetaking by other applications that are present only with digital devices. Nevertheless, more research is required to identify moderators that might account for variability in the findings. Work using large representative samples of all ages is particularly needed.
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This paper reports on a study that examined the use of wireless laptops for promoting active learning in lecture halls. The study examined students’ behavior in class and their perceptions of the new learning environment throughout three consecutive semesters. An online survey revealed that students have highly positive perceptions about the use of wireless laptops, but less positive perceptions about being active in class. Class observations showed that the use of wireless laptops enhances student-centered, hands-on, and exploratory learning as well as meaningful student-to-student and student-to-instructor interactions. However, findings also show that wireless laptops can become a source of distraction, if used for non-learning purposes.
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This paper examines undergraduate student use of laptop computers during a lecture-style class that includes substantial problem-solving activities and graphic-based content. The study includes both a self-reported use component collected from student surveys as well as a monitored use component collected via activity monitoring "spyware" installed on student laptops. We categorize multitasking activities into "productive" (course-related) versus "distractive" (non course-related) tasks. Quantifiable measures of software multitasking behavior are introduced to measure the "frequency" of student multitasking, the "duration" of student multitasking, and the "extent" to which students engage in distractive versus productive tasks. We find that students engage in substantial multitasking behavior with their laptops and have non course-related software applications open and active about 42% of the time. There is a statistically significant inverse relationship between the ratio of distractive versus productive multitasking behavior during lectures and academic performance. We also observe that students understate the frequency of email and instant messaging (IM) use in the classroom when self-reporting on their laptop usage. (Contains 9 tables and 5 endnotes.)
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results provide substantial additional support to the common assumption of neuropsychology that neural systems support cognition and further suggest a view of how this is done in detail outline a general framework for dealing with the relationship of cognition to brain systems / framework provides for empirical investigations at many levels; computational, chronometric, spatial imaging, and cellular / applied our framework to the issue of selective attention (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The selection of wanted from unwanted messages requires discriminatory mechanisms of as great a complexity as those in normal perception, as is indicated by behavioral evidence. The results of neurophysiology experiments on selective attention are compatible with this supposition. This presents a difficulty for Filter theory. Another mechanism is proposed, which assumes the existence of a shifting reference standard, which takes up the level of the most important arriving signal. The way such importance is determined in the system is further described. Neurophysiological evidence relative to this postulation is discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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This chapter describes Clemson University's Laptop Faculty Development Program and its assessment, offering the program as one model for designing faculty development to successfully implement laptop mandates. The chapter also acquaints readers with the many types of in-class, laptop-based activities that meet best-practice criteria for effective teaching.
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In this study, we examined the educational effects of providing fifth-, sixth-, and seventh-grade students with 24-hour access to laptop computers. Specifically we examined the impact of laptops on classroom activities, and on student use of technology and their writing and problem-solving skills. Participating teachers received computer integration training using the iNtegrating Technology for inQuiry (NTeQ) model to develop problem-based lessons that engage students in critically examining authentic issues, and strengthen research and writing skills. A matched treatment-control group design was employed, in which classes taught at the same grade levels in five participating schools served as the laptop (1 computer per student) and control (5+ computers per class) contexts. Participants included students, teachers, and parents from the two groups. Although systematic observations revealed relatively few differences in teaching methods between laptop and control classrooms, laptop students used computers more frequently, extensively, and independently. Writing assessment results showed substantial and significant advantages for laptop over control students, with six of eight effect sizes exceeding +0.80. Results also showed significant advantages for the laptop group on five of the seven components of the problem-solving task.
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THE EFFECTS OF MULTITASKING IN THE CLASSROOM were investigated in students in an upper level Communications course. Two groups of students heard the same exact lecture and tested immediately following the lecture. One group of students was allowed to use their laptops to engage in browsing, search, and/or social computing behaviors during the lecture. Students in the second condition were asked to keep their laptops closed for the duration of the lecture. Students in the open laptop condition suffered decrements on traditional measures of memory for lecture content. A second experiment replicated the results of the first. Data were further analyzed by “browsing style.” Results are discussed from Lang’s Limited Process Capacity model in an attempt to better understand the mechanisms involved in the decrement.
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A meta-analysis was performed to synthesize existing research comparing the effects of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) versus traditional instruction (TI) on students’ achievement in Taiwan. Fifty-two studies were located from four sources, and their quantitative data was transformed into effect size (ES). The overall grand mean of the study-weighted ES for all 52 studies was 0.55. The results suggest that CAI is more effective than TI in Taiwan. In addition, two of the seventeen variables selected for this study (i.e., statistical power, and comparison group) had a statistically significant impact on the mean ES.The results from this study suggest that the effects of CAI in instruction are positive over TI. The results also shed light on the debate of learning from media between Clark and Kozma.
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This work presents the analysis of the 2001 Brazilian Basic Education Evaluation System (SAEB) achievement exam. The SAEB tested 4th, 8th, and 11th grade students, in mathematics and reading (Portuguese). We classified the students into seven socioeconomic classes, and for each class, compared the test results according to frequency of computer use, computer ownership, Internet access at home, and whether the teachers used computers and Internet as pedagogical tools. Frequency of computer use had, in general, a negative effect on the test results, and the negative effect increased for younger and poorer students. Computer ownership had, in general, a small positive effect on the test results for older students, and no effect for 4th graders. Internet access had a negative effect for younger and poorer students, and a positive effect for 11th graders. Finally, whether the teacher used computers or Internet as pedagogical tools had no effect on the student’s test results for all social economic classes and grades.
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Although wireless and mobile technology is regarded as a useful tool for enhancing student-centered learning, few studies have explored the factors that may affect the application of this emerging technology in classroom situations. Accordingly, this study selects three factors (instructional belief, instructional routine, and features of wireless and mobile technology) via literature review, then utilizes a case-study method with a focus class and teacher to explore the effects of these factors on teaching in wireless environments. The main study results are summarized as follows: first, the case teacher held positive beliefs regarding student-centered instruction and innovative technology, but the teacher's instructional practices were significantly restricted by the teacher- centered approach. This inconsistency between instructional beliefs and practices resulted in the teacher being willing to apply wireless technology but unable to bring it into full play. Second, the strong stress and misgivings about changes in instructional methods prevented the teacher from altering instructional routines. The contrast between student expectations regarding technological applications and the practical application of technology by teachers caused negative reciprocal effects. Finally, the workshop that adopted top-down dissemination and did not use on-site support in this study cannot encourage changes in instruction methods used by teachers. It is recommended that effective learning communities and teacher development programs be developed.
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Students in two different courses at a major research university (one a Communication course, the other a Computer Science course) were given laptop computers with wireless network access during the course of a semester. Students' Web browsing on these laptops (including: URLs, dates, and times) was recorded 24 hours/day, 7 days/week in a log file by a proxy server during most of a semester (about 15 weeks). For each student, browsing behavior was quantified and then correlated with academic performance. The emergence of statistically significant results suggests that quantitative characteristics of browsing behavior—even prior to examining browsing content—can be useful predictors of meaningful behavioral outcomes. Variables such as Number of browsing sessions and Length of browsing sessions were found to correlate with students' final grades; the valence and magnitude of these correlations were found to interact with Course (i.e., whether student was enrolled in the Communication or Computer Science course), Browsing Context (i.e., setting in which browsing took place: during class, on the wireless network between classes, or at home) and Gender. The implications of these findings in relation to previous studies of laptop use in education settings are discussed.
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Cognitive load theory suggests that effective instructional material facilitates learning by directing cognitive resources toward activities that are relevant to learning rather than toward preliminaries to learning. One example of ineffective instruction occurs if learners unnecessarily are required to mentally integrate disparate sources of mutually referring information such as separate text and diagrams. Such split-source infonnation may generate a heavy cognitive load, because material must be mentally integrated before learning can commence. This article reports findings from six experiments testing the consequences of split-source and integrated information using electrical engineering and biology instructional materials. Experiment 1 was designed to compare conventional instructions with integrated instructions over a period of several months in an industrial training setting. The materials chosen were unintelligible without mental integration. Results favored integrated instructions throughout the 3-month study. Experiment 2 was designed to investigate the possible differences between conventional and integrated instructions in areas in which it was not essential for sources of information to be integrated to be understood. The results suggest that integrated instructions were no better than split-source infonnation in such areas. Experiments 3, 4, and 5 indicate that the introduction of seemingly useful but nonessential explanatory material (e.g., a commentary on a diagram) could have deleterious effects even when presented in integrated format. Experiment 6 found that the need for physical integration was restored if the material was organized in such a manner that individual units could not be understood alone. In light of these results and previous findings, suggestions are made for cognitively guided instructional packages.
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A fundamental issue for psychological science concerns the extent to which people can simultaneously perform two perceptual-motor tasks. Some theorists have hypothesized that such dual-task performance is severely and persistently constrained by a central cognitive "bottle-neck," whereas others have hypothesized that skilled procedural decision making and response selection for two or more tasks can proceed at the same time under adaptive executive control. The three experiments reported here support this latter hypothesis. Their results show that after relatively modest amounts of practice, at least some participants achieve virtually perfect time sharing in the dual-task performance of basic choice reaction tasks. The results also show that observed interference between tasks can be modulated by instructions about differential task priorities and personal preferences for daring (concurrent) or cautious (successive) scheduling of tasks. Given this outcome, future research should investigate exactly when and how such sophisticated skills in dual-task performance are acquired.
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Different forms of learning and memory depend on functionally and anatomically separable neural circuits [Squire, L. R. (1992) Psychol. Rev. 99, 195–231]. Declarative memory relies on a medial temporal lobe system, whereas habit learning relies on the striatum [Cohen, N. J. & Eichenbaum, H. (1993) Memory, Amnesia, and the Hippocampal System (MIT Press, Cambridge, MA)]. How these systems are engaged to optimize learning and behavior is not clear. Here, we present results from functional neuroimaging showing that the presence of a demanding secondary task during learning modulates the degree to which subjects solve a problem using either declarative memory or habit learning. Dual-task conditions did not reduce accuracy but reduced the amount of declarative learning about the task. Medial temporal lobe activity was correlated with task performance and declarative knowledge after learning under single-task conditions, whereas performance was correlated with striatal activity after dual-task learning conditions. These results demonstrate a fundamental difference in these memory systems in their sensitivity to concurrent distraction. The results are consistent with the notion that declarative and habit learning compete to mediate task performance, and they suggest that the presence of distraction can bias this competition. These results have implications for learning in multitask situations, suggesting that, even if distraction does not decrease the overall level of learning, it can result in the acquisition of knowledge that can be applied less flexibly in new situations. • hippocampus • learning • striatum
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When 2 tasks must be performed concurrently, each requiring a choice of response, dual-task slowing is typically found. However, E. H. Schumacher et al. (1997) reported that dual-task slowing can be eliminated when equal priority is assigned to each task. Experiment 1 largely confirmed this with the same tasks as Schumacher et al. (tasks using stimulus-response combinations of visual-manual and auditory-vocal pairings). Experiment 2 retained the equal-priority instructions but switched the task pairings (to visual-vocal and auditory-manual); substantial dual-task slowing occurred. Experiment 3 used the same two response sets but only a single stimulus; slowing was again obtained despite equal priority instructions. Equalizing task priority was not sufficient to eliminate interference; relatively unusual cases in which dual-task interference is eliminated seem to depend on task-specific features.
Article
Two experiments used the locus-of-cognitive-slack method to determine whether dual-task interference occurs before or after the response selection stage. The experiments used the overlapping tasks paradigm, in which two signals, each requiring a different speeded choice response, are presented in rapid succession. In Experiment 1, stimulus-response (S-R) compatibility was manipulated by varying whether Task 2 stimuli were mapped onto their responses by a rule or arbitrarily. Compatibility effects were additive with the effects of degree of task overlap, manipulated by varying the stimulus onset asynchrony between the signals. Experiment 2 examined 2 additional forms of S-R compatibility: symbolic compatibility (arrows vs. letters) and spatial compatibility (the "Simon" effect). Effects of symbolic compatibility were additive with effects of degree of task overlap, whereas the effects of spatial compatibility and degree of task overlap were underadditive. It is argued that only a central-bottleneck model provides a consistent account of these results. The nature of the central bottleneck is considered.
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Journaling is an important tool to help student teachers reflect on the nature of the student teaching experience. The communication of journals to student teacher supervisors is enhanced greatly by using e-mail. Previously we described software that can be used to enhance journaling. This software included tools to facilitate writing field notes during in-class observations by the supervisor. E-mail exchange largely has supplanted the need for an electronic journaling tool. Here we describe flexible strategies using a personal digital assistant (PalmPilot) to facilitate the development of field notes during observations. These notes are then readily communicated to the student teacher by several means including e-mail.
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This article reports on a case study of Instant Messaging (IM) in a context of high‐school virtual schooling. Data collection relied on interviews conducted with 20 participants in a context of high‐school web‐based instruction in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada. The participants included e‐teachers as well as other distance education personnel. Inductive analysis of the interview transcripts resulted in the identification of six categories of findings that we have labeled as follows: IM instructional affordances; IM comfort and preference; IM and classroom management; IM and social presence; IM and private versus public conversations; and IM and multitasking. The findings illustrate some of the challenges that can arise when a tool that typically serves solely a social purpose is appropriated into an educational context. Implications include the need for a knowledge base and professional development related to instructional strategies and techniques for managing IM and for capitalizing on the affordances offered by the tool.La Messagerie Instantanée dans un contexte d’école virtuelle : établir un équilibre entre les capacités et les défisCet article relate une étude de cas de Messagerie Instantanée (MI) dans un contexte de scolarité virtuelle au lycée. La collecte des données s’est fondée sur des entretiens menés avec 20 participants dans un contexte d’enseignement au lycée reposant sur Internet à Terre Neuve et au Labrador au Canada. Les participants étaient des professeurs de cours en ligne ainsi que d’autres personnels de l’enseignement à distance. Une analyse inductive des transcriptions de ces entretiens a abouti à l’identification de six catégories de découvertes que nous avons étiquetées comme suit: capacités éducatives des MI ; confort et préférences en matière de MI ; MI et gestion de la classe ; MI et présence sociale ; MI par rapport aux conversations publiques/privées ; MI et multitâches. Les résultats illustrent quelques uns des défis qui peuvent surgir lorsqu’on s’approprie un outil dont la fonction majeure est spécifiquement d’ordre social pour le transférer dans un contexte éducatif. Les conséquences que l’on peut tirer sont la nécessité d’une base de connaissances et d’un développement professionnel liés aux stratégies éducatives et aux techniques de gestion de la MI ainsi qu’à l’exploitation des potentialités qu’offre l’outil.Instant Messaging im Kontext einer virtuellen Schule: Abwägen von Leistungen und HerausforderungenIn diesem Artikel wird über eine Fallstudie von Instant Messaging (IM) im Kontext einer virtuellen High‐School berichtet. Die Datensammlung beruhte auf Interviews, die mit 20 Teilnehmern im Rahmen eines Web‐basierten High‐School Unterrichts in Neufundland und Labrador, Kanada, durchgeführt wurde. Die Teilnehmer bestanden aus “eLehrern” und anderem Fernstudiums‐Personal. Eine induktive Analyse der Interview‐Transkriptionen führte zu einer Identifikation von sechs Kategorien von Befunden, die wir wie folgt bezeichnet haben: instruktionale Affordanz (Angebotscharakteristik) von IM; Komfort und Vorliebe bei IM; IM und die Organisation einer Schulklasse; IM und soziale Präsenz; IM und private versus öffentliche Konversation; IM und Multitasking. Die Ergebnisse beleuchten einige typische Herausforderungen, die dann entstehen, wenn ein Werkzeug, das typischerweise einem sozialen Zweck dient, in eine Lernumgebung übernommen wird. Implikationen beinhalten die Notwendigkeit einer Wissensbasis und einer “professionellen Entwicklung”, die auf Strategien beim Unterricht, Techniken für die Organisation von IM und auf die Affordanz konzentrieren, die dieses Werkzeug bietet.La mensajería instantánea dentro de un contexto de escuela virtual: una evaluación de las capacidades y de los desafíosEste artículo presenta un estudio de caso de mensajería instántanea (MI) dentro de un contexto de escuela secundaria a nivel del colegio. La colecta de datos se fundó en entrevistas conducidas con 20 participantes dentro del contexto de cursos de colegios basados en la Web en Terra Nova y Labrador en Canadá.Los participantes eran e‐profesores además de otras categorías de personal de educación a distancia. Un análisis inductivo de las transcripciones obtuvo como resultado la identificación de seis categorías de resultados que hemos clasificados como sigue : capacidades educativas de la MI, comodidad y preferencias de las MI ; MI y gestión de la sala de clase, MI y presencia social, MI y las conversaciones privadas contra las públicas; y MI y multitareas. Esos resultados ilustran algunos de los retos que pueden aparecer cuando se apropria una herramienta que típicamente desempeña solamente un papel social, para transferirla a un contexto educativo. Las conclusiones que se puede sacar incluyen la necesidad de una base de conocimiento y de un desarrollo profesional relacionado con estrategias educativas y con las técnicas para administrar la MI y para aprovechar las capacidades que ofrece la herramienta.
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Part one of this paper highlights how students today think and process information fundamentally differently from their predecessors, as a result of being surrounded by new technology. The author compares these “digital natives” with the older generation who are learning and adopting new technology naming them “digital immigrants”.
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Two groups of high school students alternately used laptop computers with multimedia and presentation software to study anatomy and physiology content over the course of one school year. Each group used computers for two quarters and traditional paper-based materials for two quarters. Both groups were taught the same curriculum by the same teacher. The course grades of the two groups were compared each quarter. Analysis indicated that the students benefited from creating PowerPoint (1986–2000) presentations and reviewing course material with the A.D.A.M. (Animated Dissection of Anatomy for Medicine)—The Inside Story (1997) software.
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Discusses college students' Internet use based on the Pew Internet and American Life Project. Focuses on general uses, including email, browsing, and music downloads; educational uses, including communicating with professors and information searching; and how college social life has been changed, including online communication with friends. (LRW)
Article
Presents research showing that while an S is recalling a line diagram he can more readily signal information about that diagram by speaking than by spatially monitored output (e.g., pointing to correct items in a column of symbols). When recalling a sentence, he can more readily signal information about that sentence by spatially monitored output than by speaking. These results suggest that spatial and verbal information is recalled and processed in a modality-specific manner. Recall of verbal information is most readily disrupted by concurrent vocal activity; recall of spatial information is most readily disrupted by concurrent spatially monitored activity. This differential conflict occurs even though the concurrent activity is a recoding of the information that is being recalled. (French summary) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Outlines a multimode theory of attention in which attention is assumed to be flexible and target and nontarget information can be differentiated at different depths of perceptual analysis. Target information is selected at the level of sensory analysis by early modes of attention but not until after semantic analysis by late modes. As the perceptual-processing system shifts from early to late modes, it collects more information from nontarget sources but requires more capacity to focus on a target source. Five experiments (229 undergraduate Ss) tested 2 main assumptions: that attention requires capacity and that the amount of capacity required increases from early to late modes. Ss performed a listening task and a subsidiary reaction-time (RT) task at the same time. The listening task required Ss to attend either to a single list or to the target list of 2 or 3 concurrent lists. In one condition, the target and nontarget lists differed in voice (male vs female) but were similar in meaning. This allowed early selection. In another condition, the 2 lists were spoken in the same voice but differed in meaning. This necessitated late selection. The subsidiary RT task required the detection of light signals and was used to measure the amount of capacity devoted to the listening task. Longer RTs implied more capacity expended on listening. Results of all experiments support the multimode theory. (28 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Describes a theoretical structure to account for a variety of phenomena encountered in the study of perception, attention, and memory. A storage system is proposed which has 2 different modes of activation: a temporary excitation (short-term or primary storage), and a permanent excitation (long-term or secondary storage). The storage is assumed to be organized so that access to stored information can be made directly from a sensory code. Thus, the initial interpretation of sensory events can be performed automatically, allowing attention to be directed to events on the basis of their meaning and momentary psychological pertinence. A retrieval process is described to handle the problem of deciding when an item that is recovered from storage is that which was sought. The output from storage is accepted as valid only if it can lead back naturally to the original query of memory. If it cannot, the retrieval process continues, using the initial query together with each intermediate output to guide the direction of search. (35 ref.) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
A large literature on multitasking bottlenecks suggests that people cannot generally make decisions or select responses in two different tasks at the same time. However, these tasks have all involved retrieving preinstructed responses, rather than spontaneously choosing actions based on anticipated hedonic consequences. To assess whether the same bottlenecks encompasses voluntary choices, a gambling decision was utilized as the second of two tasks in a psychological refractory period (PRP) design. Three decision-related factors were identified that affected latency of responding in the gambling task. All proved to be additive with stimulus-onset asynchrony (SOA) in dual-task blocks. The results indicate that making a choice to try to optimize outcomes is subject to the same processing bottleneck as the retrieval of preinstructed responses that has been the mainstay of attention and performance research.
Article
The purpose of this study was to assess the educators' perspectives on the introduction of computer technology in the early childhood education environment. Fifty early childhood educators completed a survey and participated in focus groups. Parallels existed between the individually completed survey data and the focus group discussions. The qualitative data provided a richer understanding of the issues faced by these educators. Thematic analyses of the focus group discussions revealed that many of the educators' concerns involved the effect of technology on the educators themselves, with secondary emphasis on how computers affected the students and parents. Although educators generally supported the integration of computers, they also identified critical concerns and limitations.
Article
A new theoretical framework, the EPIC (Executive-Process/Interactive-Control) architecture, provides the basis for accurate detailed computational models of human multiple-task performance. Contrary to the traditional response-selection bottleneck hypothesis, EPIC's cognitive processor can select responses and do other procedural operations simultaneously for multiple concurrent tasks. Using this capacity together with flexible executive control of peripheral perceptual-motor components, EPIC computational models account well for various patterns of mean reaction times, systematic individual differences in multiple-task performance, and influences of special training on people's task-coordination strategies. These diverse phenomena, and EPIC's success at modeling them, raise strong doubts about the existence of a pervasive immutable response-selection bottleneck in the human information-processing system. The present research therefore helps further characterize the nature of discrete versus continuous information processing.
Article
Three years of graduating business honors cohorts in a large urban university were sampled to determine whether the introduction of ubiquitous laptop computers into the honors program contributed to student achievement, student satisfaction and constructivist teaching activities. The first year cohort consisted of honors students who did not have laptops; the second and third year cohorts were given laptops by the University. The honors students found that their honors classrooms were statistically significantly more constructivist than their traditional (non-honors) classroom. The introduction of laptop computing to honors students and their faculty did not increase the level of constructivist activities in the honors classrooms. Laptop computing did not statistically improve student achievement as measured by GPA. Honors students with laptops reported statistically significantly less satisfaction with their education compared to honors students with no laptops.
Article
Two subjects read short stories while writing lists of words at dictation. After some weeks of practice, they were able to write words, discover relations among dictated words, and categorize words for meaning, while reading for comprehension at normal speed. The performance of these subjects is not consistent with the notion that there are fixed limits to attentional capacity.RésuméOn a demandé à deux sujets de lire des petites histoires tout en écrivant sous dictée des listes de mots. Après quelques semaines de pratique les sujets ont pu écrire les mots dictés, découvrir des relations entre ces mots et les classer selon leur sens tant en lisant à une vitesse normale et en comprenant ce qu'ils lisaient. La performance de ces sujets est en désaccord avec l'idée que la capacité d'attention à des limites fixes.
Article
This study investigated whether changes in the technological/social environment in the United States over time have resulted in concomitant changes in the multitasking skills of younger generations. One thousand, three hundred and nineteen Americans from three generations were queried to determine their at-home multitasking behaviors. An anonymous online questionnaire asked respondents to indicate which everyday and technology-based tasks they choose to combine for multitasking and to indicate how difficult it is to multitask when combining the tasks. Combining tasks occurred frequently, especially while listening to music or eating. Members of the “Net Generation” reported more multitasking than members of “Generation X,” who reported more multitasking than members of the “Baby Boomer” generation. The choices of which tasks to combine for multitasking were highly correlated across generations, as were difficulty ratings of specific multitasking combinations. The results are consistent with a greater amount of general multitasking resources in younger generations, but similar mental limitations in the types of tasks that can be multitasked.
Article
Recently, a debate has begun over whether in-class laptops aid or hinder learning. While some research demonstrates that laptops can be an important learning tool, anecdotal evidence suggests more and more faculty are banning laptops from their classrooms because of perceptions that they distract students and detract from learning. The current research examines the nature of in-class laptop use in a large lecture course and how that use is related to student learning. Students completed weekly surveys of attendance, laptop use, and aspects of the classroom environment. Results showed that students who used laptops in class spent considerable time multitasking and that the laptop use posed a significant distraction to both users and fellow students. Most importantly, the level of laptop use was negatively related to several measures of student learning, including self-reported understanding of course material and overall course performance. The practical implications of these findings are discussed.
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Wireless data communications in form of Short Message Service (SMS) and Wireless Access Protocols (WAP) browsers have gained global popularity, yet, not much has been done to extend the usage of these devices in electronic learning (e-learning). This project explores the extension of e-learning into wireless/handheld (W/H) computing devices with the help of a mobile learning (m-learning) framework. This framework provides the requirements to develop m-learning applications that can be used to complement classroom or distance learning. A prototype application was developed to link W/H devices to three course websites. The m-learning applications were pilot-tested for two semesters with a total of 63 students from undergraduate and graduate courses at our university. The students used the m-learning environment with a variety of W/H devices and reported their experiences through a survey and interviews at the end of the semester. The results from this exploratory study provide a better understanding on the role of mobile technology in higher education.
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The present research examined disclosure in online social networking profiles (i.e., FACEBOOK™). Three studies were conducted. First, a scoring tool was developed in order to comprehensively assess the content of the personal profiles. Second, grouping categories (default/standard information, sensitive personal information, and potentially stigmatizing information) were developed to examine information pertinent to identity threat, personal and group threat. Third, a grouping strategy was developed to include all information present in FACEBOOK™, but to organize it in a meaningful way as a function of the content that was presented. Overall, approximately 25% of all possible information that could potentially be disclosed by users was disclosed. Presenting personal information such as gender and age was related to disclosure of other sensitive and highly personal information. Age and relationship status were important factors in determining disclosure. As age increased, the amount of personal information in profiles decreased. Those seeking a relationship were at greatest risk of threat, and disclosed the greatest amount of highly sensitive and potentially stigmatizing information. These implications of these findings with respect to social and legal threats, and potential means for identifying users placing themselves at greatest risk, are discussed.
Article
In this paper we report the results of our on-going activities regarding the use of smart phones and mobile services in university classrooms. The purpose of these trials was to explore and identify which content and services could be delivered to the smart phones in order to support learning and communication in the context of university studies. The activities were conducted within the MUSIS (Multicasting Services and Information in Sweden) project where more than 60 students from different courses at Växjö University (VXU) and Blekinge Institute of Technology (BTH) participated during the course of their studies. Generally, the services integrated transparently into students' previous experience with mobile phones. Students generally perceived the services as useful to learning; interestingly, attitudes were more positive if the instructor adapted pedagogical style and instructional material to take advantage of the distinctive capabilities of multicasting. To illustrate, we describe a number of educational mobile services we have designed and implemented at VXU and BTH. We conclude with a discussion and recommendations for increasing the potential for successful implementation of multicasting mobile services in higher education, including the importance of usability, institutional support, and tailored educational content.
Article
Students often “multitask” with electronic media while doing schoolwork. We examined the effects of one form of media often used in such multitasking, instant messaging (IM). We predicted that students who engaged in IMing while reading a typical academic psychology passage online would take longer to read the passage and would perform more poorly on a test of comprehension of the passage. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three conditions (IM before reading, IM during reading, or no IM). We found that students took significantly longer to read the passage when they IMed during reading (not including time taken to IM) than in other conditions. However, test performance did not differ by condition. Students who are managing busy lives may think they are accomplishing more by multitasking, but our findings suggest they will actually need more time to achieve the same level of performance on an academic task.
Article
College students use information and communication technologies at much higher levels and in different ways than prior generations. They are also more likely to multitask while using information and communication technologies. However, few studies have examined the impacts of multitasking on educational outcomes among students. This study fills a gap in this area by utilizing a large-sample web- based survey of college student technology usage to examine how instant messaging and multitasking affect perceived educational outcomes. Since multitasking can impede the learning process through a form of information overload, we explore possible predictors of academic impairment due to multi- tasking. Results of this study suggest that college students use instant messaging at high levels, they multitask while using instant messaging, and over half report that instant messaging has had a detri- mental effect on their schoolwork. Higher levels of instant messaging and specific types of multitasking activities are associated with students reporting not getting schoolwork done due to instant messaging. We discuss implications of these findings for researchers studying the social impacts of technology and those in higher education administration.
Article
Two experiments used the locus-of-cognitive-slack method to determine whether dual-task interference occurs before or after the response selection stage. The experiments used the overlapping tasks paradigm, in which two signals, each requiring a different speeded choice response, are presented in rapid succession. In Experiment 1, stimulus-response (S-R) compatibility was manipulated by varying whether Task 2 stimuli were mapped onto their responses by a rule or arbitrarily. Compatibility effects were additive with the effects of degree of task overlap, manipulated by varying the stimulus onset asynchrony between the signals. Experiment 2 examined 2 additional forms of S-R compatibility: symbolic compatability (arrows vs. letters) and spatial compatibility (the 'Simon' effect). Effects of symbolic compatibility were additive with effects of degree of task overlap, whereas the effects of spatial compatibility and degree of task overlap were underadditive. It is argued that only a central-bottleneck model provides a consistent account of these results. The nature of the central bottleneck is considered.
Article
Other studies have found that it is easier to divide attention when messages can be discriminated on the basis of stimulus and response features. The present study extended these results and explored whether dual-task performance is a function of similarity of central processing and, more specifically, the semantic similarity of the competing messages. In a dichotic listening task, subjects detected targets in concurrent messages that either differed semantically and required different central processing (the mixed condition) or were semantically similar and required similar central processing (the same condition). Three criteria are developed to determine whether the tasks in the mixed condition call upon distinct resources. The results are discussed in terms of three metaphors for resources: fuel, structure, and skills.
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An outline is given of the main evidence accumulated during the last twenty years regarding the ‘single-channel hypothesis’. This holds that the central decision mechanism can deal with data from only one signal, or group of signals, at a time, so that data from a signal arriving during the reaction time to a previous signal have to wait until the decision mechanism becomes free. The decision mechanism can also in certain circumstances become occupied by feedback from responding movements so that delays may occur when a signal arrives during or shortly after the response to a previous signal.The theory is applied to the timing of continuous performance, to paced tasks and to the measurement of ‘mental load’ in operations involving little overt activity. Some problems for further research are considered.Alternatives to the single-channel hypothesis are surveyed and shown to give poorer fits than the author's own (1959) data.
Article
People often have trouble performing 2 relatively simple tasks concurrently. The causes of this interference and its implications for the nature of attentional limitations have been controversial for 40 years, but recent experimental findings are beginning to provide some answers. Studies of the psychological refractory period effect indicate a stubborn bottleneck encompassing the process of choosing actions and probably memory retrieval generally, together with certain other cognitive operations. Other limitations associated with task preparation, sensory-perceptual processes, and timing can generate additional and distinct forms of interference. These conclusions challenge widely accepted ideas about attentional resources and probe reaction time methodologies. They also suggest new ways of thinking about continuous dual-task performance, effects of extraneous stimulation (e.g., stop signals), and automaticity. Implications for higher mental processes are discussed.