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This paper describes an approach to exploit the implicit user feedback gathered during interactive video retrieval tasks. We propose a framework, where the video is first indexed according to temporal, textual, and visual features and then implicit user feedback analysis is realized using a graph-based methodology. The generated graph encodes the semantic relations between video segments based on past user interaction and is subsequently used to generate recommendations. Moreover, we combine the visual features and implicit feedback information by training a support vector machine classifier with examples generated from the aforementioned graph in order to optimize the query by visual example search. The proposed framework is evaluated by conducting real-user experiments. The results demonstrate that significant improvement in terms of precision and recall is reported after the exploitation of implicit user feedback, while an improved ranking is presented in most of the evaluated queries by visual example.
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Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Advances in Multimedia
Volume 2011, Article ID 310762, 18 pages
doi:10.1155/2011/310762
Research Article
Utilizing Implicit User Feedback to Improve Interactive
Video Retrieval
Stefanos Vrochidis,1, 2 Ioannis Kompatsiaris,1and Ioannis Patras2
1Centre for Research and Technology Hellas, Informatics and Telematics Institute, 6th Klm Charilaou-Thermi Road,
57001 Thessaloniki, Greece
2Queen Mary, University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS, UK
Correspondence should be addressed to Stefanos Vrochidis, stefanos@iti.gr
Received 1 September 2010; Accepted 3 January 2011
Academic Editor: Andrea Prati
Copyright © 2011 Stefanos Vrochidis et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution
License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly
cited.
This paper describes an approach to exploit the implicit user feedback gathered during interactive video retrieval tasks. We
propose a framework, where the video is first indexed according to temporal, textual, and visual features and then implicit user
feedback analysis is realized using a graph-based methodology. The generated graph encodes the semantic relations between
video segments based on past user interaction and is subsequently used to generate recommendations. Moreover, we combine
the visual features and implicit feedback information by training a support vector machine classifier with examples generated
from the aforementioned graph in order to optimize the query by visual example search. The proposed framework is evaluated
by conducting real-user experiments. The results demonstrate that significant improvement in terms of precision and recall is
reported after the exploitation of implicit user feedback, while an improved ranking is presented in most of the evaluated queries
by visual example.
1. Introduction
In the recent years, the rapid development of digital
technologies has led to the growing storage and processing
capabilities of computers, as well as to the establishment
of fast and advanced communication networks. Taking also
into account the low cost of image and video capturing
devices and the deep penetration of Internet in today’s
communities, large quantities of audiovisual content has
become available and accessible worldwide. The availability
of such content and the increasing user need of searching
into multimedia collections place the demand for the devel-
opment of advanced multimedia search engines; therefore,
video retrieval remains one of the most challenging tasks of
research. Despite the recent significant advances in this area,
further advancements in several fields of video retrieval are
required to improve the performance of current video search
engines. More specifically, major research breakthroughs are
still needed in the areas of semantic and interactive search
possibly using multimodal analysis and retrieval algorithms,
as well as relevance feedback [1].
The state-of-the-art video retrieval systems incorporate
and combine several advanced techniques including text
retrieval and visual content-based search, in order to support
the user in locating video clips that meet their demands.
One of the main challenges faced by these approaches is
to generate ecient representations and descriptions of the
video source. The initial step towards this direction is the
video segmentation and indexing into smaller video shots
[1]. Based on the audiovisual information, it is possible to
extract low level features [2] for each shot; however, due to
the well known problem of the semantic gap, it is dicult
to associate them with human understandable concepts.
Combination and fusion of heterogeneous information (e.g.,
visual, textual, and motion) have been considered as the first
step towards the solution of this problem and promising
results have been presented both in image and video retrieval
domains [36]. However, the progress in the representation
2Advances in Multimedia
and indexing of the multimedia content has not yet managed
to overcome the semantic gap.
An alternative way to bridge the semantic gap is to utilize
the implicit and explicit feedback provided by the users [7]of
a video search engine. During an interactive video-retrieval
task, multiple search sessions take place, in which the user
submits queries, browses the video information or even
provides explicit feedback on presented results. Relevance
feedback (RF) mechanisms in information retrieval were
devised as complementary methods to further improve the
performance of a system by requesting explicit feedback from
the user (i.e., to identify positive and negative examples)
that would guide machine learning techniques. Despite
the promising results in image and video retrieval [8
10], RF-based functionalities are not very user popular, as
their main drawback is that users are usually reluctant to
provide explicit information [11,12]. This is also reflected
in popular web search engines (e.g., Google, YouTube, etc.),
which provide user interfaces that do not request or require
explicit user feedback during search sessions. Motivated by
this fact, we propose to exploit the implicit user feedback
during the search process, in order to gain new knowledge
about the content and establish semantic relations between
the involved multimedia items. This information can be
utilized both for generating recommendations, as well as
for improving the performance of existing content-based
retrieval modalities.
In this work, we consider as implicit user feedback any
action or navigation behavior of the user during interactive
video retrieval tasks, including mouse movements and
clicks as well as keyboard inputs and keystrokes. The main
advantage of using implicit techniques is that they do not
require any explicit feedback from the user side. Although
implicit information is in general considered to be less
accurate than explicit [13], large quantities of implicit data
(e.g., log files in web search engines) can be gathered at
no extra eort to the user. Recent approaches in interactive
video search attempt to exploit past user interaction either
for performing retrieval [7] or for complementing existing
content based search modalities [14]. In this context, we
propose a video retrieval framework, which supports video
analysis, as well as implicit user feedback recording and pro-
cessing. Then, we provide recommendations based on past
user interaction and we oer a hybrid visual search modality
by combining heterogeneously extracted information (i.e.,
implicit feedback and visual features) by employing machine
learning methods.
Video processing is realized with the application of
text, audio, image, and video analysis, including video to
shots segmentation, keyframe extraction and visual features
generation, as well as Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR)
and conversion to text. On the other hand, we exploit
the implicit user feedback, in order to initiate semantic
relations between the video segments. This is performed
by introducing implicit interest indicators for video search
and then by constructing a semantic anity graph, which
is utilized to generate recommendations in the following two
steps. First, an action graph that describes the user navigation
pattern is generated by employing a novel methodology that
defines search subsessions (i.e., parts of sessions in which the
user searches a specific topic) based on query categorization.
Then, a set of action graphs is converted to a single weighted
graph by aggregating the action graphs and assigning
weights to the user actions that quantify the implicit interest
indicators. In order to provide recommendations, we employ
a distance-based algorithm to rank the graph nodes. In the
case of a query by visual example, this graph is utilized
in a similar way in order to define positive and negative
examples. The latter are merged with a set of visually similar
and dissimilar examples based on visual features, in order
to construct a training set, which is used to train a support
vector machine (SVM) classifier that reranks the results of
the visual search.
This framework is realized in an interactive video search
engine, which supports basic retrieval functionalities includ-
ing text, visual, and temporal search. The search engine is
used for the evaluation of the approach by conducting real-
user experiments in 3 phases: first, a baseline system that
supports only video analysis retrieval options is used by the
users, and their actions are being recorded; then, dierent
users are searching for topics that are slightly dierent than
the baseline ones using the enhanced version of the search
engine, which exploits also user implicit feedback, in order
to evaluate the recommendations; finally, in the third phase,
dierent users are recruited to evaluate the reranking of the
visual results.
This paper discusses in more detail and integrates the
works presented in [15,16] into a solid framework, while
an extended evaluation through additional experiments and
comparisons between the techniques introduced in the
aforementioned articles are presented. The research novel
contributions of this work are summarized in the proposed
methodology of graph analysis based on query categorization
and the definition of subsessions, as well as the methodology
for combining visual features with implicit user feedback. To
the best of the authors knowledge, this is one of the first
attempts to combine patterns of past user interaction with
visual features.
This paper is structured as follows: Section 2 presents
the related work, while in Section 3, we introduce the
SVMs employed in the reranking of the query by visual
example results. The video indexing and retrieval framework
is presented in Section 4, while Section 5 deals with the video
content analysis. Section 6 describes the processing of user
implicit actions based on a graph approach, and Section 7
presents the methodology for combining visual features
with graph-structured implicit user feedback. Section 8
demonstrates the implemented search engine and the user
interaction modes, while the experimental results and the
evaluation are presented in Section 9. Finally, Section 10
concludes the paper.
2. Related Work
In general case retrieval tasks, the implicit user feedback can
be divided into two main categories: the query actions and
the physical user reactions. The first category includes the
patterns of user interaction with the search engine, as series
Advances in Multimedia 3
of mouse movements and clicks, shot selections, key strokes,
and keyboard inputs, while the second includes physical
user unconscious behavior as eye movements (e.g., [17]),
heart rate, and brain neuron reactions that can be gathered
with electroencephalography (e.g., [18]). On the one hand,
the feedback of the first category can be easily gathered
even during a web search session, while physical reactions
can be recorded with the aid of special wearable devices or
other sensors (e.g., cameras) capturing and analyzing user
behavior. In this work, we will focus on exploiting the user
feedback that falls into the first category.
Implicit feedback approaches based on the user interac-
tion with search engines have been eective in the context
of textual retrieval, where they were mostly employed for
query expansion and user profiling, in order to retrieve,
filter, and recommend items of interest [19]. The “implicit
interest indicators” were introduced in [20] as a definition
of specific user actions that can be considered as mean-
ingful implicit feedback. In [21], the authors performed a
comparison between an explicit and an implicit feedback
system concluding that there were not significant dierences
between these two systems and that substituting the former
with the latter could be feasible.
In another interesting work [11], the author attempts
to automatically optimize the retrieval quality of search
engines using clickthrough data. The proposed method
utilizes clickthrough data (by exploiting the query-log of the
search engine) for training. Taking a support vector machine
(SVM) approach, this paper presents a method for learning
retrieval functions. More specifically, the clickthrough data
are translated into ranking user preferences, and then they
are used to train a retrieval function. The implemented SVM
in this case has been especially designed in order to be trained
by such rankings, which reflect related user preferences (i.e.,
one option is better than another).
In [12], the authors propose to detect “query chains”
(i.e., a sequence of queries) and then learn a retrieval
function using SVMs. The authors demonstrate a simple
method for automatically detecting query chains in query
and clickthrough logs. These data are used to infer preference
judgments regarding the relative relevance of documents
both within individual query results and between documents
returned by dierent queries within the same query chain.
The method used to generate the preference judgments is
validated using a controlled user study. A ranking SVM
is adapted to learn a ranked retrieval function from the
preference judgments. The results demonstrate significant
improvements in the ranking given by a normal search
engine.
Implicit feedback techniques have not been fully explored
in the multimedia domain [22]. In text retrieval, the usual
implicit information that can be taken into account is the
user selection (i.e., the user clicks on an interesting link or
textual description to view the complete document), while
in video retrieval, we have multiple interactions between
the user and the system, which could be utilized to provide
meaningful feedback. The main idea to exploit the user
feedback during video retrieval interactive sessions is to
extend the idea of “query chains” [12] and construct a
graph that describes a series of user actions. Such a graph
is transformed to a weighted graph by aggregating the links
between the same nodes, and weights are introduced based
on the dierent actions taken into account. Recent works
[7,23] employ the aforementioned technique to deal with
user clicks.
In [7], the authors propose to use community-based
feedback mined from the interactions of previous users of
a video retrieval system, which is based on Okapi BM25
retrieval model supporting text queries to aid users in
their search tasks. This feedback is the basis for providing
recommendations to new users of the video retrieval system.
This is performed by representing all user interactions
with a weighted graph. Then, this implicit information is
aggregated from multiple sessions and users into a single
representation, thus facilitating the analysis and exploitation
of past implicit information. In [23], the authors evaluate 4
dierent algorithms that can be applied on such weighted
graphs to provide recommendations. However, these works
consider only textual queries, while basic video retrieval
options as visual and temporal based search are ignored. In
addition, fusion or combination of implicit feedback data
with the content-based approaches is not attempted.
In another work [14], a video retrieval system is pre-
sented, which employs relevance feedback and multimodal
fusion of dierent sources (textual, visual, and clickthrough
data), in order to generate recommendations for the user.
In this approach, the textual, visual, and aural data of the
video shots are processed separately and compared with
the selected video document. Then, these results are fused.
A further adjustment of the fusion weights is performed
with the aid of the click through data, which denote the
interest of the user to a specific document based on the
time he/she watched the video shot. The approach of fusing
content analysis information with the implicit feedback
seems to be very interesting and promising; however, in this
specific work, the implicit information is not very deeply
exploited, as the sequence of query actions is not taken
into account, failing in that way to semantically interconnect
subsequent queries and shots. In comparison to the proposed
approach, this work employs implicit user feedback for
adjusting weights, in order to fuse results from dierent
search modalities (e.g., text and visual) and not for providing
recommendations or for improving the results of a specific
retrieval module (i.e., in this case visual search).
3. Support Vector Machines
Support vector machines constitute a set of supervised
learning methods, which analyze data and recognize patterns
and are employed to solve classification and regression
problems. When a set of training positive and negative
examples is available, an SVM training algorithm builds a
model that predicts in which category a new example falls
into. To achieve that, a support vector machine constructs
a hyperplane or set of hyperplanes in a high or infinite
dimensional space. In general, it is assumed that the best
separation is achieved by the hyperplane that has the largest
distance from the nearest training datapoints of any class.
4Advances in Multimedia
In this work, SVMs are used in the reranking of the initial
results of the query by visual example, where visual and
implicit feedback information are combined. We employ an
SVM implementation that realizes the alternative structural
formulation of the SVM optimization problem for conven-
tional binary classification with error rate described in [24].
For a given training set (x1,y1), ...,(xn,yn)withxiRNand
yi∈{1, +1}, training this binary classification SVM solves
the following optimization problem, which was proposed for
predicting structured outputs and optimizing multivariate
performance measures like F1-score or the precision/recall
break-event point [25]
meanw,ξ01
2wTw+,(1)
subject to : c∈{0, 1}n:1
nwT
n
i=1
ciyixi1
n
n
i=1
ciξ,(2)
where Cis the capacity constant and wa parameter vector.
This approach has 2nconstraints, one for each possible vector
c=(c1,...,cn)∈{0, 1}n, and it has only one slack variable
ξthat is shared across all constraints. The algorithm that
is employed to solve the aforementioned classification SVM
optimization problem is an adaptation of the cutting-plane
algorithm. This algorithm iteratively constructs a sucient
subset Wof the set of constraints. Starting with an empty
set of constraints W, in each iteration, it first computes the
optimum over the current working set W(i.e., w=0and
ξ=0 in the first iteration), and then it finds the most violated
constraint in the optimization problem and adds it to the
working set W[24].
The main reason for selecting this specific SVM imple-
mentation in this approach was the very fast perform-
ance it demonstrates, which was important for performing
the ranking optimization at real time during the query
process using an adequately large training set.
4. Video Retrieval Framework
The overall video indexing and retrieval framework pro-
posed in this approach is illustrated in Figure 1. At the
bottom part, video analysis is performed, including video
segmentation to shots, textual analysis of audio information
and visual processing of extracted keyframes. On the top
part of the framework, the implicit user feedback is captured
in log files and analyzed in order to initiate semantic
relations between parts of the audiovisual content. The
recommendations generation component is capable of pro-
viding suggestions by exploiting the results of implicit user
feedback processing. Furthermore, the outputs of implicit
feedback and video analysis are combined in a separate
component, which employs training of an SVM classifier,
in order to rerank the results of queries by visual example.
Processing of implicit information and video content-based
analysis take place oline, while the combination of visual
and implicit information is realized on the fly (i.e., in real
time when a new query is submitted). In the next sections,
these parts will be described in detail.
5. Video Analysis
The role of video analysis part is to process the initial video
source in order to generate and index ecient representa-
tions of it, which can be utilized for retrieval. Temporal-,
textual-, and visual-based indexing operations are performed
as described in the sequel.
5.1. Temporal Indexing. As stated in the introduction, in
order to generate an ecient representation of the initial
video source and index it according to temporal information,
shot boundaries detection and shot segmentation steps are
required to split the video into shots. In this work, shot
detection is achieved by thresholding the distance between
color histograms corresponding to two consecutive frames
in a video [26]. Then, each video is segmented into smaller
shots based on the shot boundaries detection information
and the middle keyframe for each shot, which is considered
as the representative one, is extracted. In that way, a temporal
indexing structure is constructed, so each video can be
represented by a sequence of images (i.e., one image per
video shot).
5.2. Keyword Indexing. Indexing of video shots according to
the associated textual information is realized following the
approach of [27]. The audio information is processed o
line with the application of automatic speech recognition
(ASR) on the initial video source, so that specific sets of
keywords can be assigned to each shot. Indexing and query
functions are implemented using the KinoSearch full-text
search engine library [28], which creates a binary index
optimized for speed. First, stopwords are removed from
keyword files followed by the application of the Porter
stemming algorithm [29]. Then, term weights for each
keyword are computed by applying the BM25 text algorithm
[30]. Finally, the keywords are associated with the segmented
shots.
5.3. Visual Similarity Indexing. The visual similarity shot
indexing is realized with the extraction of low level visual
descriptors following the approach of [27]. In this case, five
MPEG-7 descriptors, namely, color layout, color structure,
scalable color, edge histogram, homogeneous texture, are
generated from the representative keyframe of each video
shot and stored in a relational database. By concatenating
these descriptors, a feature vector is formulated to compactly
represent each keyframe in the multidimensional space.
An empirical evaluation of the system’s performance using
dierent combinations of the aforementioned descriptors
advocated the choice of one MPEG-7-based scheme, which
relies on color and texture (i.e., color layout and edge his-
togram are concatenated) [27]. Distance calculation between
the descriptors of two shots is performed by employing the
functions proposed in the MPEG eXperimentation Model
[31].
To further improve the performance of the system in
terms of time response, we employ a multidimensional R-
tree indexing structure, which is constructed oline using
Advances in Multimedia 5
Video source
Shot boundaries detection
shot segmentation
Automatic speech
recognition
Textual descriptions
associated with
shots
Video shots
keyframes
associated
transcripts
Text analysis
keyword extraction
Visual descriptions
extraction from keyframes
Log files
Graphical user interface
Query processing
Click and keystroke data capturing
Action graph
construction
Shot distances
rankings
Weighted graph
construction
Combination of
visual and implicit
feedback
information
Video analysis
Implicit feedback analysis
Recommendations
generation
Figure 1: Video indexing and retrieval framework.
the feature vectors of all the extracted keyframes. R-tree(s)
[32] are structures suitable for indexing multidimensional
objects and known to facilitate fast and ecient retrieval
on large scale. Principal component analysis (PCA) is also
employed to reduce the dimensionality of the initial space.
In the query phase, when a query by visual example
is initiated, the feature vector of the query shot (i.e., from
the representative keyframe of it) Qis extracted and it is
submitted to the R-tree indexing structure. The latter returns
asetofnotrankedKresults RV, which contains the shots
si,(0 iK) that are found to resemble the query
one. The final visual ranking is performed by calculating
the visual distances dVbetween Qand all shots in RV,
so we have dV(Q,i)=fV(Q,si), where fVis the visual
distance computing function and siRV. The ranking for
aqueryQcan be described as a new ordered set RKV=
(sa,sb,sc,...), where dV(Q,a)dV(Q,b)dV(Q,c), ... and
the cardinality of RKVelements is K.
6. Implicit Feedback Analysis
This section presents the analysis of implicit user feedback
expressed in mouse clicks and keyboard inputs. First, we
introduce the implicit interest indicators that we will con-
sider for video search, then we construct action graphs based
on the user navigation patterns, and finally we aggregate
them to a single weighted graph, which can be utilized to
generate distances between the video shots.
6.1. Implicit Interest Indicators. Our objective is to define
implicit interest indicators [20] that measure aspects of the
user interaction, in order to exploit the information that the
latter carries about the user’s perception of the presented
multimedia material.
Based on the search functionalities oered by the video
analysis and indexing modules, which extend beyond the
classical text-based queries and are already included in
existing systems (e.g., [33]), we introduce the following
minimum set of user actions that can be considered as the
main implicit interest indicators for video retrieval.
(1) Text-based query (TQ): the user inserts a keyword
and submits the query. In this case, we assume that
this keyword satisfies the query of the user with a very
high probability.
(2) Visual query (VQ): the user submits a query by
visual example. We assume that when a user selects
a keyframe and searches for visually similar images,
then there is also interest in the example used.
(3) Side-shot query (SQ): the user selects a shot in
order to view the temporally adjacent shots and the
associated textual description. In that case, the user is
very likely to be interested in the shot selected.
6Advances in Multimedia
Search session
0Search
subsession
Search
subsession
Text
search
Visual
search
Store
shot
Visual
search
Text
search
Visual
search
Visual
search
Time (t)
t
Figure 2: Search session and subsessions.
Autonomous
TQ
VQSS
SQ VSQ Trans i t iveIntransitive
Dependant
Figure 3: Classification of user actions.
(4) Video-shot query (VSQ): the user selects a shot (from
the presented results of another query) and retrieves
all the shots of the same video. In this case, we
consider that the user is interested in the initial shot
to a certain extend.
(5) Submit a shot (SS): the user marks a shot as relevant.
In this case, we assume that the user is very interested
in this shot. In a web search system, this action could
be equivalent to watching the video shot.
6.2. Action Graph. We exploit implicit feedback information
by employing an extended variation of the graph construc-
tion methodology proposed in [7]. While [7] uses a search
system that supports only text-based queries, we deal with
a more complex situation since the proposed interactive
retrieval system supports in addition the submission of visual
and temporal queries.
In order to describe better the proposed methodology,
we introduce some basic definitions. We define as “search
session” the time period that a certain user spends on
searching. We consider as “search subsession” the time
periods a certain user spends searching for a specific topic.
In addition, we provide a categorization schema for the
user actions during interactive video search tasks. First, we
introduce the property of “transitivity”, which characterizes
an action based on its output. More specifically, we consider
an action as “transitive”, when it generates an output and so
it satisfies the triplet
input −→ action −→ output.(3)
On the other hand, when an action does not provide
any output, (i.e., input action) it is characterized as
“intransitive”. Furthermore, we classify the query actions
into two main categories based on their dependency with
previous actions: (a) the autonomous queries, which do not
depend on previous results and (b) the dependent queries,
which take as input results from previous search actions.
To construct an action graph based on the user search
activity, we exploit the properties of the involved user actions.
During a search session, it is possible to have a series of
transitive actions, where part of the output of one action
is the input for another (e.g., a result from a text search
is the input for a visual search). Consequently, to create
a link between two nodes of an action graph, we need to
have a sequence of two actions, where at least the first one
has to be transitive. During a search session, the user may
search for a specific topic; however, it is possible to fire a
search having a very broad or complex topic in mind or even
decide to change the search topic during the session. For this
reason, we propose that such sessions should not be analyzed
as whole, but should be first decomposed into subsessions.
Assuming that every autonomous query could initiate a
dierent topic search, we propose a novel methodology,
based on that, we divide each search session into “search
subsessions” generating in that way several subgraphs and
using as break points the autonomous queries.
Taking into account the corresponding functionalities
of the introduced implicit interest indicators, only the text-
based search can be denoted as autonomous query, while the
other queries are considered as dependent. In such a case,
the text-based query is utilized as a break point between the
subsessions as illustrated in the example of Figure 2. It should
be noted that in this analysis, the visual query (VQ) does not
constitute an autonomous query, as it is based on results of
previous queries. However, in the case that the insertion of
a new image/video shot is supported, the VQ could be also
considered as autonomous. The overall classification of these
functionalities can be visualized in the two dierent axes of
transitivity and dependency as shown in Figure 3.
In the general case, a search subsession Sconsists of a set
of actions Asthat includes one autonomous and a number
of dependent query actions. The proposed subgraph Gsis
comprised by a set of nodes (i.e., shots and keywords that
represent inputs and outputs of a set of actions As) and links
that represent the corresponding actions aiAs,where
i∈{1, ...,NS}and NSis the cardinality of the elements
of As. The action graph of a search session is composed of
several subgraphs, which reflect the respective subsessions
and have as parent nodes the autonomous queries.
These are illustrated in the example of Figure 4,where
an action graph for a search session is presented. Here, the
user is searching for shots, in which people sitting at a table
talking are depicted. We observe that the three keywords that
were used to start the search (i.e., talk, sit, and dialogue)
were considered as the parents for new subgraphs. Then,
we construct a single-action graph aggregating the action
graphs from the dierent user sessions. More specifically,
all the nodes from the individual action graphs are mapped
to single-action graph, and then all the action edges are
mapped onto the same graph, generating in that way
multiple links between the nodes. We observe that the
three keywords that were used to start the search (i.e.,
talk, sit, and dialogue) are considered as the parents for
new subgraphs, which correspond to dierent subsessions.
In this way, concepts with dierent semantic meaning are
not interconnected (e.g., “talk” with “sit”), while keywords
with similar semantic meaning (i.e., “talk” and “dialogue”)
Advances in Multimedia 7
Talk
Sit
Dialogue
Textsearch
Submit
SubmitSubmit
Submit
Submit
Submit
Submit Submit Submit Submit
Submit Submit Submit Submit
Submit Submit
Textsearch Textsearch
Sideshots VisualVisualVisual
Visual
Visual Sideshots
Textsearch
Sideshots
Textsearch
Textsearch Textsearch Textsearch Textsearch Textsearch
Figure 4: Action graph after user interaction.
are eventually interconnected due to the visual similarity
between two shots in dierent subgraphs. Then, we construct
a single-action graph aggregating the action graphs from the
dierent user sessions.
6.3. Weighted Graph. After the construction of a single action
graph, we generate the weighted graph in the following
three steps: (a) the relevant results are linked to the parent
query, transforming in that way the intransitive actions into
transitive, (b) the multiple links between the same nodes are
collapsed into one and (c) actions are translated into weights.
The final weight wfor a link nbetween two nodes kand
mis given by
w(n)=11
x(n),(4)
where x(n) is the sum of weights of each action that
interconnects nodes kand m. This sum is expressed as
x(n)=
aUs
g(a),(5)
where gis a function that maps each action to an implicit
weight and ais an action that belongs to the set of actions
Tab le 1: Average assigned weights for each action.
Actions (ai)g(ai) Actions (ai)g(ai)
Text-based query (TQ) 7.9 Visual query (VQ) 8
Side-shot query (SQ) 7.1 Submit a shot (SS) 9.1
Video-shot query (VSQ) 5.8
UsAsthat comprise the dierent links between the nodes
kand m[7].
Following the analysis in Section 6.1, we assign indicative
values (between 0 and 10) that quantify the level of interest
associated to the introduced implicit interest indicators
(Table 1). In order to assign the representative weights, we
asked 10 users to measure the level of interest for each search
action in the range between 0 and 10. The results (i.e., the
average weights for each action) of this survey are presented
in Table 1. Using (4)and(5) and the defined values for g,we
are able to construct the weighted graph.
Figure 5 illustrates the weighted graph that is produced
after processing the action graph of Figure 4 according to the
aforementioned methodology.
8Advances in Multimedia
Talk
Sit
Dialogue
0.94
0.86
0.87
0.87
0.94
0.94
0.94 0.94 0.940.96
0.94
0.94
0.94
0.94
0.94 0.94 0.94 0.94
0.89
Figure 5: Weighted graph after processing the action graph of Figure 4.
6.4. Generation of Recommendations. In [23], several rec-
ommendation algorithms based on such a weighted graph
were proposed. However, in most of the cases, the best
performing algorithm was depending on the search topics.
Here, we employ a straightforward algorithm that initiates
recommendations based on the distances on the weighted
graph. The latter are calculated as the shortest path between
two nodes. The calculation of the distances between two
dierent nodes in this graph was done with the application
of Dijkstra algorithm [34], which computes the shorter
path between two nodes. Although Floyd’s algorithm [35]
is usually faster for calculating all the shortest distances
according to graph theory, it is better suited for more dense
graphs. In our case, the produced weighted graphs are
considered to be rather sparse and can be represented more
eciently with the aid of adjacency lists instead of adjacency
matrices. Therefore, the proposed approach is considered
scalable, since it can deal with huge and very sparse graphs,
which are produced when many users and large datasets are
involved.
As the calculated distance is based on implicit informa-
tion, but it reveals semantic relations, we name it “implicit
semantic distance”. Hence, based on the shorter path
approach, we can calculate the implicit semantic distance
of each query Qthat is represented as a node in the graph,
with the rest of the nodes included in the graph. In this case,
we need to notice that the query Qcan be either a shot or
a keyword, while the same stands for the results. Formally,
we compute dI(Q,i)=fI(Q,si), where fIis the implicit
distance computing function, siRI,RIis the set of Mshots
or/and keywords that are interconnected through links with
the query Qand 1 iM. The ranked recommendations
for query Qcan be described as a new ordered set RKI=
(s´
a,s´
b,s˙
´
c,...), where dI(Q,´
a)dI(Q,´
b)dI(Q,´
c), ...with a
cardinality of Melements.
Another important functionality of the weighted graph
is that it can be used to suggest new search term recom-
mendations by calculating the distances of the input keyword
term with the rest of the keywords in the weighted graph.
Analogously, it can also generate related terms for a query by
visual example by presenting to the user the keywords that
are found to be closer in terms of distance to the query shot
in the weighted graph.
7. Combining Visual and Implicit
Feedback Information
The objective of this part is to rerank the initial results of
the query by visual example by utilizing the weighted graph.
Although the results obtained based on visual descriptors
are usually quite satisfactory, in many cases, visual search
fails to fetch results of the same semantic meaning confused
Advances in Multimedia 9
Query
shot
Weig h t ed
graph
Related
and unrelated
shots
R-tree
structure
Visually similar
and dissimilar
shots
Ranked
results
Classify
and rank
shots
Model SVM training Training
set
Visual distances
Visual features
Training set construction
Figure 6: Algorithm to combine visual features and implicit user feedback.
by similar colors or textures of semantically irrelevant
depictions. As discussed in Section 5.3,visualsearchis
performed in the following two steps: (i) by submitting the
query descriptors to the R-tree structure and (ii) by ranking
the results returned calculating the distances between visual
descriptors. The idea is to tune appropriately the ranking
function with the aid of semantically related shots in order
to emphasize more on the specific visual features that can
be of importance for each query. It is expected that training
a classifier with semantically positive and negative examples
from the user implicit feedback could optimize the ranking
function adequately. More specifically, we train a classifier
for each visual example query by employing as training set
a combination of visually similar and dissimilar examples, as
well as positive and negative samples generated by implicit
feedback information, in order to rerank the initial visual
results. In Figure 6, the overall algorithm of the proposed
approach is presented.
As shown in the diagram, when a query by shot example
Qis submitted, we produce the following ranked datasets
of results: two sets RIand UI(i.e., related and unrelated
shots, resp.) using the weighted graph that is constructed by
processing the past user interaction and one set RVprovided
by the R-tree structure that includes visually related shots
according to the visual features employed. Subsequently,
these sets are merged in order to construct a training set T
and then train a support vector machine classifier utilizing
as features the visual descriptors. Finally, we employ the RV
(i.e., the set of results from visual search) as the test set, which
is ranked according to the degrees of coecients that are
the output of the classifier and represent a similarity metric
between each shot of the test set and the query. In Sections
7.1 and 7.2, we provide the details about the training set
construction and the SVM training.
7.1. Training Set Construction. As was described in Section 3,
in order to train a binary support vector machine classifier,
we need to identify a proper training set T=TPTN,where
TPis the set of the positive and TNthe set of the negative
samples. Utilizing the weighted graph, we can extract a
number of positive samples that are closer to the query shot
and a number of negative samples that are placed as further
as possible in this graph. Hence, we create the set of positive
samples TI,P=RI,P,whereforallsiRI,P,dI(Q,i)<d
I,lthres
and dI,lthres is an experimentally set threshold. In the same
way, we define a set of negative examples by employing
another distance threshold dI,hthres, and we consider the
TI,N=UI,whereforallsiUKI,dI(Q,i)>d
I,hthres. In the
best case, these shots should not be interconnected with the
query shot in the graph (i.e. dI(Q,i)=∞). Alternatively,
we can select a predefined number of negative and positive
samples from the graph and apply the distance thresholds
only if required.
The obvious approach could be to simply train the
classifier with TI,Pand TI,N. However, due to the fact that
implicit feedback is not always precise, such an approach
would not always be ecient. On the other hand, visual
search is usually capable of retrieving very similar keyframes,
which demonstrate an almost zero visual distance. Therefore,
in order to minimize such eects and in addition to exploit
the results from visual ranking that are of good quality, we
include in the positive samples the shots that are visually
closer to the query example by employing an experimentally
set threshold. Furthermore, we include in the negative
samples some of the visual results that are very far from
the query image taking into account again a visual distance
threshold.
Formally, we construct a new set of positive samples
TV,P=RV,PRV,whereRVis the set of visual search
results,for all siRV,P,d(Q,i)V<d
V,lthres and dV,lthres is
an experimentally set threshold. Subsequently, we define a
set of negative samples TV,N=RV,NRV, where for
all siRV,N,dV(Q,i)>d
V,hthres. These distance thresholds
could either experimentally set to specific values, where
10 Advances in Multimedia
Input keyword
Keyword suggestions
Saved results
Query by visual example
All video shots Neigbouring shots Recommendations Submit shot Hybrid search
Figure 7: Search engine interface.
Figure 8: GUI showing the temporal neighboring shots and the associated ASR text of a shot.
Advances in Multimedia 11
Figure 9: The user submits a textual query with the keyword “water” searching in the ASR transcripts.
Figure 10: Results from a textual query (keyword “water”) searching with the aid of the weighted graph.
always dV,hthres >d
V,lthres or they could be manually adjusted
by the user in a manual assisted combination of implicit
information and visual data according to the user needs. The
final training set is
T=TPTN=TI,PTV,PTI,NTV,N.(6)
7.2. Support Vector Machine Classifier. As the training and
the reranking of the results is performed in real time during
the query, we have to select a fast implementation which
can provide results in reasonable time. The advantage of
performing the training on line is that in a semiautomatic
version of the module, the user would be able to optimize
the combination procedure by adjusting weights for the two
12 Advances in Multimedia
Figure 11: Keyword suggestions for a text-based query.
involved rankings (i.e., visual and implicit), which would
reflect to the definition of dierent distance thresholds in
the training data construction. Of course apart from the
implementation, the size of the training dataset comprises
an important factor that could keep the speed low. As our
objective is to rerank results, the initial idea was to employ
the ranking SVM of [11], which could be trained by user
preferences between two dierent shots. However, based on
how the weighted graph is constructed and especially the
quantitive assignment of the actions’ weights, it is clear that
the shots that are closer to the example shots are better to
be considered as positive samples instead of user relative
preference declaration.
Hence, we employ the fast-performing SVM classifier
implementation described in Section 3 utilizing as features
of the positive and negative samples the concatenation of the
edge histogram and color layout descriptors. Assuming that
the concatenated visual descriptor is V={v0,v1,...,vP},
then (2) is transformed into
c∈{0, 1}n:1
nwT
n
i=1
ciyiVi1
n
n
i=1
ciξ. (7)
After having trained the classifier with T,weprovideastest
set the initial results RVbased on visual descriptors. This test
set is finally ranked based on the distances that are calculated
between each shot and the hyperplane, which is constructed
by the model.
8. LELANTUS Search Engine
In this section, we will present LELANTUS (LELANTUS
in Greek Mythology was a Titan who had the capability
of “moving without being seen” implying that the engine
collects and processes the implicit user feedback in a
transparent way to the user) video search engine which
realizes the proposed framework. First, we will describe the
interface, and then we will demonstrate its functionalities
through user interaction modes. An interactive demonstra-
tion of LELANTUS video search engine is available at:
http://mklab-services.iti.gr/lelantus/.
8.1. Interface. The search engine interface is illustrated in
Figure 7. All the highlighted functionalities can be recorded
during the user interaction. Taking a closer look, we observe
that the graphical user interface (GUI) is composed of two
parts: the left column, which oers text-based search options,
and the main container, where the results are presented
oering at the same time options for queries by visual
example and temporal search.
At the left column the user is allowed to enter a keyword
in order to fire a text-based search. Two dierent options are
oered: (i) to perform a textual search exploiting the ASR
information and (ii) to search based on the weighted graph
and receive recommendations. Below this part, a number of
related keywords are presented for every query submission
using the weighted graph. Finally, the left column includes a
basket storage structure, where the user can store the results
he/she finds.
The main container is the part where the results are
presented. Six dierent options are available for each shot:
(i) to perform a query by visual example using the MPEG
descriptors by clicking on the representative image, (ii) to
mark a shot as relevant to the topic (i.e., submit a shot),
(iii) to view all the shots of the same video, (iv) to fire
an image by example search using the relations of the user
interaction weighted graph, and (v) to execute a hybrid
search, which combines visual features and implicit user
feedback and finally as discussed in Section 7 and (vi) to view
the temporally adjacent (i.e., neighboring) shots of a selected
video shot with the associated textual transcription, as it is
shown in Figure 8.
8.2. Interaction Modes. In this section, the improvement
of results, when implicit feedback is taken into account is
demonstrated by presenting dierent interaction modes. In
these examples, the system is accessing the TRECVID 2008
test data collection (presented in detail in Section 9). The
implicit user feedback information has been gathered during
the first experimental phase described in Section 9.2.
First, we present a usage scenario, in which the user
is searching for scenes where a water body is visible by
typing the keyword “water” (Figure 9). As text retrieval is
performed on the noisy information provided by automatic
speech recognition (ASR), only some of the results depict
water scenes. Conducting the same query utilizing the graph
with the past interaction data (i.e., the recommendations),
we get a clearly better set of results (Figure 10). At the same
time, the system outputs term recommendations using the
weighted graph (Figure 11). In this case, the query keyword
was “water” and most of the recommended words seem to
have high semantic similarity with the input term.
In the second usage scenario, the user is employing the
query by visual example methodology to find images that
are similar to a given one. Subsequently, we present the set
of results when the user searches with the three dierent
Advances in Multimedia 13
Figure 12: Query by image example. Content-based analysis is employed for this query. The input image is the one on the left top corner.
Figure 13: Query by image example. Relations from the weighted graph are used to realize the query. The input image is the one on the left
top corner.
modalities: (a) content-based search using the visual features,
(b) graph-based recommendations utilizing the past user
interaction, and (c) hybrid search, which combines visual
features and implicit user feedback. The output of the
system is visualized in Figures 12,13,and14,respectively,
for the aforementioned search flavors, while the related
terms generated by the system for this specific query are
illustrated in Figure 15. If we attempt to comment on the
visual output of the system, it seems that the top 12 results
of the hybrid approach are of better quality compared to
the results of the other search modules. More specifically, a
precision of 91.67% (11/12) is reported for hybrid modality,
14 Advances in Multimedia
Figure 14: Hybrid search combining visual features and implicit user feedback. The input image is the one on the left top corner.
Figure 15: Keyword suggestions in a query by image example. The
input image is the one at the right.
while the visual only based search achieves a precision of
58.3% (7/12). Of course, the good performance of the hybrid
approach is due to the high precision 75% (9/12) reported by
the recommendations (Figure 13), as the latter are actually
used for the construction of the training set described in
Section 7.1.
In this specific case, it seems that when retrieval is
performed only by considering the visual descriptors, low
distances are estimated also for shots that have similar
colors but no semantic resemblance with the query. On
the other hand, when the hybrid ranking is applied, it
seems that the implicit user feedback has given a semantic
flavor to the ranking as the shots that shared only common
color characteristics were ranked lower. As far as the term
recommendations are concerned, most of the suggested
words (i.e., 7 of 9) seem to be semantically related to the
selected image (Figure 15).
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
Precision
1234
Topics
Baseline system
Enhanced system
Figure 16: Precision for the results of the baseline and enhanced
systems.
Tab le 2: Numerical statistics for the weighted graph.
Nodes Shots Keywords Links
Weighted graph 1298 1229 69 2659
9. Experiments and Evaluation
In order to evaluate the proposed approach, we employed the
LELANTUS video search engine to conduct experiments and
make comparisons between the dierent retrieval modalities.
The evaluation experiment was divided into 3 phases: the
Advances in Multimedia 15
0
0.02
0.04
0.06
0.08
0.1
0.12
0.14
0.16
Recall
1234
Topics
Baseline system
Enhanced system
Figure 17: Recall for the results of the baseline and enhanced
systems.
Tab le 3: Precision and Recall for the Baseline and Enhanced
systems.
Topics Precision Recall
Baseline Enhanced Baseline Enhanced
1 0.955556 0.896296 0.042042 0.045045
2 0.885467 0.900362 0.130719 0.134804
3 0.597154 0.664683 0.07906 0.096154
4 0.707702 0.766934 0.033712 0.075335
training phase, in which the implicit user feedback was
recorded, the evaluation of the generated recommendations,
and finally the evaluation of the hybrid search modality.
9.1. Dataset Involved and Ground Truth. In these experi-
ments we made use of the annotated video set of TRECVID
2008. This set includes about 100 hours of Dutch video
(news magazine, science news, news reports, documentaries,
educational programming, and archival video). The videos
are segmented into about 30.000 shots (shot segmentation
oered by NIST) and are presented by the most represen-
tative keyframe in the search engine. The ASR is oered by
the University of Twente (http://www.utwente.nl/); however,
due to the errors that are usually employed during automatic
speech recognition and machine translation from Dutch
to English, they cannot be considered as highly reliable.
The ground truth is provided by the National Institute of
Standards and Technology (NIST: http://www.nist.gov/)and
included annotated shots for 24 query topics. Part of these
query topics were used in our experiments.
9.2. Training Phase. In the first phase (i.e., the training
phase), 24 search sessions, each lasting 15 minutes, took
place, in which 24 users searched for the following 6 dierent
topics (i.e., 4 dierent users for each topic) and their actions
were recorded.
(A) Find shots of 3 or fewer people sitting at a table.
(B) Find shots of one or more people with mostly trees
and plants in the background; no road or building is
visible.
(C) Find shots of one or more people where a body of
water can be seen.
(D) Find shots of a woman talking to the camera in an
interview located indoors—no other people visible.
(E) Find shots of one or more pieces of paper, each with
writing, typing, or printing it, filling more than half
of the frame area.
(F) Find shots of a person on the street, talking to the
camera.
Considering the fact that the users were not aware of
the mechanism employed for building the weighted graph
and that they were instructed to search as they normally do
(i.e., without considering a specific strategy), they introduced
some noise by performing random and unpredictable jumps
during the search session.
In this phase, the baseline version (i.e., recommendation
generation and hybrid search were disabled) of LELANTUS
was used. All the functionalities of Figure 7 that are sup-
ported by the baseline system were recorded during the user
interaction. Then, we constructed the weighted graph based
on the proposed methodology. The numerical statistics (e.g.,
number of nodes, links, etc.) of the weighted graph are
reported in Table 2.
9.3. Recommendations’ Evaluation. In the second phase, we
recruited 4 dierent users, who searched for the following 4
topics: 2 relevant (but not identical) to the ones of the first
part and 2 irrelevant. In this case, each user searched for all
the 4 topics.
(1) Find shots of one or more people with one or more
horses.
(2) Find shots of a map (i.e., similar to topic (E)).
(3) Find shots of one or more people with one or more
books.
(4) Find shots of food and/or drinks on a table (i.e.,
similar to topic (A)).
During these search sessions, the users used the baseline
version of LELANTUS. Then, another 4 users performed a
search for the same topics (1)–(4). These users were able to
use not only the basic retrieval options of the system, but
also the recommendation functionality (i.e., the enhanced
version). The duration for each session was 10 minutes for
the last two experimental phases.
Performance in terms of precision and recall for the 2nd
and 3rd phases of the experiment is reported in Table 3 and
illustratedinFigures16 and 17, respectively, where these
metrics are calculated against annotated results for each
topic.
The average improvement in recall for the first two topics
(1) and (2) (i.e., the irrelevant to the initial ones) is about
16 Advances in Multimedia
Figure 18: Combined ranking of results for the query shot on the top left corner.
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Frequency (%)
70 50 30 10 10 30 50 70 90
Selection (hybrid-visual)
Figure 19: Histogram of the clicks. The horizontal axis stands for
the number of clicks (positive for hybrid ranking and negative for
visual), while the vertical for the frequency.
Tab le 4: Pairwise comparison of the hybrid retrieval function with
the visual one.
Tota l q u e r ies More selections
on hybrid
More selections
on visual Equal selections
200 121 62 17
Tab le 5: Clicks on hybrid and visual ranking.
Tota l c l i c k s Selections on
hybrid ranking
Selections on
visual ranking
6509 5276 1233
5%, while precision seems to slightly drop by an average
of 2%. These results can be considered rather reasonable
due to the fact that past users have not interacted much with
the video shots that are related to these topics. As expected,
the major improvement is reported in the topics (3) and
(4) (i.e., the relevant to the initial queries), in which recall
and precision are increased by an average of 72% and 9.8%,
respectively. The low absolute recall values are due to the fact
that the shots that were annotated as relevant for each query-
topic could not possibly be retrieved in the requested time
duration of the experimental search sessions of this phase.
9.4. Visual Search Optimization Experiment. In this exper-
imental phase, we attempt to evaluate the hybrid search
modality that combines visual features and implicit user
feedback.
To measure and evaluate the performance of the sug-
gested algorithm, we compare the two dierent rankings in
the case of a query by visual example: (a) the visual ranking,
which is provided by the distances of the visual descriptors
and (b) the hybrid ranking, which is generated after the
application of the proposed algorithm. To compare the
aforementioned retrieval functions, we utilize the method
suggested in [11]. Considering that RKHis the hybrid
ranking and RKVthe visual, we construct a “combined
ranking” RKH,Vthat includes the top links of both rankings.
More specifically, RKH,Vconsists of lresults, which are
actually the katop results of RKHand the kbof RKV,where
|kakb|≤1. This form of presentation leads to a blind
statistical test so that the user selections, expressed as clicks
on the ranked results, demonstrate the unbiased preferences.
Such method can be considered even more appropriate when
applied in visual query by example instead of text web
search, as in this case, the results are not so subjective to
Advances in Multimedia 17
what the user has in mind. Figures 12 and 14 illustrate
a visual and a hybrid ranking, respectively, while in
Figure 18, the combined ranking for the same query shot is
depicted.
In this phase, 12 users were employed to identify visually
similar results for 200 queries by visual example that were
included in the weighted graph. To construct eciently
the training set, the thresholds have been experimentally
selected, while 30 positive and 30 negative examples were
extracted by the weighted graph for each query. In Tables 4
and 5, we can observe the statistic results for all the users. It
can be seen that for 60.5% of the queries the hybrid ranking is
preferred by the users, for 8.5% of queries the two functions
seem to perform equally, while for the rest 31% of queries the
visual ranking outperforms the hybrid. In Figure 19,wecan
see the corresponding histogram, which shows the frequency
of user preference (i.e., selection clicks on hybrid ranking
minus clicks on visual ranking) for the involved queries. We
constructed the histogram by considering absolute values
of the clicks and not normalized (i.e., divided by the total
clicks in a query), as the actual number of clicks seems to
be of more importance. For instance, in a case that a user
clicks and selects only one item more from the one of the
rankings, the conclusion should be that this ranking is with
higher probability slightly better than the other. This can
be reflected when considering the absolute dierence of the
clicks (e.g., 9 8=1and10=1), where the value
1 describes the user preference. However, if we normalize
the metrics according to the total number of selections in a
query, we could get misleading results (e.g., 11.1% and 100%,
resp., for the previous example).
10. Conclusions
In this paper, we have introduced new implicit interest indi-
cators for video search and proposed a novel methodology
to construct a content similarity graph based on the implicit
indicators of patterns of user interaction. In addition, we
have proposed an approach for combining eectively visual
features with implicit user feedback by employing a SVM
classifier. As it is shown by the results, the implicit user
feedback can be of added value in video retrieval engines,
considering also that large quantities of past user interaction
data can easily become available. From the experimental
results, it seems that the utilization of implicit feedback is
capable of improving the visual search results in most of the
cases, and in addition, it improves the system’s performance.
We could say that utilizing implicit user feedback to optimize
visual search seems to tune the visual function in a semantic
way, in which results with the same semantic concept are
ranked higher despite the initial lower visual resemblance.
The approach is considered scalable due to the fact that
it is based on well established structures as graphs, for which
many ecient indexing techniques have been proposed. In
addition, the action and weighted graphs are constricted
oine and are updated in the background, when new user
implicit feedback is gathered. Therefore, the application of
the approach and especially the real time classification task
(i.e., hybrid search) remain possible even in case of huge
corpus.
Future work would include a more extended evaluation
of the method, in order to better observe the behavior of
this hybrid approach especially in cases that even more users
are involved and the implicit feedback is of lower quality
(e.g., in even less controlled experiments). Furthermore,
the application of classification algorithms other than SVM,
for example, boosting-based techniques and comparison
between them would be of interest, while the employment
of alternative visual features (e.g., SIFT) could also be
considered. Finally, an important challenge would be to
include information from the physical reactions of the user
(e.g., eye movements) and combine it with user navigation
patterns and video analysis information. Recently, our
research activities are directed towards these goals.
Acknowledgment
This work was supported by the projects PESCaDO (FP7-
248594) and PetaMedia (FP7-216444) both funded by the
European Commission.
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