Article

A Study of Remote Workers and Their Differences from Non-Remote Workers

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Abstract

Information technology (IT) is enabling the creation of virtual organizations and remote work practices. As this practice of working remotely grows, so does the importance of making these remote end-users of technology effective members of organizations. This study tested a number of relationships that were suggested in the literature as being relevant in a remote work environment. Interpersonal trust of the employee in their manager was found to be strongly associated with higher self-perceptions of performance, higher job satisfaction and lower job stress. There was weak support for the impact of physical connectivity (i. e., the availability of IT) on job satisfaction, supporting the enabling role of IT. These findings were similar for both remote employees (i.e., those that worked in a different building than their managers) and non-remote employees. However, more frequent communications between the manager and employee was associated with higher levels of interpersonal trust only with the remote workers. Cognition-based trust was also found to be more important than affect-based trust in a remote work environment, suggesting that managers of remote employees should focus on activities that demonstrate competence, responsibility and professionalism.

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... Supervisor support has been suggested to increase self-efficacy, raising employee likelihood to telecommute (Khalifa & Davidson, 2000). Additionally, trust between supervisor and employee inflates productivity and job satisfaction while decreasing work-related stress (Baker et al., 2006;Dahlstrom, 2013;Staples, 2001). A reciprocal relationship with trust and communication frequency in remote employees has also been seen (Staples, 2001), suggesting regular communication is essential for building trust. ...
... Additionally, trust between supervisor and employee inflates productivity and job satisfaction while decreasing work-related stress (Baker et al., 2006;Dahlstrom, 2013;Staples, 2001). A reciprocal relationship with trust and communication frequency in remote employees has also been seen (Staples, 2001), suggesting regular communication is essential for building trust. Research on telecommuting intensity also found that the more one works remotely the stronger their relationship with their superiors, but the weaker their relationship with co-workers (Allan et al., 2015;Golden et al., 2006). ...
... In this research, students spoke about the desire to have meaningful work, particularly when some noted that in the switch to remote working, they were given menial tasks. Since trust between employer and employee was connected to an employee's satisfaction with telecommuting (Baker at al., 2006;Staples, 2001), it may be that trust needs to be established between the employer and WIL student prior to meaningful work being assigned. Ways to establish trust between the remote WIL student and their organization may be an area for further investigation. ...
Article
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The COVID-19 pandemic required a quick adaptation in the way work-integrated learning programs are offered. While not suitable for all types or disciplines of WIL, this disruption has led to many WIL experiences occurring remotely, that is, students working for organizations from home. Students' perceptions of their WIL experiences have previously been examined, but there is little literature investigating students' perceptions of remote WIL, and how host organizations can best support their learning in a remote working context. Organizational research conducted on remote employees over the past two decades has identified important considerations, such as flexibility, productivity, engagement, and commitment. In the present study, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 50 co-operative education students and a grounded theory approach was taken to analyze the transcripts. Findings reveal the importance students associate with socialization, productivity, and meaningful work in the remote context. Study limitations and directions for future research are also discussed. © 2020 International Journal of Work-Integrated Learning. All rights reserved.
... Entretanto, este trabalho trata de um grupo específico de trabalhadores que não contam com um posto de trabalho em específico: os trabalhadores remotos. Trabalhadores remotos O trabalho remoto é uma tendência crescente ao redor do globo (Eddleston & Mulki, 2017), e com os avanços da tecnologia da informação, tem se tornado cada vez mais comum (Staples, 2001;Staples, Hulland, & Higgins, 1999). Devido a tendências nas áreas de sociedade e tecnologia, o próprio local de trabalho está mudando, em resposta a essas tendências (Perry, Rubino, & Hunter, 2018). ...
... Devido a tendências nas áreas de sociedade e tecnologia, o próprio local de trabalho está mudando, em resposta a essas tendências (Perry, Rubino, & Hunter, 2018). Staples (2001) menciona que o trabalho remoto é a atividade laboral ocorrida em local fisicamente separado dos seus gerentes. Como exemplos podem ser dados o trabalho exercido em escritório diverso, em casa ou mesmo no ambiente do cliente (Staples, 2001). ...
... Staples (2001) menciona que o trabalho remoto é a atividade laboral ocorrida em local fisicamente separado dos seus gerentes. Como exemplos podem ser dados o trabalho exercido em escritório diverso, em casa ou mesmo no ambiente do cliente (Staples, 2001). ...
Article
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O objetivo deste trabalho é compreender o uso de símbolos na representação da identidade por profissionais cuja atuação ocorre nos locais de trabalho de seus clientes e outros stakeholders, ou em locais combinados com estes para a realização de atividades profissionais. A premissa adotada no presente trabalho é a de que o símbolo seria correntemente utilizado no ambiente de trabalho de forma intencional, como elemento comunicativo. Essa premissa encontra-se alinhada com fundamentos encontrados no campo da psicologia social. Após a realização de entrevistas semiestruturadas com funcionários de organizações públicas e privadas, foi desenvolvida uma teoria fundamentada nos dados. Por meio das duas categorias centrais (expressão e lembrete do self), identificou-se que esses trabalhadores remotos utilizam objetos com carga simbólica (p.e., broches, adesivos no carro, bonecos e chaveiros), para representarem aspectos de suas identidades a outros (interpessoal) e a si mesmos (intrapessoal). Em termos teóricos, identificou-se que tais processos produzem efeitos positivos para seus trabalhos, como mediação de interações e autodeterminação.
... Mostly, the fear of 1 https://www.pwc.com/mt/en/publications/the-covid19-remote-working-experiment-final4.pdf losing the managerial control is considered as an important factor causing hesitation to adopt remote working (Staples, 2001). As organizational control environment is largely affected by the culture, a culture embracing new control mechanisms would also welcome remote working practices more easily, compared to a strict control environment. ...
... According to Rosita (2018), psychological contract is reflected in various dimensions of employment relations including work environment, working hours and communication. Another dimension with regard to the relevance of psychological contract is that management of employees located remotely from their manager has become a critical point in remote working (Staples, 2001). A fulfilled psychological contract would in fact decrease the need to control and actively manage the employees, which in turn is expected to contribute to the remote working experience. ...
Chapter
COVID-19 ile küresel ölçekte gelişmiş-gelişmekte olan vb. retorik hiçbir ayrım yapmaksızın yaşanan salgın süreci yaşananların sonundaki çıktıları itibariyle sosyo-ekonomik ve siyasal vb. pek çok açıdan değişim ve dönüşümün temel belirleyici faktörü olarak görülmektedir. COVID-19 pandemisi’nin tek şaşırtıcı yönü tüm dünyaya yayılma hızı ve kapsamı açısından insanların görünüşte uzak olan yabancı tehditlere karşı savunmasızlığının anlaşılmış olması (Legrain (2020), https://foreignpolicy.com/: 12.05.2020) değildir. Ayrıca 20. yüzyılın temel pratikleri arasında yer alan demokrasi, neoliberal politikalar ve küreselleşme kavramlarının (ve güvenlik, dijital izleme ve denetim mekanizmaları, insan hakları, vb.) tartışılıyor olması pandemi sürecinin tedirgin edici yönüne olumsuz katkı yapmaktadır.
... Mostly, the fear of 1 https://www.pwc.com/mt/en/publications/the-covid19-remote-working-experiment-final4.pdf losing the managerial control is considered as an important factor causing hesitation to adopt remote working (Staples, 2001). As organizational control environment is largely affected by the culture, a culture embracing new control mechanisms would also welcome remote working practices more easily, compared to a strict control environment. ...
... According to Rosita (2018), psychological contract is reflected in various dimensions of employment relations including work environment, working hours and communication. Another dimension with regard to the relevance of psychological contract is that management of employees located remotely from their manager has become a critical point in remote working (Staples, 2001). A fulfilled psychological contract would in fact decrease the need to control and actively manage the employees, which in turn is expected to contribute to the remote working experience. ...
... Additionally, participants indicate that having more comfort is one of the reasons for their motivation. (Staples, 2001) explains that working from decrease the stress and make an employee more comfortable. There is no doubt that remote work is more comfortable in anyways not only for the employee but also employers. ...
... According to the participants, one of the biggest factors affecting productivity in home-working life is technical problems with 29.9%. (Staples, 2001) indicates that technology is enabling the creation of virtual organizations and remote work practices; therefore, ıt is very important to use technology effectively by members of organizations. A person who has technological opportunities or has knowledge of usage will be much more efficient and useful in business life. ...
Article
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Working from home has become "new normal" and great majority of employees have started to WFH (working from home), which has had profound effects on their personal and professional lifestyle. Taking into account the fact, this study aims to investigate the significant items affecting the motivational level of employees by considering the role of gender differences. In essence, this paper is proposed to understand that how the transforming of work form due to current circumstance, has impressed the various aspects of employees work-life. The sample of research includes 254 responders of diverse age, gender, educational situation, and their duration of employment working for different companies from all over Turkey. Data were collected through an online structured survey and the data were analyzed by descriptive statistic methods using probability sampling. The results illustrate that the overwhelming majority of respondents have started to work from home after the Coronavirus outbreak. Moreover, the findings of this study reveal the main reason behind the motivation on working home among remote employees but and the reasons, which have detrimental impacts on workforce desire to continue WFH. Surprisingly, participants are satisfied with the current trend of remote work altogether and they have also gravitated toward continuing work from home even after the Covid-19 pandemic period. Additionally, the other results of this research demonstrate that items such as the absence of social life, distraction by family members, self-organizing problems, time management, technological problems and productivity levels can have positive and negative impacts on WFH. Generally, by looking more into the details of findings, we can obviously distinguish the differences between results regarding gender categories.
... Mostly, the fear of 1 https://www.pwc.com/mt/en/publications/the-covid19-remote-working-experiment-final4.pdf losing the managerial control is considered as an important factor causing hesitation to adopt remote working (Staples, 2001). As organizational control environment is largely affected by the culture, a culture embracing new control mechanisms would also welcome remote working practices more easily, compared to a strict control environment. ...
... According to Rosita (2018), psychological contract is reflected in various dimensions of employment relations including work environment, working hours and communication. Another dimension with regard to the relevance of psychological contract is that management of employees located remotely from their manager has become a critical point in remote working (Staples, 2001). A fulfilled psychological contract would in fact decrease the need to control and actively manage the employees, which in turn is expected to contribute to the remote working experience. ...
... It is being evident of from a study that 99% of information technology workforce has the capacity to perform remote working (SCIKEY Mind Match, 2020) [17]. Trust between the employee and employer is the major concern for remote working as the employee and superior has similar ambitions and perceptions of performance and job satisfactions (Standee Staples, 2001) [18]. Hickman (2019) [19] reported from the Gallup Research data business outcomes improvement, attraction of talent, and an better engaged workforce has the best financial outcomes through remote work. ...
... It is being evident of from a study that 99% of information technology workforce has the capacity to perform remote working (SCIKEY Mind Match, 2020) [17]. Trust between the employee and employer is the major concern for remote working as the employee and superior has similar ambitions and perceptions of performance and job satisfactions (Standee Staples, 2001) [18]. Hickman (2019) [19] reported from the Gallup Research data business outcomes improvement, attraction of talent, and an better engaged workforce has the best financial outcomes through remote work. ...
Article
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Work from home or remote working has been seen as a buzzword during pre-Covid-19 times has become a reality during Covid-19 Pandemic starting March 2020 and will stay for a longer period in India. In this empirical study the researchers present outcome an empirical study carried out surveying the employees of International Agricultural Research Institute, Hyderabad. This research was carried out during the pandemic period because of its nature-novelty, innovation and challenging and this is the first research study that was carried out in the agricultural research sector. The predictor variables of remote working challenges-social/ workplace isolation, career development, work schedule, ergonomic issues, infrastructure dependencies, personal habits, additional costs to employee, the factors that influence the work-life balance a dependent variable on employees working in an international agricultural research institute employee are presented. The seven said independent variables that effect the work-life balance a dependent variable because of remote working of an employee are measured. using a five-point Likert-type scale. The work-life balance was measured with a modified questionnaire based on the survey instrument by Lisa Yang and Hock Tan and Cook. The multiple regression analysis reveal that employee personal habits, ergonomic issues and work schedules are significantly influencing the employee work-life balance.
... This can lead to boredom (Fisher, 1993;Frankenhaeuser and Gardell, 1976), fatigue (Cham et al., 2021), and increased distress and depression (van Hooff & van Hooft, 2014). Third, many managers were not confident or prepared for remotely managing employees and some regained control by closely monitoring employees and tracking their productivity and performance, which may have caused stress and distrust for employees who felt they must be constantly available to respond to work messages Staples, 2001). We hypothesise that workers perceiving higher job resources at Time 1 will be more likely to be in the declining distress profile than the rising distress profile (H3). ...
... Finally, prior work recommends clear communication between supervisors and students (. Hodges & Martin, 2020;Richardson et al., 2009;Staples, 2001) and increasing student awareness of mental health counseling services (Hunt & Eisenberg, 2010). ...
Conference Paper
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Cooperative education is a form of work-integrated learning that includes both classroom study terms and paid work experience. Prior work has studied the benefits of cooperative education for students, employers, and academic institutions. In contrast, this article studies the impact of co-operative education on students’ mental well-being. This is done by mining the Reddit social media platform, which includes, among many other topics, discussion communities for major U.S. and Canadian colleges. This analysis reveals that students report feelings of self-doubt resulting from a competitive co-op job market, especially when placed in entry-level jobs that are not related to their academic programs, and anxiety due to job interviews, especially when they coincide with exams and other academic deadlines. Additionally, recent discussions frequently point out cancelled work terms due to the COVID-19 pandemic, creating even more competition, financial hardship, and pressure to make alternate academic or employment arrangements.
... As such, more frequent interactions should help followers (and leaders) to establish better relations with each other [24][25][26][27]. Indeed, some evidence suggests that more frequent interaction is associated with better leaderfollower relationships (e.g., more trust among followers in their leaders [28]) and better team mood [29]. ...
Article
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Successful leadership requires leaders to make their followers aware of expectations regarding the goals to achieve, norms to follow, and task responsibilities to take over. This awareness is often achieved through leader-follower communication. In times of economic globalization and digitalization, however, leader-follower communication has become both more digitalized (virtual, rather than face-to-face) and less frequent, making successful leader-follower-communication more challenging. The current research tested in four studies (three preregistered) whether digitalization and frequency of interaction predict task-related leadership success. In one cross-sectional (Study 1, N = 200), one longitudinal (Study 2, N = 305), and one quasi-experimental study (Study 3, N = 178), as predicted, a higher frequency (but not a lower level of digitalization) of leader-follower interactions predicted better task-related leadership outcomes (i.e., stronger goal clarity, norm clarity, and task responsibility among followers). Via mediation and a causal chain approach, Study 3 and Study 4 (N = 261) further targeted the mechanism; results showed that the relationship between (higher) interaction frequency and these outcomes is due to followers perceiving more opportunities to share work-related information with the leaders. These results improve our understanding of contextual factors contributing to leadership success in collaborations across hierarchies. They highlight that it is not the digitalization but rather the frequency of interacting with their leader that predicts whether followers gain clarity about the relevant goals and norms to follow and the task responsibilities to assume.
... Yöneticiye güvenin yüksek olduğu bir ortamda çalışanların iş tatmini, iş performansı, örgütsel bağlılık ve kararlara katılım düzeyi artarken, stres ve tükenmişlik düzeyleri ile devamsızlık ve gönüllü işten ayrılma niyetleri azalmaktadır (Cunningham ve MacGregor, 2000:1575. Staples (2001:3)'in yaptığı araştırmanın sonuçlarına göre çalışanların yöneticiye güven düzeyleri kendi performans algıları ve iş tatmini ile pozitif, iş stresi ile negatif ilişkilidir. Güven resmi sözleşmelere olan gereksinimi ve örgüt içi fırsatçı davranışları azaltmakta ya da yok 5 Güven çalışmalarından bazıları Ek 2'de tablo halinde özetlenmiştir. ...
Thesis
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Babacan liderliğin yazında güç mesafesi yüksek ve toplulukçu toplumlarda olumlu, buna karşın düşük güç mesafesi ve bireyci toplumlarda olumsuz algılandığı vurgulanmaktadır. Bu vurgular ile bazı ampirik çalışmaların bulguları, bir toplum içinde farklı kültürel değerlere sahip bireylerin babacan liderliğe yönelik farklı algı ve tutumlarının olabileceği izlenimini ortaya koymaktadır. Babacan liderliğin bir toplum içinde farklı kültürel değerlere göre olumlu bir liderlik tarzı olarak algılanıp algılanmadığının tespiti, hem var olan teorik tartışmalara katkı sağlamak açısından, hem de ampirik çalışmalara olan ihtiyacı karşılamak bakımından öneme sahip gözükmektedir. Bu gerekçe ile bu çalışmada yazındaki tartışmalara paralel olarak babacan liderliğin bireylerin kültürel değerlerine göre olumlu bir liderlik tarzı olarak algılanıp algılanmadığı sorgulanmaktadır. Bu bağlamda babacan liderlik algısı ile yöneticiye güven arasındaki ilişki ve güç mesafesi, bireycilik ve toplulukçuluğun bu ilişkideki etkilerini incelemek amaçlanmıştır. Çalışmanın amacına bağlı olarak nicel bir araştırma tasarlanmış ve araştırma için gerekli veriler anket formu vasıtasıyla elde edilmiştir. Araştırmanın örneklemini farklı iş kollarında özel ve kamu sektöründe çalışan toplam 753 katılımcı oluşturmaktadır. Araştırma sorularını yanıtlamak ve araştırma hipotezlerini test etmek üzere korelasyon, regresyon ve moderatör etki analizlerinden yararlanılmıştır. Araştırma bulgularına göre çalışanların babacan liderlik algısı ile yöneticiye güven düzeyleri arasında kuvvetli pozitif bir ilişki söz konusudur. Aynı zamanda babacan liderlik algısı yöneticiye güveni pozitif etkilemektedir. Çalışanların babacan lider davranışına ilişkin algılarının pozitif olduğu ve yöneticilerinden tatmin oldukları görülmektedir. Moderatör etki analizi bulgularına göre ise babacan liderlik algısı ile yöneticiye güven ilişkisinde kültürel değerlerin anlamlı etkilerinin olmadığı görülmektedir. Sonuçlar makro tartışmaların gerisinde, mikro düzeyde düşünüldüğünde çalışanların kültürel değerlerinin bu çalışma bağlamında kayda değer biçimde önemli olmadığını göstermektedir. Dolayısı ile bu çalışma bağlamında çalışanların kültürel değerlerinin örgütte yansımalarının oldukça düşük olduğunu veya kayda değer bir sonuç ortaya çıkarmadığını ifade etmek mümkündür.
... Finally, prior work recommends clear communication between supervisors and students (. Hodges & Martin, 2020;Richardson et al., 2009;Staples, 2001) and increasing student awareness of mental health counseling services (Hunt & Eisenberg, 2010). ...
Article
Full-text available
Cooperative education is a form of work-integrated learning that includes both classroom study terms and paid work experience. Prior work has studied the benefits of cooperative education for students, employers, and academic institutions. In contrast, this article studies the impact of co-operative education on students’ mental well-being. This is done by mining the Reddit social media platform, which includes, among many other topics, discussion communities for major U.S. and Canadian colleges. This analysis reveals that students report feelings of self-doubt resulting from a competitive co-op job market, especially when placed in entry-level jobs that are not related to their academic programs, and anxiety due to job interviews, especially when they coincide with exams and other academic deadlines. Additionally, recent discussions frequently point out cancelled work terms due to the COVID-19 pandemic, creating even more competition, financial hardship, and pressure to make alternate academic or employment arrangements.
... İkinci adımda uzaktan çalışma, evden çalışma ve tele-çalışma gibi kavramlarla alan yazın taraması yapılmıştır. Çalışanların uzaktan çalışmayla ilgili algılarının ölçümlenebilmesi için 21 farklı çalışmadan (Duxbury vd., 1987;Hill vd., 1998;Staples, (2001;Kemerling, 2002;Haddad ve Lyons, 2008;Gómez ve Zambada, 2010;Berkun, 2013;Amador, 2016;Nijp, 2016;West, 2016;Suh ve Lee, 2017;Özcan, 2018;Grant vd., 2019;Gomez vd., 2020;Tat ve Gemlik, 2020;Tuna ve Türkmendağ, 2020;Atasoy, 2020;Deloitte, 2020; Koceska ve Koceska, 2020; Gigs ve Sangeetha 2020; Mostafa ,2021) yararlanılarak hazırlanmış ve araştırmacılar tarafından literatür de göz önünde bulundurularak bazı ifadeler eklenmiştir. Bu doğrultuda 12 tematik kod ve 120 soruluk bir madde havuzu oluşturulmuştur. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Bu çalışmanın amacı, çalışanların uzaktan çalışmaya yönelik algılarını tespit edilmesinde kullanılabilecek geçerli ve güvenilir bir ölçme aracının geliştirilmesidir. Çalışmada keşfedici sıralı karma yöntem desen benimsenmiştir. Uzaktan çalışma ölçeğinin geliştirilmesi sürecinde birinci adımda uzaktan çalışma deneyimine sahip ve uygulamalarına kendi şirketlerinde yön veren 3 yöneticiyle görüşme yapıldı. İkinci adımda literatürde yer alan 21farklı çalışmadan derlenen konuya ilişkin ifadelerden madde havuzu oluşturulmuştur. Oluşturulan maddelerin kapsam geçerliliğinin ortaya konulabilmesi için uzaktan çalışma konusunda çalışması olan 26 akademisyenin ve uzaktan çalışma modelinin tasarımında görev alan 18 insan kaynakları profesyonelinin görüşüne sunulmuştur. Çalışmanın pilot uygulaması uzaktan çalışma deneyimine sahip olan 53 kişiyle gerçekleştirilmiştir. Çalışmanın yapı geçerliliğinin tespiti için özel sektörde çalışan 670 kişi üzerine keşfedici faktör analizi uygulanmıştır. Doğrulayıcı faktör analizi 396 akademisyen üzerinde uygulanmıştır. Çalışma sonucunda 7 boyutlu 34 maddeden oluşan bir ölçek elde edilmiştir. Ölçeğin genel güvenirlik değeri α=0,743 olarak elde edilmiştir. Çalışmada elde edilen sonuçlar, çalışanların uzaktan çalışmaya yönelik algılarını tespit edilmesinde kullanılabilecek geçerli ve güvenilir bir ölçme aracı olduğunu göstermektedir
... Because WFH had never been the central culture but was selectively applied to limited cases before the pandemic (McInerney, 1999;Morelli, 1999;Staples, 2001;Mulki et al., 2009;Crawford et al., 2011;Sullivan, 2012;Elshaiekh et al., 2018), little was known about the efficacy of the enforced WFH environment. Responses toward the mandatory WFH trend revealed heterogeneous preferences by position. ...
Preprint
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After the outbreak of COVID-19, firms appear to monitor Work-From-Home (WFH) workers more than ever out of anxiety that workers may shirk at home or implement moral hazard at home. Using the Survey of Working Arrangements and Attitudes (SWAA; Barrero et al., 2021), the evidence of WFH workers' ex-post moral hazard as well as its specific aspects are examined. The results show that the ex-post moral hazard among the WFH workers is generally found. Interestingly, however, the moral hazard on specific type of productivity, efficiency, is not detected for the workers at firms with WFH-friendly policy for long term. Moreover, the advantages & challenges for the WFH culture report that workers with health or disability issues improve their productivity, whereas certain conditions specific to the WFH environment must be met.
... In addition, during the meeting, AI can collect and transfer information automatically [36]. Another critical challenge in remote working is communicating across teams at different levels and following up with them [37]. In an AI-driven application, employees can enter their requests into an AI bot, and the AI bot can communicate with the right person and ask for their task status [38]. ...
Preprint
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Due to the Covid-19 pandemic in 2020 or other business decisions, remote work is becoming increasingly popular. "Remote first" working environments exist within companies where most employees work remotely. This paper takes a deep dive into the remote-first mentality. It investigates its effects on employees at varying stages in their careers, day-to-day productivity, and working relationships with team members. We found that the remote-first mentality most impacts seasoned employees and managers, potentially due to trouble adjusting to a new way of working compared to the rest of their careers and the "always on" mentality associated with working from home. Regarding productivity, we found that while software development productivity appears unimpacted, the effectiveness of communication and employee wellbeing saw declines which are generally associated with lowered productivity. Finally, we looked closer at the communication side of things and how remote work impacts relationship building. We found that the most significant impacts on relationship building centered around "trust" and "credibility" being harder to build due to a lack of non-verbal cues during social interactions.
... Survey questions were drawn from the remote work literature, [16][17][18] experiences posted to Twitter (#remote work; #WFH) in the first weeks of COVID-19, and the authors' personal experiences with remote work. The following demographics were captured in the survey: Respondent's age, professional credentials, gender, faculty investigator level, CCTSI partner site and prior remote work experience. ...
Article
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Background In March 2020, academic research centres in Colorado were closed to prevent the spread of COVID-19. Scientists and research staff were required to continue their work remotely with little time to prepare for the transition. Methods This survey study used an explanatory sequential mixed-method design to explore clinical and translational researcher and staff experiences of the transition to remote work during the first 6 weeks of the COVID-19 pandemic. Participants indicated the level of interference with their research and shared their experiences of remote work, how they were impacted, how they were adapting and coping, and any short-term or long-term concerns. Results Most participants indicated that remote work interfered with their research to a moderate or great degree. Participant stories illuminated the differences of remote work prior to and during COVID-19. They described both challenges and silver linings. Three themes that highlight the challenges of transitioning to remote work during a pandemic were: (1) Leadership communication: ‘Leadership needs to revisit their communication strategy’; (2) Parenting demands: Parents are ‘multitasked to death’ every day and (3) Mental health challenges: The COVID-19 experience is ‘psychologically taxing’. Conclusions The study findings can be used to guide leaders in building community, resiliency and support productivity during current and future crises. Potential approaches to address these issues are proposed.
... This type of close monitoring reflects a lack of manager trust in individuals' abilities or intentions to work effectively remotely. This lack of trust leads to decreased feelings of autonomy 124 , increased employee home-work conflict 105 and distress 125,126 . Surveillance has been shown to decrease self-determined motivation 127 . ...
Article
Self-determination theory has shaped our understanding of what optimizes worker motivation by providing insights into how work context influences basic psychological needs for competence, autonomy and relatedness. As technological innovations change the nature of work, self-determination theory can provide insight into how the resulting uncertainty and interdependence might influence worker motivation, performance and well-being. In this Review, we summarize what self-determination theory has brought to the domain of work and how it is helping researchers and practitioners to shape the future of work. We consider how the experiences of job candidates are influenced by the new technologies used to assess and select them, and how self-determination theory can help to improve candidate attitudes and performance during selection assessments. We also discuss how technology transforms the design of work and its impact on worker motivation. We then describe three cases where technology is affecting work design and examine how this might influence needs satisfaction and motivation: remote work, virtual teamwork and algorithmic management. An understanding of how future work is likely to influence the satisfaction of the psychological needs of workers and how future work can be designed to satisfy such needs is of the utmost importance to worker performance and well-being. Technology is changing the nature of work by enabling new forms of automation and communication. In this Review, Gagné et al. describe how self-determination theory can help researchers and practitioners to shape the future of work to ensure that it meets the psychological needs of workers.
... In fact, some previous literature has mentioned that trust is the most critical factor in making WFH a success [42]. Therefore, we expected that supervisors' trust in their subordinates would be important in maintaining employees' happiness and reducing their stress on work [43]. Correspondingly, we developed the following hypotheses: ...
Article
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During the 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, many employees have switched to working from home. Despite the findings of previous research that working from home can improve productivity, the scale, nature, and purpose of those studies are not the same as in the current situation with the COVID-19 pandemic. We studied the effects that three stress relievers of the work-from-home environment–company support, supervisor’s trust in the subordinate, and work-life balance–had on employees’ psychological well-being (stress and happiness), which in turn influenced productivity and engagement in non-work-related activities during working hours. In order to collect honest responses on sensitive questions or negative forms of behavior including stress and non-work-related activities, we adopted the randomized response technique in the survey design to minimize response bias. We collected a total of 500 valid responses and analyzed the results with structural equation modelling. We found that among the three stress relievers, work-life balance was the only significant construct that affected psychological well-being. Stress when working from home promoted non-work-related activities during working hours, whereas happiness improved productivity. Interestingly, non-work-related activities had no significant effect on productivity. The research findings provide evidence that management’s maintenance of a healthy work-life balance for colleagues when they are working from home is important for supporting their psychosocial well-being and in turn upholding their work productivity.
... It is being evident of from a study that 99% of information technology workforce has the capacity to perform remote working (SCIKEY Mind Match, 2020). Trust between the employee and employer is the major concern for remote working as the employee and superior has similar ambitions and perceptions of performance and job satisfactions (Standee Staples, 2001). Hickman (2019) reported from the Gallup Research data business outcomes improvement, attraction of talent, and better engaged workforce has the best financial outcomes through remote work. ...
Article
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This research examines the impact of Covid-19 pandemic on Human Resource Management and the role changes of HR manager in an organization. The covid-19 pandemic reviews the weakness as well as the strength of the HR manager in an organization. Showing the competency of the HR manager to be able to think outside the box and creating measures of achieving the goals and objectives of the organization. This study also examines the dimensions of Covid-19 pandemic which are remote working and unemployment and layoff as well as the measures of Human Resource Management which are performance appraisal and recruitment.
... Remote worker, at last, is the term used to refer to those "who work in a physically separate location from their managers." (Staples, 2001: 3). ...
Article
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Covid-19 radically shifted the way of work and its organization and that’s why, the purpose of the paper is to explore the impact of remote e-working on work-life balance for female teachers since they commenced to work in a remote way for educational purposes. The first coronavirus case was officially detected in March, 2020 in Turkey and the schools including the private ones were closed and EBA (Network of Education Informatics) TVs and its online platforms for teaching were established and all teachers started to teach in these platforms in a remote way. As a result of the pandemic, the distinction of work and non-work life was eliminated through technology use and these two became integrated. Measuring the effect of technology and e-working on work-life balance has become a ‘must’ for labor relations in these changing dynamics. The paper is an exploratory study of remote work and its influence on keeping work-life balance using qualitative thematic analysis of fourteen in depth interviews with female teachers from state institutions in Turkey. All these participants worked remotely by means of technology, which is the core of the study.
... Uzaktan Çalışma (Remotopia) Alternatif çalışma modellerinden biri olan uzaktan çalışma modelinde, işgörenler işyerinden uzakta çalışmakta ve teknoloji aracılığıyla iş arkadaşları ile iletişim kurabilmektedirler (Di Martino ve Wirth, 1990:530). Başka bir ifadeyle "işlerin, yöneticiden fiziksel olarak ayrı bir yerde olan çalışanlar tarafından gerçekleştirilmesi" olarak tanımlanan uzaktan çalışma (Staples, 2001), bilgi işlem teknolojilerinin (özellikle internetin) gelişimine ve yaygınlaşmasına bağlı olarak pandemi öncesinde uygulama alanı bulmaya başlamıştır. Her ne kadar uzaktan çalışma kavramı, çalışanların işlerini işyerinden uzakta yapmaları esasına dayanan bir çalışma şekli olsa da (Yılmaz, Pajo ve Güngör Güzeler, 2014) uzaktan çalışmanın gönüllülük esaslı olarak, yani çalışanın da uygun görmesi halinde uygulanabilecek bir çalışma modeli olarak ele alınmaya başladığı görülmektedir (Versey, 2015;Anderson ve Kelliher, 2020). ...
Chapter
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Uzaktan çalışma, Gig ekonomi, Otomasyon ve yapay zeka artışı,Yeşil işler, Covid-19, Çalışma Şekilleri
... Edmondson, 1999). A termelékenység és az elégedettség, a kreativitás és nem utolsó sorban a hűség növekedhet, ha a munkavállaló úgy érzi, hogy a vállalat még vészhelyzetben is fenntartja az irányába vetett bizalmat (Greenbaum, 2019;Staples, 2001 ...
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A tanulmány kötetben található fejezetek: Piricz Noémi, Németh Gyöngyvér: A divatipar „felvette a kesztyűt” – A szektor ellátási láncának néhány speciális kérdése 6-27 Piricz Noémi: A smart grid szereplői magatartásának vizsgálata egy működő, magyarországi smart grid példáján 28-55 Piricz Noémi: Bevált konfliktus-kezelési módok és etikusság a magyarországi fém,- és gépipari ellátási láncokban 56-77 Piricz Noémi, Sógor Anett: Most mit tegyünk? – Néhány munkahelyi etikai kérdés a koronavírus-járvány idején 78-103 Piricz Noémi, Horváth Dorottya: Csak a bizonytalanság biztos – Magyarországi startup-ok finanszírozási lehetőségeinek vizsgálata 104-116
... Shifting to an organizational level, distributed organizations are companies that employ teams not located in the same location entirely. Here, a part of the workforce might still be located in the same office, but never all of them (Liu et al. 2015;Staples 2001). Distributed organizations have been a valuable object of study for organizational science and IS, as they allow scholars to investigate the quality of communication mediated by ICT (Vergne 2020), or the importance of trust in such settings (Mitchell and Zigurs 2009). ...
Conference Paper
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Recent upheavals in the world of work have put many organizations in the position of forced virtualization, turning their extant working practices upside down. Prior to this development, however, increasing numbers of ‘born virtual’ organizations surfaced in the IT sector and beyond. These organizations rely heavily on ICT and work fully remote, with many of their employees practicing digital nomadism. To better understand this phenomenon, this study compiles a case study of three companies from different sectors that have been operating virtually since their foundation. The results of semi-structured interviews define the concept of the born virtual organization and reveal that ICT not only shape such organizations’ identity but also foster individual autonomy, digital processes, constant reinvention, trust through social connectedness, and a shared identity impacting cross-organizational collaboration. This makes the born virtual organization a paragon for organizations aiming to transition into full virtuality.
... It clears the difference between reality and perceived reality. Also, positivism is used where hypotheses where hypothesis have been developed using a theory which already exists, then testing them using statistical methodology and accepting or not accepting the hypothesis (Silverman, 2013). Third, Quantitative research and mono method has been used in this study. ...
Article
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This study investigated the Technological Assisted Supplemental Work (TASW) on the Work Family Conflict (WFC) and the Work Life Enrichment (WLE) with the moderating role of Time Management Skills (TMS). It reflects on how an individual is using the technological devices to communicate in their daily work routine to manage the workload, and how it is affecting an individual’s life positively or negatively at work and at home. This study was conducted on 300 employees of software houses. Convenience based sampling technique had been used because employees in the software house who use technology-assisted work and work from home. There is a direct positive relationship between Technology Assisted Supplemental Work and Work Life Enrichment. Also, there is a direct positive relationship between Technology Assisted Supplemental Work and Work Family Conflict. It was also found that Time Management Skills moderate the relationship between Technology Assisted Supplemental Work and Work Life Enrichment but it does not moderate the relationship between Technology Assisted Supplemental Work and Work Family Conflict. Managers need to understand the importance of the balance between work and family and recognize that technology can deteriorate personal relationships instead of harmonizing them. Thus, there needs to be a balance of HR policies for this mandate where people have to work from home additionally. This study has contributed in the literature of Technology Assisted Supplemental Work and Work Family Conflict and Work Life Enrichment as there has been no study conducted on software house employees along with the moderating role of Time Management Skills.
... Сенді Стейплз (Sandy Staples), професор менеджменту Smith School of Business (Queen's University, Canada) виділяє 2 типи довіри [11]: 1) засноване на пізнанні (або продемонстрованої компетентності та відповідальності), що спирається на факти та вимірювання; ...
Article
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The article examines the factors that affect the success of university remote teachers in a pandemic environment, the importance of maintaining the work motivation of teachers to ensure high performance e-learning, and the need for joint efforts by teachers and university administration to prevent professional burnout and maintain a sense of belonging to the team.
... The relevant literature has shown that working remotely, on behalf of both the employee and the employer, has several positive and negative consequences. Basically, its positive consequences are demonstrated as follows: Improvement in employee performance, reduction in home-work-home travel costs, saving in time and organizational resources (e.g., Molino et al., 2020); higher employee engagement (e.g., Prasad, Mangipudi, Vaidya, & Muralidhar, 2020), higher job satisfaction (e.g., Wheatley, 2017), lower work stress (e.g., Staples, 2001), improved employee productivity (e.g., Felstead & Henseke, 2017), better quality in work-life balance (e.g., Kalajärv, 2019), and organizational commitment (e.g., Chen & Fulmer, 2018). However, some other studies point out that remote work has negative effects on individual and organizational performance by reducing employee interaction, information sharing, and team collaboration (e.g., Allen, Golden, & Shockley, 2015). ...
Chapter
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This study analyzes how to improve and build high technology export strategies for high tech companies in Turkey. In this framework, oil prices and the real effective exchange rate are selected because Turkey’s export companies hugely depend on imported inputs, and oil prices are essential imported products. Besides, the real effective exchange affects the cost of the imported inputs and shows countries’ comparative advantages in foreign trade. Within this context, comprehensive different theoretical frameworks and literature reviews are presented to lead the companies’ correct way. Subsequently, an investigation is performed with Vector Autoregressive Analysis (VAR) on data covering 2016-Q1 and 2018-Q3. According to results, the real effective exchange rates and oil prices have an essential impact on the high-tech companies’ performance. Regarding the relationship between the real effective exchange rate and the high-tech exports, the J curve condition is valid. Besides, an increase in oil prices leads to expanding the high-tech exports in Turkey from the first month to the third month because the oil-exported countries are imperative partners for the Turkish export companies. Furthermore, the effects become reversed since an increase in oil prices leads to production costs. Regarding the results, the energy diversification policies, less dependent imported inputs, and expanding the market will contribute to developing the high-tech exports in Turkey.
... The relevant literature has shown that working remotely, on behalf of both the employee and the employer, has several positive and negative consequences. Basically, its positive consequences are demonstrated as follows: Improvement in employee performance, reduction in home-work-home travel costs, saving in time and organizational resources (e.g., Molino et al., 2020); higher employee engagement (e.g., Prasad, Mangipudi, Vaidya, & Muralidhar, 2020), higher job satisfaction (e.g., Wheatley, 2017), lower work stress (e.g., Staples, 2001), improved employee productivity (e.g., Felstead & Henseke, 2017), better quality in work-life balance (e.g., Kalajärv, 2019), and organizational commitment (e.g., Chen & Fulmer, 2018). However, some other studies point out that remote work has negative effects on individual and organizational performance by reducing employee interaction, information sharing, and team collaboration (e.g., Allen, Golden, & Shockley, 2015). ...
Chapter
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Since early 2020, by considering the widespread consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic, one of the initial measures taken to ensure the flow of working life has been the closure of workplaces and the implementation of remote work. In fact, remote work, which has not been accepted as a strategic managerial practice although it has been discussed for many years, has thus become the center of attention in working life. This study, in which a theoretical research method was adopted, aims to examine this rapid implementation of remote work as a strategy in response to COVID-19 in terms of work-life balance. In this framework, first, remote work, and work-life balance were explained, respectively. Afterward, remote work implemented in Turkey as a response to COVID-19 was detailed by emphasizing work-life balance. The study concludes that remote work, which has become one of the main strategic managerial practices of organizations during COVID-19, maybe an opportunity to contribute to the establishment of work-life balance within the legal and practical procedures and principles to be developed.
... Survey questions were drawn from the remote work literature (Felstead & Henseke, 2017;Kahana, 2020;Staples, 2001), experiences posted to Twitter (#remote work; #WFH) in the rst weeks of COVID-19, and the authors' personal experiences with remote work. The following demographics were captured in the survey: Respondent's age, professional credentials, gender, faculty investigator level, CCTSI partner site, and prior remote work experience. ...
Preprint
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In March of 2020, academic research centers in Colorado were closed to prevent the spread of COVID-19. Scientists and research staff were required to continue their work remotely with little time to prepare for the transition. This survey study used an explanatory sequential mixed method design to explore clinical and translational researcher and staff experiences of the transition to remote work during the first six weeks of the pandemic. Participants indicated the level of interference with their research and shared their experiences of remote work, how they were impacted, how they were adapting and coping, and any short or long-term concerns. Most participants indicated that remote work interfered with their research to a moderate or great degree. Participant stories illuminated the differences of remote work prior to and during COVID-19. They described both challenges and silver linings. Here we describe three themes that highlight the challenges of transitioning to remote work during a pandemic: 1) Leadership: “This is an opportunity for leadership to lead, but leadership has disappeared”; 2) Parenting: Parents are “multitasked to death” every day ; and 3) Mental health: The COVID-19 experience is “psychologically taxing”; The study findings can be used to assist academic, hospital, department, and team leaders in building community, resiliency, and support productivity during current and future crises.
... They include, e.g. building a sense of mutual confidence which is of great importance for effective virtual teamworking (Staples, 2001;Roebuck et al., 2004). The set of factors for effective virtual teamworking is presented in Fig.50. ...
Book
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Agile enterprise; Agile enterprise paradigm; Agility; Dimensions of agile enterprise; Agile manufacturing; Quick response; Opportunity creation; Virtual production unit; Virtual teams; Virtual enterprise; Lean management.
... The "remote employees", who generate the focus of this study and works more than 50% of the workhours outside of the physical boundaries of organization but don't have any management responsibilities, are neglected to do scientific work on but a growing group (Golden, 2006). When the relevant literature research on the keywords is made, it is seen that almost all current studies are focused on the employees who work outside the physical boundaries of organization work in commonly IT industry or home through the opportunities that the internet provides (e.g., Staples, Hulland, & Higgins, 1999;Gabel & Mansfield, 2001;Staples, 2001). For instance, in Gabel and Mansfield's (2001) research, it is mentioned the internet created cyber workers and the legal relationship between employer and employee is examined. ...
Conference Paper
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It is becoming increasingly difficult to manage organizations operating in today's complex global business environment. In particular, to manage the remote employees, who work outside of the physical boundaries of the firms, in accordance with the management principles and through the organizational purposes is considered one of the most challenging area. Despite their constantly growing numbers, the remote employees have been neglected in recent scientific studies. Meanwhile, most of those rare studies have been conducted on the IT industry and its teleworkers. However, it is known that the truck drivers have been working on behalf of a company for years almost never been in the head office. On the other hand, studies on long-distance drivers generally focus on risk factors, job stress and health of drivers. Therefore, it is a significant shortcoming that those employees, who are the critical link of the transportation function of logistics, have not been subjected on to the scientific management and organizational behaviour researches. Thus, the current study aims to eliminate this gap in this issue. This qualitative research study tries to respond above mentioned research gap with the anti-positivist approach. Contrary to the majority of the recent studies, in spite of employees (drivers), the fleet managers of the large-scale land transport companies in the industry have been selected as the unit of analysis. The data obtained from the open-ended interviews were analysed by Nvivo 12 program. The findings of our study were evaluated and discussed from an interpretive and external perspective.
... Moreover, remote workers, such as those work from home (Staples, 2001), are less likely to be assigned essential roles or tasks due to their long distance from the company. If things continue this way, remote workers may think they are unimportant to their organization, and feel like "outgroup" members. ...
Book
Workplace mistreatment is a burgeoning topic of interest, with the majority of workers having experienced it in some form. This book explores workplace ostracism and its negative effects on employee and organizational outcomes, such as employee attitudes, behaviors, and well-being. This edited volume defines workplace ostracism and examines how to differentiate ostracism from other type of workplace mistreatment, such as workplace incivility and interpersonal conflict. Among the questions it seeks to answer are: 1) what are the individual, relational, and contextual factors that influence employees’ workplace ostracism experiences; and 2) what constitutes ostracism in stigmatized populations, such as international students, immigrant workers, and older workers. Researchers in organizational behavior, I/O psychology, and the sociology of work will find this book to be a valuable resource. Cong Liu is Professor of Psychology at Hofstra University, USA. Her current research projects examine workplace mistreatment, such as workplace ostracism, interpersonal conflict, and abusive supervision. She is interested in how cultural values, such as interpersonal harmony values, affect employees’ workplace interactions. Her work has appeared on Journal of Applied Psychology, Journal of Organizational Behavior, Journal of Management, Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, and Journal of Occupational Health Psychology. She is the associate editor of International Journal of Stress Management. Jie Ma is Associate Professor in the School of Management at Lanzhou University, China. His research interests include cognitive appraisals of workplace stressors, and positive organizational psychology. His current research projects are concerned about how personal factors (e.g., personality traits, and motivational orientation) affect employee cognitive appraisals of job demands, and how different forms of appraisals differentially impact employee work motivation, wellbeing and work behaviors. His research has been published on Journal of Vocational Behavior, Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, and International Journal of Stress Management.
... Moreover, remote workers, such as those work from home (Staples, 2001), are less likely to be assigned essential roles or tasks due to their long distance from the company. If things continue this way, remote workers may think they are unimportant to their organization, and feel like "outgroup" members. ...
Chapter
Researchers have predominantly examined the outcomes of workplace ostracism. A smaller stream focuses on the antecedents of workplace ostracism. Understanding the potential antecedents of workplace ostracism is the first step to prevent and control this subtle yet detrimental workplace aggressive behavior. In this chapter, we followed a triadic social process to examine the antecedents of workplace ostracism from the actor, the victim, and the work context’s perspectives. We summarized the individual, the relational, and the contextual antecedents of workplace ostracism. First, we examined individual characteristics that predict the experience of workplace ostracism. This includes the victim’s big-five personality traits, positive and negative affects, dark personality traits of psychopathy, narcissism, and paranoia, approach and avoidance tendencies, warmth and competence, and social abilities and skills. Second, we examined relational factors that predict workplace ostracism. From the victim’s perspective, we examined workplace mistreatments such as incivility and interpersonal conflicts as possible antecedents of workplace ostracism. From the actor’s perspective, we concluded that others’ bad interpersonal and work behaviors elicit workplace ostracism. Third, we examined context factors that could incubate workplace ostracism, such as corporative versus competitive goal interdependence, social interactions based on interdependence theory and game-theoretic models, non-traditional work environments, and language barriers.
... We developed a survey 12 informed by the remote work literature, [13][14][15] experiences posted to Twitter (#remote work; #WFH) in the early days of remote work during COVID-19, and the authors' personal experiences with remote work. The survey was pilot tested by members of the Denver/Seattle Veterans Health Administration Center of Innovation works-in-progress meeting for ease of understanding and clarity. ...
Article
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The COVID-19 pandemic has required many clinical and translational scientists and staff to work remotely to prevent the spread of the virus. To understand the impact on research programs, we assessed barriers to remote work and strategies implemented to support virtual engagement and productivity. A mixed-methods RedCap survey querying the remote work experience was emailed to Colorado Clinical and Translational Sciences Institute (CCTSI) scientists and staff in April 2020. Descriptive analyses, Fisher’s Exact tests, and content analysis were conducted. Respondents ( n = 322) were primarily female ( n = 240; 75%), 21–73 years old (mean = 42 years) with a PhD ( n = 139; 44%) or MD ( n = 56; 55%). Prior to COVID-19, 77% ( n = 246) never or rarely (0–1 day a week) worked remotely. Remote work somewhat or greatly interfered with 76% ( n = 244) of researchers’ programs and 71% ( n = 231) reported slowing or stopping their research. Common barriers included missing interactions with colleagues ( n = 198; 62%) and the absence of routines ( n = 137; 43%). Strategies included videoconferencing ( n = 283; 88%), altering timelines and expectations ( n = 180; 56%). Scientists and staff experienced interference with their research when they shifted to remote work, causing many to slow or stop research programs. Methods to enhance communication and relationships, support productivity, and collectively cope during remote work are available.
... Through this process we learned that triaging over the phone requires considerably different skills to those needed in hospital wards. This is corroborated by prior literature (see Ernesäter et al., 2009;Hafermalz & Riemer, 2020;Snooks et al., 2008;Wahlberg & Wredling, 2001). The work that went into figuring out this new way of nursing was significant, as was the challenge of dealing with setbacks and difficult calls. ...
Article
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Client-facing work is challenging at the best of times, but the sudden shift to remote work during the COVID-19 pandemic has created additional difficulties. Concerns about how employee productivity and wellbeing are negatively impacted by the unfamiliar remote work context abound. We draw on a study of skilled remote workers that was conducted before the pandemic to theorise how client-facing work can be conducted effectively. In particular we examine how client-facing employees can foster a sense of belonging when they are not co-located. We use an abductive research approach, combining empirical material from interviews with tele-nurses with theoretical material from Goffman’s categories of “communication out of character”. We thereby theorise what we call “belonging through technology”, as the outcome of four types of team communication that contribute to the performance of effective client-facing work in a remote context. We distinguish and conceptualise functions of such team communication as coping, learning, plotting, and positioning, which together create belonging. We argue that “belonging” relates to both wellbeing and productivity, because belonging to one’s team (wellbeing) and belonging to one’s work role (productivity) are inherently connected in the performance of client-facing work. We offer insights to help practitioners in such remote work contexts.
... • Initiation allows us to examine how team members are contributing to the tech-driven work practices during COVID-19. For example, the literature indicates the importance of interpersonal trust of employees and peers which is attributed to an increase sense of performance, increased job satisfaction, creativity, reduced job stress and impact through tech-driven work practices (Edmondson, 1999;Greenbaum, 2019;Staples, 2001). Therefore, monitoring the social fabric of a team is important to ensure communication and coordination is transparent, for example, by introducing quick taskrelated interactions to ensure contributions across remote working teams. ...
Article
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The COVID-19 pandemic has had massive implications for the nature of work and the role technology plays in the workplace. Organisations have been forced into rapid ‘big bang’ introduction of technology and ‘tech-driven’ practices in an unprecedented and time pressured manner. In many cases there has been little training or reflection on how the practices and associated technology should be introduced and integrated or adapted to suit the new workplace context. We argue that there is a need for a more reflective ‘normalisation’ of work practices and the role technology plays. The paper draws on normalisation process theory (NPT) and its underlying components of cohesion, cognitive participation, collective action and reflexive monitoring. As an exemplar, we focus on the changing nature of work and adoption of remote working practices. The paper uses NPT to examine current thinking and approaches and offering some guidelines to inform research and practice.
... Daniel Wheatley (2017) reported the positive impact of flexible working arrangements (FWAs), and positive effects for men and women on job satisfaction using the British Household Panel Survey and Understanding Society, 2001-10/11. Standy Staples (2001) reported that interpersonal trust between employee and peer is strongly associated with higher self-perceptions of performance, job satisfaction, and lower occupational stress and weak support of physical connectivity and its impact. Kristen Senz (2019) reported that remote working for the companies could add $1.3 billion in each year based on a patent's average value, and this productivity gain could add $1.3 billion of value to the US economy in year based on the patent average. ...
... Daniel Wheatley (2017) reported the positive impact of flexible working arrangements (FWAs), and positive effects for men and women on job satisfaction using the British Household Panel Survey and Understanding Society, 2001-10/11. Standy Staples (2001) reported that interpersonal trust between employee and peer is strongly associated with higher self-perceptions of performance, job satisfaction, and lower occupational stress and weak support of physical connectivity and its impact. Kristen Senz (2019) reported that remote working for the companies could add $1.3 billion in each year based on a patent's average value, and this productivity gain could add $1.3 billion of value to the US economy in year based on the patent average. ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: In the aftermath of national lockdown due to Covid-19, several organizations were forced to opt remote working, which provides several challenges and opportunities to the employees and employer. The reason for carrying out this empirical study is that the subject is new, challenging, and occupational stress exists everywhere; also, an inadequate research has been reported on such type of studies. This empirical study reports the results of the effect of occupational stress and remote working on employees' psychological well-being in the Information Technology industry. Methodology: The effect of seven independent occupational stress-causing factors including workload, peer, physiological factors, role ambiguity, organization climate, psychological factors and job satisfaction, and an independent factor, remote working, on the dependent factor of psychological well-being of employees in Information Technology industry was measured. The psychological well-being was measured with six subscales-environment mastery, positive growth, positive relations, self-acceptance, autonomy, and purpose of life. The independent factors were measured using a survey instrument, a structured undisguised questionnaire, whereas dependent factors were measured with a shortened version of 18-item Ryff's scale. The inferences of the outcome were made using appropriate statistical procedures. Findings: The multiple regression analysis results revealed independent factors like peer, role ambiguity, organization climate, and job satisfaction are significantly influencing the psychological well-being of the employees in the Information Technology Industry. There are minor statistically significant gender and age group differences that are affecting the psychological well-being of employees as observed. Implications: The study implies that wherever possible, the remote working options need to be worked out by the employer, in all the sectors to reduce the stress and enhance the psychological well-being of employees. Originality: Till now, no researcher has reported such type of empirical study, and the available literature is limited to occupational stress in general, without suggesting how remote working affects the psychological well-being of employees in particular.
... Thus we propose that co-located teams and local members of semi-virtual teams communicate more, in total, than do remote members of semi-virtual teams or virtual team members. This increased communication can result in higher trust (Jarvenpaa, Knoll and Leidner 1998;Ishaya and Macaulay 1999;Staples 2001). ...
... The "remote employees", who generate the focus of this study and works more than 50% of the workhours outside of the physical boundaries of organization but don't have any management responsibilities, are neglected to do scientific work on but a growing group (Golden, 2006). When the relevant literature research on the keywords is made, it is seen that almost all current studies are focused on the employees who work outside the physical boundaries of organization work in commonly IT industry or home through the opportunities that the internet provides (e.g., Staples, Hulland, & Higgins, 1999;Gabel & Mansfield, 2001;Staples, 2001). For instance, in Gabel and Mansfield's (2001) research, it is mentioned the internet created cyber workers and the legal relationship between employer and employee is examined. ...
Chapter
Security issues have always been central to workplaces. Increased work performed at home environments caused by COVID-19 pandemic has changed the security landscape of work radically. Security arrangements are no more at the domain of the employer, yet the risks remain, and responsibilities. In this chapter we discuss this new boom of distance work from the viewpoints of data privacy and security, physical safety and mental well-being. The issues are intertwined, and changes, risks and solutions in one of these cause implications for the other areas too. In data privacy and security, the home office environment causes several risks, and the mixed use of devices and facilities both in work and leisure use causes difficulties. Physical safety is compromised in several ways at home environment, which is partly confounding, as the very core of work at home and social distancing is the search for physical security from COVID viruses. Mental well-being problems are a key product of this social distancing, and they do not typically emerge immediately, but first after a long period. With the COVID-19 pandemic over two years, we first start to see the magnitude of the mental well-being problems it has caused. The COVID-19 pandemic is a very short period in history. For individuals living now, it can deeply affect life, especially in critical periods of life. On the positive side, the very special pressure COVID-19 has caused on working life has surely improved and speeded up academic and practical work in distance work development.
Article
The COVID-19 pandemic forced many workers globally to work from home, suddenly, and often without choice, during a highly uncertain time. Adopting a longitudinal, person-centered approach, we explored patterns of change in employees’ psychological distress over three months following the early phase of the pandemic. We investigated how change in distress unfolded for different latent subgroups. We modelled whether and how work characteristics, and individuals’ degree of detachment from work, predicted membership of different distress trajectories. Growth mixture modelling revealed two distress profiles: (i) a declining distress profile where employees experienced reduced distress over time, suggesting adaptation and/or improved coping; (ii) a rising distress profile where distress increased and eventually plateaued, suggesting a stress reaction process followed by adaptation. Employees with high workload, underload, or close monitoring, were more likely to belong to the rising distress profile. Detachment from work buffered the negative effect of workload and close monitoring on distress profile membership. Scheduling autonomy and colleague support did not predict profile membership. Contrary to predictions, manager support predicted membership in the rising distress profile. Our findings extend theoretical understanding of how distress unfolds over time, and show the importance of particular job demands in explaining these change processes.
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With the increasing relevance of decentralisation for the software development process, being aware of the possible challenges and corresponding solutions has become more relevant than ever. The scientific body of knowledge is currently containing many publications about specific aspects of decentralisation, but is lacking in collections that cover more than one area. In this work, the challenges of different forms of decentralisation are examined by means of a literature review. Subsequently, the findings are evaluated and summarised into guidelines that can be applied by project managers and development teams to increase the success of decentralisation of the software development process.
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Information and communication technologies (ICT) represent one of the major drivers of economic growth and collective evolution, with positive repercussions on the world of labor. Despite several benefits, technology is substantially altering the nature and organization of work, posing possible psychosocial, organizational and ergonomic risks as outlined by the European Agency for Safety and Health at Work (EU-OSHA) and current strategic documents of the European Commission. The novel COVID-19 pandemic has further accentuated the burden of the use of ICT, emphasizing the importance of occupational safety and health practices. Nevertheless, the topic of digital stress is not yet carefully considered in the Italian context. The purpose of this exploratory study is to create a new psychometric tool aimed at investigating the key dimensions of technostress. In particular, the psychometric properties of each scale (reliability and dimensionality) were preliminarily analyzed. The spread of ICT modifies the characteristics of traditional stressors (e.g. job demands) while contributing to the spread of new stressors (e.g. privacy and pervasiveness), leading to what is called "technostress". Since the first definition of technostress introduced by Brod (1984), the construct has been operationalized according to different perspectives and is now consensually recognized as a major threat to the health of workers. For the realization of the items and the identification of the areas of investigation, the concepts of stress, work-related stress and technostress were examined together with the main theoretical models and pre-existing psychometric tools. The items belonging to each dimension were then generated according to a deductive path. The qualitative analyses regarding content validity led to a total of 80 items and 15 scales (usefulness/usability, reliability, technology self-efficacy, role, multitasking, job control, job demands, pace of change, pervasiveness/work- life balance, privacy/monitoring, employability, supervisor support, colleague support, involvement and training) which were administered to a sample of 235 subjects. Reliability analyses and exploratory factor analyses (EFA) (principal axis factoring (PAF) with suppression of factor loadings below 0.30 and promax rotation) were performed for each scale. The internal consistency analyses showed values ranging from fairly good (α = 0.60) to excellent (α = 0.88) depending on the scale, providing encouraging results for a future in-depth analysis of the instrument. The exploratory factor analyses provided good initial results, yielding to a two-factor solution only in the case of the “multitasking” scale. Given the exploratory nature of the study, the validation process was limited to the analysis of reliability and dimensionality. Future studies will need to further analyze the structure of the scales in order to identify which model best represents the constructs, using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) methods to evaluate the goodness of this version. The practical implications concern the creation of specific policies at company, sectoral and national level with a focus on an advanced workplace risk assessment. Once validated, the questionnaire could be used for tailor-made organizational diagnoses and targeted interventions.
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The global pandemic, COVID-19, has prevented much of the workforce from traveling to work to reduce the spread of the virus. This has resulted in employers and employees looking for alternative work arrangements, thus nowadays, remote working "enjoys" its momentum that is spreading more and more into the business practice. The remote work is considered to have a significant relation with job satisfaction; therefore, it has an impact on organizational efficacy and success. Yet,the new way of functioning arises questions on social interaction and work-family conflict. More specifically, remote working can result in physical and mental health issues, through the decreased level social interaction and work-family conflicts, that have impact on the level of job satisfaction. The goal of this study is to explore the relationship between remote work and job satisfaction with focus on mediating role of social interaction and work-family conflict. In other words, the study examines the factors that affect the job satisfaction while working remotely and the changes that can be made in people's homes in order to provide them a sense of working atmosphere. Both aspects are of special importance because they can serve as a reference for designing ideas and changes in homes for the purpose of creating better working conditions.
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Remote working became a widespread business practice during the COVID-19 pandemic as an organizational response to protect employees’ health and maintain business continuity. The aim of this paper is to reveal the role of social support in the relationship among NWHI, NHWI and loneliness, and work engagement and job performance. The study respondents were employees with a remote working status in Serbian companies, and a total of 226 valid surveys were collected. The PLS-SEM approach was deployed to test the hypothesized relationship between named variables. A standard bootstrapping procedure was used to reveal direct and indirect effects among latent variables. Results indicate a strong and positive direct association between social support and work engagement and job performance, while mediation and moderation of the role of social support were mostly confirmed but with some results opposite to what was expected. Social support was not able to buffer a negative home–work interaction and loneliness within remote working. The study offers insight into the role of social support and recommendations for managing the antecedents and consequences of remote working, with the aim to determine a sustainable model for extensive application, not only during the COVID-19 pandemic, but in regular times.
Chapter
The personnel market of the IT-sphere faces the shortage of highly qualified software engineers due to the rapid growth of the industry. The companies to satisfy the requirements of their customers have to search for new employees globally which extremely changes and complicates their hiring and onboarding procedures. However, the market needs and project complexity requires cohesive teams of software specialists which are even harder to find and hire than individual employees. This article presents an approach based on the open data of software project repositories to help IT recruiters solve the problems of the search of software development teams.
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using research survey instrument, an undisguised questionnaire. The eight independent factors Team work, Communication, Peer, Job related factors, Organization Policies, Organization Climate, Job Satisfaction, Psychological factors dependent factor psychological wellbeing of the employees. The Psychological wellbeing was measured using the modified and shortened version of 18-item version scale of Ryff and Keyes using six factors-Self-acceptance, Personal growth, Purpose in life, Environmental mastery, Autonomy and Positive relations with others. The survey instrument validity and reliability was assessed using Cronbach alpha (overall C-alpha measured at 0.92) for all the items and Split-Half (odd-even) Correlation 0.82 whereas Split-Half with Spearman-Brown Adjustment at 0.94. The results from the General Linear Model Multivariate analysis indicate Communication, Organization climate, Organization Policies, Job Satisfaction and Psychological factors significantly influencing the psychological wellbeing of employees in information technology sector during the survey period of Covid-19 pandemic.
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In this empirical study we are presenting the results of our survey research on remote working by employees of IT and E-Commerce industry employees during the Coronavirus (Covid-19) Pandemic with reference to Hyderabad Metro. An empirical survey was carried out during the lockdown period, 25 March 2020 - 20 April 2020 using research survey instrument, an undisguised questionnaire. The eight independent factors Team work, Communication, Peer, Job related factors, Organization Policies, Organization Climate, Job Satisfaction, Psychological factors dependent factor psychological wellbeing of the employees. The Psychological wellbeing was measured using the modified and shortened version of 18-item version scale of Ryff and Keyes using six factors - Self-acceptance, Personal growth, Purpose in life, Environmental mastery, Autonomy and Positive relations with others. The survey instrument validity and reliability was assessed using Cronbach alpha (overall C-alpha measured at 0.92) for all the items and Split-Half (odd-even) Correlation 0.82 whereas Split-Half with Spearman-Brown Adjustment at 0.94. The results from the General Linear Model Multivariate analysis indicate Communication, Organization climate, Organization Policies, Job Satisfaction and Psychological factors significantly influencing the psychological wellbeing of employees in information technology sector during the survey period of Covid-19 pandemic.
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Rationale and Objectives To investigate inter-relationships between radiologist opinions of a quality assurance (QA) program, QA Committee communications, negative emotions, self-identified risk factors, and preventive actions taken following major errors. Materials and Methods A 48 question electronic survey was distributed to all 431 radiologists within the same teleradiology organization between June 15 and July 3, 2018. Two reminders were sent during the survey time period. Descriptive statistics were generated, and comparisons were made with Fisher exact test. Significance level was set at p < 0.05. Results Response rate was 67.5% (291/431), and 72.5% of respondents completed all survey questions. A total of 64.3% of respondents were male, and the highest proportion of radiologists (28.9%, 187/291) had been in practice >20 years. Preventative actions following an error were positively correlated to a higher opinion of the QA process, self-identification of personal risk factors for error, and greater negative emotions following an error (all p < 0.05). A higher opinion of communications with the QA committee was associated with a positive opinion of the QA process (p < 0.001). An inverse relationship existed between negative emotion and opinion of QA committee communications (p < 0.05) and negative emotion and opinion of the QA process (p < 0.05). Radiologist gender and full time versus part time status had a significant effect on perception of the QA process (p < 0.05). Conclusion Radiologist opinions of their institutional QA process was related to the number of negative emotions experienced and preventative actions taken following major errors. Nurturing trust and incorporating more positive feedback in the QA process may improve interactions with QA Committees and mitigate future errors.
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Two new types of workers are rapidly emerging in the global economy. The first is the data-processing programmer or clerk who prefers "telecommuting" to reporting in a structured way to a traditional office. The benefits and pitfalls for these workers and their employers are many, and several million people may be formally engaged in this fashion already. The second type of off-site worker is the off-shore data entry clerk based in low-wage countries, employed by Fortune 1000 companies. Such off-shore telecommuting is generating enormous savings to major U.S. firms, but it also may be depriving an entire generation of entry-level clerical and low-tech jobs to American youth at a time when they are desperately needed in the economy. This article explores many of the implications of both forms of telecommuting and poses a number of political, economic, and social issues for further research.
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The growth in commuting has brought with it another source of stress for the worker. Little research has been done in the area and what is available tends to be mainly from the US. Reports on the first part of a British study which focused on the London area. From a comprehensive questionnaire study of 370 participants it is clear that the main source of stress in commuting is the level of impedance or difficulty encountered. Long distances are not necessarily stressful, though longer-term effects may lie in the disturbance of the balance between home, work, social and leisure aspects of life. The central aspects of stress are perceived control and social support. While the individual needs to ensure that social support is available, dealing with commuter stress must centre around establishing perceived control over the experience. Reducing impedance, by whatever means, is a major part of solving the problem. However, the individual can also establish control by reclaiming what could otherwise be a part of daily living which is endured, as an inevitable loss.
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Now is the time for HR to take the lead in helping management and employees prepare for, and function as, a successful virtual enterprise.
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The attitudes of 78 managers and 63 employees to telecommuting were compared. All subjects had access to a personal computer and were computer literate to some degree. The results showed that neither group found telecommuting to be particularly appealing, though managers were more opposed to the idea than were employees. Both groups indicated that their organizations were not supportive. The main concerns were with issues such as social interaction, professional development, and promotability.RésuméUne comparaison a été faite entre le comportement de 78 administrateurs et de 68 employés, face au télétravall. Chaque sujet avait à sa disposition personnelle un ordinateur et possédait une connaissance informatique de base. Les résultats ont démontré que ni l’un ni l’autre des groupes avaient trouvté le télétravail particulièrement attirant, quoique les administrateurs se soient montrés plus reticents au concept que les employés. Les deux groupes ont indiqué que leurs organisations s’étaient montrées peu enthousiastes face au projet. Les principales préoccupations qui sont ressorties de l’étude ont trait à l’interaction sociale, la formation professionelle et la possibilité de promouvoir le concept.
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About two years ago, a working group of MIT faculty developed two coherent scenarios for desirable organizations of the future. These scenarios were preliminary “seeds” to be used as foundations for building in-depth research. “Small Companies, Large Networks,” as shown in the accompanying box, is one of the scenarios. This hypothetical view proposes that virtual organizations will be part of our organizational future.
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Telecommuting, or working at home through use of telecommunications systems, is receiving increasing attention in the popular literature. MIS managers interested in improving the productivity and job satisfaction of their technical personnel are beginning to consider work alternatives made possible by declining costs of data communications and the influx of microcomputers into homes and offices. Though interest is high, there is little material available which can serve to guide organizations when implementing remote work programs. The research discussed here examines the attitudes of 51 managers and 129 programmers toward working at home. Survey data were collected from 3 divisions in 2 locations of a computer services firm which had experimented with work at home. Results suggest more interest in telecommuting among programmers than project managers; surprisingly, the two groups tend to identify the same benefits and problems. In general, programmers express support for any alternative which would add variability and autonomy to their work, whether it is a change in work location or simply a change in scheduling. The implications of these findings are discussed.
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This article uses a well-researched deterministic model from the attitude literature to empirically examine how attitudes that decision makers within the Canadian federal public sector hold towards various work arrangements relate to behaviors (use of the work arrangements), intended behaviors (proposed adoption of the work arrangements), and personal preference. Attitude formation and decision making with respect to both organizational and employee quality of work life issues are considered. The results indicate that decision makers in the public sector consider organizational issues to be more important than employee issues with respect to the selection of alternative work arrangements. They also strongly support the underlying theoretical model initially proposed. Manager's intentions to implement work arrangements in the future can be predicted by their current attitudes towards these work arrangements. Results from this analysis should prove useful to organizations planning to implement alternative work arrangements.
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The paper reviews the information systems (ISs) literature to show that much work on ISs has been based on the perspectives of determinism (viewing the impacts of ISs on individuals, organizations, and society as a function of the technology alone), mechanism (viewing organizations and ISs as machines), and systems (founded on the analogy of organization with organism). These perspectives are inadequate to understanding the impacts of ISs and, consequently, to determining their value to the business. Work in the area of ISs requires an interactionist perspective, taking the effects of information technology (IT) to be a product of neither the technical nor the organizational aspects alone, but of their interaction. The interactionist approach has important implications for the management and appraisal of IT.
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The purpose of this short article is to present a critique of Mowshowitz's vision of virtual organization (Mowshowitz, 1994). Some of the key assumptions, arguments, and conclusions of Mowshowitz's paper are discussed, and some alternative views on future organizations are briefly outlined.