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Pre-emptive Dynamic Source Routing: A Repaired Backup Approach and Stability Based DSR with Multiple Routes.

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... In traditional DSR, every time when established path break a new route had to be discovered for communication between source and destination. To avoid this problem, PDSR is proposed based on a backup route i.e. second best route (Maity et al., 2008) as shown in Figure 9. <S,F,G,D> is the primary route for the destination D while the route <S,B,C,D> will be the backup route. Destination node (D) sends RREP packets to the source node (S) through the primary route and the backup route. ...
... There are several future work can be suggested for the current DSR. The future work for PDSR protocol maybe carried out over the calculation of the optimum value of the threshold (Maity et al., 2008). In MEDSR, congestion aware must be modifying. ...
... This makes devising of appropriate strategy for error correction with higher throughput, lower latency and higher error correction capability a legitimate research challenge. Many studies23456789101112 conclusively established that Backward Error Correction (BEC) is more appropriate for wired transport whereas Forward Error Correction (FEC) is suited for wireless protocol. Wireless data communication is more challenging because of high error rate as compared to wired data transfer. ...
... Bhunia [3] suggested that use of multiple routes simultaneously; instead of a single route for transmitting three copies may improve the performance of APC. Use of multiple routes reduces the dependency on a single route, which results in more stable communication. ...
... In addition, switching of routes (primary to backup) also increases end-to-end delay. The Repaired Backup Approach (RB-DSR) was proposed in [163], adding an alternative route to the DSR protocol to minimize the link breakage. However, during data transmission, the alternative route might fail. ...
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Routing is one of the most challenging task in mobile ad hoc networks. Several works have been proposed to address this challenge. Majority numbers of researchers have introduced the routing protocols based on minimize resource consumption but still research needs improvement to design the efficient routing protocols which control the node movement. Proper use of location information and dynamically adjustment of intermediate nodes’ retransmission adopted by a number of algorithms contribute to a reduction in the number of retransmissions and consequently reduce control overhead and resource consumption, but this feat was achieved at a price on network reachability. In this paper, an overview of analytical, network, and simulation model used in the design of routing mechanisms wherever possible is presented. This review paper classifies routing protocols into three categories named as route discovery, QoS (Quality of Service), and route maintenance with their relative performance. This paper also compares routing mechanisms against routing efficiency, reliability, packet delay, packet delivery ratio, control overheads, and QoS. This paper reviewed some current literatures that were proposed to improve the reliable, resource consumption, scalable, and QoS based routing mechanisms. This article also highlights the performance demands required of these protocols to assist researcher in MANET resource conservation as a good starting point for developing efficient routing algorithm.
... However, this protocol used salvaging mechanism to redirect the packets to alternative route when there is a route in the upstream nodes cache, otherwise, it will drop the packets. Repaired Backup Approach (RB-DSR) was proposed in [29]. The proposed protocol added alternative route to the DSR protocol to minimize the link breakage. ...
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During the last two decades, there has been a tremendous growth in the use of MANETs, not only due to the development of the technology but also due to their high flexibility. MANETs have challenges and limitations and among the major challenge is the routing process because of high dynamic topology and distributed nature. This is the main reason for quick depletion of network resources. Thus, there is a need to develop a routing protocol to fulfill various application requirements and enhance routing paths according to the topology change. In this paper, two protocols are proposed in order to optimally utilize the constrained network resources and reliably detect high-quality links. They are Hybrid Geo-cast Routing (HGR) protocol and Prediction Residual Lifetime of the Link mechanism (PRLL). The optimal and adaptive HGR protocol utilizes geographical location information to limit search area during route discovery process by including only promising search paths to minimize control overhead. Meanwhile, adaptive PRLL uses signal strength to predicate residual lifetime of the link in order to minimize link breakage, error control packets, and reduce packet drop and end to end delay. The experimental results show that the proposed HGR protocol is able to reduce up to 46.67% control overhead. Meanwhile, the proposed adaptive PRLL protocol improved packet delivery ratio by 26%.
... If no backup's route exists, then source starts the route discovery procedure again. If the multiple routes found during discovery are used as back up routes on one by one basis during primary route failure then a significant net gain in probability of breakage may be obtained [24]. ...
An accelerating energy crisis in the oil and gas industry is driving development and investment in Mobile Ad Hoc Network technologies. The mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is a self-configuring infrastructure-free network of mobile devices connected by wireless links; it is essentially a temporary wireless network which users who are willing to communicate form and who subsequently use multi-hop peer-to-peer routing to provide the network connectivity. The nodes in MANET being mobile may result in dynamic topology with a high rate of link breakages and network partitions leading to an interruption in the ongoing communication. The link breaks in MANET routing protocols are significant contributor of energy consumption. In order to reduce the cost incurred in tackling the link failure, a routing protocol avoiding route breaks based on Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) has been proposed. The proposed energy aware efficient DSR (EAEDSR) considers the link and node stability to determine preemptive metric. The protocol's performance is found to be promising.
Conference Paper
Aggressive Packet Combining (APC) is a well established technique in literature. The main notion of APC is to maximize throughput by correcting the erroneous packet at the receiver side without further retransmission of packet. Three copies of a same packet are transmitted from sender to receiver. It performs bitwise majority logic to get correct one at the receiver side. In APC, if erroneous occurs at same bit locations of two or copies, then the operation does not able to get original packet. Therefore, in this paper, a new APC protocol to achieve higher throughput by using back up routes in Gilbert Two State Model.
The delay tolerant networking architecture was proposed for the networks where the typical assumptions made for the Internet fails. One of the primary characteristics of such networks is the intermittent connectivity among the nodes, resulting in the lack of end-to-end communication paths. Unlike the Internet, mobile ad-hoc networks (MANETs) and other forms of traditional networks, message transfers in Delay Tolerant Networks (DTNs) follow the store-carry-and-forward paradigm. It is, therefore, crucial that the nodes in DTNs cooperate among themselves to help the messages reach their respective destinations. Such favorable environments, however, are not obtained in the presence of selfish/malicious nodes. In this chapter, we present a survey of the different schemes proposed in the literature to enforce cooperation in DTNs. We identify the different aspects on which nodes in DTNs could cooperate, and review the different schemes proposed for the same. Specifically, we explore in detail the incentive-based and game theory inspired mechanisms adopted for the same. To the best of our knowledge, no survey on cooperation in DTNs has been presented so far.
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This paper evaluates the performance of Reliable Multipath Dynamic Source Routing Protocol RM-DSR protocol with different network size compared to DSR protocol. RM-DSR developed in the mobile ad-hoc network to recover from the transient failure quickly and divert the data packets into a new route before the link is disconnected. The performance of RM-DSR protocol is tested in the Network Simulator NS-2.34 under the random way point mobility model with varying number of mobile nodes. The network size parameter is used to investigate the robustness and the efficiency of RM-DSR protocol compared to DSR protocol. The network size affects the time of the route discovery process during the route establishment and the route maintenance process which could influence the overall performance of the routing protocol. The simulation results indicate that RM-DSR outperforms DSR in terms of the packet delivery ratio, routing overhead, end-to-end delay, normalized routing load and packet drop.
In this paper, a few schemes are presented to improve the performance of aggressive packet combining scheme (APC). To combat error in computer / data communication networks, ARQ (Automatic Repeat Request) techniques are used. Several modifications to improve performance of ARQ are suggested by recent research and are found in literature. The important modifications are majority packet combining scheme (MjPC proposed by Wicker), packet combining scheme (PC proposed by Sindhu & Chakraborty), modified packet combining scheme(MPC proposed by Bhunia), and packet reversed packet combining(PRPC proposed by Bhunia) scheme. These modifications are appropriate for improving throughput of conventional ARQ protocols. Leung proposed an idea of APC for error control in wireless networks with basic objective of error control in uplink wireless data network. We suggest a few modifications of APC to improve its performance in terms of higher throughput, lower delay and higher error correction capability.
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An ad hoc network is a collection of wireless mobile hosts forming a temporary network without the aid of any established infrastructure or centralized administration. In such an environment, it may be necessary for one mobile host to enlist the aid of other hosts in forwarding a packet to its destination, due to the limited range of each mobile host's wireless transmissions. This paper presents a protocol for routing in ad hoc networks that uses dynamic source routing. The protocol adapts quickly to routing changes when host movement is frequent, yet requires little or no overhead during periods in which hosts move less frequently. Based on results from a packet-level simulation of mobile hosts operating in an ad hoc network, the protocol performs well over a variety of environmental conditions such as host density and movement rates. For all but the highest rates of host movement simulated, the overhead of the protocol is quite low, falling to just 1% of total data packets t...
In a high-mobility MANET, the fast changes of topology increases the complexity of routing. In this paper, we propose a novel routing protocol, namely, Zone-Based Stable Routing (ZBSR) protocol, where the network area is divided into fixed none-overlapping square zones. There is a zone-head in each zone that acts as a router in the network and maintains information of its member nodes. A Path is a collection of ID numbers, which represent the specific zones the path traverses. We define new performance parameters -the mobility of a node as the number of zones a node traverses during a fixed time unit, and the path stability parameter as values related to both the mobility of nodes a path includes and the density of the zones the path covers. In this case, we select the most stable path for routing packets. Simulation results show that the probability of broken links becomes very low, which in turn greatly increases the delivery rate of the network. We show that ZBSR outperforms existing location-based routing protocols and adapts better to high-mobility MANETs.
An ad hoc mobile network is a collection of mobile nodes that are dynamically and arbitrarily located in such a manner that the interconnections between nodes are capable of changing on a continual basis. In order to facilitate communication within the network, a routing protocol is used to discover routes between nodes. The primary goal of such an ad hoc network routing protocol is correct and efficient route establishment between a pair of nodes so that messages may be delivered in a timely manner. Route construction should be done with a minimum of overhead and bandwidth consumption. This article examines routing protocols for ad hoc networks and evaluates these protocols based on a given set of parameters. The article provides an overview of eight different protocols by presenting their characteristics and functionality, and then provides a comparison and discussion of their respective merits and drawbacks
HOSSAIN is currently a senior Sr. lecturer of master of computer application at Haldia Institute of Technology. He did MCAational; Institute of Technology
  • Sk
  • Sahnawaj
SK. SAHNAWAJ HOSSAIN is currently a senior Sr. lecturer of master of computer application at Haldia Institute of Technology. He did MCAational; Institute of Technology, Rourkela, India in 2001 and M.Sc. (App Math) from Burdwan University in 1996.
in information technology from Haldia Institute of Technology in 2007. Presently, he is working as a software engineer at Wiprow
  • B Barun Das Received
  • Tech
BARUN DAS received B. Tech. in information technology from Haldia Institute of Technology in 2007. Presently, he is working as a software engineer at Wiprow.
CLASSIFICATION): Protocols+($28)Classification($29).html Received
  • Ad-Hoc Routing Protocols
AD-HOC ROUTING PROTOCOLS (CLASSIFICATION): Protocols+($28)Classification($29).html Received: June, 2007