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Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge: A Framework for Teacher Knowledge

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Abstract

Research in the area of educational technology has often been critiqued for a lack of theoretical grounding. In this article we propose a conceptual framework for educational technology by building on Shulman's formulation of "pedagogical content knowledge" and extend it to the phenomenon of teachers integrating technology into their pedagogy. This framework is the result of 5 years of work on a program of research focused on teacher professional development and faculty development in higher education. It attempts to capture some of the essential qualities of teacher knowledge required for technology integration in teaching, while addressing the complex, multifaceted, and situated nature of this knowledge. We argue, briefly, that thoughtful pedagogical uses of technology require the development of a complex, situated form of knowledge that we call Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPCK). In doing so, we posit the complex roles of, and interplay among, three main components of learning environments: content, pedagogy, and technology. We argue that this model has much to offer to discussions of technology integration at multiple levels: theoretical, pedagogical, and methodological. In this article, we describe the theory behind our framework, provide examples of our teaching approach based upon the framework, and illustrate the methodological contributions that have resulted from this work.

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... Therefore, a scoping review was conducted to answer the following research questions: (a) How have qualitative research methods teachers selected or developed content for online delivery?, (b) What types of pedagogy have teachers applied in qualitative research methods courses?, and (c) How has technology been selected and applied to support online teaching practice in qualitative research methods courses? I aligned the research questions to the TPACK (Technological, Pedagogical, and Content Knowledge) framework (Koehler & Mishra, 2009;Mishra & Koehler, 2006) in the context of online qualitative research methods education as described in the next section. ...
... Technological Pedagogical and Content Knowledge (TPACK) is a conceptual framework used to characterize teacher knowledge required when integrating technology as part of content-area pedagogy (Koehler & Mishra, 2009;Mishra & Koehler, 2006). The TPACK framework emerged in response to a perceived lack of theoretical grounding about teachers' use of technology in their teaching. ...
... A conceptual/thematic approach was used to synthesize information through the lens of a conceptual framework (Sandelowski & Barroso, 2007). Findings are organized based the TPACK framework (Koehler & Mishra, 2009;Mishra & Koehler, 2006) to describe how course content (what was taught), pedagogy (how it was taught), and the use of technology (what tools were used) were described within the articles included in this scoping review. This information illustrates the state of the field, uncovers current instructional practice, and suggests how domains of knowledge defined by TPACK are manifesting in online qualitative research methods teaching. ...
Article
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Online education has become well established as an avenue for flexible access to educational opportunities. Those who teach qualitative research methods online may find it difficult to locate research or best practice literature to inform practice. A scoping review was conducted to identify and synthesize the literature about teaching qualitative research methods courses online. Eleven peer-reviewed journal articles were identified through a scoping review of the literature. The TPACK framework, which defines teacher knowledge in terms of technological, pedagogical, and content knowledge, was used as a conceptual framework. Results from this scoping review indicate that online qualitative research methods educators choose course goals, instructional modules, and topics in a manner consistent with instructional design approaches. Pedagogical approaches included orientation strategies, strategic use of instructional media, online discussions, applied research activities, and writing projects. Technology was used for course management, to develop content, for communication, and to enable online teaching strategies in an online environment. The literature informs teaching practice in qualitative research methods education, but more research is needed to develop knowledge in this under explored area.
... One of the different models developed as a result of this research is Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK), which explains the teaching knowledge required for technology integration (Stoilescu, 2011;Tabach, 2011). TPACK is a new knowledge model formed by adding a technology component to the PCK model introduced by Shulman (Abbitt, 2011a;Cox, 2008;Mishra & Koehler, 2006). Today, one of the main areas affected by technology is education. ...
... As a natural consequence of this situation, technology knowledge has been added to the areas teachers should know about (Ivy, 2011). Mishra and Koehler (2006) describe TPACK as the intersection of content knowledge (CK), pedagogical knowledge (PK) and technological knowledge (TK). In addition to these three domains of knowledge and their intersections, they also defined the domains of knowledge they named as Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK), Technological Content Knowledge (TCK) and Technological Pedagogical Knowledge (TPK). ...
... Here, they considered the interactions of the PK, CK and TK domains in binary combinations. In the studies (Angeli & Valanides, 2009;Mishra & Koehler, 2006;Niess, 2005;Niess et al., 2006;Niess et al., 2007), different components related to TPACK were defined, and new models have been proposed for the integration of education and technology. The model proposed by Mishra and Koehler (2006) is essential in that it forms the foundations of the theoretical framework regarding TPACK (Akkoc et al., 2011;Griggs, 2010). ...
Article
Purpose: This study investigates the effect of technology-supported argumentation-based teaching on pre-service teachers' Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) self-assessment. Design/Methodology/Approach: A quasi-experimental design with a pretest-posttest control group was used in the research. Participants of the study are 43 pre-service mathematics teachers who take the Analytic Geometry-I course. They were studying in the third grade in the faculty of education at a state university in Turkey in the fall semester of the 2019-2020 academic year. In the research process of the study, the subject of transformation geometry was taught to the experimental group using technology-supported argumentation-based teaching practice. The lessons are planned to last four weeks (12 lesson hours), three lessons per week. In the first week of the lessons, the translational transformation, reflection transformation in the second and third weeks, and rotational transformation in the fourth week were discussed. TPACK-SAS (self-assessment scale), which was used as a data collection tool in the study, was applied to both groups before the first week (pre-test) and after the last week (post-test). Findings: The research findings observed that the participants' self-evaluations about TK (technology knowledge) were relatively low. In addition, it was observed that pre-service teachers' post-test mean scores regarding the sub-dimensions of PK (pedagogical knowledge), PCK (pedagogical content knowledge), and TPACK (Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge), which mainly includes pedagogy knowledge, were high. Highlights: As a result of the research, it was concluded that the technology-supported argumentation-based transformation geometry teaching practice did not affect the TPACK self-evaluation of the pre-service teachers in the experimental group. Studies similar to this with pre-service teachers can be carried out with students at different educational levels on transformation geometry or another mathematics subject.
... They need to adopt and integrate pedagogical and content knowledge. Many years ago, TPACK was first initiated by Shulman (1987) then developed by Mishra and Koehler (2006) has to be taught to pre-service teachers before they teach in real classrooms (Drajati et al., 2021). The teachers at tertiary level (lecturer) should work harder to integrate TPACK in their teaching process. ...
... Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) developed by Mishra and Koehler (2006) is combination of technology, pedagogic, and content which are implemented into one context. According to Mishra and Koehler (2006), the framework of TPACK is as described below: Figure 1. ...
... Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) developed by Mishra and Koehler (2006) is combination of technology, pedagogic, and content which are implemented into one context. According to Mishra and Koehler (2006), the framework of TPACK is as described below: Figure 1. Framework TPACK from Mishra and Koehler (2006) The TPACK components as explained by Mishra and Koehler (2006) is that "TPACK is an emergent from knowledge that goes beyond all three core components (Content, Pedagogy, and Technology), technological pedagogical content knowledge is an understanding that emerges from interactions among content, pedagogy and technology knowledge". ...
Article
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In this 21st century era, English teachers must have good knowledge of English as well as the skills of using various technology in order to make their teaching-learning process go smoothly. Nowadays, technology is like the primary need in every sector, especially in education sector. English lecturers should be able to adapt with the changes of teaching environment since the use of computers, laptops and other tools are becoming the big necessity in our daily life. There are three things that must be considered; technology, pedagogy and content knowledge. By understanding them, the teaching-learning process will become perfect. This article aims to find the perceptions of TPACK how it helps English lecturers achieve their goals. The data were taken from 3 English language lecturers of three different departments as the respondents. This mini research used descriptive quantitative in which the data were collected through observation and were analysed with data reduction, interpretation, and description. The findings shows that the score for content knowledge (CK) for all teachers ranges 78%-80 %, pedagogical knowledge (PK) ranges 55%-65%, technological knowledge (TK) ranges 60%-75%. Meanwhile score for Technological Content Knowledge (TCK) ranges 77%-82%, Technological Pedagogical Knowledge ranges (TPK) 60%-67%, TPACK 72%-75%. These imply that lecturers of polytechnics are good and skilful to integrate the technology with pedagogic and content knowledge.
... Besides, PCK is an idea to teach material not only through understanding concepts but also by developing strategies that are appropriate to the character of students (Koehler et al., 2014). PCK is also a teacher's interpretation of where the subject matter is packaged into learning activities to be well-accepted by students (Mishra & Koehler, 2006). PCK relies on both content and pedagogical knowledge, balanced with teaching experience, to become a unitary PCK (Aziz et al., 2020). ...
... Yet, Shulman's PCK theory does not discuss technology despite its urgency in education. Thus, content (C), pedagogy (P), and technology (T) become the center of teacher teaching development (Mishra & Koehler, 2006). T and C describe teachers' knowledge about learning materials that are changed with technology implementation, while T and P explain the application of technology to support teachers' pedagogical goals. ...
... These three components belong to TPACK knowledge (Koehler & Mishra, 2005). TPACK represents classroom knowledge, which is crucial for teachers to teach with technology (Mishra & Koehler, 2006). The TPACK framework is built on the concept of PCK, integrated with the technological knowledge component (Graham, 2011). ...
... The focus of this study is to explore students' experiences with the teaching and learning of the acupuncture programme at a South African HEI. A conceptual framework adapted from Shulman's (1986) Pedagogical Content Knowledge model and Mishra and Koehler's (2006) Technological Pedagogical and Content Knowledge model was utilised as a theoretical lens in this study. A descriptive qualitative single case study design was employed. ...
... In this study, the authors employed a conceptual framework to explore students' experiences of the teaching and learning of the acupuncture programme at the identified HEI. This conceptual framework, the Technological, Pedagogical, Content Knowledge (TPCK) model, was adapted from Shulman's (1986) PCK model and Mishra and Koehler's (2006) Technological Pedagogical and Content Knowledge (TPACK) model. The TPCK model emphasises CK, PCK and TCK, which provided an opportunity to analyse students' experiences of the delivery of the acupuncture programme. ...
... Consequently, Shulman (1986) proposed the concept of PCK which is defined as the knowledge utilised for particular CK to enhance learning outcomes (Kultsum, 2017). To understand how to integrate technology in teaching and learning, Mishra and Koehler (2006) developed the TPACK model from the PCK model. Bhukuvhani (2018) and Oner (2020) agree that the TPACK model is recognised as the most widely used framework when integrating educational strategies and technology into specific modules. ...
Article
The quality of teaching and learning in educational programmes at higher education institutions (HEIs) cannot be overemphasised. This is of particular importance in skills programmes, such as acupuncture, because the teaching and learning of acupuncture at HEIs significantly influence students' competence in the world of work. Acupuncture is one of the most popular alternative treatments globally and contributes to improving public health. To provide quality acupuncture services to the public, HEIs must ensure that their students are competent in implementing the knowledge and skills gained in the programmes. The focus of this study is to explore students' experiences with the teaching and learning of the acupuncture programme at a South African HEI. A conceptual framework adapted from Shulman's (1986) Pedagogical Content Knowledge model and Mishra and Koehler's (2006) Technological Pedagogical and Content Knowledge model was utilised as a theoretical lens in this study. A descriptive qualitative single case study design was employed. The authors adopted a purposive sampling technique to recruit ten participants from the identified HEI. The findings of this study revealed that students' ambivalent experiences in the acupuncture programme. The findings will contribute to the improvement of quality teaching and learning of an acupuncture programme. This study concluded that diverse teaching and learning strategies should be implemented in the acupuncture programme, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic.
... Oleh karena itu, guru harus dapat menyampaikan informasi yang diketahuinya dengan benar dan tepat sasaran, yaitu konten materi yang benar melalui kegiatan pedagogis yang baik. Berdasarkan ide Shulman tentang PCK, Mishra dan Koehler (2006) ...
... Pedagogical content knowledge yaitu pengetahuan pedagogik yang berlaku untuk pengajaran konten yang spesifik. Pengetahuan ini termasuk untuk mengetahui pendekatan apa yang tepat untuk proses pengajaran dan mengetahui bagaimana elemen konten dapat diatur untuk pembelajaran yang baik (Mishra & Koehler, 2006). PCK juga berarti bahwa konten yang berbeda akan cocok dengan metode mengajar yang berbeda. ...
... Pembelajaran pada masa modern menuntut pemahaman guru untuk bisa mengkolaborasikan pedagogik dan konten dengan teknologi. Guru harus memiliki pemahaman terhadap interaksi kompleks antara 3 komponen dasar yaitu PK, CK, dan TK dengan cara mengajarkan materi menggunakan metode pedagogik dan teknologi yang sesuai (Mishra & Koehler, 2006 ...
Article
Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui dan mendeskripsikan kemampuan TPACK guru biologi di SMA/MA Kecamatan Dewantara. Jenis penelitian ini adalah deskriptif dengan pendekatan kuantitatif. Teknik yang digunakan untuk mengumpulkan data penelitian adalah dengan teknik tes untuk mengukur tingkat penguasaan TPACK guru biologi. Sampel pada penelitian ini berjumlah 22 orang guru biologi yang diambil secara keseluruhan dari 8 SMA/MA yang ada di Kecamatan Dewantara. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan kemampuan TPACK guru biologi memiliki persentase yang cukup (49%) dengan masing- masing kemampuannya: (a) CK sebesar 61% (baik), (b) PK sebesar 67% (baik), (c) PCK sebesar 58% (cukup), (d) TK sebesar 40% (kurang baik), (e) TCK sebesar 53% (cukup), (f) TPK sebesar 25% (kurang baik), dan (g) TPACK sebesar 39% (kurang baik). Berdasarkan hasil penelitian dapat disimpulkan bahwa kemampuan TPACK guru Biologi di SM/MA Kecamatan Dewantara termasuk dalam kategori cukup baik
... A la interacción entre estos tres conocimientos lo denominaron Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPCK, para simplificar la pronunciación de este término, en la literatura lo podemos encontrar como TPACK), o bien, Conocimiento Tecnológico Pedagógico del Contenido; en esta parte si vemos la literatura del conocimiento tecnológico pedagógico del contenido, se orientan mucho hacia la parte de las nuevas tecnologías. Se reconoce que la tecnología ha evolucionado con la computación y es por eso que actualmente los estudios se enfocan al uso de herramientas computacionales en el aula, sin embargo, cuando Koehler y Mishra proponen el modelo TPCK recuerdan que en el aula el profesor utiliza recursos tecnológicos que quizá ya se han vuelto normales y no se ven como tecnología (Koehler y Mishra, 2006Mishra, , p. 1023, es decir, el conocimiento tecnológico no es único y exclusivamente asunto de la computación sino que pueden ser tecnologías que podemos llamar análogas o no basadas en la computadora, y en física tenemos un gran recurso de conocimiento tecnológico con la cuestión de los laboratorios o situaciones experimentales. ...
... -Modelo TPACK (Koehler yMishra, 2006). Traducción propia. ...
Book
El programa de posgrado en física educativa del Instituto Politécnico Nacional (IPN), surge en el año de 2006, como una necesidad de formación de investigadores en aprendizaje de la física en México (Ramírez, 2017), siendo el primero de su tipo en el país. Los primeros graduados tanto de maestría, como de doctorado se alcanzan en el año de 2009 (Tejeda, 2009, Ramírez, 2009), y desde entonces, la comunidad de físicos educativos ha ido creciendo, con egresados de México, Colombia, Ecuador, Chile, Costa Rica, Estados Unidos, Honduras, Irán y Angola y colaboración con grupos de investigación en física educativa alrededor del mundo, particularmente en América Latina.
... Technological Pedagogical Knowledge (Parker, 2020). (Mishra & Koehler, 2006, 2009 Content knowledge, pedagogical knowledge, and technological knowledge are represented by the circles in the TPACK diagram. The places where the circles intersectwhere the three types of information come together can be explained in the following way (Mishra & Koehler, 2006, 2009Harris & Hofer, 2009): ...
... (Mishra & Koehler, 2006, 2009 Content knowledge, pedagogical knowledge, and technological knowledge are represented by the circles in the TPACK diagram. The places where the circles intersectwhere the three types of information come together can be explained in the following way (Mishra & Koehler, 2006, 2009Harris & Hofer, 2009): ...
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This study aimed to investigate and compare the perception of TPACK competence of graduate students studying at the institutes of Natural Sciences, Social Sciences and Educational Sciences based on the variables of gender, graduate program level and field. The participants of the research consist of 186 graduate students studying at the institutes of Karatay, Necmettin Erbakan and Selçuk University. TPACK Competence Scale was used to collect research data. The results of the research showed that graduate students’ technological knowledge and TPACK competence were moderate. It was also found that male graduate students’ technological knowledge and technological content knowledge were high, whereas female participants had a high-level perception of pedagogical knowledge. In addition, perceptions of TPACK competence varied based on the field and level of graduate education.
... It is based on a virtual environment where interaction between teacher-student, student-student is solely facilitated through technological tools (Moore-Adams, Jones & Cohen, 2016). The technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) framework (Mishra& Koehler, 2006) could be used as a guideline for examining teachers' knowledge (Moore-Adams, Jones & Cohen, 2016). The TPACK framework is comprised of content knowledge (CK), pedagogical knowledge (PK), technology knowledge (TK), and the intersections of these three (Mishra & Koehler, 2006). ...
... The technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) framework (Mishra& Koehler, 2006) could be used as a guideline for examining teachers' knowledge (Moore-Adams, Jones & Cohen, 2016). The TPACK framework is comprised of content knowledge (CK), pedagogical knowledge (PK), technology knowledge (TK), and the intersections of these three (Mishra & Koehler, 2006). Content knowledge (CK) is knowledge about the subject matter being taught. ...
Article
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This paper outlines the creation of an online professional development course for in-service online teachers. Adopting a constructivist instructional methodology, the course will facilitate a discussion-centred learning community where participants can collaborate and share their experiences in online teaching.
... Although the initial iteration of TPACK described a contextual component that shaped practice [50,51], subsequent researchers [52] have expanded on the original framework and aligned the contextual factors with Bronfenbrenner's ecological approach [53]. These advancements in understanding TPACK recognize that enactment occurs within specific instructional contexts [52,[54][55][56]. ...
... In April 2019, Mishra revised TPACK to include XK (Contextual Knowledge) and formally re-conceptualized the contextual factors as a key element in the representation of the framework (as shown in Figure 2). shaped practice [50,51], subsequent researchers [52] have expanded on the original framework and aligned the contextual factors with Bronfenbrenner's ecological approach [53]. These advancements in understanding TPACK recognize that enactment occurs within specific instructional contexts [52,[54][55][56]. ...
Article
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This study used a small stories research narrative paradigm to examine social media posts that focused on efforts to sustain the delivery of early childhood education during COVID. Inductive and deductive content analysis focused on 1303 posts from 177 government officials and 1126 individual users (including preschools, kindergartens, teachers, and parents). The results include an analysis of conversational data that document implementation of the national policy to promote continuity of young children’s learning, including digital resources used, learning content, and teaching approaches. Actor-centric contextual factors determined the success of delivering instruction remotely; however, other contextual components created the conditions that necessitated adaptation of instruction. The COVID outbreak (chrono-level) led to shifts in education delivery and informed national policy (macro-level), influenced the teachers’ and parents’ work contexts (exo-level), enhanced home-school collaboration (meso-level), and required implementation of technological solutions to support children’s learning (micro-level). Contributions to theory, methodology, and practice are discussed.
... In this model developed by Mishra and Koehler [30], the basic knowledge structure needed by educators in the fields of teaching with technology and teaching of technology in their own study areas and at the level that they will deliver teaching is defined. ...
... The fact that an educator has these three skills at a sufficient level paves the way to create the most efficient course environment. If the educator does not have any of these skills, we cannot be located in the dark green area on the chart, which reduces efficiency and quality in both physical classes and distance education [30]. ...
Article
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During the pandemic, educators around the world were unexpectedly encouraged to switch to online and distance learning. They tried to integrate face-to-face learning–teaching processes in the classrooms into the technological environment and to sustain this process in the best way. In this research, it is aimed to examine the current results in the current studies on technology integration into the teaching–learning processes in the literature. In order to collect data, a descriptive compilation pattern was used within the frame of the Literature Search method based on the qualitative method. The data obtained by examining the current articles obtained with the keyword “Technology Integration” were used in the research. As a result of the study, it was seen that technology integration is a complex and multidimensional process with several dynamics, and full integration cannot be achieved. As a result, recommendations were made in the context of various models and Google Workspace tools to help ensure technology integration in line with the obstacles specified in the studies.
... Öğrenme-öğretme süreci Shulman (1986)'ın geliştirdiği yaklaşımla alan-pedagoji kesişimine odaklanmış sonrasındaki çalışmalar ve çağın gereklilikleri ile teknolojiyi de sürece dâhil etmiştir. Bunun başında Mishra ve Koehler (2006) Öğretmen yeterliği eğitim sistemimin temel konularından birinin teşkil etmektedir. Çünkü eğitimin hedeflenen amaçlara ulaşması öğretmenlerin sahip oldukları yeterlikle yakından ilgilidir (Temizyürek ve Aksoy, 2016, s. 103). ...
... The learning-teaching process focused on the intersection of field-pedagogy with the approach developed by Shulman (1986) and included technology as per contemporary requirements. The studies pioneered by Mishra and Koehler (2006) led to the definition of technological pedagogical content knowledge. The study titled General Competencies for the Teaching Profession was published as part of the Basic Education Support Project and carried out under the auspices of the Ministry of National Education General Directorate of Teacher Training and Education is important in establishing a national standard for these concepts. ...
... Even in the best times, switching from face-to-face to online/hybrid teaching environments poses challenges to teachers; these challenges include but are not limited to technological use, online pedagogy, time management, communication barriers, and the changing role (Jacobs & Rogers, 1997;Kebritchi et al., 2017). These changes require additional competencies and skills (Darabi et al., 2006), including the technological, pedagogical, and content knowledge (TPACK) for technological integration in teaching proposed by Mishra and Koehler (2006). For many educators, the challenges go beyond switching to unfamiliar teaching environments to issues of work-life balance, child/elderly care, economic instabilities, and psychological traumas associated with the pandemic (e.g., Hjálmsdóttir & Bjarnadóttir, 2021;Purwanto et al., 2020). ...
... TPK refers to knowledge of the capabilities of various technologies as used in teaching and learning (Mishra & Koehler, 2006). This is where there were the most tweets in this subgroup. ...
... According to Wang et al. (2018), teachers must dedicate as much attention to the content aspects of teaching as they have devoted to the teaching process elements in order to appropriately combine these two components. Accordingly, the term TPACK was first used in the field of educational research to describe a conceptual framework for analyzing teacher knowledge required for technology integration (Mishra & Koehler, 2006). In other words, this concept is related to teaching specific content with suitable pedagogical approaches and methods while using appropriately selected technologies . ...
... Moving on to a further level, the integration of technology once with pedagogical knowledge and then with content knowledge brings about novel areas of knowledge named TPK and TCK. While TPK demands an understanding of how to use technology to implement educational strategies or when to employ them (Nazari et al., 2019;Özdilek & Robeck, 2018), TCK calls for an understanding of how technology can be used to turn subject matter into comprehensible representations i.e., using audio-visual speech synthesis or talking heads to show English pronunciation (Bostancıoğlu & Handley, 2018;Mishra & Koehler, 2006). Finally, a teacher's capacity to integrate pedagogical and content knowledge in such a way that students can easily access the content knowledge originates from PCK (Chai, 2019). ...
Article
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The current study investigated the Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) level and needs of pre-service teachers through a convergent parallel design. The participants included 120 English as a Foreign Language (EFL) pre-service teachers, 79 females and 41 males, studying at a state university in Turkey. The TPACK-Deep scale developed by Kabakçı-Yurdakul et al. (2012) served as the quantitative data collection instrument and an open-ended questionnaire was used to collect qualitative data on the opinion and needs of the participants. As for the analysis of quantitative data, the authors employed descriptive statistics. On the other hand, a thematic analysis was implemented for the qualitative data. The findings indicated that EFL pre-service teachers generally had a high level of TPACK proficiency. Moreover, the TPACK needs of student teachers were mainly related to technology-based problems (TK, TCK, and TPK) and access to technological tools. Finally, at the end of the article, further suggestions and implications are provided for prospective studies and scholars over the above-mentioned issues.
... Maker pedagogy integrates different technologies, digital and analog, that support processes of design and fabrication. Integrating different technologies into pedagogy is most effective when situated within disciplinary inquiry (Campbell et al., 2014;Mishra & Koehler, 2006). Effective technology-related PD includes opportunities for teachers to engage in technology-mediated learning themselves, to reflect on that learning alongside data of students engaging in similar activities, and finally the modification of curricular activities to fit their particular pedagogical contexts (Gerard et al., 2011). ...
... Skilled distances, or distances related to skills and distribution of expertise required to implement makerspace activities, related closely to classroom practice. Technology-rich pedagogies like making require specific knowledge and practices regarding the technologies themselves, the ways tools are used in disciplinary activity, and how to teach with these technologies (Mishra & Koehler, 2006). Skilled distances are influenced by two primary dimensions: (1) opportunities to learn about new tools, materials, and skills for making, and (2) configurations of skills and authority. ...
Article
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Background We investigate the factors that shape teachers’ implementation of a school STEM reform—the creation of a high-school makerspace. Educational reformers have increasing interest in making and makerspaces in schools. Prior research shows how factors shape reform at the classroom, school (organizational), and institutional levels, as well as across levels. However, most research on teachers tends to focus on classroom-level effects, which may not capture the full complexity of how they navigate multilevel reforms. We consider teachers’ decision-making from an ecological perspective to investigate what shapes their implementation efforts, using observational and interview data collected over 2 years in a large comprehensive high school. Results We find teachers’ efforts are shaped by four “distances”—or spaces teachers traversed, physically and conceptually—related to skillsets and distributed expertise, physical space, disciplinary learning, and structural factors. The distances operate as a constellation of factors—independently identifiable, co-operatively manifesting—to shape implementation. We position teacher deliberations and decision-making as portals into the forms of organizational and institutional supports offered in multilevel reforms. Conclusions The paper contributes insights into makerspace implementation in schools, adding to the emerging literature on how making can transform STEM learning experiences for students. We conclude that teachers’ decision-making around multilevel implementations can inform our understanding of how makerspaces are implemented and their impact on students’ experiences, as well as how seeing teachers as multilevel actors can offer new insights into reform dynamics writ large. We offer implications for makerspaces in schools, as well as methodological and theoretical considerations for how organizations and institutions can better support teachers as agents of STEM reform.
... As digital technology has become more accessible and incorporated into classrooms, researchers have broadened the knowledge teachers need for teaching with the effective use of technology. By incorporating technological knowledge (TK), Mishra and Koehler (2006) introduced a conceptual framework, the Technological, Pedagogical, and Content Knowledge (TPACK). TPACK model consists of seven domains: TK, PK, CK, PCK, technological pedagogical knowledge (TPK), technological content knowledge (TCK), and TPACK (see Figure 1). ...
... For example, to enhance collaboration, students can share and communicate what they learned with multimodal presentation tools such as PowerPoint or Google Slides that allow students to present their ideas. Mishra and Koehler (2006) defined TCK as "teachers need to know not just the subject matter they teach but also the manner in which the subject matter can be changed by the application of technology" (p. 1028). ...
Article
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The unprecedented COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted, interrupted, and changed the way we normally prepare our teacher candidates in teacher preparation programs. In this paper, we, two mathematics teacher educators (MTEs), reflect our own experiences in appropriating, transforming, reconstructing, and modifying our pedagogies of teacher education in making a transition from face-to-face to online environment during the COVID-19 pandemic. Using a collaborative self-study, we discussed issues, challenges, changes, opportunities, and innovations of teaching an elementary mathematics methods course in the online environment. Using a constant comparison method, we explored the following three themes: (1) using virtual manipulatives; (2) creating collaborative, interactive, and shared learning experiences for preservice teachers; and (3) making preservice teachers engaged in student thinking. These findings indicated that online teaching requires transformative knowledge for teacher educators. Transferring face-to-face to online is not a simple matter of putting the existing content to online; it should focus on pedagogical improvement in teaching mathematics rather than technology's sake or how it can be
... Teachers' development of TPACK is crucial to effective technology-enhanced education. The nature of technologies (both analog and digital), as well as how incorporating technology into pedagogy affect and challenge teaching (Saralar-Aras & Güneş, 2022; Graham, 2011;Mishra & Koehler, 2006). The teacher knowledge TPACK framework is a complex interplay of three bodies of knowledge: content, pedagogy, and technology. ...
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Preservice mathematics teachers seem to need professional support regarding the use of educational technologies to teach geometry topics. Particularly, our previous study showed that when it comes to their techno-pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK), they self-report to need guidance to teach with technology. The purpose of this study was to develop a 14-week course to increase their TPACK in hopes of bridging the knowledge gap identified in earlier studies. This paper summarized the course content with a humble expectation to get valuable feedback from an international audience. The developed course included lessons on components of TPACK, which were found to require improvement to best meet future students' needs in teaching geometry with technology. We hope that preservice teachers' TPACK levels will be improved after the course.
... They propose the two for some reasons: the aesthetic elements of frameworks, the compatibility with the lecturers' teaching needs, the popularity among technology integration researchers, and the widespread adoption to evaluate DLC. TPACK was developed by Mishra and Koehler (2006) as a framework to evaluate how three lecturers' teaching domains, namely technological knowledge (TK), pedagogical knowledge (PK), and content knowledge (CK), interact with each other. The substitution, augmentation, modification, and redefinition (SAMR) framework evaluates the EFL lecturers' DLC hierarchically (Puentedura, 2014). ...
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This study aimed to scrutinize the correlation between English as a foreign language (EFL) lecturers’ digital literacy competence (DLC) based on the TPACK-SAMR framework and their technostress. In addition, this study revealed how the variables correlated to the lecturers’ EFL teaching performances. Therefore, a correlational design with a descriptive explanation model was conducted. The participants were six EFL lecturers from six different universities in various cities in East Java Province, Indonesia. The data were collected by administering TPACK-SAMR DLC and technostress questionnaires, conducting a semi-structured interview, and documenting the teaching scenarios. The results showed that most participants were more confident with their pedagogical knowledge and content knowledge. They claimed it was hard to mingle them into harmonious teaching performances with technology that challenged them to achieve the higher TPACK-SAMR DLC level. Relevant to this finding, their DLC had a negative ‘very high’ correlation with technostress, shown by -.824 Pearson correlation coefficient. Henceforth, their EFL teaching performances reflected the minimum operation of technology, according to SAMR stages, to mediate EFL teaching by substituting and augmenting the technology. Therefore, this study highlights the importance of DLC training to escalate the positive outcomes of EFL teaching with technology and minimize technostress.
... Frameworks were adopted regarding the use of digital technology in the classroom with the skills needed for effective learning. Among them is the TPACK framework, which provides a map for understanding how to integrate technology into the classroom effectively and emphasizes the relationships between technology knowledge (TK), pedagogy knowledge (PK), and content knowledge (CK), and that the purposeful blending of them is key (Mishra and Koehler 2006). By differentiating among these three types of knowledge, the TPACK framework outlines how the content being taught and how the teacher imparts that content (pedagogy) must form the foundation for any effective education technology integration. ...
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This article reports lessons learned from educator need-centered professional development offerings (PD) on accessing and using digital museum resources through the Smithsonian Learning Lab (SLL), a free, interactive platform for discovering digital resources, creating content with online tools, and sharing with communities of learners. Since the platform launched in late 2015, the Smithsonian Office of Education Technology has engaged more than 20,000 educators on the use of the SLL through PD that was offered both in-person and digitally, synchronously and asynchronously, frequently through partners within the network of Smithsonian Affiliate museums. Results from more than 1,100 aggregated surveys, 50 in-depth interviews, and five focus groups were triangulated and demonstrated that PD was associated with increased participants’ awareness of, skills in, and frequency in using the SLL, creating, and sharing content, and overall satisfaction with the platform. Educators, especially those who participated in PD, agreed with statements about successfully achieving student learning outcomes when using SLL in classrooms. Findings highlighted the importance of cultivating long-term, supportive relationships with PD participants and partners and offering consistently available support with museum staff well beyond the workshops. They also pointed to the value of user-centered marketing research and strategies to broaden the reach of digital learning resources. As museums and cultural organizations work to meet the increasing demand to engage educators digitally, these concrete lessons can be adapted and applied to institutions that provide access to digital resources to educators.
... Based on Shulman's work, Mishra and Koehler (2006) developed a new interconnected framework called the Technological Pedagogical and Content Knowledge (TPACK). The intersection of the three types of knowledge, which are technological, content, and pedagogical, creates seven types of knowledge (Koehler & Mishra, 2009). ...
Article
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The research aimed to develop and validate a Multimodality Interactive Learning Environment (MILE), in order to enhance the reading comprehension skills of Grade 4 students in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) public schools. The reading comprehension skills and strategies were drawn from Davis’s (2013) model Building Comprehension Strategies, which include: making the connection, visualization, prediction and pre-prediction, asking and answering questions, inferencing, retelling and paraphrasing, and summarization. Since the international exam for Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) targets Grade 4 students, the MILE was developed pedagogically and technologically to address specific and well-selected activities for Grade 4 students to practise cognitive skills and strategies related to the intended curriculum and syllabus. The study was guided by a developmental and design-based research approach. The MILE was designed on the basis of the Four Components of the Instructional Design model (4C/ID); and it was validated in a public school in Abu Dhabi, UAE. The participants were 27 students from Grade 4. The research findings showed that the proper design of MILE to enhance Arabic reading comprehension is a combination of constructive learning, based on self-generated activities and cognitive strategies. In addition, the proposed MILE was designed for a progression of 200% among low-level committed students. The ‘retelling and paraphrasing’ skills were the easiest, whereas ‘summarisation’ was the hardest. Based on these findings, the research suggested some recommendations, in order to ensure the quality of the learning, and the assessment of the Arabic language in the UAE public schools.
... The instructor should answer the students' question or give comments on the discussion. Mishra and Koehler (2006) averred that the instructor and the technical staff have the responsibility of creating an enabling environment to invoke a sense of being valuable in the online classroom. Hollow and ICWE (2009) reported that e-learning is still developing and few lecturers are trained in depth on how to use it. ...
... Her seven principles are based on the Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) model developed by Mishra and Koehler (2006) and the Substitution, Augmentation, Modification, Redefinition (SAMR) model by Puentedura (2006). It can be expected that following these seven principles would allow teachers to carefully plan meaningful technology integration into their pedagogical practices. ...
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Universities of Teacher Education in Switzerland have increasingly more students who are digital natives. In 2018, I had the first student who mentioned using a digital tool. To find out more about how students used to learn vocabulary and about experiences they might have had during a practicum, one cohort was asked to complete an online questionnaire. Twenty-six digital natives answered the 10 open-ended questions. Findings revealed that Quizlet is the most popular digital tool. It is assumed that many students as well as in-service teachers would benefit from attending a professional development programme to find out more about the advantages and disadvantages of using digital tools. The focus should be on language learning and teaching with the help of digital tools in meaningful ways.
... This study was guided by the Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) framework. The TPACK framework was developed by Mishra and Koehler (2006) which focuses on technological knowledge (TK), pedagogical knowledge (PK), and content knowledge (CK). TPACK offers a productive approach to many of the dilemmas that educators face in implementing and reinforcing educational technologies in their classrooms (Kurt, 2018;Mishra & Kohler, 2006). ...
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The purpose of the study was to establish how educators integrate instructional technologies during teaching in Malkerns primary schools, located in the Manzini region of the Kingdom of Eswatini. The main focus of this study was on the training and support that educators receive towards the integration of instructional technologies in teaching as well as strategies to be put in place in order to curb the challenges faced. The study employed a qualitative approach and a descriptive research design in which face-to-face interviews and focus group discussion were used to collect data. Purposive sampling was used to select the five head teachers, ten educators as change leaders and two computer educators from five selected schools in the Malkerns cluster. The data was analysed using thematic analysis. The main conclusions of the study were that the availability of instructional technologies in schools does not mean that they are integrated during the teaching process. The study also concluded that educators have inadequate technological training and inadequate support which hinder effective instructional technologies integration in teaching. It is recommended that appropriate training programmes for educators, establishment of fully-fledged computer laboratories and an Information and Communication Technology (ICT) policy to support instructional technologies should be put in place to ensure successful integration of instructional technologies in teaching.
... It is manifest that there will be even more sophisticated communication technology in the future. There is already deep technopedagogical understanding and practice based on solid research (Lusted, 1986;Mishra & Koehler, 2006) but there is still much to be discovered. For this reason, it is important to look back at where we began and provide a brief overview of the once ground-breaking research and practice that has laid the foundations for the upswing of excellent practice in VE that is taking place today. ...
Article
As the introduction to this special issue on virtual exchange (VE), this paper presents a glimpse back at the development of VE through the lens of the central definitions that have been historically associated with VE and how these have had an impact on the evolution of VE practice and research. Next, the role of intercultural competence (IC) is discussed. IC is a prominent aspect of VE in foreign language education and also emerges as a primary topic in the articles in this special issue. Given that VE is most commonly identified within formal education contexts, the article then foregrounds recent debate on whether VE is an educational approach or method and how this may impact teacher education. Finally, looking forward, the text outlines the importance of VE for upcoming generations and how VE might keep pace with anticipated technological advances.
... Kompetensi Pengetahuan Teknologi Pedagogi Kandungan (PTPK) merupakan satu keupayaan guru terhadap mengintegrasikan TMK dalam PdPc agar mampu meningkatkan keberhasilan pelajar serta mengatasi kekangan pengetahuan guru yang kompleks secara fleksibel (Mishra & Koehler, 2006). Kompetensi PTPK pula merupakan satu kerangka atau bingkai kerja yang diubahsuai berdasarkan idea Yurdakul pada tahun 2012. ...
Article
Punca guru gagal dalam menguasai kompetensi Pengetahuan Teknologi Pedagogi Kandungan adalah disebabkan guru besar tidak mengamalkan kepimpinan teknologi dengan berkesan. Justeru, tujuan kajian ini adalah untuk menentukan hubungan antara amalan kepimpinan teknologi guru besar dengan kompetensi Pengetahuan Teknologi Pedagogi Kandungan guru SJKC. Sampel kajian ini adalah seramai 178 daripada 206 populasi. Kajian tinjauan ini adalah berdasarkan pendekatan kuantitatif. Instrumen soal selidik diedarkan atas talian secara rawak mudah. Analisis deskriptif dan inferensi adalah melalui perisian SPSS 26.0. Dapatan kajian ini membuktikan bahawa tahap kepimpinan teknologi guru besar secara keseluruhannya berada pada tahap sangat tinggi (min=4.36, SP=0.43) dan tahap kompetensi Pengetahuan Teknologi Pedagogi Kandungan guru juga berada pada tahap sangat tinggi (min=4.28, SP=0.41). Analisis Korelasi Pearson menunjukkan bahawa terhadap hubungan positif yang signifikan dan kuat antara kepimpinan teknologi guru besar dengan kompetensi Pengetahuan Teknologi Pedagogi Kandungan guru (r=0.664; p<0.01). Kesimpulannya, kajian ini membuktikan bahawa kepimpinan teknologi guru besar mampu meningkatkan kompetensi Pengetahuan Teknologi Pedagogi Kandungan guru dengan berkesan sehingga mampu dijadikan sebagai rujukan kepada para penyelidik yang ingin meneroka tajuk kajian ini pada masa depan. Implikasi kajian ini adalah dapat membantu Kementerian Pendidikan Malaysia dalam membina modul tentang amalan kepimpinan teknologi supaya dapat menjayakan Dasar Pendidikan Kebangsaan. Cadangan kajian lanjutan adalah menjalankan kajian dalam bentuk gabungan kualitatif dan kuantitatif agar mampu memberikan impak yang menyeluruh dan positif kepada pihak-pihak berkepentingan dalam bidang pendidikan sehingga pendidikan Malaysia dapat mencapai tahap cemerlang.
... Though COI functions well as a component of teaching and learning in general, its combination with other theoretical models offers a targeted approach to teacher development. In our case, we adopted the technological, pedagogical, and content knowledge (TPACK) framework to conceptualize and assess instructor proficiency and development [26]. Designed for digitally-enhanced and distance educational environments, TPACK establishes an interactive depiction of several overlapping knowledge bases critical to teacher development [27]. ...
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Secondary school curricula in Canada for subjects like science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) often focus on surface-level learning. While frequently believed to be a precursor for later complex and in-depth studies, such approaches to teaching and learning fail to adequately prepare students for life outside of the classroom, including for future studies in their field of choice. In response to demands for STEM programming that inspires critical thought over rote standardizable knowledge, in 2016, Discovery was created. An interdisciplinary program operated out of the University of Toronto’s Faculty of Applied Science and Engineering, Discovery symbolizes a participatory partnership between the University of Toronto and local secondary schools to support inquiry-based learning for entire classrooms of high school students on a longitudinal basis. Discovery Instructors—consisting of multilevel post-secondary students—work alongside secondary school educators to devise problem-based projects that address key Ontario curriculum targets. Over the course of a semester, high school students are guided by university Instructors to engage in collaborative projects in biology, chemistry, and physics to expand their learning portfolios beyond the confines of a traditional classroom. However, while Discovery seeks to diversify learning for all involved, educator development for Discovery Instructors has remained largely implicit. In this study, we will introduce a teaching development course into Discovery’s Instructor preparation. Within a blended online learning environment across seven weekly modules, Instructor assessment will consist directly of discussion boards containing content- and reflection-based prompts using holistic rubrics and indirectly via mentored students’ performance. A pilot program is currently underway with a sample of enrolled Instructors with data to be collected as the program progresses.
... Kegiatan belajar mengajar yang diadakan oleh guru harus menyesuaikan penggunaan teknologi selain pengetahuan dasar keilmuan dan kecapakan dalam mengajar. Kombinasi antara pengetahuan materi, pedagogi, kecakapan dan menggunakan teknologi dikenal dengan istilah TPACK (Tecnological Pedagogical Content Knowledge) (Mishra & Koehler, 2006 (Kim, 2018;Schmidt et al., 2014) Model TPACK yang diterapkan dalam proses pembelajaran daring akan menemukan kelemahan-kelemahan yang dilakukan oleh peserta didik. Hayati (2020) menyebutkan kelemahan pembelajaran daring antara lain : (1) proses pembelajaran yang kurang interaktif (2) kecenderungan mengabaikan aspek akademik (3) Proses pembelajaran cenderung ke arah pelatihan dari pada pendidikan (4) Adanya perubahan peran guru, sebelumya guru harus menguasai teknik pembelajaran konvensional, sedangkan sekarang dituntut menguasai TIK sebagai media pembelajaran (5) motivasi belajar siswa menurun. ...
Article
The development of technology and information is growing very rapidly in the 21st century. Education is required to be selective in the development of an increasingly modern era. TPACK is knowledge and skills in applying technology to learning. This study uses a descriptive qualitative approach. The subjects of this study were fourth grade students consisting of a class of 25 students who were taken randomly. The results obtained in this study are that all students use the media google teams, whatsap in learning, google form is used in carrying out the task of evaluating the KPK material. Technological Knowledge (TK) Pedagogical Knowledge (PK), Content Knowledge (CK), Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK), Tecnological Content Knowledge (TCK) Tecnological Pedagogical Knowledge (TPK) Tecnological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) has been applied to students at SDN City Surabaya. Students use learning videos with the Google Teams web link. Once a week there are practice questions through the Google Form used in the evaluation of learning. The obstacles experienced by students are that they are often controlled by inadequate signals such as complaints of internet quotas that run out quickly, cellphone or laptop memory that fills up quickly. The solution to overcome this is to do face-to face online every morning according to the agreed schedule, delete files that are no longer used, download learning videos given by the teacher with a duration that is not too long.
... It is important to point out that the framework's structural configuration is anchored on the subject matter (content), teaching methods (pedagogy), and resources (technology) in a pedagogic sense. Mishra and Koehler (2006) posit that the acquisition of the envisaged teacher knowledge hinges to a large degree on subject matter competence, pedagogical skills, and the proficient use of technology. According to Verloop et al. (2001), teacher knowledge refers to understandings which are relevant to teachers' daily practices, while pedagogical knowledge is central to the development of requisite skills in any instructional setting. ...
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This study explores the postgraduate science teachers' conceptions and experiences of online pedagogical practices in diverse school contexts. Embracing technology-enhanced pedagogy remains a key strategic imperative within the context of evolving pedagogical benefits associated with the advent of the Fourth Industrial Revolution (4IR). As key agents of educational change, science teachers face the key imperative to harness the pedagogical affordances of online platforms with a view to realizing the achievement of envisaged educational outcomes. Furthermore, research studies on online teaching have predominantly focused on technological aspects and very little on their impact on humans. The empirical investigation adopted a qualitative case study design and involved 20 purposively selected postgraduate science students from diverse school contexts in South Africa. Data were collected through the administration of an open-ended survey questionnaire and semi-structured interviews. Key findings emanating from the empirical investigation indicated that postgraduate science teachers' coherent adoption of appropriate online pedagogical strategies was largely hampered by a lack of technological resources and inadequate professional capacity to implement online teaching and learning in diverse school contexts. Sustainable teacher professional development opportunities on the utilization of virtual digital platforms ought to be provided with a view to enabling postgraduate science teachers to harness the pedagogical affordances of online teaching and learning.
... Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK)[8] ...
Conference Paper
The learning model is certainly very helpful in the guiding teachers to choose the right techniques, strategies, and methods to be effectively used in situations and learning materials to achieve optimal learning goals. Obstacles faced by the writer in applying this learning model are included in the process of planning and implementing learning. The teachers doesn’t understand the learning steps according to the syntax, so that they disable to stimulate to their students to find their own problems faced in learning material. Thus, the learning model will be packaged with the Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) approach, which is new knowledge that teachers in the 21st century must master to integrate technology well in learning. However, teachers do not understand that TPACK is the basis of effectiveteaching with three core components (content, pedagogy, and technology) that can be interacted with through a learning model. This study aims to see the difference effect of teacher’s learning models with Contextual Teaching and Learning (CTL), Cooperative Learning, and Conventional Learning model. The method used in this research is descriptivequalitative. Samples that being used in this study are three teachers in the elementary school in 5th grade SDN Mangkubumen Kidul No. 16 Surakarta. The findings were 1) The application of the Contextual Teaching and Learning (CTL) model to the TPACK approach in elementary schools average is 79% (good). 2) The application of the Cooperative Learning model to the TPACK approach in elementary schools averages is 89% (very good). 3) The application of the Conventional Learning model in the TPACK approach in elementary schools averages is 69% (fair).
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As burgeoning twenty-first century technologies have enabled new ways of reading, writing and communicating, conceptions of literacy have changed – and English curricula internationally have been modified to include new literacy skills. Second-level English teachers, however, report needing more guidance in incorporating the teaching of these skills into their practice, and they seek to understand how changes to their curriculum and teaching practice impact their students. This study, which took place within an educational laboratory in Ireland, sought to address these two issues. This paper first presents an exploration into the adaptation of a practical, innovative pedagogy for teaching new literacy skills in the English context. Secondly, this paper reports on the impact this approach had on students’ confidence and engagement in English. Results indicate largely positive changes in students’ attitudes towards the English subject and towards learning English with technology. The authors argue this practical approach can be valuable to educators in formal school settings and that it warrants further investigation in such contexts.
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This study reviewed conceptual, theoretical and empirical literatu re on problem affecting the effective use of information and communication technology in teaching and learning of mathematics in secondary schools. Secondary source of information based on prior studies on the subject are examined in terms of methodology, research findings and recommendations. Descriptive research methodology was used to analyze the content of the theoretical, conceptual and empirical literature for this study. The study was anchored on Radical Constructivism Theory and Social Constructivism Theory. According to the study, technology is developed to solve problems associated with human need in more productive ways. If there is no problem to solve, the technology may not be developed and/or not adopted. Applying this principle to educational technology would mean that educational institution should create and adopt technologies that address educational problems, of which there are many. Majority of the findings from most of the empirical review indicates a positive relationship between teaching and learning of Mathematics and the use of information and communication technology in secondary schools. Those that indicates a negative relationship states that lack of knowledge of the teachers, low level of training and retraining of resource person, lack of relevant equipment, poor infrastructures, such as computers, network and power especially in the rural areas are some of the factors that makes the use of information and communication technology inhibit the teaching and learning of mathematics in secondary schools. It was concluded that the use of ICT in teaching and learning mathematics can make the teaching process more efficient as well as enhance the students’ capabilities in understanding basic concepts. It was recommended among others that the government, academic institutions and different stakeholders such as curriculum planners, policy makers, experts, teachers, students and parents to be serious and aware of these issues and their consequence.
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Although educators can use digital tools to meet emergent bilingual students’ unique needs, language teachers generally feel unprepared to use technology with students, and language teacher education programs face challenges in implementing technology. This study uses ethnographic methods to explore 12 pre-service teachers’ (PSTs) experiences learning about digital tools in ways intended to support emergent bilingual students. I interviewed the PSTs and observed their participation across student teaching and a concurrent practicum course, and I analyzed these data through the lens of activity theory. PSTs perceived that their participation in teacher education was characterised by a shared responsibility where all the PSTs, their teacher educator, and mentor teachers contributed new knowledge about digital tools. The co-construction of knowledge afforded the PSTs opportunities to learn in the moment, and many described their learning as ‘playing around’. This study has implications for teacher education programs and theory related to teacher learning. Through shared responsibility and playfulness, all educational stakeholders can take on roles as learners and experts where they leverage one another’s experiences and contributions to support PSTs’ instructional practices, challenging traditional roles between PSTs and their multiple mentors.
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This position paper proposes that teacher education programs should shift from preparing teachers who are consumers and perpetuators of grand narrative knowledge to teachers who are creators and knowers of transdisciplinary (TD) knowledge and perpetuators of a TD narrative. To that end, the Nicolescuian TD methodology, especially epistemology, was introduced as a new grounding for knowledge that can lead to transdisciplinary teacher education. This paper explores what teacher education might look like through a Nicolescuian TD lens with its innovative focus on epistemology—the knowledge required to function in a complex, modern world confronting wicked problems. As this is currently a nascent and untested idea, recommendations for future research are suggested (practice, policy, and theory).
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Technology integration in education has a great potential for learning, provided it is based on solid teacher knowledge and pedagogical reasoning. Teacher Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) is deeply connected with non-rational factors such as beliefs and attitudes – dispositions –, together informing behaviours for technology integration. This article reports on research into preservice teachers’ TPACK and dispositions for technology integration when entering initial teacher education (ITE) courses that will likely impact their professionalisation. This is part of a wider multiple case study engaging 288 participants across three European ITE institutions. Participants’ TPACK and dispositions were investigated through a questionnaire. Findings suggest four patterns of preservice teachers’ dispositional configuration (disengaged, idealist, executive and self-sufficient) shared by the different contexts, albeit at different rates. Further research is ongoing to understand how ITE may engage the different profiles and which factors specifically may affect dispositional configurations in preservice teachers’ education.
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Many studies have investigated the TPACK level of competence of teachers as part of their incidental online conferences, seminars, or study programs using the educational TPACK framework through a single perspective. However, limited attention has been given to the in-service EFL teachers’ TPACK in CALL literature using a specific TPACK framework for EFL teaching involving teachers, students, and trainers in a single study. This mixed-method research explored a comprehensive perspective of in-service teachers’ TPACK while attending two semesters of online professional training funded by the Ministry of Education of the Republic of Indonesia. A total of 120 senior high school EFL teachers, 360 students, and five EFL trainers with doctoral (PhD) degrees participated in the study. Quantitative and qualitative data showed divergence or convergence in the research outcomes. Quantitative findings indicated different perceptions among students, teachers and trainers regarding in-service teachers’ CK, TPK, PCK, and TPACK level of competence. In addition, qualitative results claimed that familiarity with basic computer hardware, research in ELT, intercultural awareness, authentic language problem-solving, learners’ engagement and adaptability to various cultural events and environments were required to foster forthcoming TPACK practices and support the language learning process of learners.
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The aim was to investigate how a reflective tool, the T-CoRe, in combination with annotated self-recorded videos and reflective writing, could be used to capture student teachers’ knowledge of digital technology use in their teaching. The authors used both a quantitative and a qualitative method to explore how 87 secondary science student teachers demonstrate their use of digital technologies in their teaching. The student teachers’ video annotations, alongside a written reflection of critical incidents in their teaching, constituted data for the analysis. The analysis identified technology knowledge-dependent components in relation to the TPACK framework. The outcomes suggest that providing student teachers with a reflective tool such as the T-CoRe in combination with annotated self-recorded videos has the potential to make visible aspects of their TPACK. This research proposes a method for teacher education that works to improve the way that student teachers are prepared for using digital technology.
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This article includes two reflective accounts; the first is from the perspective of a retired Senior Lecturer, the second from an Educational Technologist and Developer. The blend, experiences and perspectives of these two backgrounds in the creative approaches outlined in this article was developed over an eight-year period in which different, modern approaches and techniques were researched, implemented and evaluated successfully with different cohorts of participants of differing age ranges, aptitudes and educational backgrounds.
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