Chapter

Research Integration Using Dialogue Methods

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... 10,13 Furthermore, previous studies have shown that, because of their resistance-reducing potential, E-E messages may exert a more potent effect on influencing attitudes and behaviors than traditional persuasive messages. 13,15 The curriculum focuses on four learning objectives: 1) Showcase the power of storytelling, particularly for amplifying Black voices; 2) Identify narratives of struggle and thriving shared by Black research professionals; 3) Expand awareness and consciousness of diversity, equity, and inclusive excellence; 4) Apply practical strategies and tools to recognize and promote the stories of race, equity, diversity, and inclusive excellence in different situations. ...
... Instructional materials consist of five short videos (5-8 minutes each) and discussion prompts that aim to promote critical thinking, reflection, integration of visions and worldviews, and action to promote diversity and inclusive excellence in biomedical research. 15 technique, future search conference, and appreciative inquiry. 15 The curriculum is publicly available for free through the institutional online Canvas learning platform (https://reg.distance.ufl.edu/reg/Activity/Details/e1bf6cb91dad41459f0eb09803813e66). ...
... 15 technique, future search conference, and appreciative inquiry. 15 The curriculum is publicly available for free through the institutional online Canvas learning platform (https://reg.distance.ufl.edu/reg/Activity/Details/e1bf6cb91dad41459f0eb09803813e66). ...
Article
Full-text available
Underrepresentation of Black biomedical researchers demonstrates continued racial inequity and lack of diversity in the field. The Black Voices in Research curriculum was designed to provide effective instructional materials that showcase inclusive excellence, facilitate the dialog about diversity and inclusion in biomedical research, enhance critical thinking and reflection, integrate diverse visions and worldviews, and ignite action. Instructional materials consist of short videos and discussion prompts featuring Black biomedical research faculty and professionals. Pilot evaluation of instructional content showed that individual stories promoted information relevance, increased knowledge, and created behavioral intention to promote diversity and inclusive excellence in biomedical research.
... The purpose of Consensus and State-of-the-Science Statements is to provide guidance in areas of medical and broader health practice, particularly in areas in which a body of scientific evidence is available that can be scoped, explored, assessed and synthesized, but where still controversy exists [20]. Although the Consensus Statement may prompt reassessment of medical practice, it differs from a CPG in that it merely synthesizes the latest information, often from current and ongoing medical research, and reports clinical options; it cannot and does not recommend specific clinical actions in particular circumstances [7]. ...
... The creative work of the panel is to synthesize this information, along with sometimes conflicting interpretations of the data, into clear and accurate answers to the questions posed to the panel. The statement may reflect uncertainties, options or minority viewpoints [20]. Usually, a final conference is held to formalize and record consensus. ...
... This type of document is not intended as a practice guideline, or as a primary source of detailed technical information [20]. Its publication format is simpler than that of a CPG (Table 3). ...
Article
Background and aim: The European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ESCMID) aims at further developing its role in international medical and scientific guidance in the field of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, where many types of guidance documents exist. The ESCMID Executive Committee (EC) and Clinical Microbiology and Infection (CMI) editorial board wish to clarify the terminology and format to be used in ESCMID guidance documents submitted for publication in CMI, and to highlight the principles behind ESCMID guidance documents. Types of guidance documents: There are five types of ESCMID guidance documents: White papers, Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPGs), Consensus Statements, State-of-the-science Statements, and Position papers. They differ in scope, methods of development, drafting group composition, and preferred publication format. Guidance documents can be proposed, developed and published by ESCMID Study Groups, Committees and individual members; often, other scientific societies are involved. The full disclosure of potential conflicts of interest (CoI) of all drafting group members is a requirement. Final remarks: Guidance documents constitute common cultural and scientific background to people in the same and related professions. Also, they are an important educational and training tool. Developing a guidance document is a scientific endeavour, where a sound and transparent development process is needed, requiring multidisciplinary and personal skills.
... ology (OST) in the 1980s in the hope of creating spaces that inspired the synergy and excitement of a good coffee break (Owen, 2008). Since then OST has been used successfully in 124 countries, with millions of people, within multiple contexts including commerce, education (including adult education), government and community settings (Kenny, 2014;McDonald et. al., 2009;Owen, 2008). OST sessions can last for up to 5 days or for as long as a typical second level school hour (50 minutes). The number of participants can and does vary, from as few as 5, up to over 2000 (Herman, 2006;Owen, 2008;McDonald et al., 2009). ...
... OST sessions can last for up to 5 days or for as long as a typical second level school hour (50 minutes). The number of participants can and does vary, from as few as 5, up to over 2000 (Herman, 2006;Owen, 2008;McDonald et al., 2009). ...
... to gather the thoughts, feelings, experiences, ideas and suggestions of interested, self-selected participants in relation to a key theme. It creates a space where all participants are viewed as equal, which requires individuals to 'shed their power roles ' (McDonald et al., 2009:71). The agenda is designed by those present and not pre-determined (McDonald et. al., 2009;Owen, 2008). ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper provides an introduction to Open Space Technology (OST) and its key principles, and encourages the consideration of OST as a potential method for consulting with students and staff on important issues or questions where there is diversity and conflict and where there appears to be no clear solution. The paper also provides an example of OST in use, briefly outlining how the method was used for initial exploratory data collection as part of a 4 stage PhD research project examining the identities of practitioners (teachers, trainers, tutors, instructors, facilitators etc.) within the Irish Further Education and Training (FET) sector, and the impact of recent (post 2013) sectoral changes on these identities.
... These discussions were organized into five intense half-day meetings which were attended by the core group and other irregular participants. The nominal group technique (Bammer et al., 2009) and Socratic questioning (Nussbaum, 2002) were used to generate the ideas and develop consensus while also critically reflecting on widely accepted educational concepts and assumptions. Including the preparatory work, this process lasted half year to produce the mutually acceptable document; in-depth debate and respectful negotiations paid off in mutual understanding and close relationships among the participants at the end of this period. ...
... After being agreed upon by the expert panel, the draft educational Vision was opened for wider discussion with the general public. This stage included organization of several debates, focus groups (Billson, 2006) and the national future search conference (Bammer et al., 2009) in June 2015; the outcomes of these discussions were reflected by the expert panel in the continuous improvement of the document. Two focus groups were organized with specific actors: university students from humanities and teacher education students (future teachers). ...
Purpose The authors concentrated on ESD principles and their manifestation in higher education in Central and Eastern European countries which share a similar policy situation owing to post-socialist transition processes. Design/methodology/approach Observations from comprehensive mapping of ESD in professional development of university educators in CEE within the UE4SD project provided the initial input for this research. To justify the findings, a questionnaire was distributed among informed respondents and assessed qualitatively. ESD success factors were identified to support the interpretation of the results within the overall HE policy context. Findings Opportunities for educators’ competence development are lower and less diverse in the CEE region than in other parts of Europe. Historical reasons and the policy context may contribute to this situation; the most important factor being the underfinanced higher education sector which is currently undergoing profound structural transformation. Research limitations/implications The sample of respondents is not representative; they are informed experts in ESD. The results are of an illustrative nature; different sources of information are combined to draw a broad picture. Practical implications Originality/value This research is based on more than two years of cooperation within a broad partnership of European universities; it represents a contribution to the debate from a specific regional perspective. It shows opportunities for critical, creative and participatory approaches in HE, analyzes current trends in historical and policy contexts, and provides impulses for theoretically and practically oriented efforts.
... Transdisciplinary research is crucial for sustainable development because it brings together diverse societal actors and their perspectives, knowledge, and forms of expertise. "Integration" is a widely used term to describe the act of bringing together or bridging perspectives (Bammer et al., 2020;Hoffmann, 2016;Jahn et al., 2006;McDonald et al., 2009). Integration, however, is often a buzzword to name a key event in the complex and multidimensional process of collective knowledge production without specifying what exactly it means or what actually happens during the process. ...
... • What methods, tools and processes help participants in TD projects recognise their own knowledge, expertise and disciplinary contributions in relation to others and contextual factors that influence integration in practice, both positively and negatively (cf. Bergmann et al., 2012;Eigenbrode et al., 2007;McDonald et al., 2009;O'Rourke and Crowley, 2013;Pohl and Wuelser, 2019;Vogel et al., 2013)? Relatedly, what methods, tools and processes exist to analyse, monitor, and lead such complex multidimensional integration processes? ...
Article
Full-text available
Integration is a key process in transdisciplinary research and knowledge co-production. Nonetheless, it is often used as a buzzword without specifying what exactly it means or what actually happens during integration. We propose conceptualizing integration as a multidimensional interactive process. We characterize it as an open-ended learning process without pre-determined outcomes. Integration designates relations established throughout a transdisciplinary research process between elements that were not previously related. Those elements are participants in the process and their thought-styles and thought-collectives and more specifically pieces of knowledge, ideas, or practices from different thought-collectives as well as views of individual researchers and practitioners. Integration can happen at manifold instances of a transdisciplinary research process. It can take place among two, several, or all participants and can be one-sided or mutual. It might include insights, practices, frameworks, or concepts shared by two, several, or all participants. Consensus is only one along with other ways of retaining plurality of thought-styles and seeing integration as a balance between them that remains subject to continuous revision. To analyse or achieve effective integration, further dimensions beyond the cognitive have to be taken into account including at least an emotional and a social-interactional dimension.
... Open space is a technique designed to help the members of a defined community reflect on an issue at hand, identify opportunities for change and set priorities among action steps to achieve desired goals in an innovative and productive way [23]. The approach is based on voluntary participation and participants should be interested in the topic of discussions with a certain degree of freedom and responsibility to facilitate exploration and experimentation as part of the process [23]. ...
... Open space is a technique designed to help the members of a defined community reflect on an issue at hand, identify opportunities for change and set priorities among action steps to achieve desired goals in an innovative and productive way [23]. The approach is based on voluntary participation and participants should be interested in the topic of discussions with a certain degree of freedom and responsibility to facilitate exploration and experimentation as part of the process [23]. Two sessions were organized in 2010 and 2011 respectively as part of the MEPR needs assessment; details are provided elsewhere [19]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background Active community participation in malaria control is key to achieving malaria pre-elimination in Rwanda. This paper describes development, implementation and evaluation of a community-based malaria elimination project in Ruhuha sector, Bugesera district, Eastern province of Rwanda. Methods Guided by an intervention mapping approach, a needs assessment was conducted using household and entomological surveys and focus group interviews. Data related to behavioural, epidemiological, entomological and economical aspects were collected. Desired behavioural and environmental outcomes were identified concurrently with behavioural and environmental determinants. Theoretical methods and their practical applications were enumerated to guide programme development and implementation. An operational plan including the scope and sequence as well as programme materials was developed. Two project components were subsequently implemented following community trainings: (1) community malaria action teams (CMATs) were initiated in mid-2014 as platforms to deliver malaria preventive messages at village level, and (2) a mosquito larval source control programme using biological substances was deployed for a duration of 6 months, implemented from January to July 2015. Process and outcome evaluation has been conducted for both programme components to inform future scale up. ResultsThe project highlighted malaria patterns in the area and underpinned behavioural and environmental factors contributing to malaria transmission. Active involvement of the community in collaboration with CMATs contributed to health literacy, particularly increasing ability to make knowledgeable decisions in regards to malaria prevention and control. A follow up survey conducted six months following the establishment of CMATs reported a reduction of presumed malaria cases at the end of 2014. The changes were related to an increase in the acceptance and use of available preventive measures, such as indoor residual spraying and increase in community-based health insurance membership, also considered as a predictor of prompt and adequate care. The innovative larval source control intervention contributed to reduction in mosquito density and nuisance bites, increased knowledge and skills for malaria control as well as programme ownership. Conclusion This community-based programme demonstrated the feasibility and effectiveness of active community participation in malaria control activities, which largely contributed to community empowerment and reduction of presumed malaria in the area. Further studies should explore how gains may be sustained to achieve the goal of malaria pre-elimination.
... Transdisciplinary research is crucial for sustainable development because it brings together diverse societal actors and their perspectives, knowledge, and forms of expertise. "Integration" is a widely used term to describe the act of bringing together or bridging perspectives (Bammer et al., 2020;Hoffmann, 2016;Jahn et al., 2006;McDonald et al., 2009). Integration, however, is often a buzzword to name a key event in the complex and multidimensional process of collective knowledge production without specifying what exactly it means or what actually happens during the process. ...
... • What methods, tools and processes help participants in TD projects recognise their own knowledge, expertise and disciplinary contributions in relation to others and contextual factors that influence integration in practice, both positively and negatively (cf. Bergmann et al., 2012;Eigenbrode et al., 2007;McDonald et al., 2009;O'Rourke and Crowley, 2013;Pohl and Wuelser, 2019;Vogel et al., 2013)? Relatedly, what methods, tools and processes exist to analyse, monitor, and lead such complex multidimensional integration processes? ...
... Knowledge integration is considered a major challenge of interand transdisciplinary research (Bammer 2005, Bergmann et al. 2005, Truffer 2007, Klein 2008, McDonald et al. 2009, Jahn et al. 2012. It is a core feature of Swiss National Research Programmes (NRPs), the policy-oriented funding instrument of the Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF 2012). ...
... Key questions at the beginning of the synthesis process based on Bammer (2008)) and (McDonald et al. 2009)): ...
Article
Full-text available
What methods and procedures support transdisciplinary knowledge integration? We address this question by exploring knowledge integration within four thematic synthesis processes of the Swiss National Research Programme 61 Sustainable Water Management (NRP 61). Drawing on literature from inter- and transdisciplinary research, we developed an analytical framework to map different methods and procedures of knowledge integration. We use this framework to characterize the variety of methods and procedures that were combined in the four processes to produce thematic synthesis reports. We suggest that the variety of combinations observed reflects the different objectives and questions that guided the processes of knowledge integration as well as the different roles that leaders assumed in these processes. Although the framework was developed in the course of NRP 61, we consider it as a basis for designing ex ante new synthesis processes by defining and sequencing different synthesis stages and by identifying, for each stage, the contributions of specific scientific and societal actors, the purpose of their contributions, and the methods and procedures supporting their contributions. Used in a formative evaluation process, the framework supports reflection on and adaptation of synthesis processes and also facilitates the generation of new knowledge for designing future processes.
... These discussions were organized into five intense half-day meetings which were attended by the core group and other irregular participants. The nominal group technique (Bammer et al., 2009) and Socratic questioning (Nussbaum, 2002) were used to generate the ideas and develop consensus while also critically reflecting on widely accepted educational concepts and assumptions. Including the preparatory work, this process lasted half year to produce the mutually acceptable document; in-depth debate and respectful negotiations paid off in mutual understanding and close relationships among the participants at the end of this period. ...
... After being agreed upon by the expert panel, the draft educational Vision was opened for wider discussion with the general public. This stage included organization of several debates, focus groups (Billson, 2006) and the national future search conference (Bammer et al., 2009) in June 2015; the outcomes of these discussions were reflected by the expert panel in the continuous improvement of the document. Two focus groups were organized with specific actors: university students from humanities and teacher education students (future teachers). ...
Article
The paper reviews recent theoretical discussions on education for sustainable development and competence based teaching, and relates them to the international policy processes of the Sustainable Development Goals implementation where ‘the knowledge and skills needed to promote sustainable development’ are expressed in the SDG 4.7. It shows the importance of the public debate for fostering shared understanding and acceptance of strategies for educational change within the ongoing development of Agenda 2030 at national level. The participatory involvement of multiple actors on different levels is widely recognized as a pre-requisite for consensus on long term goals, but in the Czech Republic, lack of public discussion was identified as an obstacle to deep transformation of the educational system and its reorientation towards ESD. The case study presented in this article describes participatory research conducted to reflect and support the activities of the multiple Czech actors who developed a joint Vision for education that emphasizes competences for sustainability and active citizenship. To draft the Vision and receive formative feedback on its content and wording, participatory processes were organized in several stages: an expert panel developed the first version of the document which was then consulted with representatives of other social actors in focus groups and on future search conference. Next, an overview of actors' views, preferences concerning the vision content, and the perceived opportunities for and barriers to educational change was collected through an online survey with more than 160 respondents. This generated data for reflection of different views, and quantitative analysis of the actors' expressed preferences. Results highlighted the differences in the actors' focus and particular interests, but also showed a balance in these interests between different groups of actors so that in general, the cooperatively drafted Vision proved to be widely acceptable. In the course of this participative research, in-depth discussion with a number of civic society representatives was initiated, their specific viewpoints were confronted and critically evaluated, and new concepts of the Czech educational system discussed. The fact that the arguments were developed jointly guaranteed a common understanding across a wide range of backgrounds thus facilitating the integration of the vision in policy debates. This method of participatory research is thus an example of sustainability science which strives for social impact in addition to scientific impact.
... TD implies an integration process, which aims at improving the understanding of real-world problems by synthesizing relevant knowledge from diverse disciplines and stakeholders (McDonald, Bammer, & Deane, 2009;Pohl, Krütli, & Stauffacher, 2018). ...
... Different circulating elements are identified, such as knowledge and practices. This form of communication promotes the development of active relationships between actors through the use of dialogue methods (McDonald et al., 2009) and trust building. Non-academic actors do not place themselves in a passive role, only providing information, but through this dialogue, the communicative process is improved, allows a greater understanding between the parties, and contributes to a joint construction of the problem to be addressed. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
To define integrality in the context of a Uruguayan university and to provide relevant lessons for fostering transdisciplinary research and communication at other universities and contexts. To better understand how transdisciplinary research is being developed in Uruguay and how it relates to other research practices, such as integral activities, oriented towards the resolution of real world problems. To open new spaces for communication among researchers from different regions and countries as a way of reflecting not only on concepts, but also on research practices. The call for a theoretical-methodological discussion that promotes new formats of knowledge production, yet that also recognizes other formats of great academic validity that have been developed for more than thirty years in Latin American countries such as Uruguay. To value the legitimacy of non-traditional practices of doing science, which are often simplified as multi-or interdisciplinary, because they use those terms as a way to identify themselves. Communication in Transdisciplinary Teams 254 Introduction to the Chapter This chapter assesses developments in transdisciplinary communication in research teams in the Uruguayan academic context, specifically at the Universidad de la República (Ude-laR). While we support the thesis that transdisciplinarity (TD) is still not mainstream and is rarely supported in different countries, this chapter examines the extent to which a Uru-guayan university has embraced the concept of transdisciplinarity. We seek to contribute to the conceptual discussion on transdisciplinary research, taking UdelaR as our unit of analysis. We will focus our attention on the definition of transdisciplinarity, and discuss the nuances and distinctions in its understanding. We will also analyze contextual circumstances of transdisciplinarity, including larger structural factors and the different types of communicative formats developed by research teams. Our guiding questions are the following: (i) How is transdisciplinarity conceptualized in these academic centres in the Uruguayan context? (ii) How are the communicative processes with diverse social actors defined and practiced in these four centres? (iii) What can we learn about transdisciplinary communicative processes in different cultural contexts? We analyze four case studies that provide empirical data about the communicative processes developed between academia and diverse social actors aiming to address real-world or multidimensional problems (Bunders et al., 2010). We address how transdisciplinarity develops within a specific cultural context. We find evidence that research in Uruguay is achieving some elements of transdisciplinarity in research but these practices are termed differently as extension, outreach, or integral activities. These characteristics shared by most Latin American universities guide the communicative processes among actors. We further expand the concept of transdisciplinarity and propose a revised definition that is better suited to this context. This definition should include the ways in which scientific knowledge is produced, who participates in its production, and who is authorized to state the objectives and research questions put in motion an interaction among different actors, types of knowledge and experiences. The evidence suggests that transdisciplinarity in Uruguayan research is developing under other labels, and this fact does not necessarily impede the framing of research oriented towards societal issues. Our study also acknowledges that there is a growing capacity among interdisciplinary groups to evaluate the quality of transdisciplinary communicative processes and to learn from such evaluations. We aim to build bridges among researchers conducting transdisciplinary research in different countries and continents and show that there are practices and discourses that share a common understanding of this concept. The empirical frame of reference is the experience gained in the construction and consolidation of four Interdisciplinary Centres (ICs) at UdelaR, between 2009 and 2017. The four Centres work on complex problems and address grand challenges, namely, (i) This chapter is structured as follows. First, we describe the theoretical framework used to conceptualize transdisciplinarity. Second, we present the characteristics of UdelaR's model in the shared historical context of the Centres analysed in this research. Third, we describe the four case studies in detail and discuss each space by analyzing their similarities and differences. Fourth, we conceptualize our findings in light of the rationale introduced in the second section. Finally, we present conclusions regarding the lessons learned from the analysis of the four Centres and the future research challenges.
... In this regard, different authors (Conroy 2005;Geerlings 2010;Pell et al. 2010) emphasize the involvement of stakeholders including local communities, development practitioners, researchers, and private sector actors for successful beekeeping development programs. Other scholars also highlight that research effort should focus on integrating knowledge from diverse disciplines and various stakeholders to solve realworld problems (Mcdonald et al. 2009;Bammer 2013). ...
Article
Full-text available
Tassew A, Alemayehu G, Sölkner J, Wurzinger M. 2019. Future of beekeeping in Northwestern Ethiopia: Scenarios, local adaptation measures and its implications for farmers’ livelihoods. Biodiversitas 20: 1633-1643. For this study, a participatory scenario planning approach was used to understand the driving forces, generate the plausible future scenarios of beekeeping, explore local adaptation measures and its implications for farmers’ livelihoods in Northwestern Ethiopia. Data were collected from three watersheds representing different agro-ecological zones. To identify the driving forces, different methods including key informant interviews, focus group discussions, workshops, researchers observations and literature search were applied. The data were analyzed by ranking followed by controllability, cross-impact and consistency analysis. The results show that nineteen driving forces were identified that are contributes to changes in beekeeping. Out of nineteen six most relevant and locally controllable driving forces (watershed development, deforestation, agrochemicals use, government emphasis for beekeeping development, technical support, and farmers' awareness) were selected to develop different plausible and contrasting scenarios. The three plausible and contrasting scenarios for beekeeping in 2025 are: ‘‘repressive'', ‘‘beekeeping advance'' and ‘‘beekeeping on the margins''. The results show that beekeeping significantly contributes to the livelihoods of farmers to 2025 under ‘‘beekeeping advance'' scenario. In the ‘‘beekeeping on the margins'' scenario, beekeeping has low contribution to the livelihoods of farmers. But the beekeeping is in a system of involution in ‘‘repressive'' scenario and has very low contribution to the livelihoods of farmers. The stakeholders were checked the plausibility of the scenarios and selected the ‘‘repressive’’ scenario as the worst, the ‘‘beekeeping advance’’ scenario as the best, and the ‘‘beekeeping on the margins’’ scenario as the business as usual and intervention strategies were developed to transform the current beekeeping into ‘‘beekeeping advance'' scenario. The study has shown that the participation of stakeholders in the scenario planning process provides knowledge relevant for understanding the dynamics and future scenarios of beekeeping. Hence, interventions to be made by concerned stakeholders to improve the beekeeping in the study areas need to focus on addressing the various and complex driving forces through a system wide and context-specific approach.
... Throughout the process, all parties should promote partnership on equal footing. Interactive authority which operates to marginalise participants should be counteracted, e.g. by the facilitation of dialogues by an experienced moderator (McDonald et al. 2009). ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Because of their social and ecological impacts, complex issues of climate and broader environmental change have taken centre stage in public discourses and public policy. These issues typically transcend disciplinary problem-solving and call for cross-disciplinary as well as transdisciplinary research approaches, i.e. approaches that include practice partners and aim for solving real-world problems. A case in point are climate services, a newly emerging field that aims at delivering customised climate information, products and other services in relation to climate. This chapter proceeds on the assumption that climate services can benefit from experiences of integrating research and practice to solve real-world problems in other fields such as public health and social inequality. Based on this assumption, the aim of this chapter is twofold: we firstly describe selected results of a literature study that systematically reviewed and compared the use of transdisciplinary approaches across fields. We secondly derive a list of quality criteria for transdisciplinary dialogues from the literature and from the outcome of a workshop with practitioners that we organised in November 2014. Both may inform good transdisciplinary practice for climate services.
... research and transdisciplinary knowledge integration, the focus of the dialogue process is on a research question, and the process aims to enable the formation of a combined judgment between the participants, with that judgment being informed by the best research evidence" (McDonald et al., 2009). Due to some specific problems with isolated disciplinary knowledge, uncertainties, and unknowns, and time limits to carrying out all related studies, they also provided a great deal of methods for dialogue or participatory process, such as citizen's injury, conference, Delphi technique, open space technology and, our approach, scenario planning. ...
Thesis
Ho Chi Minh City, a 300-year-old city, and its centre have passed through many phases of its development process. From 17th century to present, the entire city has significantly transformed its structure and spatial form from the area considered as a Khmer seaport to the current area formed by the combination between Saigon, the old capital of the French colony of Cochinchina, and the surrounding Gia Dinh Province (the name ‘Saigon’ is still unofficially widely used). This spatial transformation caused by the major changes in political structure and economic reforms initiated in Vietnam in 1986 led to the following changes in lifestyles, economic activities, urban morphology, cultural identities, labour market and the environment. As a result, the city centre is the area mainly affected by this phenomenon due to its leading role of the entire city. The aim of this study is to investigate the patterns and regularities behind this transformational process. The research topic, therefore, focuses mainly on the patterns of changes in spatial morphology of Ho Chi Minh City and its central area through the process of development. By using Space Syntax methods in analyzing urban structure transforming through various stages of the development process, especially Angular Segment Analysis measured by the Metric system, this research reveals the dual pattern of the spatially transformational process throughout seven different stages of history from 1882 to present. This paper is expected not only to carry out the new findings in this field but also to inspire other scholars, in general, and Vietnamese researchers, in specific, to conduct further investigations on this subject.
... Principle 12: Facilitate transformative learning. Enable transformative learning through structured dialogue (Eigenbrode et al. 2007, McDonald et al. 2009). Assist group member to become more aware and critically reflective in assessing their own and others' assumptions governing their own and others' beliefs and values (Mezirow 1997, Deutsch et al. 2021, recognizing individual and collective frames of reference and imagining alternative frames that are more inclusive, permeable, and integrative (Mezirow 1997, Pennington et al. transformative ideas that emerge" (Hackett et al. 2008, Hampton et al. 2011. ...
Article
Synthesizing heterogeneous findings from different scientific disciplines, thematic fields, and professional sectors is considered to be a critical component of inter- and transdisciplinary research endeavors. However, little is known about the complex interplay between synthesizing heterogeneous findings, leading creative synthesis, and learning about leading and synthesizing. In the present article, we therefore focus on the key interactions between leading and synthesizing, between synthesizing and learning, and between learning and leading in inter- and transdisciplinary contexts and compile a set of 21 principles that guide the interactions between these components. We use these principles to reflect ex post on the benefits and challenges we encountered in developing a nationwide monitoring program for river restoration in Switzerland and draw lessons learned for future inter- and transdisciplinary research endeavors. We conclude that learning and synthesizing do not happen on their own but need to be designed as intentional and purposeful processes.
... The promise of deliberative democracy to stakeholder theory is that its thorough theoretical grounding may lay the fundament for proce- dural justice in stakeholder dialogues, eventually providing legiti- macy for the outcomes on a global basis. This, in turn, may be the foundation for a future global regulatory framework including a wide range of political actors, among them multinational corporations and NGOs.Some insights how to operationalize dialogue and consensus build- ing may be derived fromMcDonald, Bammer, and Deane (2009). They focus on enhancing the design of procedures of stakeholder delibera- tion for addressing global challenges, and including and protecting mar- ginal stakeholders. ...
Article
Full-text available
Organizations routinely make choices when addressing conflicting stakes of their stakeholders. As stakeholder theory continues to mature, scholars continue to seek ways to make it more usable (and relevant), yet proponents continue to debate its legitimacy. Various scholarly attempts to ground stakeholder theory (empirically, instrumentally, or normatively) have not narrowed down this debate. We draw from the work of Juergen Habermas to theoretically advance stakeholder theory, and to provide practical examples to illustrate our approach. Specifically, we apply Habermas’ language-pragmatic approach (which places strong emphasis on dialogue, participation, and procedural justice) to extend stakeholder theory by advancing seven sets of normative axioms (10 axioms in total). We conclude that a deliberative approach, with its focus on the conditions of legitimation and deliberative democracy, has the potential to become a cornerstone of stakeholder theory. The need for global stakeholder discourse and its internalization in corporate structures and institutions is exemplified by a multitude of CSR and stakeholder initiatives that have mushroomed in response to global risk scenarios such as climate change, nuclear warfare, or terrorism. Further research may help to build a functioning global governance system in order to provide guidance for management in the 21st century.
... The researchers posit that such an exercise may improve team cohesion as well as reduce likelihood that the research will be monopolized by a single team member or disciplinary perspective. Similarly, McDonald, Bammer, and Deane (2009) have compiled a collection of dialogue-based strategies (e.g., consensus conferencing, citizen's jury, Delphi technique) for researchers and their community partners to use in synthesizing knowledge from diverse disciplines and stakeholders to address real-world problems. ...
Article
Full-text available
This qualitative study includes interviews with 9 team scientists to examine benefits, challenges, and lessons learned from team-based research in the social sciences. Data analyses were conducted using MaxQDA software to identify provisional and emergent themes. Benefits of team science included enhanced insights from multidisciplinary perspectives, increased scholarly productivity and impact, and mentoring of newer faculty by those with greater experience. Challenges of team science included working with individuals who had divergent philosophies and styles, increased time and effort needed to conduct the research, communicating around professional roles and responsibilities, and fit within the academic context. Lessons learned from the research included establishing relationships with potential team members prior to partnering with them, defining and documenting contributions of team members at the outset, examining institutional supports for team-based research and education, and clarifying processes around issues such as authorship and team membership. Implications are discussed as these relate to research, practice, and policy for team-based social science.
... • Structured, facilitated dialogue among collaborators can foster mutual understanding (Winowiecki et al. 2011;O'Rourke and Crowley 2013;Palmer et al. 2016) and assist in the integration of many different inputs, such as expertise, ethical implications, power differentials, and "change stories" (McDonald et al. 2009) • Teammates can use dialogue to discover worldview differences, such as differences in language use, norms, methods, and explanations, and collectively develop a way of communicating with less ambiguity or confusion 4. Use metaphor. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
In this chapter we highlight research that illuminates the challenge of disciplinary diversity as well as research that describes effective responses to this challenge. After a few preliminary remarks, we unfold this challenge in three steps. First, we discuss the process of identifying relevant disciplinary resources. Second, we examine what it is for a team to be ready to marshal these resources in integrative, cross-disciplinary team science. Finally, we discuss the process of combining, or integrating, these resources in a research project.
... This includes one of the most successful processes for structuring information, generating more and better ideas, and doing so in less time (Dowling and St Louis, 2000). NGT is also an integrative method that is particularly useful for synthesizing judgements in which different types and extents of knowledge and/or a diversity of opinions on a problem or issue exist (McDonald et al., 2011). ...
Article
Full-text available
It is difficult to identify academic sources by which to explain the practice of community potential mapping as a guideline for the community development process in Malaysia. This article aims to describe the practice of community potential mapping and explain the potential for community development in Malaysia. The study participants comprised 33 people from top-down and 283 people from bottom-up groups from 33 different villages. The data were collected by implementing the nominal group technique, and the nominal technique through an open-ended questionnaire. The study describes the flow of community potential mapping and identifies seven clusters of community potential in the community. In addition, different views and levels of awareness among the community members are highlighted with respect to the potential of their community, depending on which group they belong to (bottom-up or top-down). This reveals the importance of determining the right group of people from which to gain information about a community's potential, and also the need, as a first step, to involve both groups of people in the development process.
... Consensus conferences are just one of the various integration methods(McDonald et al., 2009). They were initiated in Denmark and adopted by various groups internationally (e.g., U.S. National Institutes for Health, https://consensus.nih.gov, ...
Article
Internal mechanisms that uphold the reliability of published scientific results have failed across many sciences, including some that are major sources of science news. Traditional methods for reporting science in the mass media do not effectively compensate for this unreliability. I argue for a new conceptual framework in which science journalists and scientists form a complex knowledge community, with science news as the interdisciplinary product. This approach motivates forms of collaboration and training that can improve the epistemic reliability of science news.
... Previous research has mainly focused on transdisciplinary integration within research projects (Bechtel, 1986;Bruce et al., 2004;Enengel et al., 2012;Klein, 2012;Loibl, 2006) or on methods and procedures to support transdisciplinary integration (Bammer, 2008;Bergmann et al., 2012;Defila and Di Giulio, 2015;Karl et al., 2007;McDonald et al., 2009;Repko et al., 2012;Vogel et al., 2013). Less attention has been directed, however, toward transdisciplinary integration within large research programs that aim at generating synthesis products tailored to the specific needs of particular target audiences. ...
Article
What challenges do researchers face when leading transdisciplinary integration? We address this question by analyzing transdisciplinary integration within four thematic synthesis processes of the Swiss National Research Programme (NRP 61) on Sustainable Water Management. We adapt an existing analytical framework to compare transdisciplinary integration across the four synthesis processes regarding different types of generated knowledge (systems, target and transformation knowledge), different types of involved actors (core team, steering committee, advisory board, scientific experts and practice experts) and different levels of actor involvement (information, consultation and collaboration) at different stages of the processes. Based on a structured ex-post self-evaluation of the four synthesis processes, we present core challenges of transdisciplinary integration as perceived by core team members of the four synthesis processes and formulate empirically derived recommendations for designing and implementing future processes. We suggest that future synthesis processes should be conceptualized and initiated concurrently with all other individual research projects, involving a phasing-in stage where leaders conceptualize transdisciplinary integration, an intermediate stage of intense knowledge integration involving all relevant actor groups in a functional and dynamic way, and a final phasing out stage, where synthesis results are consolidated within the research program, validated by different actor groups and diffused to the target audiences. We argue that transdisciplinary integration requires professional competences, management skills and enough time. Finally, we suggest fostering communities of practice (CoP) to link committed leaders and enable mutual learning processes beyond the boundaries of individual synthesis projects or research programs.
... Knowledge integration is widely regarded as a key challenge of inter-and transdisciplinary research (Bammer 2005, Bergmann et al. 2005, Truffer 2007, Klein 2008, McDonald et al. 2009. In a transdisciplinary context, it means the interrelation of different bodies of knowledge from science and practice (e. g., transcending disciplinary boundaries and bridging theory and practice) to create a more comprehensive understanding of a soci e tal problem (Jahn 2008, Pohl andHirsch Hadorn 2008). ...
Article
Full-text available
An economic approach to ecosystem services provision and biodiversity conservation may add a rationale for addressing conservation objectives in the policy sphere. It also has the potential to raise additional funding sources through market-based instruments. However, it is important to clearly take into account and communicate the challenges and limitations of valuation and the design of policy instruments. Economic approaches continue to gain traction in biodiversity policy, particularly encouraged by the TEEB initiative (The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity). While proponents of this paradigm shift consider it a win-win situation for nature and humans, its critics fear counterproductive effects of an increased commodification of nature. This article demonstrates the political and institutional implications of economic valuation and the use of economic instruments, and discusses challenges for policy implementation. Our results show, first, that economic valuation can be a worthwhile tool for assessing the value of nature, but its results must be interpreted carefully, and second, that it is important to consider the economic approach in its anthropocentric framework and to focus on the careful design of biodiversity-related economic instruments.
... The next task is to compile all the different concepts, methods and techniques that have been developed and to make them easily accessible. An example is a book of dialogue methods (see McDonald et al, 2009). To follow the development of this work see: i2s.anu.edu.au. ...
Article
This study aims to evaluate the key contributing factors of Local Peace Committees in peace�building efforts at conflict-affected areas of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan. Data were collected from a sample of 56 respondents through a structured interview schedule using the Likert Scale, and the sample size was calculated through online survey system software. The majority of the LPC members were found to be local elders of advanced age, who belonged to various political parties in the area. Many aspects of the LPCs, such as provision of necessary information and support in identification of militants to state actors, showed a significant relationship with peace-building in the area. The role of LPCs is very vital for peace-building in the area and further research needs to be carried out regarding the issues and problems faced by LPCs in the area.
... Bisherige Ansätze, die eine Reflexion von Erfahrungen in transdisziplinären (und transformativen) Forschungsprojekten erlauben, thematisieren beispielsweise Methoden der Prozessgestaltung (z. B. Bergmann et al. 2010;Defila und Di Giulio 2018b;McDonald et al. 2009) oder Managementaufgaben, die bei solchen Projekten wahrgenommen werden müssen (z. B. Defila et al. 2006;Pohl und Hirsch Hardorn 2006;Schophaus et al. 2004). ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Um die Chancen transdisziplinären (und transformativen) Forschens auszuschöpfen, müssen sich alle Beteiligten auf Neues einlassen, z. B. durch die Übernahme von Aufgaben oder Rollen, die für sie unüblich sind. Daraus können für sie erstens ungewohnte Situationen entstehen, zu deren Bewältigung sie nicht einfach auf ihre professionellen Routinen zurückgreifen können. Zweitens sind sie dabei einer erhöhten Aufmerksamkeit durch Dritte (bis hin zur breiten Öffentlichkeit) ausgesetzt. Der Gedanke, dass sich die Beteiligten in solchen Projekten exponieren, wird im Beitrag anhand paradigmatischer Erfahrungen entfaltet und als Reflexionsfolie zur Verfügung gestellt. Der Beitrag bietet mit dem Thema der Exposition einen neuen Zugang, um Erfahrungen in transdisziplinären (und transformativen) Forschungsprojekten zu analysieren. Eine Reflexion über Expositionen kann in der Vorbereitung auf ein Projekt oder auf einzelne Projektaktivitäten von Nutzen sein. Sie hilft, ein Bewusstsein dafür zu erzeugen, welche ungewohnten Situationen für wen auftreten könnten, den Umgang damit zu planen und auch vorausschauend Schutzvorkehrungen zu ergreifen, d. h. Vorkehrungen, die die Beteiligten vor negativen Auswirkungen der Expositionen schützen.
... A number of scholars have recently started to develop and collect tools and methods that support team science or the coproduction of knowledge (McDonald et al. 2009;Bergmann et al. 2012;Vogel et al. 2013). They have also compiled online toolboxes, such as the Team Science Toolkit, 1 Integration and Implementation Sciences tools, 2 or td-net's toolbox for coproducing knowledge. ...
Chapter
To address complex issues, knowledge and experts of different fields have to be brought together. Experts come with expectations and assumptions, for instance, about the knowledge that other fields might provide, how trustworthy this knowledge will be, or how important it might be for the issue at stake. Td-net’s toolbox for coproducing knowledge provides tools that help uncover these expectations and assumptions. We consider the disclosure of expectations and assumptions a key precondition for successful collaboration.
... They consider that sustainability assessments involve more than bringing together knowledge in terms of "facts," but also include appreciating different epistemologies, values, interests, and wordviews. Dialogue methods emphasize conversation criteria such as equal participation, active listening, and mutual probing of assumptions (Franco, 2006;McDonald et al., 2009). They can be used to organize stakeholder participation processes as outlined in Chapter 4 , but they can also be used to structure interdisciplinary knowledge integration among researchers. ...
Chapter
Sustainability Assessment of Urban Systems - edited by Claudia R. Binder March 2020
... In recent years, scholars from a number of organizations and networks have started to push for new specialties, including a new discipline of Integration and Implementation Sciences (i2S) (Bammer, 2019). They do so by investigating the nature of crossdisciplinary integration (O'Rourke et al., 2016;O'Rourke et al., 2019;Pohl et al., 2021), analyzing challenges inherent to leading integration (Tress et al., 2007;Hoffmann et al., 2017a), exploring necessary expertise for addressing these challenges (Di Defila and Di Giulio, 2017;Bammer et al., 2020), and compiling methods and tools that support overall integration and implementation (McDonald et al., 2009;Bergmann et al., 2012). Building on this literature, we acknowledge the need for further exploring, developing, and promoting academic careers of integration experts in all areas, while strengthening related personal qualities and expertise (Pohl et al., 2021). ...
Article
Full-text available
Integration is often considered the core challenge and the defining characteristic of inter- and trans-disciplinary (ITD) research. Given its importance, it is surprising that the current system of higher education does not provide permanent positions for integration experts; i.e., experts who lead, administer, manage, monitor, assess, accompany, and/or advise others on integration within ITD projects or programs. Based on empirical results of an ITD 2019 Conference Workshop entitled “Is there a new profession of integration experts on the rise?” held in Gothenburg, Sweden, and our own experience in leading and studying ITD integration, the present article sheds light on the overarching question, “What are integration experts?”, thus contributing to the emerging literature on integration and integration expertise. We use direct quotes from participants to substantiate workshop results and triangulate them with recent literature on ITD research as well as Science of Team Science (SciTS) and Science and Technology Studies (STS). We conclude our article by discussing possible unintended consequences of establishing academic careers for integration experts, and suggest four complementary ways to support them, while mitigating potentially negative consequences: (a) establishing an international Community of Practice (CoP) to foster peer-to-peer exchange among integration experts, create greater visibility, and develop ideas for transforming academic structures; (b) studying academic careers of integration experts to provide empirical evidence of “successful” examples and disclose different ways of establishing related academic positions; (c) funding respective positions and aligning metrics for ITD research to foster integration within ITD projects or programs; and (d) engaging in collaborative dialog with academic institutions and funding agencies to present empirical results and lessons learnt from (a) and (b) to support them in establishing and legitimating careers for integration experts. If academia is to be serious about addressing the most pressing environmental and societal problems of our time, it needs to integrate its integrators.
... Practical experiences in different areas of societal life have to be harmonized. A special research field has emerged on knowledge integration over the last decade (McDonald et al., 2009;Hoffmann et al., 2017). ...
Article
Full-text available
Climate services are becoming instrumental for providing actionable climate information to society. To understand the needs of society, climate service providers increasingly engage in processes of co-creation with practitioners. Yet, while these science-practice interactions are highly promising to match the demand and supply side of climate services, they come with challenges of their own. Potential barriers include difficulties in mutual understanding, diverging perspectives on the research problem, or a lack of resources and training in engaging with practice partners. Importantly, however, these barriers are surmountable if properly addressed. In this paper, we present the results of a series of interviews with researchers working in the funding line European Research Area for Climate Services (ERA4CS). We identify five challenges that these researchers are facing in their interactions with practice partners. From these challenges, we infer best practices that can help to strengthen such interactions. In line with other suggestions in the literature, we propose the role of a boundary manager as a promising way to put these best practices into action. This mediating role between science and society either can be taken by scientists themselves, or can be institutionalized as a dedicated position within climate service organizations. Adding to the experience that climate service providers already have, increased emphasis on boundary management could further improve their science-practice engagements
... Invitations were sent to association representatives, selected industry experts, and the tourism department of the federal government (purposive sampling, 43 participants). Accordingly, a workshop is understood as a dialogical method that aims to structure a discussion and to share knowledge from different stakeholders (McDonald et al., 2009). Ørngreen and Levinsen (2017) found out that use of workshops as a research method in combination with other empirical approaches is less represented in literature. ...
... Some systematic procedures are collected as 'methods' or 'tools' for TDR or for co-production of knowledge in general. In the scholarly literature there are publications on specific tools (Mitchell et al. 2015;O'Rourke and Crowley 2013), and contributions that analyse specific systematic procedures (Hoffmann et al. 2017;Woltersdorf et al. 2019) as well as publications that introduce collections of methods McDonald et al. 2009;Pohl and Wuelser 2019;Vogel et al. 2013). Most knowledge on systematic procedures is, with the primary aim of being used, collected and made accessible in online toolboxes, such as the Tools for Integration and Implementation Sciences, the Team Science Toolkit, or the td-net toolbox. ...
Article
Full-text available
To support societal problem solving, transdisciplinary research (TDR) uses knowledge co-production focusing on relevance and validity in a studied case and its particular social-ecological context. In the first instance, the resulting situated knowledge seems to be restricted to these single cases. However, if some of the knowledge generated in TDR could be used in other research projects, this would imply that there is a body of knowledge representing this special type of research. This study used a qualitative approach based on the methodology of grounded theory to empirically examine what knowledge is considered transferable to other cases, if any. 30 leaders of 12 Swiss-based TDR projects in the field of sustainable development were interviewed, representing both academia and practice. The transferable knowledge we found consists of the following: (1) Transdisciplinary principles, (2) transdisciplinary approaches, (3) systematic procedures, (4) product formats, (5) experiential know-how, (6) framings and (7) insights, data and information. The discussion of TDR has predominantly been focusing on transdisciplinary principles and approaches. In order to take knowledge co-production in TDR beyond an unmanageable field of case studies, more efforts in developing and critically discussing transferable knowledge of the other classes are needed, foremost systematic procedures, product formats and framings.
... 12 In the context of team science training, educational experiences for collaborative research practices need to draw attention to individual resources and existing research knowledge of each team member, while engaging teams in integrative and reflective dialogues to develop shared research objectives and projects. Building on the existing evidence for the effectiveness of integrative research dialogues 13 and strategic project planning, 14 ...
Article
Full-text available
Research collaboration is an essential research skill that promotes diversity and inclusion in research and requires comprehensive curriculum and instructional methods to provide early-stage trainees with low-risk, scaffolded experiences of collaborative research practice. Strategic Team Science is an instructional method that introduces biomedical science trainees to an inclusive way of thinking, capitalizes on the diversity of individual capabilities, and provides scaffolded experience of cross-disciplinary collaboration. Pilot results show that guided dialogues around Strategic Team Science increase research self-efficacy and interdisciplinary research orientation. Scaffolded collaboration dialogues allow students from diverse disciplines to engage actively and share ideas equitably.
... Second, to deepen the analysis and enable learning and co-production between the different networks, several workshops were organized (four workshops in Switzerland with GLP, BioDiscovery, GMBA, PAGES and MRI; one workshop in South Africa with GLP, SAPECS, Lira 2030, ITD Alliance, T2S). In these workshops, we used different dialogue methods that help structure group conversation processes aimed at enhancing self-reflection and jointly creating meaning and shared understandings [44]. Further, the empirical research insights generated in step one were used to nurture the discussions. ...
Article
Full-text available
An increasing number of voices highlight the need for science itself to transform and to engage in the co-production of knowledge and action, in order to enable the fundamental transformations needed to advance towards sustainable futures. But how can global sustainability-oriented research networks engage in co-production of knowledge and action? The present article introduces a strategic tool called the ‘network compass’ which highlights four generic, interrelated fields of action through which networks can strive to foster co-production. It is based on the networks’ particular functions and how these can be engaged for co-production processes. This tool aims to foster self-reflection and learning within and between networks in the process of (re)developing strategies and activity plans and effectively contributing to sustainability transformations.
... We focus on dialogue methods because they are a major form of intervention discussed in the research collaboration literature (McDonald, Bammer, & Deane, 2009). It is also a method we've long examined and practiced ourselves as members of the Toolbox Dialogue Initiative (Eigenbrode et al., 2007;Hubbs, O'Rourke, & Orzack, 2020;O'Rourke & Crowley, 2013). ...
Article
Full-text available
Environmental problems often outstrip the abilities of any single scientist to understand, much less address them. As a result, collaborations within, across, and beyond the environmental sciences are an increasingly important part of the environmental science landscape. Here, we explore an insufficiently recognized and particularly challenging barrier to collaborative environmental science: value pluralism, the presence of non-trivial differences in the values that collaborators bring to bear on project decisions. We argue that resolving the obstacles posed by value pluralism to collaborative environmental science requires detecting and coordinating the underlying problematic value differences. We identify five ways that a team might coordinate their problematic value differences and argue that, whichever mode is adopted, it ought to be governed by participatory virtues, pragmatic resolve, and moral concern. Relying on our experiences with the Toolbox Dialogue Initiative, as well as with other dialogical approaches that support team inquiry, we defend the claim that philosophical dialogue among collaborators can go a long way towards helping teams of environmental scientists and fellow travelers detect their problematic value differences. Where dialogical approaches fare less well is in helping teams coordinate these differences. We close by describing several principles for augmenting philosophical dialogue with other methods, and we list several of these methods in an appendix with brief descriptions and links for further learning. Overall, the article makes three main contributions to the research collaboration and values in science literatures: (1) It deepens our understanding of problematic value pluralism in team science; (2) It provides actionable guidance and methods for improving values-oriented philosophical dialogue interventions; and (3) It demonstrates one way of doing engaged philosophy.
... The approach invites a mixed-methods approach where mixing is conceptualized along the idea of integrating nonindigenous and Indigenous approaches or methods (Chilisa, 2020). Macdonald et al. (2009) propose dialogic methods that can be used for understanding particular aspects of the problem addressed by the intervention, integrating visions, world views, interests, and values. ...
Article
Transformative change is needed if the world is to achieve the sustainable development goals. Such change requires attention to culture, ethics, and values. We discuss the need to be responsive to the voices of Indigenous scholars in terms of the assumptions that guide methodological choices in the evaluation of international initiatives. We describe an Indigenous paradigmatic framework and then narrow the focus to a Made in Africa approach to evaluation that is designed to redress the epistemic violence perpetrated by the use of a Western cultural lens to determine evaluation approaches.
... Stakeholder integration theory is a combine concepts and central propositions from two or more prior existing concept into a new single set of integrated concepts and propositions [20]. Integration of stakeholders is important for developing a shared vision and for accommodating different visions so as to bridge disciplines; develops new and integrative knowledge [21]. Interactions between stakeholders are one of the driving and characterising elements of innovation processes which has the capacity to facilitate communication, mutual understanding, participative decision making and promoting awareness and understanding of the issue that needed to be integrated [22,23]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The importance of the development of theoretical and conceptual framework for integrated approach to utilisation of Alternative Building Materials in the Nigerian construction industry in a doctorate (PhD) research cannot be overephasied as it reinforces the calls for the utilisation of Alternative Building Materials. The research is aimed at development of theoretical and conceptual framework for integrated approach to utilisation of Alternative Building Materials in the Nigerian construction industry, this has been achieved through three independent but interrelated theories including stakeholders’ theory, knowledge management theory and innovation diffusion theory have been adopted for the development of conceptual framework for the utilisation of Alternative Building Materials (ABM) in the Nigerian construction industry. This is based on the need to identify the different stakeholders with respect to ABM, determine their roles and emphasise the need for integration among them. Knowledge management effort is key towards integration among the stakeholders which emphasises interaction procedure or value chain linking up individual knowledge to create social value. The diffusion of any innovation emphases scientific, technological, organiational, financial, commercial, social, business in terms of knowledge, persuasion, decision, implementation and confirmation of the innovation. The methodology of systematic literature and content analysis has been used to gather and analysed relevant data for the development of theoretical and conceptual framework for integrated approach to utilisation of Alternative Building Materials in the Nigerian construction industry through identification of strategies and benefits for utilisation of Alternative Building Materials which include low embodied energy (often leading to reduced greenhouse gas emissions), ease of construction, widespread availability and low cost.
... Dialogue can help here, as it encourages practices that can help reduce the potential of power discussions to result in conflict, such as deep listening and co-construction of meaning [Traxler, 2012;O'Rourke, Hall and Laursen, 2020]. Dialogue can be structured with dialogue methods that are designed to foreground specific considerations, e.g., methodological practices, ways of knowing, values and priorities, and power differentials [McDonald, Deane and Bammer, 2009]. ...
Article
Full-text available
In this comment, we focus on the ways power impacts science communication collaborations. Following Fischhoff's suggestion of focusing on internal consultation within science communication activities, we examine the ways such consultation is complicated by existing power structures, which tend to prioritize scientific knowledge over other knowledge forms. This prioritization works in concert with funding structures and with existing cultural and social hierarchies to shape science communication in troubling ways. We discuss several strategies to address problematic power structures. These strategies may reveal and thus mitigate problems in individual collaborations, but these collaborations exist within a larger infrastructure in need of systemic change.
... Dialogue methods help structure group conversation processes that aim to 'jointly create meaning and shared understanding about real-world problems by bringing together knowledge from relevant disciplines' (McDonald et al. 2009, p. 5). They highlight conversation criteria such as active listening, equal participation and mutual probing of assumptions (Franco 2006;McDonald et al. 2009). Furthermore, the empirical research products were used to substantiate the insights generated. ...
Article
Full-text available
Competition over land is at the core of many sustainable development challenges in Myanmar: villagers, companies, governments, ethnic minority groups, civil society organisations and non-governmental organisations from local to the international level claim access to and decision-making power over the use of land. Therefore, this article investigates the actor interactions influencing land-use changes and their impacts on the supply of ecosystem services and human well-being. We utilise a transdisciplinary mixed-methods approach and the analytical lens of the social-ecological systems framework. Results reveal that the links between land-use changes, ecosystem services and human well-being are multifaceted; For example ecosystem services can decline, while human well-being increases. We explain this finding through three different pathways to impact (changes in the resource systems, the governance systems or the broader social, economic and political context). We conclude with implications of these results for future sustainable land governance.
... The next task is to compile all the different concepts, methods and techniques that have been developed and to make them easily accessible. An example is a book of dialogue methods (see McDonald et al, 2009). To follow the development of this work see: i2s.anu.edu.au. ...
... Dialogue, understood as communication that involves the co-creation of an interpretation, is an especially useful communication modality that can be used to diagnose conditions that could result in damaging ignorance (McDonald, Bammer, and Deane 2009). A specific dialogue method designed to help teams identify and negotiate differences among core beliefs and values is the Toolbox approach. ...
Article
One way to articulate the promise of interdisciplinary research is in terms of the relationship between knowledge and ignorance. Disciplinary research yields deep knowledge of a circumscribed range of issues, but remains ignorant of those issues that stretch outside its purview. Because complex problems such as climate change do not respect disciplinary boundaries, disciplinary research responses to such problems are limited and partial. Interdisciplinary research responses, by contrast, integrate disciplinary perspectives by combining knowledge about different issues and as a result reduce ignorance about more aspects of the problem. In this paper, we develop this idea and argue that while interdisciplinary research can help remediate damaging ignorance about complex problems, it also creates conditions in which other damaging forms of ignorance can arise. We illustrate this point in detail with three case studies before discussing three implications of our analysis for identifying and managing deleterious ignorance in the context of interdisciplinary research.
Thesis
Full-text available
In a complex world, change is inevitable and wellness in the workplace remains a popular research phenomenon in facilitating employee and organisational productivity. Churches as organisations are not exempt from change dynamics in the world of work. Employees of the church, namely pastors and their well-being are similarly imperative, as they are also responsible for facilitating the well-being of others. Coaching has emerged as a valuable and useful psychological helping process aimed at enhancing employees’ well- being and facilitating their engagement, commitment and productive work behaviour. Mentoring and training are predominant interventions aimed at addressing aspects potentially relevant to pastor well-being in both the Dutch Reformed Church (DRC) and the United Reformed Church of South Africa (URCSA), albeit each with very distinct objectives in terms of calling, and professional and skills development. In light of the current underutilised mentoring programme of the DRC and the sole emphasis on skills training in the URCSA, this study emerged from the need to understand how an in-depth understanding of pastors’ experiences of well-being can contribute to construct a coaching model for professional pastoral caregivers. In order to develop a coaching model to care for and optimise the well-being of the pastors, my multidisciplinary background (stemming from Industrial and Organisational Psychology [IOP], Human Resource Management [HRM] and Theology) increased my curiosity about pastors’ experiences of well-being in a Christian faith-based South African church context. In qualitative research inquiries, investigators creatively use multiple qualitative methods from a pragmatic stance. Hence, in this thesis I used at first two qualitative research methods, namely interactive qualitative analysis (IQA) and narrative synthesis that contributed to a transparent and systematic way to collect analyse, and document the research report. As a third qualitative research method, I used an auto ethnographic reflection writing style to make trustworthy inferences about the research findings and to think about the implications thereof on the rest of the research community. A coaching model was constructed and is proposed as a possible model to care for and optimise the well-being of the pastor (individual employee) and by implication also of a church (non-profit Christian faith-based organisation). This thesis also contributes methodologically to emerging IQA research in a South African work context. Lastly, the thesis contributes to multidisciplinary studies as it integrated theoretical and empirical perspectives from three disciplines, namely IOP, HRM and Theology. In 'n ingewikkelde wêreld is verandering onvermydelik en welstand in die werksplek bly 'n gewilde navorsingsverskynsel om werknemer- en organisatoriese produktiwiteit te fasiliteer. Kerke as organisasies is nie vrygestel van veranderingsdinamika in die wêreld van werk nie. Kerke se werknemers, naamlik pastore en hul welstand is op soortgelyke wyse noodsaaklik omdat hulle verantwoordelik is om ander se welstand te fasiliteer. Afrigting het as 'n waardevolle en nuttige psigologiese hulpproses ontluik wat daarop gemik is om werknemers se welstand te bevorder en om hul betrokkenheid, toewyding en produktiewe werksgedrag te fasiliteer. Mentorskap en afrigting is oorwegende intervensies wat daarop gemik is om aspekte aan te spreek wat moontlik relevant kan wees tot pastore se welstand in beide die Nederduits Gereformeerde Kerk (NGK) en die Verenigde Gereformeerde Kerk van Suid-Afrika (VGKSA), alhoewel elkeen baie duidelik onderskeibare doelstellings met betrekking tot roeping, en professionele en vaardigheidsontwikkeling het. In die lig van huidige onderbenutting van mentorskapprogramme van die NGK en die uitsluitlike klem op vaardigheidsopleiding in die VGKSA, het hierdie studie ontstaan uit die behoefte om te verstaan hoe 'n diepgaande begrip van pastore se ervaring van welstand tot 'n konstruktiewe afrigtingsmodel vir professionele pastorale versorgers kan bydra. Om 'n afrigtingsmodel te ontwikkel om pastore te versorg en hul welstand te optimeer, het my multidissiplinêre agtergrond (industriële en organisatoriese sielkunde, menslikehulpbronbestuur en teologie) my nuuskierigheid oor pastore se welstand in 'n Christelik-gebaseerde Suid-Afrikaanse kerkkonteks geprikkel. In kwalitatiewe navorsingsvrae, gebruik navorsers meervoudige kwalitatiewe metodes uit 'n pragmatiese standpunt kreatief. In hierdie tesis het ek dus aanvanklik twee kwalitatiewe navorsingsmetodes gebruik, naamlik interaktiewe kwalitatiewe ontleding (IKO) en narratiewe sintese wat bydra om data deursigtig en sistematies te versamel, te ontleed en die navorsingsverslag te dokumenteer. As 'n derde kwalitatiewe navorsingsmetode het ek 'n reflektiewe outo-etnografiese skryfstyl gebruik om betroubare afleidings oor die navorsingsbevindings te maak en om oor die implikasies daarvan op die navorsingsgemeenskap te dink. 'n Afrigtingsmodel is saamgestel en is voorgestel as 'n moontlike model om na pastore (individuele werknemers) om te sien en hul welstand te optimeer en dus ook die van 'n kerk (niewinsgewende organisasie wat op die Christelike geloof gebaseer is). Hierdie tesis dra ook metodologies tot ontluikende IKO-navorsing in 'n Suid-Afrikaanse werkskonteks by. Die tesis dra laastens tot multidissiplinêre studies by omdat dit teoretiese en empiriese perspektiewe van die drie vakgebiede, naamlik industriële en organisatoriese sielkunde, menslikehulpbronbestuur en teologie, integreer. Mo lefatsheng le le marara, diphetogo di nna di le gona mme itekanelo ya mo tirong e sala go nna ntlha e e tlwaelegileng ya dipatlisiso go gokaganya tlhagiso ya badiri le ya setheo. Dikereke jaaka ditheo ga di a gololesega mo dintlheng tsa diphetogo mo tirong. Badiri ba kereke, e leng baruti, le itekanelo ya bona, ba botlhokwa fela jalo ka ntlha ya fa le bona ba rwele maikarabelo a go ela tlhoko itekanelo ya ba bangwe. Katiso e tlhageletse jaaka tsamaiso ya thuso e e boleng le e e mosola ya saekholoji e maikaelelo a yona e leng go tokafatsa itekanelo ya badiri le go gokaganya seabe sa bona, maitlamo le maitsholo a a mosola mo tirong. Tataiso le katiso ke ditsibogo tse di dirisiwang gantsi tse maikaelelo a tsona e leng go samagana le dintlha tse di maleba mo itekanelong ya baruti mo Kerekeng ya Dutch Reformed (DRC) le ya United Reformed Church of South Africa (URCSA), le fa tsotlhe di na le maitlhomo a a farologaneng go ya ka pitso, tlhabololo ya boporofešenale le bokgoni. Ka ntlha ya lenaneo le ga jaana le sa dirisiweng mo go lekaneng la tataiso la DRC le kgatelelo ya katiso ya bokgoni fela kwa URCSA, thutopatlisiso eno e bakilwe ke tlhokego ya go tlhaloganya ka moo go tlhaloganya go ya kwa botennye ga maitemogelo a baruti a itekanelo go ka tshwaelang ka gona go aga sekao sa katiso sa baruti ba batlhokomedi ba porofešenale. Go aga sekao sa katiso sa go tlhokomela le go oketsa itekanelo ya baruti, lemorago la me la maphatamantsi (go tswa mo Saekholojing ya Madirelo le Ditheo [IOP], Botsamaisi jwa Badiri [HRM] le Thuto ya Bodumedi (Thioloji)) le okeditse phisegelo ya me ya go itse ka maitemogelo a baruti a itekanelo go ya ka bokao jwa kereke ya Aforikaborwa e e theilweng mo tumelong ya Sekeresete. Mo dipotsisong tsa dipatlisiso tse di lebelelang mabaka, babatlisisi ba dirisa mekgwa e mentsi ya patlisiso e e lebelelang mabaka go tswa mo kemong ya dintlha. Ka jalo mo thesising eno ke dirisitse mekgwa ya ntlha e mebedi ya dipatlisiso tse di lebelelang mabaka, e leng tshekatsheko e e lebelelang mabaka ka tshusumetso (IQA) le motswako wa kanelo o o tshwaetseng mo tseleng e e seng bofitlha le e e rulaganeng go kokoanya, sekaseka le go kwala pegelo ya patlisiso. Jaaka mofuta wa boraro wa dipatlisiso tse di lebelelang mabaka, ke dirisitse setaele sa go kwala sa itshekatsheko ya othoetenokerafi go fitlhelela ditshwetso tse di ikanyegang ka ga diphitlhelelo tsa dipatlisiso le go akanya ka bokao jwa tsona mo setšhabeng sotlhe sa dipatlisiso. Go agilwe sekao sa katiso mme se tshitshinngwa jaaka sekao se se ka dirisiwang go tlhokomela le go tokafatsa itekanelo ya moruti (modiri a le mongwe) mme ka go rialo gape le ya kereke (setheo se se sa direng letseno se e theilweng mo tumelong ya Sekeresete). Thesisi eno gape e tshwaela mo ntlheng ya mekgwa mo dipatlisisong tse di tlhagelelang tsa IQA go lebeletswe Aforikaborwa. Kwa bokhutlong, thesisi eno e tshwaela mo dithutopatlisisong tsa maphatamantsi ka ntlha ya fa e kopantse megopolo ya tiori le ya maitemogelo go tswa mo maphateng a le mararo e leng, IOP, HRM le Thioloji. Eka misava ya nsohensohe, ku cinca i nchumu lowu nga sivelekekiku na swona ku hlayiseka entirhweni swa ha ri nchumu lowu nga duma swinene eka ku endliwa ka rhiseche eka ku pfuneta mutirhi na nhlangano leswo swi tirha hi xiyenge xa vuyelo bya le henhla. Tikereke tani hi minhlangano a yi le handle eka timhaka ta ku cinca emintirhweni. Vatirhi va kereke, ku nga vafundzhisi na vuhlayiseki bya vona na swona i swa nkoka tani hi leswi va nga na vutihlamuleri eka ku tiyisa leswo van'wana va hlayisekile no va na rihanyu lerinene. Ku dzabela swi vonaka tani hi nchumu wa nkoka no pfuneta eka ku pfuneta hi swa ngqondo leswi swi nga na xikongomelo xa ku yisa emahlweni vuhlayiseki bya vatirhi no endla leswo va va eka xiyimo xa ku tirhisana, ku tiyimisela no va na mahanyelo ya ku gingirika emintirhweni na ku tirha hi vuyelo. Ku mentharixa na vuleteri i minchumu leyi endliwaka hi xikongomelo xa ku langutana na rihanyu lerinene ra vafundzhisi va tikereke ta Dutch Reformed Church (DRC) na United Reformed Church of South Africa (URCSA), hambi leswi yin'wana ya tona yi nga na swikongomelo swo hambana hi ku landza xivito, na ku hluvukisiwa ka vuprofexinali na vuswikoti. Hi ku vona leswo nongonoko wa ku mentharixa a wu tirhisiwi swinene eka DRC kasi eka va URCSA ku tshikileriwa ngopfu vuleteri bya vuswikoti, dyondzo leyi yi sukela eka xilaveko xa ku twisisa swinene hi vuenti swipiriyoni swa vafundzhisi swa vuhlayiseki bya vona ku pfuneta ku endla modlele wa vudzaberi eka vahlayisi va vafundzhisi hi swa vuprofexinali. Leswo ku endliwa modlele wa vudzaberi bya ku hlayisa no yisa ehenhla xiyimo lexinene xa vafundzhisi, tidyondzo ta mina (leti sukelaka eka Industrial Organisational Psychology (IOP), Human Resource Management [HRM] na tidyondzo ta ntivo-vukwembu ku nga Theology) swi yise ehenhla ku navela ku tiva ka mina hi swipiriyoni swa vafundzhisi hi vuhlayiseki bya vona eka vugandzeri bya vona lebyi byi nga le ka Vukresre eka tikereke ta vona eAfrika Dzonga. Eka swivutiso swa qualitative research na ntirhiso wa ndzavisiso hi vuswikoti leswi swi tirhisiwaka ku endla qualitative methods eka xiyimo lexi khomekaka. Hikokwalaha eka thesis leyi ndzi tirhise eka mafambiselo mambirhi ya qualitative research methods, ku nga interactive qualitative analysis (IQA) na narrative synthesis leyi yi nga pfuneta ku kuma maendlelo lama ya nga rivaleni ku hlengeleta nxopanxopo na ku endla dokumente ya xiviko xa rhiseche. Maendlelo ya vunharhu ya qualitative research method, lama ndzi nga ma tirhisa i ya authethnographic reflection writing style ku endla tiinferense ta ku tshembeka hi vuyelo bya rhiseche na ku ehleketa hi ti-implications ta swona eka hinkwavo lava va endlaka rhiseche. Modlele wa vudzaberi wu endliwile na swona hi wona lowu wu gangisiwaka tani hi modlele lowu kotekaku wa vuhlayisi na ku yisa ehenhla nhlayiseko wa mufundzhisi (ku nga mutirhi wun'we) kasi hi vuyelo na swona eka kereke (ku nga nhlangano wa vupfumeri bya Vukreste lowu nga tirheleku vuyelo bya mali). Thesis leyi yi tlhela yi pfuneta hi metodoloji ku humesa IQA research eka xiyimo xa Afrika Dzonga. Xo hetelela, thesis leyi yi tlhela yi pfuneta tidyondzo ta multidisciplinary tani hi laha ti nga hlanganisiwa eka thiyori na le ka empirical perspectives ku suka eka tidisiplini tinharhu leti ku nga, IOP, HRM na Theology.
Article
Multidisciplinary perspectives in informing complex policies are critical, but ineffectual when diverse differences are not adequately represented. Using multicriteria analysis, potential heterogeneity of key expert preferences for 19 drug interventions in Hong Kong was examined. Significant differences in preferences were found among academics, health professionals, and law enforcers regarding drug testing, and a range of law enforcement, harm reduction, and treatment interventions. The weighted consensual preference reveals overall support for preventative and treatment strategies, with decriminalization, needle syringe programmes, reactive policing strategies, and drug testing seen as less favourable. The results assist policymakers in understanding the profound knowledge our experts possess and building robust policy that is informed by empirical evidence generated from a commonly used method in the decision sciences. Importantly, these results can inform the development of targeted institutional and criminal justice policies aimed at mitigating the adverse harms and consequences of drug involvement.
Article
The etiology of illicit substance involvement is a multidimensional problem shaped by factors across individual, social, and environmental domains. In this study, a multicriteria framework is employed to incorporate the input of specialists regarding risk and protective factors and the effectiveness of alternative interventions to mitigate the adverse harms and consequences associated with adolescent drug initiation and subsequent use. Using a seven-stage drug use continuum (nonuse, priming, initial use, experimental use, occasional use, regular use, and dysfunctional use), experts rate social and environmental factors as the most important from nonuse to occasional use. Experts often support preventive and harm-minimizing strategies to interrupt the progression of drug involvement and accumulation of drug-related harms among adolescents. Compared with preferable interventions, less preferable options (e.g., drug testing/monitoring) are considered to have a negative policy impact on key social, environmental, and drug dimension domains, which tend to override their positive impacts on other areas.
Article
Full-text available
Despite the growing interest in deliberative and dialogue models the research literature lacks investigations of the underlying assumptions of deliberative methods. Starting from the current popularity as well as the broad use of the method of deliberative inquiry -one example of such a deliberative method- this article aims to identify approaches and underlying assumptions of deliberative inquiry. Therefor a systematic literature review of empirical research, of descriptions of practical deliberative procedures and of theoretical research of deliberative inquiry is used. This review demonstrates that the method of deliberative inquiry is elaborated and used within different contexts with a corresponding range of rationales: From (1) a procedure to tackle curriculum questions through (2) a way of investigating and agreeing upon policy actions to (3) collaboratively researching issues. By describing the three approaches and by investigating the assumptions of deliberative inquiry within each approach, we demonstrate a range of rationales behind this method. Despite the distinctions, the primary goal of all manifestations of deliberative inquiry is similar: to contemplate a practical problem in a systemic and collaborative way, to weigh arguments for possible solutions and to make (even temporarily) a decision. This article concludes with future research perspectives.
Chapter
Creative methods may be partitioned along two axes, divergent versus convergent creative methods and creative methods primarily appropriate to individuals versus creative methods primarily appropriate to teams. This chapter describes a collection of divergent creative methods for individuals. It includes a collection of divergent creative methods for teams. The chapter also describes a collection of convergent creative methods for individuals and explains convergent creative methods for teams. Other creative methods includes: process map analysis, nine screens analysis, technology forecasting, design structure matrix analysis, failure mode effect analysis, anticipatory failure determination, and conflict analysis and resolution. Creative methods were selected, first and foremost, on the basis of their applicability to engineers, particularly systems engineers. Another consideration was the feasibility of implementing each creative method by practicing engineers doing their business along the entire systems' life cycle.
Chapter
This book will investigate the possibility that a new approach to knowledge organization is better suited to a contemporary academy characterized by an increased emphasis on interdisciplinarity. The knowledge organization systems (KOSs) that are most widely used in the world were developed when a discipline-based view of the universe of knowledge was common within both information science and the wider academy (see Miksa 1992). To set the stage for our analysis, it is first necessary that we define interdisciplinarity (and disciplines) and discuss the increased importance of interdisciplinarity within both the academy and the world at large. The first several sections of this chapter address definitional matters. The next several sections detail the increased importance of interdisciplinary scholarship, its value for scholarly discovery, and the place of interdisciplinarity within the academy and society. The chapter closes by outlining how we can explore in the rest of the book the ways in which knowledge organization should best facilitate interdisciplinarity.
Chapter
This chapter describes how the intrinsic way systems are evolving. It covers the topics of modeling systems evolution by way of an S‐curve and the laws of systems evolution from TRIZs perspectives. The chapter explains the classes and types of innovative processes as well as various technological innovative processes. It explores how to measure creativity and innovation. The chapter also describes a framework by which an organization can evaluate its innovative status using the innovation capability maturity model (ICMM). It provides typical organization obstacles to innovation. The chapter presents various means to promote an organization's innovative culture. It analyzes why large organizations seldom innovate and provide helpful innovation advice to creative engineers seeking to overcome these obstacles. The chapter discusses the shift in gender paradigm as well as gender disparity in terms of innovation implications. It includes various types of cognitive biases and how they relate to strategic decisions made by engineers.
Presentation
Full-text available
Therefore, the primary purpose of this paper is to analysis a sport-based intervention on the psychological well-being of the prisoners living in the prison of Cassino (Italy). The study has in particular three aims and two hypotheses: aims To determine the impact of the program on prisoners’ personal development, emotional health, resilience, social inclusion, peer relationships and other ‘life skills’. To determine the impact of the program on social cohesion in prison community. To investigate issues arising from the implementation of the program. Hypotheses 1. Participants in the program will have significantly better emotional health, peer relationships and feelings of social inclusion if compared with those who do not participate at all or who only participate minimally in the program; 2. The program will contribute to the education and rehabilitation process of the prisoners.
Article
Full-text available
Expertise in research integration and implementation is an essential but often overlooked component of tackling complex societal and environmental problems. We focus on expertise relevant to any complex problem, especially contributory expertise, divided into ‘knowing-that’ and ‘knowing-how.’ We also deal with interactional expertise and the fact that much expertise is tacit. We explore three questions. First, in examining ‘when is expertise in research integration and implementation required?,’ we review tasks essential (a) to developing more comprehensive understandings of complex problems, plus possible ways to address them, and (b) for supporting implementation of those understandings into government policy, community practice, business and social innovation, or other initiatives. Second, in considering ‘where can expertise in research integration and implementation currently be found?,’ we describe three realms: (a) specific approaches, including interdisciplinarity, transdisciplinarity, systems thinking and sustainability science; (b) case-based experience that is independent of these specific approaches; and (c) research examining elements of integration and implementation, specifically considering unknowns and fostering innovation. We highlight examples of expertise in each realm and demonstrate how fragmentation currently precludes clear identification of research integration and implementation expertise. Third, in exploring ‘what is required to strengthen expertise in research integration and implementation?,’ we propose building a knowledge bank. We delve into three key challenges: compiling existing expertise, indexing and organising the expertise to make it widely accessible, and understanding and overcoming the core reasons for the existing fragmentation. A growing knowledge bank of expertise in research integration and implementation on the one hand, and accumulating success in addressing complex societal and environmental problems on the other, will form a virtuous cycle so that each strengthens the other. Building a coalition of researchers and institutions will ensure this expertise and its application are valued and sustained.
Preprint
Full-text available
This is about deep concepts of R&D networks, requirements for their establishment, referring a case report, so emphasis on their necessities for development of health and health insurance.
Article
Full-text available
Global research studies on distance education in foreign language learning focus primarily on secondary schools or higher education. The paper examines primary school foreign language teachers’ (n=119) perceptions of distance teaching during the COVID-19 pandemic compared to face-to-face education. The purpose of the study was to investigate the quality, achieved learning outcomes, advantages and obstacles faced by FL teachers in remote teaching. Based on the e-questionnaire, our study indicated that distance FL teaching was more challenging and stressful than classroom teaching because primary school students were not responsive to technology and needed parental guidance. Primary school students rely on cognitive and socio-emotional support from the FL teacher.
Article
Full-text available
The Most Significant Change (MSC) technique is a dialogical, story-based technique. Its primary purpose is to facilitate program improvement by focusing the direction of work towards explicitly valued directions and away from less valued directions. MSC can also make a contribution to summative evaluation through both its process and its outputs. The technique involves a form of continuous values inquiry whereby designated groups of stakeholders search for significant program outcomes and then deliberate on the value of these outcomes in a systematic and transparent manner. To date, MSC has largely been used for the evaluation of international development programs, after having been initially developed for the evaluation of a social development program in Bangladesh (Davies, 1996). This article provides an introduction to MSC and discusses its potential to add to the basket of choices for evaluating programs in developed economies. We provide an Australian case study and outline some of the strengths and weaknesses of the technique. We conclude that MSC can make an important contribution to evaluation practice. Its unusual methodology and outcomes make it ideal for use in combination with other techniques and approaches.
Article
Full-text available
Scenario Planning has been around for more than 30 years and during this period a multitude of techniques and methodologies have developed, resulting in what has been described as a ‘methodological chaos’ which is unlikely to disappear in the near future (A. Martelli, Scenario building and scenario planning: state of the art and prospects of evolution, Futures Research Quarterly Summer (2001)). This is reflected in the fact that literature reveals an abundance of different and at times contradictory definitions, characteristics, principles and methodological ideas about scenarios. It has been suggested that a pressing need for the future of scenarios is amongst other things, to resolve the confusion over ‘the definitions and methods of scenarios’. This paper makes a beginning at this need by tracing the origins and growth of scenarios and the subsequent evolution of the various methodologies; a classification of the methodologies into three main schools of techniques is given and the salient features of these schools are compared and contrasted.
Article
This paper gives an account of an experiment in the use of the so-called DELPHI method, which was devised in order to obtain the most reliable opinion consensus of a group of experts by subjecting them to a series of questionnaires in depth interspersed with controlled opinion feedback.
Article
Values are fundamental to choice and decision. This paper addresses how the notion of value is implicated, addressed and integrated in relation to decisions that affect natural areas. Three topics - rationality, citizen participation and values - are brought together in a review of methods for value integration. Each method is discussed in relation to its processes and products, value inclusiveness, assumptions, limitations, strengths and application. None of the methods have the ability to integrate all relevant values for all actors across the variety of contexts in which environmental choices must be made. Application of an integrative rationality is needed to yield a combined approach that utilises a number of methods such that their respective limitations and weaknesses are, as far as possible, overcome. A crucial task is to enhance our capacity for designing citizen-inclusive, value comprehensive and transparent multi-method processes.
Article
Large, decentralized scientific and engineering organizations based in North America and Europe have identified electronic media as a strategic technology for communication and information dissemination to their members and other stakeholders. The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), the largest technical society in the world, recognized its increasing dependence on electronic media and commissioned a study to assess the social, organizational, and economic impacts of this shift on its members and other stakeholders. Results of the study are reported herein. The Delphi research method was chosen to gather expert opinion from 30 IEEE members and other stakeholders regarding their predictions of the range and depth of impacts, types of benefits, and undesirable effects. The purpose of this research is to provide a series of recommendations as to how scientific and technical organizations may take full advantage of electronic media technology, while taking actions to avoid the negative consequences of this technological change.
Article
Consensus conferences, also known as citizens'panels - a collection of lay citizens akin to a jury but charged with deliberating on policy issues with a high technical content -are a potentially important way to conduct technology assessments, inform policy makers about public views of new technologies, and improve public understanding of and participation in technological decision making. The first citizens'panel in the United States occurred in April 1997 on the issue of "Telecommunications and the Future of Democracy." This article evaluates the impact of this citizens 'panel. The standard criteria to evaluate the impact of analyses focus on the "actual impact" and on the "impact on general thinking." To these standard criteria, this article introduces the evaluation of two impacts related to learning: impact on the tn lining of knowledgeable personnel and the interaction with lay knowledge. The impact evaluation is based on a nearly comprehensive set of semistructured telephone interviews with the participants in the panel.
Article
Multi-agency planning is becoming increasingly important to organisations, especially those concerned with delivering services for the benefit of the community. This paper describes how a modified version of the methods from soft systems methodology (SSM), chosen through methodological reflections informed by critical systems thinking, was used to support the planning of a multi-agency counselling service that could be activated in the event of a disaster. Representatives of nineteen agencies were involved in this exercise, working together in six, one-day workshops. Feedback from participants, using four evaluation criteria (derived from the principles of SSM and the stated priorities of workshop participants), suggests that the methods of SSM, modified as described, show a great deal of promise as a support to multi-agency planning.
Article
Internationally, fieldwork is generally seen as intrinsic to the very nature of geographical education. However, objective experimentation comparing student learning experiences with and without fieldwork is rare. During 2001 in the UK, fieldwork was withdrawn from many university degree programmes as Foot and Mouth Disease led to restrictions on access to the countryside. This restriction provided an unexpected opportunity to assess student perceptions of fieldwork in the light of its absence and to review those alternative learning strategies which were put in its place (where appropriate). To this end, nominal group technique (NGT) was applied to five groups of students from five separate UK universities to obtain information on the groups' perceptions of the value of fieldwork. NGT elicited almost 300 responses from 33 final-year students representing a high level of group consensus on the issues involved. Rationalisation of responses identified 12 categories, which reflect and amplify key educational objectives addressed by fieldwork in geography and environmental sciences from existing theoretical literature. Results demonstrate that student perception of fieldwork (based on previous university-level field experiences) is overwhelmingly positive. The groups identified the experience of geographical reality, developing subject knowledge, acquiring technical, transferable and holistic skills, and working with peers and lecturers as being the most important perceived benefits of fieldwork. Negative impacts of fieldwork included high levels of time consumption. Using a systematic and objective methodology, these results confirm, in a novel rigorous multi-institutional approach, the conception of geography and environmental science fieldwork as being of significant value for the overall student learning experience.
Article
This brief guide reviews the philosophical underpinnings of the prospective procedure then strives to explain the concepts and characteristics of this “intellectual undiscipline” which aims not to predict but rather to help shape the future. La prospective contributes to our efforts to gain foresight, an indispensable quality for anyone who wants to be an actor in a future yet to be created. The various stages of the procedure are presented, in particular the scenario method as applied by the author in local, national, and international futures projects for subjects as varied as aging populations, retirement in industrialized countries, and the impact of new technology on production.
Article
The idea for this section of the journal came partly from our mutual involvement in a project that was designed to raise the pedagogic research capacity of academics working in geography, earth and environmental sciences (GEES). This project was funded by the UK Learning and Teaching Support Network and undertaken by the LTSN GEES Subject Centre for these subjects. The project was based on a partnership with educational researchers and subject specialists. Briefly, four cross-university and cross-subject research groups were funded to explore pedagogic issues relating to various aspects of fieldwork; one further group, 'doing pedagogic research', was charged with researching the project's effectiveness in building pedagogic research capacity.We were participants in the 'doing pedagogic research' group that surfaced evidence about the value of facilitating dialogues between educationists and subject specialists. Of course, geographers are experienced in a range of research methods, depending on their specialisms, and many of these methods--quantitative and qualitative--do overlap with educational research methods. However, we also generated evidence that resistance to some pedagogic research methods, particularly qualitative ones, had much to do with subject-based views about their reliability and validity. We hope, therefore, that this section will both deepen dialogue about the value of pedagogic research and show ways in which robust research designs can be developed within a range of methods.In this section of the journal, our intention is to publish articles that describe and reflect on particular research methods and techniques to stimulate ideas among our readers about ways in which they might conduct pedagogic research. We also hope to publish discussions on methodology. As a journal dedicated to advancing our understandings of the teaching and learning of geography in higher education, there needs to be space to question the value basis for such understandings. In the first contribution in this section (which comes out of the LTSN GEES Project) Steve Gaskin describes the use and methods of the Nominal Group Technique within focus-group research with geography students.
Article
The aim of this paper is to make recommendations for the procedural optimization of the Future Search Conference design on the basis of empirical evidence from two case study conferences in Germany and the United Kingdom. The paper presents the major criticisms that have been raised against the step-by-step conference design in the theoretical literature and contrasts these with the empirical findings of two stakeholder-based evaluations. The author draws attention to a number of weaknesses in the conference opening, the common ground phase and the action planning phase of the Future Search Conference design and makes proposals for design changes. The paper suggests that a systematic and stakeholder-oriented evaluation should be part of interventions like Future Search Conferences. The paper concludes with a reminder that the political context and local power relations are a key variable in determining success or failure of a Future Search conference. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
Public policy makers, planners, and managers are increasingly relying on what might be called large-group interaction methods to involve large numbers of people (from as few as eight to more than 2,000) in planning and implementing major change efforts. These methods are structured processes for engaging large numbers of people to: (1) enhance the amount of relevant information brought to bear on a problem; (2) build commitment to problem definitions and solutions; (3) fuse planning and implementation; and (4) shorten the amount of time needed to conceive and execute major policies, programs, services, or projects. Proponents of such methods claim that they provide sets of concepts, procedures, and tools that can help public and nonprofit organizations and communities deal effectively with change. On the other hand, a number of boundary conditions surround the successful use of the methods. The authors compare and contrast seven approaches most frequently used in the public sector in the United States and abroad (i.e., Real Time Strategic Change, Search Conferences, Future Searches, Strategic Options Development and Analysis, Strategic Choice, Technology of Participation, and Open Space Technology) to illustrate their comparative strengths and weaknesses and to develop an agenda for research.
Article
The Norwegian National Committee for Research Ethics inScience and Technology (NENT), collaborating with The NorwegianFisherman''s Association and The Research Council of Norway,started in 1999 a project aiming at an ethical assessment of Norwegian fisheries for the year 2020. The project was to preparethe ground for ethical debate in and of the fishery sector inview of pending important decisions on long term strategies. Thispaper has its focus on the method used for achieving these aims,rather than the substantive results concerning the fisheries. Amethod was developed for this purpose, called the ethicalscenario process. This included the construction of scenarios forthe future of Norwegian fisheries, using an ethical matrix for evaluating strategies, and organizing a ``value workshop'''' whereparticipants from different stakeholder groups came together todo ethical evaluations. The positive achievements and theshortcomings of this method are discussed in this paper. The useof an ethical matrix was meant to combine a participatory approachwith insights from theoretical ethics. The project revealedinherent tensions between these two objectives. Possible ways ofdealing with this tension are indicated, but in general a goodgrasp of the socio-political context might be the best guardianagainst the possible pitfalls involved in such an approach.
Article
How the future landscape will look depends particularly on the outcome of the socio-economically motivated decisions of farmers, food processors, retailers and consumers, all members of the food supply chain. However, a long-term perspective on the food supply chain and its landscape effects is confronted with a great deal of uncertainty and data constraints. These difficulties can be partly avoided by using the personal judgements of agents whose decisions control the structure of present and future food supply chains. A well-established agent-based method for dealing with and describing variation in the future is the method of scenario planning. The aim of this paper is to present the application of the scenario approach to the Austrian food supply chain in 2020 and its landscape impacts. A critical discussion of the scenarios should reflect their explanatory power regarding future development options for landscapes. The first section of the paper outlines the interactions between society, the food supply chain and the landscape in a conceptual model. It describes the applied scenario technique and the research setting involving agents from agriculture, the food industry, retailing, gastronomy, and consumer organisations. Four scenarios for the food chain in 2020 are presented (Liberal Market Scenario, Protective Policy Scenario, Fast World Scenario, Slow World Scenario) and their respective consequences and strategies are discussed. The scenario technique used is found to be a useful means of gathering and structuring disperse expert knowledge. The paper concludes that—despite some methodological limitations—scenarios can deal with uncertainty concerning the socio-economic driving forces of landscape change and therefore can be used as a preliminary step in formulating robust strategies for landscape management.
Article
This conceptual paper explores three areas of research collaboration: (a) effectively harnessing differences, (b) setting defensible boundaries and (c) gaining legitimate authorization. The focus is on their potential lessons for individuals leading and managing research collaborations, evaluation of research partnerships and areas for further investigation. Examples from three partnerships – building the atomic bomb, the Human Genome Project and the World Commission on Dams – are used to highlight key elements of the ideas presented. The paper provides a framework for systematically thinking about integration of different perspectives and other elements essential to any particular collaboration. It also sketches out ideas for (1) managing differences which may destroy partnerships, (2) deciding what the collaboration should encompass, (3) understanding and accommodating forces which may distort what the collaboration is able to achieve, and (4) enlisting necessary supporters while preserving research independence.
Article
A citizens’ jury (CJ) is a method to aid decision-making by public bodies, and is loosely based on the idea of a criminal jury. Ordinary members of the public, acting in their capacity as citizens concerned with the public good rather than consumers concerned with private interest, are drawn together to reach a public decision. The jury is independent, and its verdict is expected to carry some authority, derived from an understanding that the jury is representative, and the deliberation is satisfactory. A CJ was organised as part of a larger UK study which also conducted a contingent valuation survey on broadly the same valuation issue, land use in a former wetland region in Cambridgeshire, UK. A major aim of the study was to investigate whether CJs allow views of a different kind to those captured by contingent valuation surveys to be expressed — views couched in terms of public benefits, right and wrong, and the common good. If this is true, CJs offer a promising forum for articulating views, and even recommending decisions, about public goods including environment features.
Article
In any subject concerned with rational intervention in human affairs, theory must lead to practice; but practice is the source of theory: neither theory nor practice is prime. We can examine this 'groundless' relation by asking what intellectual framework F is applied in what methodology M to what area of application A? If we do this for O.R., systems analysis, systems engineering etc., we see that F and M have changed dramatically between the 1950s and the 1980s, yielding the 'hard' and 'soft' traditions of systems thinking. The 'hard' tradition, based on goal seeking, is examined in the work of Simon and contrasted with the 'soft' tradition, based on learning, as exemplified in the work of Vickers and the development of soft systems methodology. The two are complementary, but the relation between them is that the 'hard' is a special case of 'soft' systems thinking. This analysis makes sense of the recent history of management science and helps to prepare us for the 1990s.
Article
The paper describes the use of the Delphi method to estimate the incidence of food-borne Salmonella in the UK and the effectiveness of alternative control measures. A panel of experts of food-borne Salmonella participated in the Delphi survey, which involved five rounds of questioning taking place in the period July 1993 to January 1994. Participants were asked to give initial estimates for a number of parameters and invited to revise these estimates through progressive rounds of the survey at which the group responses were reported back. This process resulted in a reduction in the variation between the estimates given by individual experts. The final estimated annual incidence of food-borne Salmonella in the UK was 537,000, although significant variation remained between, individual estimates. The foods judged to be the most important modes of transmission were poultry and poultry products (50% of cases) and eggs and egg products (26% of cases). The panel was also requested to estimate the effectiveness of strategies available to reduce the incidence of food-borne Salmonella from all sources. The most effective methods were judged to be food irradiation and mandatory application of HACCP, although there were significant differences in the judged effectiveness of these technologies for individual respondents. The paper demonstrates the efficacy of the Delphi method as a mechanism for reconciling differences between expert judgements of the incidence of food-borne disease and the effectiveness of alternative control strategies.
Article
Awareness of variations in the delivery of medical care has resulted in considerable research activity focused on developing measures to assess the appropriateness of health service provision both internationally and within Great Britain. As in other areas of health service provision there is evidence of variation in advice provided alongside sales of non-prescription medicines and variation in response to requests for advice about the treatment of minor ailments within community pharmacies in Great Britain. However, there is little research which has explored the extensive methodological problems associated with developing criteria to assess the appropriateness of these two activities.
Article
To develop medical school curriculum guidelines related to bioterrorism to ensure that future medical graduates are armed with the critical knowledge, skills, and attitudes to face this emerging threat. An Internet-based Delphi survey was performed in 2002 under the auspices of the Association of Medical School Microbiology and Immunology Chairs involving 64 medical educators in microbiology, immunology, and infectious diseases representing 54 U.S. medical schools. A 12-member bioterrorism expert reference panel participated in the final phase of the survey. Study participants identified the top educational objectives for the following bioterrorism-related curriculum categories: general issues, biodefense, public health, infection control, infectious diseases, and toxins. The study focused on preparedness training through the development of curricular guidelines in predominantly preclerkship medical education by identifying basic science and clinical laboratory aspects of putative biologic weapons organisms and toxins, clinical manifestations of bioterrorist attacks, treatment strategies, epidemiology, and prophylaxis.
Article
Involving the public in decision-making has become a bureaucratic pre-occupation for every health agency in the UK. In this paper we offer an innovative approach for local participation in health decision-making through the development of a 'grounded' citizens' jury. We describe the process of one such jury commissioned by a Primary Care Group in the north-west of England, which was located in an area suffering intractable health inequalities. Twelve local people aged between 17 and 70 were recruited to come together for a week to hear evidence, ask questions and debate what they felt would improve the health and well-being of people living in the area. The jury process acted effectively as a grass-roots health needs assessment and amongst other outcomes, resulted in the setting up of a community health centre run by a board consisting of members of the community (including two jurors) together with local agencies. The methodology described here contrasts with that practiced by what we term 'the consultation industry', which is primarily interested in the use of fixed models to generate the public view as a standardized output, a product, developed to serve the needs of an established policy process, with little interest in effecting change. We outline four principles underpinning our approach: deliberation, integration, sustainability and accountability. We argue that citizens' juries and other consultation initiatives need to be reclaimed from that which merely serves the policy process and become 'grounded', a tool for activism, in which local people are agents in the development of policies affecting their lives.
Article
In summary, CI soft failure is an uncommon occurrence in which a device malfunction is suspected but cannot be proven. It is a working diagnosis, based on characteristic symptoms such as shocking sensations, popping sounds, intermittency, or unexplained progressive decrement in performance. Complete otological evaluation, CT scan, expert re-programming, exchange of all external hardware, and integrity testing by the manufacturer are necessary before the working diagnosis is made. The usual management is device replacement when aversive symptoms are intolerable or performance becomes unacceptable as determined by the team and family.
Article
FOCUS: The paper focuses on public health practitioners who collectively represent one of three key workforce groups identified by England's Chief Medical Officer as critical to the successful delivery of national public health policy priorities. We report on two areas of work which attempt to address the following two-part question: in developing the public health practitioner workforce in England, what is needed, and how do we do it? First, we describe a five-component conceptual framework for developing the public health workforce which is grounded in data derived from a national Open Space event hosted by the University of the West of England in March 2005. The five components are (i) strategic support and oversight; (ii) national technical and professional support; (iii) national career building; (iv) local organisational development, and (v) sub-regional skills development. Key elements of each component are described in the paper. Second, we describe in some detail a new multidisciplinary skills development programme which illustrates one of the framework components (sub-regional skills development). The programme, established in January 2005, is aimed at three key groups of public health practitioners: health visitors (specialist community public health nurse), school nurses and environmental health officers. Its main features and some initial evaluation findings are presented. To be effective, activities aimed at supporting the development of the public health practitioner workforce should, where possible, aim to be congruent with core public health principles of self-determination and collective responsibility. We also conclude that leadership and vision at a national level, combined with local implementation of evidence-based training programme such as the one described could help to achieve much greater and more rapid progress in skilling up the existing public health practitioner workforce than has been possible up to now. But we note that this requires sustained investment, robust sector-wide delivery frameworks, and a group of committed local public health champions.
Article
The RTI International-University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Evidence-based Practice Center (RTI-UNC EPC) systematically reviewed the evidence on (a) the effectiveness of community- and population-based interventions to prevent tobacco use and to increase consumer demand for and implementation of effective cessation interventions; (b) the impacts of smokeless tobacco marketing on smoking, use of those products, and population harm; and (c) the directions for future research. We searched MEDLINE, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Applied Health (CINAHL), Cochrane libraries, Cochrane Clinical Trials Register, Psychological Abstracts, and Sociological Abstracts from January 1980 through June 10, 2005. We included English-language randomized controlled trials, other trials, and observational studies, with sample size and follow-up restrictions. We used 13 Cochrane Collaboration systematic reviews, 5 prior systematic reviews, and 2 meta-analyses as the foundation for this report. Trained reviewers abstracted detailed data from included articles into evidence tables and completed quality assessments; other senior reviewers confirmed accuracy and resolved disagreements. We identified 1,288 unique abstracts; 642 did not meet inclusion criteria, 156 overlapped with prior reviews, and 2 were not published articles. Of 488 full-text articles retrieved and reviewed, we excluded 298 for several reasons, marked 88 as background, and retained 102. Evidence (consistent with previous reviews) showed that (a) school-based prevention interventions have short-term (but not long-term) effects on adolescents; (b) multicomponent approaches, including telephone counseling, increase the number of users who attempt to quit; (c) self-help strategies alone are ineffective, but counseling and pharmacotherapy used either alone or in combination can improve success rates of quit attempts; and (d) provider training and academic detailing improve provider delivery of cessation treatments, but evidence is insufficient to show that these approaches yield higher quit rates. New evidence was insufficient to address the following: (a) effectiveness of population-based prevention interventions; (b) effectiveness of provider-based interventions to reduce tobacco initiation; (c) effectiveness of community- and provider-based interventions to increase use of proven cessation strategies; (d) effectiveness of marketing campaigns to switch tobacco users from smoking to smokeless tobacco products; and (e) effectiveness of interventions in populations with comorbidities and risk behaviors (e.g., depression, substance and alcohol abuse). No evidence was available on the way in which smokeless tobacco product marketing affects population harm. The evidence base has notable gaps and numerous study deficiencies. We found little information to address some of the issues that previous authoritative reviews had not covered, some information to substantiate earlier conclusions and recommendations from those reviews, and no evidence that would overturn any previous recommendations.
Ideas for Community Consultation: A discussion on principles and procedures for making consultation work
  • L Carson
  • K Gelber
Carson, L. and Gelber, K. 2001, Ideas for Community Consultation: A discussion on principles and procedures for making consultation work, NSW Department of Urban Affairs and Planning, Sydney, New South Wales