Micro RNA: New aspect in pathobiology of preeclampsia?

Article (PDF Available)inEgyptian Journal of Medical Human Genetics · February 2012with54 Reads
DOI: 10.1016/j.ejmhg.2011.09.002
The discovery of miRNA in 1993, by Ambros et al. has had a huge influence in pathogenesis theory; diagnosis and treatment approach to some diseases. Some scientifically proven theories have been proposed to seek the association of alterations of miRNA expression to incidences and severity of preeclampsia (PE). In this review we explore the result of such investigations that discuss the association of miRNA and PE along with the role of various mRNAs in PE pathogenesis.
Micro RNA: New aspect in pathobiology of preeclampsia?
Harapan Harapan
, Mohd. Andalas
, Diky Mudhakir
, Natalia C. Pedroza
Saurabh V Laddha
, Jay R. Anand
Obstetrics and Gynecology Department, School of Medicine Syiah Kuala University, Banda Aceh, Indonesia
Schools of Pharmacy, Bandung Institute of Technology (ITB), Bandung, Indonesia
Viral Vector Core and Gene Therapy, Neuroscience Group, University Research Center, University of Antioquia,
n, Colombia
G N Ramachandran Knowledge Center for Genome Informatics, Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology (CSIR),
Mall Road, Delhi 110007, India
Department of Pharmacology, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Guwahati, India
Received 29 June 2011; accepted 28 September 2011
Available online 14 February 2012
Preeclampsia pathogenesis
Abstract The discovery of miRNA in 1993, by Ambros et al. has had a huge influence in pathogen-
esis theory; diagnosis and treatment approach to some diseases. Some scientifically proven theories
have been proposed to seek the association of alterations of miRNA expression to incidences and
severity of preeclampsia (PE). In this review we explore the result of such investigations that discuss
the association of miRNA and PE along with the role of various mRNAs in PE pathogenesis.
Ó 2012 Ain Shams University. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
2. Discussion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
Corresponding author. Address: Obstetrics and Gynecology Depart-
ment, School of Medicine Syiah Kuala University, Jl. Tanoeh Abe,
Darussalam, Banda Aceh 23111, Indonesia. Tel.: +6285260850805.
E-mail address: harapantumangger@yahoo.com (H. Harapan).
1110-8630 Ó 2012 Ain Shams University. Production and hosting by
Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Peer review under responsibility of Ain Shams University.
Production and hosting by Elsevier
The Egyptian Journal of Medical Human Genetics (2012) 13, 127131
Ain Shams University
The Egyptian Journal of Medical Human Genetics
2.1. Biogenesis and mechanism action of miRNA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
2.2. Molecular mechanisms of preeclampsia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
2.3. The role of miRNA in preeclampsia pathogenesis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
3. Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
4. Disclosure statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
1. Introduction
Preeclampsia (PE) is a disease of pregnancy characterized by
hypertension (defined as systolic blood pressure P140 mm
Hg or diastolic blood pressure P90 mm Hg) and proteinuria
(300 mg or greater in a 24-h urine specimen and/or protein to
creatinine ratio of >0.30), developing after 20 weeks of gesta-
tion [1–3]. It has been estimated that PE affects 3–5% of preg-
nancies worldwide [4], recently, it has been reported that PE
complicates 3–8% of pregnancies [5]. There is much evidence
shown that PE originates in the placenta [6,7] and thus the pla-
centa is believed as the central basis to the pathogenesis of PE
[8]. But the molecular basis for placental dysregulation of these
pathogenic factors remains unknown. Many hypotheses have
emerged that attempt together a causal framework for the dis-
ease, causing PE to be named the ‘disease of theories’ [9].
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, noncoding RNAs 22
nucleotides (nt) in length that regulate gene expression, with
important functions in the regulation of a variety of biologic
processes involved in development, cell differentiation, regula-
tion of cell cycle, metabolism and apoptosis [10–12]. Albeit only
1% of the genomic transcripts in mammalian cells encode miR-
NA [13], miRNAs are predicted to control the activity of more
than 60% of all protein-coding genes [14] . It has been estimated
that miRNAs regulate 30% of human genes [10,15].
MicroRNAs regulate mRNA, which encodes proteins that
modulate cellular functions, therefore, miRNAs play important
roles in physiological homeostasis in health and pathophysio-
logical derangement in disease [13]. MicroRNAs are known to
have function in pathological process and prognosis of diseases
such as diabetes [16], neurodegenerative disorder [17], gastroin-
testinal diseases [18] and cancer and its resistance toward chemo-
therapy [19]. It has been also proposed that the presence of single
nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the processing machinery
and target binding sites genes of miRNA affects cancer risk,
treatment efficacy and patient prognosis [20]. Certain miRNAs
are tissue-specific and the temporal expression of the tissue-spe-
cific miRNAs correlates closely with the specific physiological or
pathological status of the corresponding organs [13].
Research conducted by Pineles et al. [21] shows that PE is
associated with alterations in placental miRNA expression.
This research reported that miR-210 and -182 are expressed dif-
ferentially in the human placentas of patients with PE compared
with control subjects [21]. In this review we will discuss the role
of miRNA as a new aspect in pathophysiology of PE.
2. Discussion
2.1. Biogenesis and mechanism action of miRNA
The first report on miRNA was presented in 1993 by Ambros
et al. who described a 22-nucleotide RNA in Caenorhabditis
elegans encoded by the lin-4 gene, which can bind to the lin-
14 transcript and interfere with its expression [13]. Functional
studies indicate that miRNAs participate in the regulation of
almost every cellular process investigated so far and that
changes in their expression are associated with many human
pathologies [22].
MicroRNAs are processed from RNA polymerase II (RNA-
PII)-specific transcripts of independent genes or from introns of
protein-coding genes [23]. These initial miRNA precursors,
known as pri-miRNAs, are processed into 70 nt hairpin struc-
tures known as pre-miRNAs in the nucleus by a nuclear en-
zyme complex known as the microprocessor that contains an
endoribonuclease Drosha and a double-stranded RNA bind-
ing protein DiGeorge syndrome critical region 8 (DGCR8).
This process called as Drosha–DGCR8 step [22,24]. Drosha is
an RNase III enzyme which contains two RNase domains which
cleave the 5
and 3
ends, releasing the pre-miRNA [25]. Some
pre-miRNAs are produced from very short introns (mirtrons)
that bypass the Drosha–DGCR8 step [22].
The pre-miRNA is exported from the nucleus to the
cytoplasm by Exportin-5 (XPO5) [26]. In the cytoplasm, the
pre-miRNA is further cleaved by another RNase III enzyme
Dicer, which removes the loop to yield the 22 nucleotide miR-
NA duplex [13]. After being unwound by a helicase, one strand
of miRNA is destined to be the mature miRNA called as guide
strand and the complementary strand called as passenger
strand or miRNA*– is rapidly degraded [13]. The thermody-
namic stability of the miRNA duplex termini and the identity
of the nucleotides in the 3
overhang determine which strands
act as the guide strand [20]. Then the guide strand is incorpo-
rated into a miRNA-induced silencing complex (miRISC)
Guided by the sequence complementarity between the small
RNA and the target mRNA, miRNA–RISC-mediated gene
inhibition is commonly divided into three processes: (a) site-
specific cleavage, (b) enhanced mRNA degradation and (c)
translational inhibition [27].
The miRISC–mRNA interaction can lead to several modes
of direct and indirect on translational repression [13]. Direct
on translational repression involved: (a). Initiation block: The
miRISC inhibits translation initiation by interfering with
eIF4F-cap recognition and 40S small ribosomal subunit recruit-
ment or by antagonizing 60S subunit joining and preventing
80S ribosomal complex formation. (b) Postinitiation block: pre-
mature ribosomal drop-off, the 40S/60S ribosomes are dissoci-
ated from mRNA, stalled or slowed elongation, the 40S/60S
ribosomes are prohibited from joining during the elongation
process or facilitating proteolysis of nascent polypeptides
[13,25,28]. The indirect on translational repression occurs via
mRNA deadenylation and degradation [13,28]. Deadenylation
of mRNAs is mediated by glycine–tryptophan protein of
182 kDa (GW182) proteins the components of miRISC,
poly(A)-binding protein (PABP), and Argonaute (AGO) pro-
128 H. Harapan et al.
tein [22,25,27]. Argonaute (AGO) proteins are core components
of the miRISC which are directly associated with miRNAs [22].
Then this molecule will interacts with the CCR4/CAF1 deaden-
ylase complex to facilitate deadenylation of the poly(A) tail
[22,25]. Following deadenylation, the 5
-terminal cap is re-
moved by the decapping enzyme decapping DCP1-DCP2
complex [25]. Endonucleolytic cleavage and mRNA degrada-
tion that miRNA-mediated by AGO2 [22,29].
2.2. Molecular mechanisms of preeclampsia
Angiogenic factors such as placental growth factor (PlGF) and
vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and their receptors
Flt1 [also known as vascular endothelial growth factor receptor
1 (VEGFR-1)], VEGFR-2, Tie-1, and Tie-2, are essential for
normal placental vascular development [8]. Alterations in the
regulation and signaling of angiogenic pathways in early gesta-
tion contribute to the inadequate cytotrophoblast invasion seen
in PE [8]. Additionally, perturbation of the renin–aldosterone–
angiotensin II axis, excessive oxidative stress, inflammation,
immune maladaptation, and genetic susceptibility may all con-
tribute to the pathogenesis of PE [8].
Several placentally derived ‘‘toxins’’ were suggested, includ-
ing cytokines, anti-angiogenic factors, syncytiotrophoblast
microparticles (STBM), and formed blood products activated
in the intervillus space [30].
The role of these anti-angiogenic factors such as soluble
fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 (sFlt1) and soluble endoglin (sEng)
in early placental vascular development and in trophoblast
invasion is just the beginning to be explored in placental dys-
regulation. Hypoxia is likely to be an important regulator
[8]. Oxidative stress was an attractive component as part of
the linkage [31]. Reactive oxygen species could be generated
by the reduced perfusion of the placenta with the consequent
activation of monocytes and neutrophils passing through the
intervillus space. Oxidative stress would also stimulate the re-
lease of cytokines, antiangiogenic factors, microparticles and
other potential linkers [30].
Some factors such as genetic factors, oxidative stress, cate-
chol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) deficiency, hemoxygenase
deficiency and immunologic/inflammatory factors cause pla-
cental dysfunction which leads to angiogenic imbalance, in-
crease sFlt1 and sEng, decrease PlGF and VEGF [8,32,33].
sFlt1 and sEng levels have been shown to be elevated in the
serum of preeclamptic women, as compared to those of normal
pregnant women, weeks before the appearance of overt clinical
manifestations of the disease [34,35]. Compared to normo-ten-
sive controls, in patients with severe PE, free PlGF and VEGF
levels are significantly declined [34,35] and sFlt1 levels are sig-
nificantly elevated [36].
It is clear that the increase of sFlt1 expression associated
with decreased PlGF and VEGF signaling causes inadequate
placental vascular development [34,37,38]. These alterations
cause widespread endothelial dysfunction that results in hyper-
tension, proteinuria, and other systemic manifestations of pre-
eclampsia [32,38].
2.3. The role of miRNA in preeclampsia pathogenesis
The first research that linked miRNA and PE was conducted
by Pineles et al. [21] The study was performed to determine
whether PE and small-for-gestational age (SGA) are associ-
ated with alterations in placental miRNA expression. Thus
they evaluated placental miRNAs’ expression from patients
with PE, SGA, PE + SGA along with a control group. They
found that seven miRNAs (miR-210, miR-155, miR-181b,
, miR-200b, miR-154
, and miR-183) were signifi-
cantly higher expressed between PE + SGA and the control
group. The expression of miR-182 and miR-210 was signifi-
cantly higher in PE than in the control group. Based on Gene
Ontology (GO) analysis, miR-182 has a role to down-regulate
anti-apoptosis genes. They speculated that high expression of
miR-182 in PE may contribute to the increased apoptosis in
the placentas of patients with PE. The targets of both miR-
182 and miR-210 are enriched in immune processes, which
support the association between abnormal immune responses
and PE as descripted previously by Kim et al. [39]. Beside that,
angiogenin and VEGF-b are potential targets of miR-182 and
, respectively [21]. These molecules have a role in
angiogenesis. A study by Yang et al. [40] elucidates miRNA
essentiality, that in mice with deficient miRNA, defective angi-
ogenesis is caused that leads to embryonic lethality.
A study with small sample in China found the expression of
miR-130a, miR-181a, miR-222, miR-16, miR-26b, miR-29b
and miR-195 in the placenta of severe PE women [41]. The
other research reported that miR-16, miR-29b, miR-195,
miR-26b, miR-181a, miR-335 and miR-222 were significantly
increased in placenta from women with severe PE [42]. This re-
search revealed that some angiogenic growth factors were po-
tential targets of the altered miRNA, such as cysteine-rich 61
(CYR61), PlGF, VEGF-A which were targets of miR-222,
miR-335 and miR-195, respectively [42]. It describes the role
of this angiogenics factors for the development of PE. It is well
known that the expressions of VEGF-A and VEGF receptor-1
are down-regulated in the cytotrophoblasts of PE placenta
[32,43]. Several articles reviewed by Lam et al. [44] provide suf-
ficient evidence that PlGF is also dysregulated in serum or the
placental tissue of women with PE.
The research by Mo et al. [45] found that CYR61 is essen-
tial for placental development and vascular integrity. Gellhaus
et al. [46] found that CYR61 is significantly decreased in PE
placenta. CYR61 is a secreted matrix protein expressed by
nearly all types of vascular cells and trophoblasts and impli-
cated in diverse cellular processes such as proliferation, migra-
tion, differentiation, and adhesion. It was found that the
expression of CYR61 in human placenta was significantly low-
er than that of the normal control [46]. Recently, a study re-
ported that overexpression of miR-155 contributes to PE
development by targeting and down-regulating angiogenic reg-
ulating factor CYR61 [47]. It was also reported that CYR61
has been demonstrated to be one of the important early angio-
genic factors during pregnancy, this role is probably because
CYR61 can induce the expression of VEGF [47].
Poliseno et al. [48] found that overexpression of miR-221/
222 inhibits tube formation, migration, and wound healing
in response to stem cell factor in human umbilical endothelial
cells (HUVEC). This effect, arises because c-kit is a target of
miR-221/222. c-kit is a tyrosine kinase receptor for stem cell
factor and has been shown to promote survival, migration,
and capillary tube formation HUVEC [49].
The other study by Zhu et al. [50] was conducted in China
population. They investigated that 34 miRNAs were expressed
differentially in PE placentas, compared to normal placentas.
Micro RNA 129
Of these, 11 microRNAs were over-expressed, and 23 miRNAs
were under-expressed in PE placentas. miR-518b showed sig-
nificant overexpression in severe PE vs control; miR-18a, -
363, and -542-3p were significantly underexpressed in severe
PE vs control. miR-152 showed significant overexpression in
mild PE vs control specimens and in severe PE vs control spec-
imens. miR-411 and miR-377 were under-expressed in mild PE
vs control specimens and in severe PE vs control. Zhu et al.
[50] also found that miR-210 was significantly underexpressed
in mild PE vs the other two groups; while significant overex-
pression was found in severe PE vs all other groups. In their
comments, they mention that the increase in miR-210 expres-
sion in sPE induced by the focal regions of ischemia/hypoxia
in placentas is the cause of poor placentation in PE pregnan-
cies, as a previous study showed that the expression of miR-
210 was increased on exposure to hypoxia [51]. They specu-
lated the decrease of miR-210 in mPE to be a compensatory
mechanism in the pregnancies with mPE, but there is no suffi-
cient explanation.
Recently, Enquobahrie et al. [52] found that eight miR-
NAs were differentially expressed (miR-210 up-regulated
and 7 miR-328, miR-584, miR-139-5p, miR-500, miR-
1247, miR-34C-5p and miR-1-down-regulated) among PE
cases compared with controls. These miRNAs target genes
that participate in organ/system development (cardiovascular
and reproductive systems), immunologic dysfunction, cell
adhesion, cell cycle, and signaling. In their comment consis-
tent with the other scientist, they stated that miR-210 plays
roles in endothelial cell response to hypoxia, formation of
capillary-like structures, vascular endothelial growth factor
driven cell migration, cell differentiation, and survival, events
that are integral to PE pathogenesis. Enquobahrie et al. [52]
utilizing the results of previous study conducted by Ikeda
et al. [53] speculated that miR-1 influences risk of PE through
its effect on calcium signaling. They demonstrated that miR-1
influences calcium signaling through negative regulations of
the calmodulin-coding mRNAs, Mef2a and Gata4, mainly
in smooth muscle cells. It is believed that PE has associated
with abnormal calcium metabolism and related consequences
The association between PE and altered miRNA expression
suggests the possibility of a functional role for miRNA in this
disease. These different miRNAs may play an important role
in the pathogenesis of PE and may become diagnostic markers
and therapeutic target for PE.
3. Conclusion
In summary, we have shown that there are many scientific evi-
dences that have proven the fact that the differential placental
and plasma miRNA expression is associated with PE. Some re-
searches also identify novel candidate miRNAs (and pathways
they regulate) that may be of etiologic relevance in the patho-
genesis of PE. It provides novel targets for further investiga-
tion of the pathogenesis of PE and these differential
miRNAs may be potential markers for the diagnosis and pro-
vide a potential therapeutic target for PE. Further investiga-
tions on posttranscriptional regulation in PE to evaluate
biologic effects of identified miRNAs (including the confirma-
tions of miRNA and target gene interactions) are needed.
4. Disclosure statement
There is no conflict of interest in writing of this manuscript.
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Micro RNA 131
    • "miRNAs are also associated with various pathophysiological conditions such as various noninfectious diseases [18e20] and infectious diseases [21e24]. In terms of pregnancy, miRNAs have been found to play pivotal roles in a number of processes including homeostasis during the periimplantation period and placentation [25], embryonic stem cells regulation [26], fetal growth restriction [27], intrauterine growth retardation [28], small for gestational age [29], and preeclampsia [30,31]. Since 2007, a range of studies have been conducted that have investigated in depth the role of miRNAs in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives: Dysregulation of trophoblast invasion into the decidual stroma and spiral arteries during early gestation is one of the major factors associated with the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate, based on recent studies, the role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in trophoblast proliferation, differentiation, invasion, and apoptosis during the early gestation of preeclamptic pregnancies. Materials and methods: This systematic review included articles between 2007 and 2015 that were obtained from the MEDLINE database. The articles were identified by searching using a combination of Medical Subject Headings (MeSH terms), namely "preeclampsia", "pre-eclampsia", "miRNA", and "microRNA". All sources of miRNAs, all types of preeclampsia, and all techniques used when measuring miRNAs were included in the reviewed papers. Results: Confirmed upregulation of miR-125b-1-3p, miR-20a, miR-29b, miR-181a, miR-16, miR-210, and miR-155 and confirmed downregulation of miR-17, miR-19b1, miR-195, miR-378a-5p, miR-376c, and miR-675 were identified as involved in repressing the proliferation, differentiation, and invasion of trophoblast cells. In addition, upregulation of miR-29b and downregulation of miR-378a-5p and miR-376c were found to be associated with increased trophoblast cell apoptosis. Conclusion: Overall, miRNAs have been confirmed to be involved in the shallow invasion by trophoblasts into the spiral arteries and decidual stroma during early gestation and these miRNAs are possible promising biomarkers that may help to predict preeclampsia in the future.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2015
    • "It causes over-expression of sFlt-1, sEng and other anti-angiogenic factors and down-regulation of major pro-angiogenic factors such as VEGF and PlGF. Our previous study concludes that miRNAs could be a potential causal factor on pathobiology of preeclampsia [142]. Data reveal that miRNAs interfere with angiogenesis process during early pregnancy by dysregulating these angiogenic factors and their receptors. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: In pre-clinical stage of preeclampsia, placental angiogenesis is impaired leading to hypoxic placenta and dysregulation of pro- and anti-angiogenetic factors. As a consequence, these cause elevated systemic vascular resistance, vasoconstriction and hypertension in clinical stage of preeclampsia. Dysregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) has been observed among preeclampsia patients and they are involved in several aspects of preeclampsia pathogenesis. Aims: To evaluate the roles of miRNAs in angiogenesis and vascular pressure in preeclampsia. Material and methods: Articles from MEDLINE database (between 2007 and February 2015) were searched by using the combination of Medical Subject Headings (MeSH terms) “preeclampsia”, “pre-eclampsia”, “miRNA” and “microRNA”. All sources of miRNAs, all types of preeclampsia and all techniques used in measuring miRNAs were included. Furthermore, bibliographies of the articles were also retrieved for further relevant references. Results: Data reveal that miRNAs interfere with angiogenesis during early pregnancy by dysregulating pro-angiogenic factors (such as placental growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor, fibroblast growth factor, transforming growth factor and insulin-like growth factor) and their receptors including Fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 and fibroblast growth factor receptor 1. In addition, miRNAs are also involved on high vascular pressure during preeclampsia by targeting several vasodilators such as prostacyclin, 17β-estradiol, hydrogen sulfide and nitric oxide, and inducing the production of angiotensin type I receptor agonistic autoantibodies. Conclusion: Data confirm that miRNAs are involved in pathobiology of preeclampsia including interference with angiogenesis during pre-clinical stage and induction of vascular resistance and vasoconstriction in clinical stage.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015
    • "Abnormalities can occur by the following ways: (1) loss or downregulation of miRNA expression due to mutation, epigenetic inactivation, transcriptional downregulation or abnormality pro- cessing [48] , (2) overexpression of miRNA due to gene amplification or transcriptional upregulation may result in the suppressed production of its target proteins [49], (3) a mutation in 3 0 UTR of an mRNA may affect a miRNA binding site and the miRNA may no longer be able to bind [50], and (4) a mutation in 3 0 UTR of a gene may generate a new miRNA binding site. [51] A huge number of studies reported that miRNAs dysregulation associated to a wide spectrum of diseases such as chronic kidney disease [9], liver cirrhosis [14], systemic sclerosis [15], cardiac fibrosis [13], diabetes [11], pregnancy-related diseases [10,52], and most notably cancer [12] . Recent studies have shown the regulation of miRNA in human diseases only understood and explained by genetic (deletions , mutations and translocation), epigenetic mechanisms (methylation) or abnormalities in the miRNA processing machinery . "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The central proteins for protection against tuberculosis are attributed to interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-1β, while IL-10 primarily suppresses anti-mycobacterial responses. Several studies found alteration of expression profile of genes involved in anti-mycobacterial responses in macrophages and natural killer (NK) cells from active and latent tuberculosis and from tuberculosis and healthy controls. This alteration of cellular composition might be regulated by microRNAs (miRNAs). Albeit only 1% of the genomic transcripts in mammalian cells encode miRNA, they are predicted to control the activity of more than 60% of all protein-coding genes and they have a huge influence in pathogenesis theory, diagnosis and treatment approach to some diseases. Several miRNAs have been found to regulate T cell differentiation and function and have critical role in regulating the innate function of macrophages, dendritic cells and NK cells. Here, we have reviewed the role of miRNAs implicated in tuberculosis infection, especially related to their new roles in the molecular pathology of tuberculosis immunology and as new targets for future tuberculosis diagnostics.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2013
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