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Fairer Sex or Fairer System - Gender and Corruption Revisited

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Abstract

Two recent influential studies found that larger representations of women in government reduced corruption. Assuming that the observed gender differentials were caused by women's inclinations toward honesty and the common good, both studies advocated increased female participation in government to combat corruption. This study argues that the observed association between gender and corruption is spurious and mainly caused by its context, liberal democracy — a political system that promotes gender equality and better governance. Data favor this “fairer system” thesis.

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... For example, according to UNDOC (2020, p. 13), "[g] iven the right circumstances, women and men are equally prone to being corrupt." This echoes Sung's (2003Sung's ( , 2012 earlier findings, which showed no relationship between gender and corruption after controlling for the level of democracy, the rule of law, and freedom of the press. Experiments also demonstrate that "given the right circumstances, women and men are equally prone to being corrupt" (Habbershon, 2021, p. 1). ...
... One primary method is the experiment (Alatas et al., 2009;Armantier & Boly, 2011;Rivas, 2013;Schulze & Frank, 2003). Another method used is a survey (Agerberg, 2014;Alolo, 2007;Dollar et al., 2001;Sung, 2003Sung, , 2012Swamy et al., 2001). Beaulieu (2014, 2019) used survey experiments to examine whether stereotypes of female candidates or female politicians influence people's perceptions of corruption. ...
... For example, Agerberg's (2014) cross-sectional study of corruption in Europe found that women offered fewer bribes and were less tolerant of corruption compared to their men counterparts. However, our findings contradict other studies that report no gender influence on corruption acts (e.g., Armantier & Boly, 2011;Schulze & Frank, 2003;Sung, 2003Sung, , 2012. Several reasons, including research methods difference, may account for this divergence. ...
Article
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The question as to whether women are less corrupt than men has been the focal point of an intense and ongoing debate. While some studies show that women are more risk-averse than men—and, as a result, less likely to engage in corruption—others point to the contrary. This study aims to answer two key questions: (1) are women more or less likely than men to engage in bribery? And (2) are women more or less likely than men to believe that one can report corruption without retaliation? Our results show that, compared to men, women are less likely to offer bribes, and they are also less likely to believe that one can report corruption without retaliation. Since women are less likely to engage in bribery, it is recommended that women’s representation in positions of power be increased.
... According to many authors (Swamy et al. 2001;Alatas et al. 2009;Torgler and Valev 2010;Rivas 2013), women are less tolerant than men to different kinds of corrupt behaviours. On the other hand, several studies were unable to find gender differences in corruption (Sung 2003;Alhassan-Alolo 2007). A plausible explanation from cultural psychology conjectures that masculine societies reward material success, ambitiousness, and competitiveness (Hofstede 1997). ...
... Our analyses of favouritism and embezzlement indicates that there are no important differences between men and women in corrupt intention. According to earlier literature (Sung 2003;Alhassan-Alolo 2007), differences between men and women are not important in terms of magnitude because there are other factors influencing corrupt intention such as living in a liberal democracy (Sung 2003) or living in less-developed countries with patriarchal social structures (Alhassan-Alolo 2007). Therefore, differences in corrupt intention between men and women may depend on their cultural context (Chaudhuri 2012). ...
... Our analyses of favouritism and embezzlement indicates that there are no important differences between men and women in corrupt intention. According to earlier literature (Sung 2003;Alhassan-Alolo 2007), differences between men and women are not important in terms of magnitude because there are other factors influencing corrupt intention such as living in a liberal democracy (Sung 2003) or living in less-developed countries with patriarchal social structures (Alhassan-Alolo 2007). Therefore, differences in corrupt intention between men and women may depend on their cultural context (Chaudhuri 2012). ...
Article
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Corruption in higher education has raised concern among governments, citizens, and the education community worldwide. However, few papers have sought to explore the students’ willingness to engage in corrupt practices at the university level. The present study aimed to examine the influence of different corrupt behaviours and perceived corruption among peers on the corrupt intention of university students. 120 undergraduate students participated in a quasi-experimental design divided in 3 treatments (control, low-corruption acceptance, high-corruption acceptance) to rate their willingness to engage in favouritism and embezzlement behaviours. Results pointed out that students were more prone to committing a non-monetary behaviour favouritism– than a monetary behaviour –embezzlement–. Furthermore, there were not significant differences between the groups of control and high-corruption acceptance; while only the group of low-corruption acceptance showed significant lower rates when compared to the control and the high-corruption acceptance’s group. Practical recommendations need to address students’ perceptions of different corrupt practices, focusing on designing ethical training programmes aimed to raise awareness on the negative consequences of non-monetary activities. Future research directions could generate empirical support to prove if students are able to recognize the underlying mechanisms of subtle corrupt practices.
... This paper brings important new insights into this realm by studying whether corruption perceptions and corruption experiences differ across gender, especially in the case of females who have to some degree broken the glass ceiling to become managers and owners of firms. Whereas the gender and corruption nexus has drawn the attention of some scholars (Debski et al. 2018;Jha and Sarangi 2018;Sung 2012;Swamy et al. 2001), the present research sheds additional insights by: ...
... With regard to gender differences and corruption, there is some research on whether females are less corrupt than males (Debski et al. 2018;Jha and Sarangi 2018;Sung 2012;Swamy et al. 2001;Torgler and Valev 2010). This literature mainly considers whether women officials (potential bribe takers) are less corrupt and generally finds that to be the case. ...
... For instance, Jha and Sarangi (2018) find that women's presence in the parliament reduces corruption (also see Esarey and Chirillo 2013;Swamy et al. 2001), while Torgler and Valev (2010) find that, for eight European nations, women were more averse to corruption and tax evasion. On the other hand, Sung (2012) argues that the association between gender and corruption may be spurious and mainly caused by its context-liberal democracy, that promotes gender equality and better governance. The present study, in contrast, considers the perceptions and rating of women as bribe payers, making the distinction between female managers and female owners of firms. ...
Article
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Adding to the research on the corruption and gender nexus, this paper contributes by several dimensions, including: (a) measurement of corruption across corruption perceptions and corruption experiences; (b) focusing on entrepreneurship level by studying whether female managers and female owners of firms perceived/experienced corruption differently; (c) using survey information at the firm level; and (d) employing a large sample of mostly developing nations covering more than 100 countries. Results show that female owners had greater corruption experience, ceteris paribus, while female managers perceived corruption to be lower. The perceptions of female managers, however, were sensitive when dimensions of gender equality were considered. With regard to firms’ characteristics, including firm’s age, size, and ownership, there was relatively greater support for these factors impacting corruption perceptions than corruption experience. All this underscores the need for effective corruption-control polices to pay attention to how corruption is measured, as well as the identity (gender) and position (owners or managers) of those underlying the relevant data.
... Although this might be because women reject corruption more forcefully than men, correlation does not imply causation. Later studies found the relationship becomes insignificant after controlling for culture and democratic rights (Debski et al. 2018;Goetz 2007;Sung 2003). Misgivings about the link did not, however, stop governments from trying to exploit it. ...
... Women being less corrupt than men could explain the relationship. Sung (2003), however, argues other factors might play a role, suggesting liberal democracies both promote gender equality and are less corrupt. After controlling for democratic institutions, the association becomes insignificant (Sung 2003). ...
... Sung (2003), however, argues other factors might play a role, suggesting liberal democracies both promote gender equality and are less corrupt. After controlling for democratic institutions, the association becomes insignificant (Sung 2003). Similarly, Debski et al. (2018) show the correlation also becomes insignificant after controlling for two of Hofstede's (1984) measures of culture. ...
Article
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Previous studies have found that firms where women have greater influence are less likely to pay bribes than other firms. In this study, we ask how these firms avoid paying bribes. Using data from the World Bank’s Enterprise Surveys, we find that firms run by women avoid meeting and interacting with government officials when they can. Female-managed firms, for example, are less likely to apply for construction and import licenses, less likely to meet with tax officials, and less likely to bid for government contracts than male-managed firms. However, female-managed firms are no less likely to say that officials sought bribes when they met with them than male-managed firms. This suggests the main way that firms with women in positions of power avoid paying bribes is by avoiding situations where officials might seek them.
... Women's presence in public life is associated with durable peace, reduced corruption, and improved governance in the societies they lead (Demeritt, Nichols, and Kelly 2014;Dollar, Fisman, and Gatti 2001;Esarey and Chirillo 2013;Regan and Paskeviciute 2003;Shair-Rosenfield and Wood 2017;Stockemer 2011;Stockemer and Byrne 2011;Sung 2003;Tripp 2015). We contend that this association -as well as gender equality as advocated by the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) of the United Nations (UN) and other international organizations -motivates foreign aid donors to favor recipient states that signal a commitment to expanding the role of women in public life. ...
... Of course, such work will need to build on the extensive literature that describes the benefits of women's participation in political decision making (Adler 1996;Bush 2011;Gizelis 2011;Hunt 2007;Jalalzai 2004;Jalalzai and Krook 2010;Jensen 2008;Patnaik 2014;Pearson d'Estree and Babbitt 1998;Rehn and Sirleaf 2002;Swiss, Fallon, and Burgos 2012;Tobach 2008;Weikart et al. 2006). Especially relevant to the study of foreign aid is scholarship that has demonstrated a link between women's presence in public life and durable peace, reduced corruption, and improved governance in the societies they lead (Barnes and Beaulieu 2019;Demeritt, Nichols, and Kelly 2014;Dollar, Fisman, and Gatti 2001;Esarey and Chirillo 2013;Regan and Paskeviciute 2003;Shair-Rosenfield and Wood 2017;Stockemer 2011;Stockemer and Byrne 2011;Sung 2003;Tripp 2015). ...
... Other studies have found that women's presence in political life is associated with less corruption (Dollar, Fisman, and Gatti 2001;Esarey andChirillo 2013, 2013;Goetz 2007;Stockemer 2011;Stockemer and Byrne 2011;Sung 2003;Treisman 2007). Further, several studies show that women are often more readily trusted in guiding the distribution of aid in humanitarian situations (Kovács and Tatham 2009;Olivius 2014;Palmer and Zwi 1998). ...
Article
Do donor states reward recipient states for signaling a commitment to expanding the role of women in political decision making? Previous studies show that women are associated with positive outcomes for peace duration and governance. We theorize that donor states reward recipient states that make a commitment to women’s empowerment in political decision making and test our hypotheses using data on the distribution of US foreign aid to recipient states. We find that recipient states that adopt legislative quotas and include more women in their parliaments receive more aid, although a female head of government is not associated with more aid.
... Algunos trabajos con perspectiva sociológica focalizan las percepciones de la corrupción según los niveles socioeconómicos, o según la pertenencia a una determinada clase social (Heidenheimer, 1970;Johnston, 1986;Morris 1991, Boniolo, 2009a. También se ha relacionado el género masculino y femenino con los índices de percepción de la corrupción (Dollar, et al 2001;Hung-En, 2003;Husted, 1999). A su vez, se ha vinculado el número de individuos con religión católica y protestante con la sensación de la corrupción (La Porta et. ...
... Parece que las mujeres en el congreso se inclinan por obedecer más las reglas y normas institucionales que los varones. Sin embargo, Hung-En (2003), argumenta que aunque la participación femenina en el gobierno puede ser correlacionada con los niveles más bajos de corrupción, esta asociación pierde importancia cuando se toman en cuenta los efectos de una democracia liberal. En un Estado democrático generalmente los índices de corrupción serán bajos, y los niveles de igualdad de género altos, sin que relacionen directamente la participación femenina con una baja corrupción. ...
Thesis
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Esta investigación trata de mostrar que las experiencias de corrupción no son iguales entre personas que están en diferentes posiciones a lo largo de la estructura social de la Ciudad de México. Esto es un esfuerzo por subrayar que las experiencias de corrupción dependen de la presentación social de la persona en el orden público con base en su posición social. Esto evidencia situaciones en las que hay personas pertenecientes a las posiciones sociales privilegiadas que tienen ventajas durante el acto de corrupción; y viceversa, situaciones en las que personas de posiciones sociales precarias tienen desventajas. En consecuencia, se destacan las diferentes experiencias de corrupción entre personas de condiciones sociales de existencia desiguales, subrayando que tales experiencias en vez de ser homogéneas en una sociedad urbana, son más bien heterogéneas. (PDF) manchinelly ed. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/352357414_manchinelly_ed [accessed Jun 15 2021].
... First, according to Sung (2003), there is an alternative argument of « fairer sex » which is « Fairer system ». The effect of gender on corruption depends on the political system. ...
... As noted earlier, several authors consider that gender-corruption relationship is contextdependent (Sung 2003;Goetz 2007;Alatas et al. 2009;Esarey et al. 2013). A democratic context accompanied by political stability had to allow women to fight corruption more effectively. ...
Conference Paper
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This paper aims to investigate the gender-corruption relationship in 13 MENA countries over the period 2006-2020. Given the presence of cross-sectional dependence and the heterogeneity of the panel, we implement the second-generation econometric panel unit root and cointegration tests. Using the ARDL-PMG approach, which is categorized as an error-corrected model, the results are broadly in line with the existing literature. We show that increase in women's involvement in economic and political sphere decrease corruption. The findings also reveal that the joint impact of women's participation and institutional variables is more effective in lowering corruption. Democracy and political stability context play an important role in explaining the negative impact on corruption, especially when women are policymakers. Finally, we provide robust evidence that when country perform in gender equality, the link gender-corruption become stronger. These results lead to several recommendations for the MENA policymakers.
... While plausible theoretical frameworks and evidence suggest that women cause reductions in corruption (see i.e., Barnes & Beaulieu, 2018;Bauhr et al., 2019;Esarey & Schwindt-Bayer, 2018;Stensöta et al., 2015). studies also propose that low corrupt systems may facilitate the recruitment of women into office (Bjarnegård, 2013;Sundström & Wängnereud, 2016), or that underlying factors, such as the development of liberal democracy, may drive both more inclusive representation and lower level of corruption (Sung, 2003). Furthermore, recent studies note that the link between women representation and lower level corruption is context dependent, and the effects of women representatives may therefore differ depending on the positions and platforms that women gain access to, and thereby potentially also vary over time. ...
... In general, the sub-national level of analysis potentially provides more validity in comparing across cases, as many of the confounding factors that vary across countries are controlled for "naturally" (Snyder, 2001), thus avoiding potentially spurious effects of such institutions as media freedom, democracy, rule of law etc. (Sung, 2003). France is an exceptional test case for this since the sheer number of municipalities in France is larger than in any other European country, offering a greater number of observations. ...
Article
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While recent studies find a strong association between the share of women in elected office and lower levels of corruption, we know less about if women in executive office cause reductions in corruption levels, and if such effects last over time. This study suggests that women mayors reduce corruption levels, but that the beneficial effect may be weakened over time. Using both regression discontinuity and first difference designs with newly collected data on French municipal elections combined with corruption risk data on close to all municipal contracts awarded between 2005 and 2016, we show that women mayors reduce corruption risks. However, newly elected women mayors drive the results, while gender differences are negligible in municipalities where women mayors are re elected. Our results can be interpreted as providing support for marginalization theories, but also suggest that the women that adapt to corrupt networks survive in office.
... Dollar et al. (2001) and Swamy et al. (2001) found a strong and statistically significant negative association between female participation in the government and corruption in their crosscountry studies. Despite a few critiques (Branisa et al., 2013;Debski et al., 2018;Hazarika, 2018;Sung, 2003Sung, , 2012, there exist later studies, in various contexts, lending further support to the findings of Dollar et al. and Swamy et al. Some based their findings on the analysis of a world sample (Jha & Sarangi, 2018;Treisman, 2007). ...
Article
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We investigate the effect of bureaucratic corruption on economic development when women are discriminated against in the labor market. The analysis is based on a dynamic general equilibrium model in which capital accumulation drives economic development. The government appoints bureaucrats to administer public policy. Corruption arises due to the opportunity for bureaucrats to embezzle public funds. In the event of detection and dismissal, the private sector serves as the bureaucrats' outside option. Our main results can be summarized as follows: first, when the public sector is a more gender‐equal employer than the private sector, female bureaucrats are less corrupt than male; second, corruption and development are jointly determined allowing the possibility of a poverty trap; and third, a policy to increase female participation in the public sector potentially reduces corruption and fosters economic development.
... These findings have been confirmed in several subsequent works. The significant effect of women's participation in government to reduce corruption disappears when institutional features such as rule of law, freedom of the press, and democratic elections are controlled (Sung, 2003). This result supports the view that the relationship between gender and corruption is mainly based on its context, and a "fairer system" plays a more important role in reducing corruption than gender does. ...
Preprint
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There is evidence of a gender gap in access to finance. In this paper, we test the hypothesis that corruption discourages more female than male entrepreneurs from applying for credit. We use data on access to credit and corruption at the firm level for a large dataset of firms from 68 countries worldwide. We demonstrate that female entrepreneurs are more discouraged by corruption to ask for credit than male borrowers. We find evidence for three explanations for the gendered impact of corruption on borrower discouragement: women-managed firms suffer more from corruption than men-managed firms, women have less experience in management than men and as such can have less experience to deal with corruption, and gender inequality in society enhances the discouragement of female borrowers. Thus, our findings provide evidence that corruption enhances the gender gap in access to finance, enhancing gender inequality in participation in economic activity. JEL Codes: D73, G21, J16.
... The significant effect of women's participation in government to reduce corruption disappears when institutional features such as rule of law, freedom of the press, and democratic elections are controlled (Sung, 2003). This result supports the view that the relationship between gender and corruption is mainly based on its context, and a "fairer system" plays a more important role in reducing corruption than gender does. ...
Article
Full-text available
There is evidence of a gender gap in access to finance. In this paper, we test the hypothesis that corruption discourages more female than male entrepreneurs from applying for credit. We use data on access to credit and corruption at the firm level for a large dataset of firms from 68 countries worldwide. We demonstrate that female entrepreneurs are more discouraged by corruption to ask for credit than male borrowers. We find evidence for three explanations for the gendered impact of corruption on borrower discouragement: women-managed firms suffer more from corruption than men-managed firms, women have less experience in management than men and as such can have less experience to deal with corruption, and gender inequality in society enhances the discouragement of female borrowers. Thus, our findings provide evidence that corruption enhances the gender gap in access to finance, enhancing gender inequality in participation in economic activity. JEL Codes: D73, G21, J16.
... No obstante, poco tiempo después, la asociación generada entre género y corrupción por aquellos primeros estudios fue rechazada por espuria (En Sung, 2003) y se sostuvo que la reducción de la corrupción está determinada por el contexto, principalmente, por la presencia de una democracia liberal, la cual promueve tanto la igualdad de género como los principios de un buen gobierno. Por lo que la reducción del fenómeno obedecería más bien a la presencia de un sistema más justo y no a la de un género más justo. ...
Book
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Un lugar común en estudios sociales para la solución de problemas propios de su campo es la educación. Para el problema de la corrupción también se ha sugerido que la educación es una vía de prevención y combate, pero ¿qué sucede si la educación ha sido capturada por la corrupción? muy simple, la educación se vuelve parte del problema, no parte de la solución. Este libro trata del «elefante en la habitación». El mismo de los pasillos, oficinas y aulas universitarias del país y lo hace tratando de dejar atrás mitos, evitando visiones esencialistas y reconociendo que ningún ser humano está exento de la corrupción y que nadie está destinado a ser corrupto. El texto revela cómo viven la corrupción académica los diferentes sectores universitarios, los daños anímicos que les inflige y cómo afecta sus actitudes. Es un estudio que busca aclarar el concepto de corrupción académica, que propone estrategias para combatirla y una manera de entenderla en las Instituciones de Educación Superior. Una forma que vaya más allá de los estrechos límites de la ley y que atienda a los bienes internos de las funciones universitarias, que son los que, a fin de cuentas, dan sentido y legitimidad a las instituciones universitarias.
... An alternative view is proposed bySung (2003) andHazarica (2018). The argument here is that measures of female participation in the labour force and in politics are potentially endogenous in liberal democracies. ...
Article
Does a corrupt politico-institutional environment affect the demand of public subsidies for credit access – so-called public guarantee schemes – by small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) helmed by female entrepreneurs? The paper tackles this question by using a large sample of European SMEs over 2010–2014 while also carefully addressing possible endogeneity issues. It provides robust evidence that, compared to their male counterparts, female entrepreneurs: (a) tend to demand more public subsidies, and (b) are more sensitive to the quality of the politico-institutional environment. The upshot is that a corrupt environment is not gender neutral: in light of ‘essential gender features,’ corruption negatively influences SMEs helmed by female entrepreneurs more than male ones.
... Cross-country studies point to a negative relationship between the salience of women's roles in society and corruption. Among the explanations offered are the higher standards of ethical and pro-social behavior displayed by women (Dollar et al. 2001), gender-biased socialization mechanisms of the "old boys' club" sort that exclude women from corruption networks (Swamy et al. 2001), or the parallel development of institutions that paved the way both for more gender equality and less corruption (Sung 2003). ...
Article
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We reconsider the question of what determines corruption at the cross-national level, using new methods and data: observations of occurrences of cross-national corruption. We find that economic development and a small population is associated with lower levels of corruption, as are freedom of the press, political rights, the presence of established democratic institutions, the salience of women’s role in society, and low exports of natural resources such as oil. The particular structure of the data also allows for the first time to consider the “relational aspects” of corrupt relationships, which come to the fore when parties to the corrupt transaction, the briber and the bribee, reside in different countries. Overall, we find limited evidence that the relational factors that we consider affect corruption, beyond the effects that they often have on bilateral trade.
... Perceptions of corruption vary inversely with economic development and the level and duration of democracy. They are lower in countries with greater openness to international trade and a lesser dependence on energy exports, in federal political systems and those with higher percentages of women in government (Dollar et al. 2001; Montinola and Jackman 2002;Sandholtz and Koetzle 2000;Sung 2003;Jong-sung and Khagram 2005). ...
Article
In Romania, perceptions of corruption in both general practice (GP) services and hospital/specialized care are very high, situating the country in the third place in the EU. In this paper, we set out to explore the association between socioeconomic status, utilization of healthcare, social exclusion on the one hand, and perception of corruption in healthcare services in Romania, on the other hand. We mainly try to understand if perceptions of corruption are dependent on utilization of healthcare, seen as a proxy for personal experience. We use European Quality of Life Survey, the 2016 wave for Romania, and we carry out descriptive and explanatory linear regression analysis in order to shed light on perceptions of corruption in the Romanian medical system. Results show a slightly different picture between perceptions of corruption in primary services and views of the phenomenon in hospital care. Corruption in GP provisions appears to be an educated guess, depending on higher socioeconomic status. Insights on this type of corruption are not dependent on utilization of healthcare. Perceptions of corruption in hospital services are associated with the level of economic resources and are dependent on personal experience. Keywords: perceptions of corruption; utilization of health care corruption in medical services.
... They argue that the influence of social and market environment on institutions' corruptions is stronger than that of the gender factor. For instance, Sung (2003) made a conclusion that firms with higher female participation in working or management may be less corrupted in developed and democratic societies. In these societies, the tolerance of corporate corruption is relatively low and market supervision agencies and policies are well established. ...
... Although contested (Sung, 2003), some scholars claim that because of their greater honesty and concern over the public good, women are less corrupt than men (Paweenawat, 2018) and more likely to report wrongdoing (Wortley et al., 2008). Others, however, claim that because gender stereotypes often lead organizations to empower men more than women, men are more likely to report wrongdoing (Liyanarachchi & Adler, 2011). ...
Article
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Although notoriously hierarchical, rigid and impersonal, bureaucracy has recently become the unsung hero in the fight against corruption. Recent studies suggest that countries whose public service reflects characteristics of a Weberian bureaucracy – particularly, permanent careers and merit recruitment – exhibit lower levels of corruption. Uncertainty exists, however, over which qualities are most important, as well as how these lower corruption. This article advances research by examining the relationship that various human resource management practices have with a central mechanism of thwarting corruption: whistleblowing. Using survey data from Australia, the results from various regression models show that bureaucrats’ belief that recruitment within their agency prioritises merit as well as their belief in opportunities for promotion have a positive relationship with whistleblowing. Meanwhile, reporting corruption does not seem to be affected by bureaucrats’ belief in the permanency of their job, satisfaction with remuneration, turnover intention or organisational commitment. The external validity of the findings is considered by comparing the nature of bureaucracy in Australia with some Asia Pacific and Anglo-American countries.
... However, others argue that the negative relationship is rather spurious, and disappears if the effects of the contextual factors conducive to the gender differences in attitudes towards corruption are controlled for. Among the reported contextual factors controlled for are regime type (Esarey and Chirillo, 2013;Sung, 2003Sung, , 2012, culture (Alatas et al., 2009;Alhassan-Alolo, 2007;Debski et al., 2018), corruption opportunities (Alhassan-Alolo, 2007;Goetz, 2007: 95), and "political and institutional conditions" (Vijayalakshmi, 2008(Vijayalakshmi, : 1263. These studies do not view women as innately honest and averse to corruption. ...
Article
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I examine how voters perceive gender differences in vote buying, using survey and interview data collected in the Dar es Salaam region, Tanzania. I find that (1) an overwhelming majority of voters disapprove of vote buying, yet view it as remaining prevalent, and (2) they view men as more active vote buyers, mainly due to the gender gap in vote-buying opportunities. The perceived opportunity gap appears to come from a much larger representation of men in electoral competitions, the perceived gender gap in resources, and the absence of women in certain places and times, due to social and cultural norms constraining women’s behaviours, safety concerns, and/or household responsibilities.
... However, a burgeoning literature underscores the effects of institutional and cultural contexts on the gender-corruption link and downplays the impact of distinctive, essentialized gender characteristics. Sung (2003) considers the observed association between gender and corruption to be spurious and suggests that it is liberal democracy, a political context, that reduces corruption and simultaneously promotes gender equality. Based on interviews with 136 public officials in Ghana, a highly corrupt African country, Alhassan-Alolo (2007) finds that Ghanaian society's expectation of a certain level of corruption as a moral obligation and ample opportunities and networks for corruption cause an absence of significant gender difference in corruption. ...
Article
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Among civil servants, are women less corrupt than men? The established literature suggests that there is no gender gap in officials’ attitudes toward corruption when they are exposed to ample opportunities and networks for corruption. Drawing on an original survey of Chinese civil servants, this study explores the gender gap in tolerance for corruption and the mediating effect of clientelism on the gender–corruption link. The findings indicate that women’s tolerance for corruption is significantly lower than that of men in China, a country consistently plagued by corruption. The study reveals that clientelism is a crucial explanatory variable in the relationship between gender and tolerance for corruption. Women are more likely to be excluded from clientelist networks that facilitate corruption, meaning that they are less likely to be exposed to a culture of corruption or to take advantage of corruption. Women’s lower acceptance of clientelism partly contributes to their stronger inclination to reject corruption.
... 2018). It has been noted that women's exclusion from tightly-knit, corrupt networks may account for the World Bank's findings and that, as a result, democracy must address both corruption and gender inequality (Sung, 2003). Grimes and Wängnerud's (2012) study of political nominations in Mexico finds that women who make it into political office often have different backgrounds than their male counterparts and that comparisons of actions then taken in office are misleading. ...
Article
Incumbency advantage and corruption are persistent features of Malawi politics, yet the incumbent Joyce Banda lost the 2014 elections. Drawing on national public opinion surveys and focus groups, we explore why incumbency advantage did not accrue to Banda. We argue that faced with a major corruption scandal, “Cashgate,” Banda paid a heavier price than male incumbents facing corruption scandals before and after her. Her electoral fate is consistent with studies demonstrating that women holding political offices are scrutinized more heavily than men, and when they transgress female gender stereotypes of incorruptibility, they are judged using a higher standard.
... A number of subsequent studies have problematized this finding, with results suggesting that the effects of gender on corruption may be modulated by intervening variables, including social, cultural, and institutional context (Alatas et al. 2009;Goetz 2007;Stensöta et al. 2015). Sung finds that the observed correlation between gender and corruption outcomes is caused by a causally prior variable, liberal democracy: that is, liberal democratic institutions promote both gender equality and higherquality governance (Sung 2003). According to Esarey and Chirillo, there is a stronger relationship between gender and corruption in democracies, indicating that in some institutional contexts, women experience "greater pressure to conform to existing political norms about corruption" (Esarey and Chirillo 2013, 362). ...
Conference Paper
Much of the scholarship on gender and corruption suggests that women in political oÿce are less corrupt than men. However, in just the past five years, corruption accusations against women heads of government, including Brazil’s Dilma Rousse˙ and South Korea’s Park Geun-hye, have made headlines and led to their impeachment. In this article, we examine whether women heads of government are more likely to be charged with corruption and the process by which these charges are levied. Using cross-national data, including recently-available indicators, we first demonstrate that women are significantly more likely to be formally accused of corruption. We then explore the cases of Turkish Prime Minister Tansu Çiller and Brazilian President Dilma Rousse˙ to show that while women heads of government are taxed for perceived role incongruity, the logic and eÿcacy of corruption charges is also associated with the belief that women do not belong in the political sphere and are inherently agents of subversion. These findings make a substantial contribution to the literature on gender, leadership, and politics and corruption.
... For instance, weak ties are found to be facilitating (Li, 2011;Tanzi, 1994), neutralizing (Kingston, 2008), or inhibiting (Persson et al., 2013) corrupt exchanges. Females seem more (Alatas et al., 2009;Alhassan-Alolo, 2007), less (Dollar et al., 2001;Goetz, 2007;Swamy et al., 2001), or indifferently (Esarey & Chirillo, 2013;Sung, 2003) corruptible than male counterparts. The reconciliations likely rest on how individuals in different settings and with different demographics weigh their corruptibility against corruption risks (Alatas et al., 2009;Esarey & Chirillo, 2013;Swamy et al., 2001). ...
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This inquiry aims to investigate how the relational dynamics are imprinted on two critical dimensions of bribe-taking: corruptibility and corruption risks. Two treatments were randomly administered to 1400 subjects: single vs. repeated interactions and strangers vs. weak ties. The findings suggest that repeated interactions induce bigger bribe sizes, but also increase risks from whistleblowing and internal auditing. Weak ties mitigate bribe-taking willingness. Nevertheless, when coupled with repeated interactions, weak ties suppress the risks from whistleblowing, testifying the bifurcated effects. The tensions between corruptibility and corruption risks suggest that bribe-taking decisions are fraught with internal tensions, with the overall effects likely being a priori determined only in specific contexts. Such tensions are more intensified among true bureaucrats as they tend to claim bigger bribes and report more risks from internal auditing. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... An aspect that may help explain the diverging results in previous literature is that the associations differ between men and women. The link between gender and corruption perceptions has already received attention (Frank et al., 2011;Goetz, 2007;Stensöta & Wängnerud, 2018;Sung, 2003), but how this affects differences in political behavior remains unclear. ...
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Previous studies have been unable to establish the link between corruption perceptions and political participation. This is partly due to a disregard of different types of political participation, ignoring gender differences in how corruption perceptions affect political participation, and overlooking the importance of context. We therefore here examine gender differences in the links between corruption perceptions and three types of political participation: voting, institutionalized participation between elections, and noninstitutionalized participation between elections. We also examine how the context in the form of the national level of corruption affects these linkages. The data come from International Social Survey Program Citizenship II and includes 31 democracies, analyzed with multilevel regression models. Our results show that women become more likely to vote when faced with corruption, whereas men become more likely to engage in elite‐challenging forms of participation when faced with corruption while women remain unaffected.
... Attempts to understand the relationship between the micro sphere (Sung, 2003;Stensöta, Wängnerud, and Svensson 2014;Rosenblatt, 2012) i.e., the sociodemographic and psychographic traits of members of society, and the tendency to corruption have been made. It has been stating that these features significantly differentiate people's views on corruption and actually performed actions (Aquino and Reed, 2002). ...
... However, when analyzing gender together with the opportunity for corruption in the public sector, facts do not seem to be enough to state that women are effectively less corrupt (Alhassan-Alolo, 2007). In truth, it can be argued that governments that have more women in positions of power are only less corrupt due to a liberal democracy that favors their election, and that, in truth, its liberal democracy itself that is associated with lower corruption indices (Sung, 2003). Research on gender seems to point towards the need to identify moderators for the relationship between gender and corruption, as well as if more "typical" forms of corruption exist when taking gender into account. ...
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Corruption is a global problem. Despite the importance of this theme, a shortage of theoretical models in both psychology and related areas that favor its understanding and investigation is noted. Due to this scarcity of theoretical models, in addition to the need to systematize studies on the topic, this theoretical article aims to describe the Analytical Model of Corruption (AMC) as an interdisciplinary and multilevel proposal aimed at corruption analysis. To achieve this goal, the concept of corruption was analyzed using related phenomena as reference. Similarities and differences in corruption have been identified with dishonest behavior and unethical behavior. Subsequently, theoretical models on corruption identified in the literature were presented, and their main characteristics and limitations were pointed out. After describing the models, the AMC was presented and its advantages over the previous models were discussed. Finally, it was concluded that the AMC could be configured as a theoretical model that guides interdisciplinary studies on corruption, allowing for a more complete analysis compared to previous theoretical models identified in the literature.
... i). The greater female integrity argument: This argument focuses on the tendency of women to abide by rules more so than men (Sung, 2003). Research supporting this argument contends that "women may have higher standards of ethical behaviour and be more concerned with the common good" (Dollar et al., 2001, p. 427). ...
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Corruption is a globalising phenomenon. Not only is it rapidly expanding globally but, more significantly, its causes, its means and forms of perpetration and its effects are more and more rooted in the many developments of globalisation. The Panama Papers, the FIFA scandals and the Petrobras case in Brazil are just a few examples of the rapid and alarming globalisation of corrupt practices in recent years. The lack of empirical evidence on corrupt schemes and a still imperfect dialogue between different disciplinary areas and between academic and practitioners hinder our knowledge of corruption as a global phenomenon and slow down the adoption of appropriate policy responses. Corruption in the Global Era seeks to establish an interdisciplinary dialogue between theory and practice and between different disciplines and to provide a better understanding of the multifaceted aspects of corruption as a global phenomenon. This book gathers top experts across various fields of both the academic and the professional world – including criminology, economics, finance, journalism, law, legal ethics and philosophy of law – to analyze the causes and the forms of manifestation of corruption in the global context and in various sectors (sports, health care, finance, the press etc.) from the most disparate perspectives. The theoretical frameworks elaborated by academics are here complemented by precious insider accounts on corruption in different areas, such as banking and finance and the press. The expanding links between corrupt practices and other global crimes, such as money laundering, fraud and human trafficking, are also explored. This book is an important resource to researchers, academics and students in the fields of law, criminology, sociology, economics and ethics, as well as professionals, particularly solicitors, barristers, businessmen and public servants. Full text and Kindle edition here: https://www.amazon.co.uk/Corruption-Global-Era-Manifestation-Financial-ebook/dp/B07PGR254H/ref=sr_1_1?dchild=1&keywords=pasculli+lorenzo&qid=1598952067&sr=8-1
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Panel data from 2000 to 2016 will be used in this study to assess the influence of globalization on gender inequality in South Asian countries. As a proxy for gender differences, the Gender Inequality Index (GII) is utilised; for globalizations, social, political, and economic globalizations indices are also employed. The Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich created these three-dimensional indicators, while UNDP created an index of gender inequality. In order to determine if a fixed effect or random effect model should be used, the Hausman specification test is used. In this experiment, the results indicated that random effects should be used instead of fixed effects. There is a negative and significant correlation between the independent variables, like social globalizations, Human development indexes, and the gender inequality index. While 160 Economic globalizations, political globalizations, and the Gender Inequality Index have a positive but substantial correlation. Several theoretical and empirical research support the findings of this one. Gender inequality in South Asia is a major problem, and this report recommends strategies to assist alleviate the problem. Gender equality is a key component of the strategies aimed at enhancing the region's growth through globalizations elevation. Introduction:
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Panel data from 2000 to 2016 will be used in this study to assess the influence of globalization on gender inequality in South Asian countries. As a proxy for gender differences, the Gender Inequality Index (GII) is utilised; for globalizations, social, political, and economic globalizations indices are also employed. The Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich created these three-dimensional indicators, while UNDP created an index of gender inequality. In order to determine if a fixed effect or random effect model should be used, the Hausman specification test is used. In this experiment, the results indicated that random effects should be used instead of fixed effects. There is a negative and significant correlation between the independent variables, like social globalizations, Human development indexes, and the gender inequality index. While 160 Economic globalizations, political globalizations, and the Gender Inequality Index have a positive but substantial correlation. Several theoretical and empirical research support the findings of this one. Gender inequality in South Asia is a major problem, and this report recommends strategies to assist alleviate the problem. Gender equality is a key component of the strategies aimed at enhancing the region's growth through globalizations elevation. Introduction:
Preprint
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Panel data from 2000 to 2016 will be used in this study to assess the influence of globalization on gender inequality in South Asian countries. As a proxy for gender differences, the Gender Inequality Index (GII) is utilised; for globalizations, social, political, and economic globalizations indices are also employed. The Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich created these three-dimensional indicators, while UNDP created an index of gender inequality. In order to determine if a fixed effect or random effect model should be used, the Hausman specification test is used. In this experiment, the results indicated that random effects should be used instead of fixed effects. There is a negative and significant correlation between the independent variables, like social globalizations, Human development indexes, and the gender inequality index. While 160 Economic globalizations, political globalizations, and the Gender Inequality Index have a positive but substantial correlation. Several theoretical and empirical research support the findings of this one. Gender inequality in South Asia is a major problem, and this report recommends strategies to assist alleviate the problem. Gender equality is a key component of the strategies aimed at enhancing the region's growth through globalizations elevation. Introduction:
Chapter
Recent research shows a link between higher rates of political participation of women and less corruption, yet little is known about the link between attitudes towards female political leadership and the acceptance of corruption. In order to fill this knowledge gap, this study employs data from the sixth wave (2010–2014) of the World Values Surveys for Ghana, Nigeria, Rwanda, South Africa and Zimbabwe. The study finds that people who agree that men are better political leaders than women, regardless of their gender, are more likely to state that corruption is justifiable. The findings corroborate the argument that corruption is deeply rooted in patriarchal structures, which need to be addressed to achieve both higher political participation of women and lower levels of corruption. This chapter is relevant to Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 5, target 5.5, which focuses on the political participation of women and SDG 16, target 16.5, which focuses on the reduction of corruption.
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Using several independent data sets, we investigate the relationship between gender and corruption. We show using micro-data that women are less involved in bribery, and are less likely to condone bribe-taking. Cross-country data show that corruption is less severe where women hold a larger share of parliamentary seats and senior positions in the government bureaucracy, and comprise a larger share of the labor force. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. JEL classification: K42, J16.
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