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Anti-Nociceptive and Anti-Inflammatory Potential of Coconut Water (Cocos nucifera L.) in rats and mice.

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Scientific evidence has established the role of coconut water in health and medicinal applications. The present study was aimed at investigating its anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory potential in laboratory animals. Hot plate, tail flick, formalin-induced paw licking and acetic acidinduced writhing tests were done to investigate the anti-nociceptive activity while carrageenan-induced paw edema was used to investigate the anti-inflammatory activity of coconut water after oral feeding for two, four and six weeks. Animals treated with normal saline and reference drugs served as negative and positive controls respectively. Coconut water significantly reduced nociception and inflammation in a duration-dependent manner. Latencies were increased in the coconut water treated over 0-90 min observation period in the hot plate test and 46-540C tail immersion test (p<0.05). In formalin test, coconut water showed a reduced paw-licking time both in early and late phase when compared with normal saline treated group (p<0.001). Also, it ameliorated acetic acid-induced writhing and carrageenan-induced paw edema by 55% and 50.2% respectively at the end of six weeks. Data were comparable with analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of the standard drugs used in the study. The results demonstrate analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of coconut water, which may be linked to its unique chemical composition.
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Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 5(9): 1116-1122, 2011
ISSN 1991-8178
Corresponding Author: Kazeem Olasunkanmi Ajeigbe, Department of Physiology, School of Basic Medical Sciences,
Igbinedion University, Okada-Nigeria. Tel: +234 803 570 5220.
E-mail: omowoyira@yahoo.com
1116
Anti-Nociceptive and Anti-Inflammatory Potential of Coconut Water
(Cocos Nucifera L.) In Rats and Mice.
1
Ajeigbe KO,
1
Ndaman ZA,
2
Amegor OF,
3
Onifade AA,
4
Asuk AA,
1
Ibironke GF and
1
Olaleye SB
Departments of
1
Physiology,
2
Medical Laboratory Science,
3
Chemical Pathology and
4
Biochemistry
Igbinedion University, Okada-Nigeria.
Abstract: Scientific evidence has established the role of coconut water in health and medicinal
applications. The present study was aimed at investigating its anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory
potential in laboratory animals. Hot plate, tail flick, formalin-induced paw licking and acetic acid-
induced writhing tests were done to investigate the anti-nociceptive activity while carrageenan-induced
paw edema was used to investigate the anti-inflammatory activity of coconut water after oral feeding
for two, four and six weeks. Animals treated with normal saline and reference drugs served as negative
and positive controls respectively. Coconut water significantly reduced nociception and inflammation
in a duration-dependent manner. Latencies were increased in the coconut water treated over 0-90 min
observation period in the hot plate test and 46-54
0
C tail immersion test (p<0.05). In formalin test,
coconut water showed a reduced paw-licking time both in early and late phase when compared with
normal saline treated group (p<0.001). Also, it ameliorated acetic acid-induced writhing and
carrageenan-induced paw edema by 55% and 50.2% respectively at the end of six weeks. Data were
comparable with analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of the standard drugs used in the study.
The results demonstrate analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of coconut water, which may be
linked to its unique chemical composition.
Key words: Coconut water, Hot plate test, Tail immersion test, Acetic acid-induced writhes,
Carrageenan-induced paw edema.
INTRODUCTION
Coconut water is a refreshing and nutritious beverage widely consumed in the tropics culturally or
traditionally for its beneficial properties to health (George and Sherrington, 1984; Janick and Paull, 2008). The
numerous medicinal properties have been documented (Yong, et al, 2009).
It is believed that coconut water could be used as an important alternative for oral rehydration and
intravenous hydration of patients particularly in remote regions (Campbell-Falck, et al, 2000). It may also offer
protection against myocardial infarction (Anurag and Rajamohan, 2003) and control of hypertension (Alleyne,
et al., 2005). It is also effective in the treatment of kidney and urethral stones, urinary infections and mineral
poisonings (Macalalag, and Macalalag, 1987).
Aside other significant and useful components in it, coconut water contain cytokinins, a class of
phytohormones (Kende and Zeevaart, 1997) with significant anti-ageing, anti-carcinogenic, and anti-thrombotic
effects (Rattan and Clark, 1994; Vermeulen, et al., 2002). Inorganic ions and vitamins in coconut water play a
vital role in strengthening the human body antioxidant system (Evans and Halliwell, 2001). Other components
which include sugars, alcohols, lipids, amino acids, nitrogenous compounds, organic acids and enzymes all play
different functional roles in plant and human systems due to their distinct chemical properties (Santoso, et al.,
1996; Arditti, 2008).
Furthermore, coconut water has been shown to attenuate ulcer formation in rats (Nneli and Woyike, 2008),
thereby hypothesizing modulation of chronic pain known to be associated with inflammatory disorders of the
gastrointestinal mucosa. Previously, we had reported from our laboratory that not only protein malnutrition but
micronutrients deficiencies cause overt hypersensitivity to acute and chronic pain in laboratory animals
(Ibironke, et al., 2009). Since coconut water contains a blend of vitamins, minerals, amino acids, sugars,
antioxidants, enzymes, health enhancing growth hormones, and other important nutrients which justified its
wide application for health and nutritional benefits, the present study was aimed at investigating its anti-
nociceptive and anti-inflammatory properties. This is imperative because of the paucity of documented
information on possible analgesic potential of coconut water.
Aust. J. Basic & Appl. Sci., 5(9): 1116-1122, 2011
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MATERIALS AND METHODS
Collection and Preparation of Coconut Water:
Coconuts were harvested from coconut tree (Cocos nucifera) grown in Okada village in Ovia North-East
LGA of Edo state. Fresh coconut of 10 months’ maturity (mature stage) used for this study were dehusked and
broken carefully, and the liquid endosperm was used for each day’s oral feeding. Four milliliters of coconut
water per 100 g body weight (Sandhya and Rajamohan, 2008) was given to the rats in the experimental groups
for two, four and six weeks.
Experimental Animals and Design:
Male albino rats of Wistar strain (180-220 g) and Swiss mice (29-35 g) were used for this study. The
animals were obtained from the Central Animal House of Igbinedion University, Okada and kept at standard
environmental conditions, subjected to 12 h light-dark cycle, 25 ± 2
0
C and relative humidity 50-60%. They were
fed with rat and mouse cubes and water ad libitum.
The animals were divided into five groups for each experimentation viz: Group 1, normal saline treated;
Group 2, 3 and 4, two, four and six weeks oral feeding with coconut water respectively; Group 5, standard drug.
This is replicated for hot plate, tail immersion, formalin-induced paw licking, acetic acid-induced writhing and
carrageenan-induced edema tests.
Nociceptive Evaluation Test:
Hot Plate Test In Rats:
Pain reflexes in response to a thermal stimulus were measured using a hot plate apparatus (Ugo Basile,
Italy) as described by Eddy and Leimback (1953). The control group received normal saline (2 ml per 100 g
body weight). The test groups received four milliliters of coconut water for two, four and six weeks while
indomethacin (5 mg/kg) was used as a reference drug. Rats were habituated to the apparatus for 3 minutes
before the start of the test. They were placed on the hot plate of 25.4 cm x 25.4 cm at 45 ± 1.0
0
C which was
surrounded by an opened top acrylic cage (19 cm tall), with the start/stop button on the timer. Response
latencies were measured at 30 minutes interval and the average of the results were taken.
Tail Flick Test:
The tail flick latency was measured using a medication of D’ Amour and Smiths, (1941) tail immersion
method. Each animal was gently hand-held with its tail wholly immersed in water at 46
0
C, 50
0
C and 54
0
C after
pretreatment with coconut. The latency for flicking the tail out of the water was recorded with a stopwatch.
Formalin-Induced Paw Licking Test In Rats:
20μL of 2.5% formalin was injected into the plantar surface of the left hind-paw (Hunskaar and Hole,
1987). The test was carried out in a transparent plastic chamber (30 x 30 x 30) cm with a mirror placed at the
base of the chamber to allow an unobstructed view of the rats. Each animal was allowed to explore the chamber
five minutes before receiving an injection of formalin. The time mice spent licking the injected paws was
measured as an index of pain or nociception. The test animals were pre-treated with coconut water for two, four
and six weeks and aspirin (150 mg/kg) thirty minutes before the administration of formalin. The early phase
(initial nociceptive response) was 5 minutes after formalin injection (0-5min). The final phase (second
nociceptive response) was between 15 to 30 minutes, post injection.
Acetic Acid-Induced Abdominal Writhing In Mice:
The mice were injected, i.p. with 0.2ml of 3% acetic acid solution. This induced the characteristic writhing
(Siegmund, et al, 1957; Koster, et al., 1959). The number of writhing and contraction of the abdominal muscle
together with stretching of the hind limbs was observed between 5 and 15 minutes. The data were computed
according to the following formula:
Anti-Inflammatory Activity:
Carrageenan-Induced Paw Edema In Rats:
An injection of 0.1 ml 1% carrageenan was delivered into the right hind paw of each rat under the sub
plantar aponeurosis which produced pedal inflammation in male Wistar rats according to Winter, et al., (1962).
The animals were pre-treated with the coconut water, and ibuprofen, a reference drug was given 30 minutes
before carrageenan injection. Measurement of the paw volume was carried out by plethysmometrically. The
inhibiting activity was calculated according to the formula:
Aust. J. Basic & Appl. Sci., 5(9): 1116-1122, 2011
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[Where C
o
is the mean paw size in the control group and Ct is the mean paw size in the treated group].
Statistical Analysis:
Data were analyzed by SPSS (version 15) and Microsoft Excel’s XL Toolbox statistical package (2.60
version) using descriptive statistics, ANOVA and student’s t test at p<0.05 (Glantz, 2005).
Results:
The Anti-Nociceptive Effects Of Coconut Water On Hot Plate Latency Assay In Rats:
Coconut water showed a statistically different anti-nociceptive property when compared with the normal
saline treated. Hot plate latency was increased over the 0-90 minutes’ observation period. Also, duration-
dependent anti-nociceptive effect was observed in the assay. While latencies of the animals treated with coconut
water for six weeks were 1.50 ± 0.1 min, 1.82 ± 0.12 min, 2.10 ± 0.11 min and 2.80 ± 0.13 min, four weeks
treated group exhibited 1.22 ± 0.06 min, 1.35 ± 0.15 min, 1.53 ± 0.1 min and 1.93 ± 0.15 min at 0, 30, 60 and 90
minutes respectively (p<0.05). Animals treated with indomethacin tolerated the pain till 3.54 ± 0.85 min and
4.30 ± 1.05 min at 30 and 60 minutes observation period respectively. The anti-nociceptive potential of coconut
water on hot plate test is shown in figure 1.
Fig. 1: The anti-nociceptive effect of coconut water on hot plate latency assay in rats. Each bar represents mean
± SEM (n=7 rats). *p<0.05, **p<0.001; significant difference from NS.
The Anti-Nociceptive Effects of Coconut Water on Tail Flick Assay in Rats:
The anti-nociceptive effect of coconut water was also exhibited in the tail immersion test (Figure 2). Four
weeks and six weeks pretreatment of coconut water increased tail flick latencies (0.49 ± 0.01 min, 0.51 ± 0.16
min) in water temperatures 50 and
54
0
C when compared with the normal saline group (0.24 ± 0.01, 0.19 ± 0.02)
(p<0.05). Also, indomethacin reduced the pain sensitivity by putting the latency at 0.48 ± 0.06 min, 0.82 min ±
0.07 and 0.60 min ± 0.02, p<0.001.
The Anti-Nociceptive Effects of Coconut Water on Formalin-Induced Paw Licking in Rats:
Coconut water showed duration-dependent anti-nociceptive properties both at early and late phases of the
paw licking in the rat (Figure 3). At the early phase, the licking time for four and six weeks group is 50.00 ± 2.5
seconds and 40.00 ± 3.5 seconds respectively compared with 65.00 ± 2.0 in the normal saline group (p<0.05).
At the late phase, two, four and six weeks’ groups all reduced the licking time with 145 ± 5.15, 100 ± 3.5 and 73
± 4.0 seconds respectively versus 180 ± 7.5 seconds in normal saline group. Aspirin group, both at early and late
phase, exhibited reduced time at 27 ± 1.45 and 48 ± 2.10 seconds respectively.
Aust. J. Basic & Appl. Sci., 5(9): 1116-1122, 2011
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Fig. 2: The anti-nociceptive effect of coconut water on tail flick latency assay in rats. Each bar represents mean
± SEM (n=7 rats). *p<0.05, **p<0.001; significant difference from NS.
Fig. 3: The anti-nociceptive effect of coconut water on formalin-induced paw licking in rats. Each bar
represents mean ± SEM (n=7 rats). *p<0.05, **p<0.001; significant different from NS.
Fig. 4: The anti-nociceptive effect of coconut water on acetic acid-induced writhes in mice. Each bar represents
the percentage inhibition of the mean number of writhing/10 minutes compare with control (n=7 rats).
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1120
The Anti-Nociceptive Effects of Coconut Water on Acetic Acid-Induced on Abdominal Writhing in Mice:
The anti-nociceptive effect of coconut water on mice using acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing is
shown in figure 4. While aspirin afforded 75% (p<0.001), coconut water at two, four and six weeks caused 20%,
40% and 55% (p<0.05) inhibition respectively when compared with the normal saline treated.
The Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Coconut Water on Carrageenan-Induced Paw Edema in Rats:
The effect of coconut water on carrageenan-induced paw edema is shown in figure 5. This property is
pronounced in four and six weeks’ treatments of animals with coconut, exhibiting 10.6% and 20.6%, 12.6% and
30.4%, 20% and 40.8%, 23.7% and 50.2% over first, second, third and fourth hour respectively. Ibuprofen
tolerated the edema by 90.3% at the third hour.
Fig. 5: The anti-inflammatory effect of coconut water on carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats. Each bar
represents percentage inhibition of the mean paw volume compared with control (n=7 rats).
Discussion:
The results of the study show that coconut water possesses analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties in a
duration-dependent manner. The analgesic property was demonstrated on the basis of thermal nociception in the
test models of hot plate and tail immersion, and chemical nociception in formalin-induced paw licking and
acetic acid induced writhing tests. Anti-inflammatory effect was evaluated using the widely accepted test model
of carrageenan-induced paw edema.
The hot plate and tail flick tests are based on phasic stimulus of high intensity with central mechanisms
(Tjolsen, et al., 1992; Ramabadran, et al, 1989). This study indicated that coconut water had latent periods in
both hot plate and tail flick tests significantly increased. The hot plate is a specific central anti-nociceptive test
in which opoid agents exert their analgesic effects via supra spinal and spinal receptors (Tjolsen, et al, 1992).
The tail immersion test indicated that the pharmacological actions were mediated by μ opioid receptors rather
than κ and δ receptors (Ramabadran, et al., 1989). The activity of coconut water on these models of pain
suggests clearly that it might be centrally acting.
Formalin-induced paw licking represents a chemically-induced burning pain. In the test, the nociceptive
response has two phases: the early acute phase (0-5 min) reflects direct effect of formalin on nociceptive C
fibers whereas the late chronic phase (15-30 min), accompanied by well extended nociceptive response (Hunter
and Singh, 1994) and functional changes in nociceptive C fibers (Tjolsen, et al, 1992) is manifested by
behaviorally as flinching and licking of the affected paw. Experimental findings had also indicated that
substance P and bradykinins participate in the early phase while histamine, serotonin and prostaglandins are
involved in the late phase (Shibata, et al, 1989). Coconut water, as revealed in the study, reduced the paw
licking time in these animal models of pain both at early phase late phase significantly even at values
comparable to aspirin, a reference drug. It may also be suggested that coconut water possess peripheral anti-
nociceptive effect since the biphasic model of pain is represented by direct effect on nociceptors and
inflammatory nociceptive responses (Siegmund, et al, 1957).
In the acetic acid induced writhes model of pain, the activity consists of contraction of the abdominal
muscles with a stretching of the hind limbs which is nociceptive (Hernandez-Perez and Rabanal, 2002). Acetic
acid causes pain by inducing release of endogenous mediators, such as PGE2 and PGF2α in peritoneal fluids as
well as lipooxygenase products, which stimulate the nociceptive neurons (Blane, 1967). Therefore, the results of
Aust. J. Basic & Appl. Sci., 5(9): 1116-1122, 2011
1121
the acetic acid-induced writhing strongly suggest that a probable mechanism of coconut water may be linked
partly to inhibition of lipooxygenase and/or cyclooxygenase in peripheral tissues and interfering with the
mechanism of transduction in primary afferent nociceptor.
In the carrageenan-induced paw edema model of inflammation, the anti-inflammatory activity of coconut
water was significantly high in the study. Carrageenan-induced inflammation in the rat paw is a standard model
of edema formation and hyperalgesia. Several lines of evidence indicate that the COX-2-mediated increase in
prostaglandin (PG) E2 production in the central nervous system (CNS) contributes to the severity of the
inflammatory and pain responses in this model. COX-2 is rapidly induced in the spinal cord and other regions of
the CNS following carrageenan injection in the paw (Guay, et al, 2004). Hence, this anti-inflammatory potential
of coconut water may be linked descriptively with inhibiting prostaglandin production, thereby reducing
inflammation and pain.
The anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects observed in this study, like other biological properties of
coconut water (Yong, et al, 2009), may be due to its unique composition of sugars, vitamins, minerals, amino
acid acids and cytokinins. This may be corroborating to earlier reports that lack or deficiency of micronutrients
(vitamins and minerals) reduced pain threshold in both lactating and adult rats (Rocinholi, et al, 1997; Ibironke,
et al., 2009).
Conclusively, these results show that coconut water possesses analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties.
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... nucifera L.) that is consumed with the dosage of 4 ml/100 g BW of mice for 6 weeks can give an analgesic effect on mice. 9 Coconut water also has an anti-inflammation effect, and it has been proved that young coconut water is more potent than matured coconut water. 10 The analgesic and antiinflammation effects inside the coconut water are caused by its content, namely the flavonoid and salicylic acid which will inhibit the forming process of prostaglandin. 10 Salicylic acid (2-hydroxybenzoic acid) acts as the fitohormon on coconut that has the analgesic effect (Inhibition of enzyme COX-1&2), antipyretic, and antiinflammation. ...
... According to studies, coconut water is capable of giving significant analgesic effects when given for six weeks at maximum with the dosage 4 ml/100gBW through the hot plate, tail flick, formalin-induced paw licking, and writhing reflex methods with the dependent variable that is the duration of the giving of coconut water, which are set to be two, four, and six weeks. 9 Young coconut water has an antiinflammatory effect on inflammation and edema in the subplantar tissue of a rat's leg using plethysmometer, it's because young coconut water has flavonoid content that can inhibit the synthesis of prostaglandin as inflammatory mediator, which is also the mediator for pain. 10,23 This difference may be caused by the influence from the duration of the coconut water giving to the final condition of the test animals, and is related to one of the contents in the coconut water, which is salicylic acid, whose longterm effect can affect the metabolism of connective tissue through the changes of composition, biosynthesis, or the metabolism of mucopolysaccharides in connective tissue on ground substance that is capable of suppressing the spread of inflammatory process, so that when given in longer duration it will give better end results. ...
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Introduction: Pain signals tissue damage that is capable of reducing thequality of life. Non-Steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs) are known as effective analgesic drugs which have various side effects, therefore natural minerals are used as an alternative medicine for pain and inflammation, one of which is known to be coconut water. Hence this research was conducted to find out the differences of the analgesic effect between young coconut water (Cocos nucifera L.) with non-selective and COX-2 selective NSAID on mice induced with pain from acetic acid 0.6% 1 ml/100gBW of mice.Methods: True experimental, conducted at the Pharmacology Laboratory in Faculty of Medicine of Airlangga University involving the sample of 48 mice (6 groups). The recorded data was tested using the oneway ANOVA methodology before then continued with the posthoc test of LSD.Results: The addition of young coconut water (Cocos nucifera L.) with the dosage of 3 ml/100gBW, 4 ml/100gBW, and 4.5 ml/100gBW of mice doesn't give any significant analgesic effect even though the analgesic protection percentage increases accordingly to its dosage (12.32%, 18.72%, 26.88%), but non-selective and COX-2 selective NSAID give significant analgesic effect (p<0.05) on mice induced with pain from acetic acid 0.6% 1 ml/100gBW of mice.Conclusion: There are differences in the analgesic effect of young coconut water (C. nucifera L.) with non-selective and COX-2 selective NSAID on mice induced with pain from acetic acid 0.6% 1 ml/100gBW of mice.
... The bark has been reported to possess anthelmintic [28] and antibacterial [29] properties. Clear and drinkable liquid, the coconut water, has been reported to have antidiabetic [30], antinociceptive [31], anti-inflammatory [31], antioxidant and DNA protecting effects [32], besides being used in the treatment of diabetic foot ulcer [33]. Dietary coconut sprouts beneficially modulate cardiac damage induced by isoproterenol in rats [34]. ...
... The bark has been reported to possess anthelmintic [28] and antibacterial [29] properties. Clear and drinkable liquid, the coconut water, has been reported to have antidiabetic [30], antinociceptive [31], anti-inflammatory [31], antioxidant and DNA protecting effects [32], besides being used in the treatment of diabetic foot ulcer [33]. Dietary coconut sprouts beneficially modulate cardiac damage induced by isoproterenol in rats [34]. ...
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Background: Drugs with post-prandial action constitute one of the main courses of treatments for diabetes. Objective: In the present investigation, we have explored the α-amylase inhibitory potential of ethanolic extract of Cocos nucifera endocarp. Methods: DNS based assay was done to assess the α-amylase inhibition potential of ethanolic extract. Phytochemical screening and GC-MS analysis were done in order to assess the chemical profiling of extract. In silico docking studies were done using VLife MDS 4.6 software and the probable molecules, predicted after GC-MS analysis, were docked with the co-crystallized (acarbose) tracked active site and rest all cavities of porcine pancreatic α-amylase (1OSE). ADMET analysis was done using StarDrop 6.4, Derek Nexus and P450 Modules from Optibrium Ltd. and LHASA Ltd. Results: DNS based α-amylase assay indicated that the IC50 value of extract lies in the range of 63- 126 µg/ml and at higher doses, i.e. above 250 µg/ml, it has better α-amylase inhibition than the standard drug, acarbose. Phytochemical screening indicated that ethanolic extract is rich in alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, saponins, triterpenes, glycosides, carbohydrates, terpenoids, quinones and lactones. Further, GC-MS analysis (where Similarity Index was > 90) predicted that the probable phytoconstituents present in the ethanolic extract are myristic acid, syringaldehyde, eugenol, vanillin, 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol, lauric acid, palmitic acid methyl ester and γ-sitosterol. γ-Sitosterol showed the strong affinity towards the active site which was tracked by a co-crystallized ligand along with cavity 1 and 2 while significant interactions were observed in case of co-crystallized tracked active site as well as cavity 4 of 1OSE. Ethanolic extract of C. nucifera has no hemolytic effect. Conclusion: Its ability to effectively inhibit α-amylase may be attributed to the presence of the above probable molecules, which will be explored further.
... Apart from anti-inflammatory activity, coconut oil (C. nucifera Linn.) also possesses powerful antimicrobial properties that are revealed when tested on various strains of microorganisms [19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27]. According to Srivastava et al. (2008) and Sia et al. (2010), coconut oil is found to be effective in the treatment of wound infections as it consists of high amounts of medium-chain fatty acids such as lauric acid, which has strong antimicrobial properties [6,28]. ...
... Despite antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities, a few studies prove that C. nucifera Linn. also does exhibit analgesic activity [13,[25][26][27]37]. and found that virgin coconut oil and C. nucifera aqueous extract demonstrate a moderate analgesic effect on acetic-induced writhing response in mice [15,38,39]. ...
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At present, approximately 25% of drugs in modern pharmacopoeia are derived from plant sources (phytomedicines) that can be developed for the treatment of diseases and disorders. Many other drugs are synthetic analogues built on the prototype compounds isolated from plants. Cocos nucifera Linn. (Arecaceae), which is commonly known as coconut, is a plant possessing a lot of potential as an ingredient in traditional medicines for the treatment of metabolic disorders and particularly as an anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and analgesic agent. This review emphasizes on the recent literature and research findings that highlight the significant biological activities of C. nucifera Linn. such as its anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and analgesic properties. This review can help researchers keen on exploiting the therapeutic potential of C. nucifera Linn. which may motivate them to further explore their commercial viability.
... Its efficacy continues to gain prominence owing to its ability to maintain vast physiological conditions such as antioxidative (Bhagya et al., 2012), cardioprotective (Babu et al., 2014), and antihypertensive (Syafriani et al., 2014). Kunle-Alabi and colleagues presented coconut's ameliorative effect on testicular oxidative stress in rats treated with doxorubicin (Kunle-Alabi et al., 2021), but prior, we have reported from our laboratory that Coconut water and milk possess inflammo-preventive, inflammo-suppressive, and gastro-restitutive properties (Ajeigbe et al., 2011(Ajeigbe et al., , 2017. The available evidence on the efficacy of coconut water and milk particularly on gastrointestinal integrity has poised it in the frontline of considerable complementary therapeutic options. ...
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The potential effects of coconut water (CCW) and milk (CCM) on gastrointestinal motility {intestinal transit (IT), intestinal fluid accumulation (IFA) and colonic motility}, tissue oxidative, and inflammatory responses in heat‐stressed rats were investigated. There were four (4) temperature exposure groups; (i) Control at 30°C, (CON), (ii) heat‐stressed (HS) group exposed to the ambiance of 40°C, (iii) heat‐stressed pre‐treated with coconut water (HS+ CCW), and (iv) coconut milk (HS + CCM). Skin temperatures (ST) and rectal temperatures (RT) were taken daily, before and after 2 hr heat exposure. GE, IT, and IFA were assessed using standard methods while colonic motility was assessed by colonic bead expulsion (CBE) time after the 14‐day exposure. Serum cortisol and lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme activities, inflammatory cytokines in intestinal samples were assessed. Stomach and intestinal morphology were equally examined on histomorphometry. Increased GE, IT, IFA, and colonic motility were observed in HS. CCW and CCM reversed the increases in GE, IT, IFA, and colonic motility in the heat‐stressed rats (p < .05). Elevated serum cortisol level and intestinal MDA were significantly reduced in the CCW and CCM treated. Tissue GPx, T‐AOC, and T‐SOD were all enhanced in HS + CCW and HS + CCM. While tumor necrosis factor‐α (TNF‐α) and interleukin‐1β (IL‐1β) were suppressed in the HS group, interleukin‐4 (IL‐4) and interleukin‐10 (IL‐10) were enhanced with CCW and CCM. Altered intestinal morphology in the HS was also significantly mitigated by CCW and CCM. We showed that coconut water and milk could ameliorate intestinal dysmotility associated with heat stress via oxidative stress reduction and suppression of inflammatory responses. Practical applications Heat stress impacts negatively on intestinal health and integrity in both humans and animals via oxidative stress and inflammation. Conversely, coconut has demonstrated anti‐oxidative and anti‐inflammatory properties in health and medicinal applications. From the findings of this study, coconut water and milk display beneficial potentials against the untoward heat stress effect on gastrointestinal health.
... Background: Exposure to excess glucocorticoid(GC) during pregnancy has been linked to metabolic disorders such as type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance (IR) and increased body weight in later life of offspring (Gomes et al., 2014). Elevated dipeptidylpeptidase (DPP4) activity has also been implicated in the development of type 2 diabetes and IR (Rohrborn et al., 2015). However, the role of DPP4 in maternal glucose dysregulation has not been documented. ...
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Hydroxyurea (HU), used in the management Sickle Cell Anaemia may have toxic effects on the subjects. This study sought to investigate whether Moringa oleifera leaf extract (MOLE) can mitigate the genotoxic effects of HU in phenylhydrazine (PHZ)-induced anaemia in rats. MOLE was obtained using 80% methanol after leaf maceration. Thirty-six male Sprague Dawley rats were distributed into 6 groups of six animals each and labeled groups I-VI. Group I (control) did not receive any extract or drug. Anaemia was induced in groups II-VI by intraperitoneal administration of PHZ (20 mgkg-1 body weight) on alternate days for 9 days. After PHZ treatment, group III received HU (25mg kg-1). Groups IV-VI received three different doses of MOLE (100, 200 or 400 mgkg-1) and HU (HUMO) once daily orally for ten days. After treatment, blood was collected by ocular puncture for haematological analysis and animals sacrificed by cervical dislocation to harvest liver for the determination of malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and DNA fragmentation analysis. PHZ decreased packed cell volume (PCV), red blood cells (RBCs) and haemoglobin (Hb) (p<0.05) and increased MDA levels and DNA fragmentation. After PHZ treatment, HU increased PVC, Hb, MDA and DNA fragmentation but decreased RBC levels (p<0.05). Dose dependently HUMO (groups IV – VI), increased PCV, RBC and Hb and reduced MDA and DNA fragmentation. Study shows that MOLE ameliorated the genotoxic effects of HU in PHZ-induced anaemia in rats.
... Background: Exposure to excess glucocorticoid(GC) during pregnancy has been linked to metabolic disorders such as type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance (IR) and increased body weight in later life of offspring (Gomes et al., 2014). Elevated dipeptidylpeptidase (DPP4) activity has also been implicated in the development of type 2 diabetes and IR (Rohrborn et al., 2015). However, the role of DPP4 in maternal glucose dysregulation has not been documented. ...
... Background: Exposure to excess glucocorticoid(GC) during pregnancy has been linked to metabolic disorders such as type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance (IR) and increased body weight in later life of offspring (Gomes et al., 2014). Elevated dipeptidylpeptidase (DPP4) activity has also been implicated in the development of type 2 diabetes and IR (Rohrborn et al., 2015). However, the role of DPP4 in maternal glucose dysregulation has not been documented. ...
... Background: Exposure to excess glucocorticoid(GC) during pregnancy has been linked to metabolic disorders such as type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance (IR) and increased body weight in later life of offspring (Gomes et al., 2014). Elevated dipeptidylpeptidase (DPP4) activity has also been implicated in the development of type 2 diabetes and IR (Rohrborn et al., 2015). However, the role of DPP4 in maternal glucose dysregulation has not been documented. ...
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Hypertension remains a global challenge even in the 21st century with attendant increase mortality rate. the quest for alternative management suffixed our investigation using different varieties of lycopersicon esculentum ( tomatoes) commonly consumed within our locality.Tomatoes outside its juiceless and rich flavor are quietly gaining a place in the prevention and management of hypertension. This attribute is suggestive of the presence of lycopene, potassium, beta carotene and antioxidants present in tomatoes . In this present study, 25 male wistar rats divided into 5 groups of 5 rats each were used. Group A served as the normal control group and was administered 0.9% normal saline as placebo. Group B was fed 8% NaCl in feed and 1% NaCl in drinking water ( to mimic a hypertensive model) and Jos variety of fresh tomatoes.Group C received same treatment as group B but was fed on UTC variety of fresh tomatoes.Group D received the same treatment with group B but was fed with GBOKO variety of fresh tomatoes, Group E received same treatment as group B but was not administered tomatoes rather 2.5mg/kg of lisinopril orally.Administration lasted for 28 days and all animals were allowed access to food and water ad libitum .Standard methods were used to assess systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, heart rate and total cholesterol levels in all groups. ANOVA was used to analyze data and probability levels p<0.05 considered significant. Results of this study showed a dose duration dependent significant p<0.05 increase in systolic and diastolic blood pressure in all the tomatoes treated groups compared to the control. Groups B and C showed decrease blood pressure compared to group D.However, lisinopril treated group (E) showed a decrease systolic and diastolic blood pressure compared to the tomatoes treated groups. There was no significant difference in heart rates among the tomatoes treated groups.However, group D, the GBOKO variety treated group showed decrease heart rate compared to the control group . But all the tomatoes treated groups showed decreased heart rates compared to the lisinopril group. Total cholesterol level was significantly higher in the tomatoes treated groups compared to the lisinopril. But among the tomatoes treated groups, it was significantly higher in the Gboko variety compared to the Jos and UTC varieties respectively. All these indices put together suggest that Jos and UTC varieties of tomatoes show a better blood pressure reducing ability compared to the Gboko group.However, lisinopril still proves a better alternative.And if these results are applicable to man, the consumption of Jos and UTC varieties of tomatoes should be encouraged.
... On the other hand, hydrothermal extract of C. nucifera was subjected toward antiinflammatory effect against various animal models and the results were compared with standard drug diclofenac and interpreted with significant activity of p < 0.05 when compared with the standard drug [41]. Raw C. nucifera water was tested for reduction of paw in early phase and later phase which resulted that C. nucifera water can be utilized as good anti-inflammatory agent [42]. Hence, C. nucifera water, hydrothermal extract, virgin C. nucifera oil, and husk fiber extract can act as a cheap anti-inflammatory agent by the role of various phytochemicals present in it. ...
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Cocos nucifera is one of the highest nutritional and medicinal value plants with various fractions of proteins which play a major role in several biological applications such as anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, anti-neoplastic, anti-parasitic, insecticidal, and leishmanicidal activities. This review is focused on several biotechnological, biomedical aspects of various solvent extracts collected from different parts of coconut and the phytochemical constituents which are present in it. The results obtained from this source will facilitate most of the researchers to focus their work toward the process of diagnosing diseases in future.
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Cocos nucifera (C.nucifera) was one of the world’s most adaptable natural products and also its components contains several protein fractions such as albumins, globulins, prolamines, glutelins-1 and glutelins-2 are previously studied and reported. Additionally various constituents of C. nucifera also can be used as low cost agricultural waste. C. nucifera was widely used for synthesis of nanoparticles such has gold, silver, aluminum oxide and some doped nanoparticles like europium doped yttrium oxide nanoparticles. Since it has higher medicinal applications in this study we reviewed majorly on biological application such has anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antimicrobial, antimalarial, leishmanicidal and insecticidal activity with reference to various databases which consist of current updates. Keywords: C.nucifera, Agricultural waste, Nanoparticle production, Medicinal applications
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In the present study, the cardioprotective action of tender coconut water (TCW) in experimental myocardial infarction induced by isoproterenol in rats was studied. The results indicated that feeding TCW afforded protection against induction of myocardial infarction. There was decreased concentration of total cholesterol, VLDL + LDL– cholesterol and HDLcholesterol in the serum of isoproterenol treated rats fed TCW. The cholesterol levels in the heart and aorta were also lower in these groups. Triglycerides and phospholipids in the serum, heart and aorta were lower in isoproterenol treated rats given TCW. Recovery from myocardial damages was evident from the values of marker enzymes viz creatine phosphokinase (CPK), serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Induction of myocardial infarction in rats by isoproterenol administration resulted in increased activities of SGOT, SGPT and LDH in the serum and heart and CPK in the serum. On the other hand, isoproterenol treated rats fed TCW showed decreased activities of these enzymes. Histopathological studies showed very little myocardial damage in isoproterenol treated rats fed TCW. The observed beneficial effects of TCW may be due to several factors viz potassium, calcium, magnesium, L-arginine that are present in the water.
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Coconut water (coconut liquid endosperm), with its many applications, is one of the world's most versatile natural product. This refreshing beverage is consumed worldwide as it is nutritious and beneficial for health. There is increasing scientific evidence that supports the role of coconut water in health and medicinal applications. Coconut water is traditionally used as a growth supplement in plant tissue culture/micropropagation. The wide applications of coconut water can be justified by its unique chemical composition of sugars, vitamins, minerals, amino acids and phytohormones. This review attempts to summarise and evaluate the chemical composition and biological properties of coconut water.
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Kopyor coconuts (matured coconuts with broken meat particles in the watery endosperm due to abnormal formation of the kernel during the development of the fruits) were analysed for their proximate composition, minerals, vitamins, dietary fibres, sugars, organic acids, fatty acid composition and amino acid profile. The chief constituent of kopyor water was sucrose (about 92% of the total sugar); in contrast, the young or normal-mature nut water contained glucose and fructose as the main sugars. α-Tocopherol was detectable in the kopyor water. Total amino acid content of kopyor water was higher than that of the young or normal-mature water. Like the young or normal-mature nut water, kopyor water seemed to be a good source of dietary minerals, with potassium as the predominant one.The relatively high contents of sucrose, glucose, fructose, citric and malic acids might contribute to the deliciousness of kopyor meat. The lipid content of kopyor meat was lower than that of the normal-mature meat, but fatty acid profiles were similar.
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A warm water crude extract of coconut milk and a coconut water dispersion were investigated for their antiulcerogenic effects in male Wistar albino rats. Ulcers were induced in the male rats by subcutaneous administration of indomethacin (40 mg/kg) using standard procedures. The ulcer inhibition rate (UIR) was taken as a measure of the cytoprotection offered by test substances. Coconut milk (2 mL daily oral feeding) produced a stronger percentage (54%) reduction in the mean ulcer area than coconut water (39%). The effect of coconut milk was similar to the effect of sucralfate that reduced the mean ulcer area by 56% in this study. Sucralfate is a conventional cytoprotective agent. The results showed that coconut milk and water via macroscopic observation had protective effects on the ulcerated gastric mucosa. It is concluded that coconut milk offered stronger protection on indomethacin-induced ulceration than coconut water in rats.
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The coconut water presents a series of nutritional and therapeutic properties, being a natural, acid and sterile solution, which contains several biologically active components, l-arginine, ascorbic acid, minerals such as calcium, magnesium and potassium, which have beneficial effects on lipid levels. Recent studies in our laboratory showed that both tender and mature coconut water feeding significantly (P<0.05) reduced hyperlipidemia in cholesterol fed rats [Sandhya, V.G., Rajamohan, T., 2006. Beneficial effects of coconut water feeding on lipid metabolism in cholesterol fed rats. J. Med. Food 9, 400-407]. The current study evaluated the hypolipidemic effect of coconut water (4ml/100g body weight) with a lipid lowering drug, lovastatin (0.1/100g diet) in rats fed fat-cholesterol enriched diet ad libitum for 45 days. Coconut water or lovastatin supplementation lowered the levels of serum total cholesterol, VLDL+LDL cholesterol, triglycerides and increased HDL cholesterol in experimental rats (P<0.05). Coconut water feeding decreased activities of hepatic lipogenic enzymes and increased HMG CoA reductase and lipoprotein lipase activity (P<0.05). Incorporation of radioactive acetate into free and ester cholesterol in the liver were higher in coconut water treated rats. Coconut water supplementation increased hepatic bile acid and fecal bile acids and neutral sterols (P<0.05). Coconut water has lipid lowering effect similar to the drug lovastatin in rats fed fat-cholesterol enriched diet.