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The Relationship Between Sex Role Stereotypes and Requisite Management Characteristics Among Female Managers

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Abstract

Conducted a replication of V. Schein's study with 167 female middle managers to test the hypothesis that among female managers, successful middle managers are perceived to possess those characteristics, attitudes, and temperaments more commonly ascribed to males in general than to females in general. Ss rated either females in general, males in general, or successful middle managers on 92 descriptive terms. As was found with the male sample in Schein's study, results confirm the hypothesis. The relationship between sex role stereotypes and perceived requisite management characteristics was strongest among female managers with limited managerial experience.

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... araştırmasıdır. Bu araştırma uluslararası alanda birçok popülasyona uygulanmış ve genişletilmiştir (Schein, 1973(Schein, , 1975Norris ve Wylie, 1995;Kunkel vd., 2003). ...
... Toplumsal cinsiyet konusunda toplumun hassasiyeti ve cinsiyet ayrımcılığını engelleme konusundaki çabalara rağmen, erkek egemen iş dünyasında çalışan kadın sayısı artsa da yöneticilerin rolünün eril algılanması sonucunda kadınların yönetici olarak kabul edilmelerinde zorluklar yaşadığı bilinmektedir (Schein, 1973(Schein, , 1975(Schein, , 1994Brenner vd., 1989;Shein vd., 1989;Schein ve Mueller, 1992;Gormon, 2005;Duehr ve Bono, 2006). Türkiye'de ve dünyada üst düzey yönetim pozisyonları genellikle erkekler tarafından doldurulmakta, orta ve alt düzeyde ise kadın yöneticilere rastlanılmaktadır. ...
... Türkiye'de ve dünyada üst düzey yönetim pozisyonları genellikle erkekler tarafından doldurulmakta, orta ve alt düzeyde ise kadın yöneticilere rastlanılmaktadır. Schein (1973Schein ( , 1975Schein ( , 1994 Schein'ın (1973Schein'ın ( , 1975Schein'ın ( , 1989 (Schein, 1973) hem de kadın (Schein, 1975) yöneticilerde olduğu gibi yönetsel başarıyla ilişkili özelliklerin, erkeklerle ile ilişkisinin daha fazla olduğunu ortaya koymuştur (Schein, 2001: 675-678 Araştırmacılar kadınların yönetim pozisyonlarındaki azlığını, liderlik özellikleri ya da davranışları hakkında erkeklerle kadınlar arasındaki farklılıklara (Nieva ve Gutek, 1981), sosyalleşme süreçleri ve rol uyumsuzluğuna (Eagly ve Johnson, 1990;Kelly, 1991;Eagly ve Karau, 2002), örgüt kültürü (Badjo ve Dickson, 2001), stereotipleme ve önyargılara (Schein, 1994;Renshaw, 1999;Powell ve Butterfield, 2002Paris ve Dacker, 2012) bağlamışlardır. ...
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Thesis
Bireyler içinde bulundukları toplumsal, siyasal ve kültürel çevreden etkilenerek, başarılı yöneticinin sahip olması gerektiğine inandığı birçok özelliği ve davranış biçimini zihinlerinde modellemektedir. Bu modeller başarılı yöneticinin davranış ve niteliklerine ilişkin bireyin zihninde oluşturduğu stereotiplerdir. Stereotipler sayesinde, bireylerin zihinlerinde yöneticiye ilişkin önceden bir model oluşmakta ve birey yöneticiyi gördüğü andan itibaren bu modele göre teşhis edip, yöneticinin nasıl birisi olduğunu ve ne tür davranışlar sergilemesi gerektiğini kolaylıkla ifade edebilmektedir. Çalışmada bireylerin siyasi eğilimleri (muhafazakar, milliyetçi, sosyal demokrat, sosyalist) ile cinsiyetlerinin başarılı (iyi) bir yöneticide bulunması istenilen özellikleri tanımlamada algı farklılığı oluşturup oluşturmadığı incelenmiştir. Ayrıca başarılı yönetici prototipi ile siyasi eğilim (muhafazakar, milliyetçi, sosyal demokrat ve sosyalist) stereotipleri ve cinsiyet stereotipleri arasındaki ilişkiler karşılaştırmalı olarak analiz edilmiştir. Çalışmanın temel amacı başarılı (iyi) yönetici prototiplerinin farklı cinsiyet ve siyasi eğilimlere (muhafazakar, milliyetçi, sosyal demokrat, sosyalist) sahip olan bireylerin algılamalarında farklılık gösterip göstermediğini tespit edip, zihinlerinde şekillendirdiği başarılı (iyi) yönetici algısını ortaya çıkarmaktır. Araştırmada 92 maddelik Schein Tanımlayıcı Endeks’i (STE) kullanılmıştır. Bu tanımlayıcı endeks, erkek, kadın, başarılı yönetici, milliyetçi, muhafazakar, sosyal demokrat ve sosyalist başlıkları ile yedi farklı örneklem grubuna uygulanmıştır. Araştırma Türkiye’de IBBS-1 (düzey-1) il gruplandırmasında yer alan 2500 katılımcı ile gerçekleştirilmiştir. Araştırma sonuçlarına göre, Türkiye'deki başarılı yöneticilerin prototipi cinsiyet klişelerinin eril ve dişil özellikleriyle açıklanamamaktadır. Ancak bireylerin siyasi eğilim stereotipleri ile başarılı yönetici prototipleri arasında farklılıklar olduğu görülmüştür. Aynı zamanda başarılı olma isteği yüksek olan, atılgan, bilgi olarak donanımlı, agresif olmaktan rahatsız olmayan, hayatın gerçeklerini bilen, liderlik yeteneği yüksek olan, neşeli, istikrarlı, zeki ve düşünceleri duygularından etkilenmeyen yöneticilerin Türk kültürel ortamında başarılı yönetici olarak tercih edildiği gözlenmektedir. Anahtar Kelimeler: Stereotip (Kalıpyargı), Cinsiyet Stereotipleri, Başarılı Yönetici, Siyasi Eğilim, Siyasi Eğilim Stereotipleri, Schein Tanımlayıcı Endeksi.
... Örneğin, etnik köken, ırk ve cinsiyete yönelik stereotipler yönetim biliminde tartışılmaya başlanmış ve öncelikle liderlik kavramının algılanmasında bahsi geçen kavramların etkisi üzerine çalışmalar yapılmıştır (Berkery,Morley ve Tiernan, 2013;Booysen ve Nkomo, 2010;Lankau ve Chung, 2009;Duehr, Bono, 2006;Hollander ve Julian,1969). Özellikle cinsiyet stereotiplerinin yansımalarını tespit etmek üzere yapılan çalışmalarda, sayıca erkeklerin baskın olduğu yöneticilik, liderlik gibi alanlarda kadın çalışanların tüm şartlar eşit olduğunda dahi terfi ettirilemeyebileceği ya da yöneticilik konumuna yükselmek için eril özellikler sergilediklerine yönelik bulgulara ulaşılmıştır (Berkery,Morley,Tiernan, 2013;Koenig, Eagly vd.,2011;Schein,2001;Dolge,Gilroy,Fenzel,1995;Schein,Mueller,Jacobson,1989;Schein,1973Schein, ,1975. Pek çok toplumda kadına atfedilen anne olmak, eş olmak ve ev işlerinden sorumlu olmak gibi görevlerin çalışma hayatında kadını nasıl etkilediği yönetim biliminin tartıştığı diğer önemli konular arasındadır. ...
... Prototiplerin ortaya çıkarılması ve hassas istatistiki hesaplamalara imkan vermesi nedeniyle araştırmalarda sıklıkla kullanıldığı görülmektedir. Likert ölçeklere örnek olarak gösterilebilecek yönetici stereotipleri ve başarılı yönetici prototipleri ile ilgili araştırmaları ile bilinen Schein (1973Schein ( , 1975'ın ölçeği, kadın erkek ve yönetici stereotiplerini tespit etmeyi ve başarılı (iyi) yönetici prototiplerinin tespit edilmesine olanak sağlamaktadır. Ayrıca, başarılı yönetici prototipinin eril ve dişil algılanması ile ilgili bağlantılar kurulmasına da izin vermektedir (Hortaçsu, 1998: 232, 309-310;Yapıcı, 2004: 148-149) . ...
... Sosyal psikoloji literatürü ile paralel olarak yönetim literatüründe de ırk ve cinsiyet stereotipleri konusunda araştırmalara ağırlık verildiği görülmektedir. Toplumsal cinsiyet konusunda toplumun hassasiyeti ve bu konudaki çabalara rağmen, erkek egemen iş dünyasında çalışan kadın sayısı artsa da yöneticilerin rolünün eril algılanması sonucunda kadınların yönetici olarak kabul edilmelerinde zorluklar yaşadığı bilinmektedir (Duehr ve Bono, 2006;Gormon, 2005;Shein ve Mueller, 1992;Brenner vd., 1989;Shein vd., 1989;Schein, 1973Schein, , 1975Schein, , 1994. ...
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Article
Araştırma, sosyal psikoloji alanında uzun zamandır tartışılan stereotip kavramının yönetim alanında yapılan araştırmalardaki yerini açıklamayı amaçlamaktadır. Bu amaç doğrultusunda, stereotip kavramının tanımı yapıldıktan sonra, kavramın tarihsel gelişim sürecinden, kuramsal alt yapısından, kavramı ölçme yöntemlerinden bahsedilerek yönetim literatüründeki yeriyle ilgili genel bir değerlendirme yapılacaktır. Stereotiplerin karmaşık dünyanın mantıklı bir şekilde okunmasına olanak tanıyan aygıtlar olarak görülmesi, insan ilişkilerinde temel bir vazifesinin olması konunun yönetim alanında da tartışılmaya başlanmasının haklı gerekçesi olduğu savunulabilir. İnsan ilişkilerinin yoğun bir şekilde yaşandığı işletmelerde, yönetim araştırmalarında sıklıkla vurgu yapılan kavramların (memnuniyet, güven, bağlılık, tükenmişlik, çatışma vb.) temelinde stereotiplerin yer aldığı ve işletmelerde sosyal etkileşimin pürüzsüz ve kolay bir şekilde ilerlemesine yardımcı olarak sosyal açıdan pragmatik bir işleve sahip oldukları düşünülmektedir. Araştırma sonucunda, stereotip kavramına dikkat çekilerek yönetim literatüründe yeni tartışmalar yapılabilmesi için farkındalık oluşturulması beklenmektedir. İşletme yöneticileri için çalışanlarının bilişsel yapılarını anlamalarına ve bu bilişsel yapıların davranışlara ve dolayısıyla iş ilişkilerine nasıl yansıdığını görmelerine olanak sağlayacaktır.
... Likewise, managers are usually more associated with agentic attributes and therefore, are more strongly connected to attributes associated with men rather than women. This overlap between the attributes associated with men and managers has first been examined by Schein (1973Schein ( , 1975. Thus, both male and female managers perceive typical managers as more similar to men than to women. ...
... Additionally, the Schein DI is lacking some attributes that specifically correspond to stereotypes about scientists (Carli et al., 2016). Nevertheless, to make our results comparable to the original results provided by Schein (1975Schein ( , 1975 Koch et al., 2016). Furthermore, we currently cannot distinguish if the overlap between men and scientists is weaker (lower ICC) or stronger (more matching dimensions) than between men and managers. ...
... Additionally, the Schein DI is lacking some attributes that specifically correspond to stereotypes about scientists (Carli et al., 2016). Nevertheless, to make our results comparable to the original results provided by Schein (1975Schein ( , 1975 Koch et al., 2016). Furthermore, we currently cannot distinguish if the overlap between men and scientists is weaker (lower ICC) or stronger (more matching dimensions) than between men and managers. ...
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Article
Schein showed that attribute ratings for men and managers are more similar than attribute ratings for women and managers. Similar results were found for attributes ascribed to successful scientists and men versus women. In this study, we investigated whether the think manager—think male effect and the think scientist—think male effect are driven by the same attributes. This was not the case. Replicating previous studies, men and scientists were rated more similarly than women and scientists. We also found more overlap in stereotypes for men and managers versus women and managers. More concretely, we found that women differed significantly from managers as well as from scientists on 54 of the 92 items (59%). Men, however, only differed from managers on 17 items (18%) and scientists on 30 items (33%). To analyze on which attributes they differed significantly, we performed a factor analysis. We confirmed that women got low scores for leadership attributes but high scores in social values, which also explains the differences in the attribute ratings of managers and scientists. Also, a comparison of the effects based on these factors showed that the think manager—think male effect was mostly driven by differences in the stereotype of men and women compared to managers, which were seen as more typical male. However, the think scientist—think male effect was also driven by stereotypes about scientists as norm-breaking, which did not match the stereotype about women.
... Örneğin, etnik köken, ırk ve cinsiyete yönelik stereotipler yönetim biliminde tartışılmaya başlanmış ve öncelikle liderlik kavramının algılanmasında bahsi geçen kavramların etkisi üzerine çalışmalar yapılmıştır (Berkery,Morley ve Tiernan, 2013;Booysen ve Nkomo, 2010;Lankau ve Chung, 2009;Duehr, Bono, 2006;Hollander ve Julian,1969). Özellikle cinsiyet stereotiplerinin yansımalarını tespit etmek üzere yapılan çalışmalarda, sayıca erkeklerin baskın olduğu yöneticilik, liderlik gibi alanlarda kadın çalışanların tüm şartlar eşit olduğunda dahi terfi ettirilemeyebileceği ya da yöneticilik konumuna yükselmek için eril özellikler sergilediklerine yönelik bulgulara ulaşılmıştır (Berkery,Morley,Tiernan, 2013;Koenig, Eagly vd.,2011;Schein,2001;Dolge,Gilroy,Fenzel,1995;Schein,Mueller,Jacobson,1989;Schein,1973Schein, ,1975. Pek çok toplumda kadına atfedilen anne olmak, eş olmak ve ev işlerinden sorumlu olmak gibi görevlerin çalışma hayatında kadını nasıl etkilediği yönetim biliminin tartıştığı diğer önemli konular arasındadır. ...
... Prototiplerin ortaya çıkarılması ve hassas istatistiki hesaplamalara imkan vermesi nedeniyle araştırmalarda sıklıkla kullanıldığı görülmektedir. Likert ölçeklere örnek olarak gösterilebilecek yönetici stereotipleri ve başarılı yönetici prototipleri ile ilgili araştırmaları ile bilinen Schein (1973Schein ( , 1975'ın ölçeği, kadın erkek ve yönetici stereotiplerini tespit etmeyi ve başarılı (iyi) yönetici prototiplerinin tespit edilmesine olanak sağlamaktadır. Ayrıca, başarılı yönetici prototipinin eril ve dişil algılanması ile ilgili bağlantılar kurulmasına da izin vermektedir (Hortaçsu, 1998: 232, 309-310;Yapıcı, 2004: 148-149) . ...
... Sosyal psikoloji literatürü ile paralel olarak yönetim literatüründe de ırk ve cinsiyet stereotipleri konusunda araştırmalara ağırlık verildiği görülmektedir. Toplumsal cinsiyet konusunda toplumun hassasiyeti ve bu konudaki çabalara rağmen, erkek egemen iş dünyasında çalışan kadın sayısı artsa da yöneticilerin rolünün eril algılanması sonucunda kadınların yönetici olarak kabul edilmelerinde zorluklar yaşadığı bilinmektedir (Duehr ve Bono, 2006;Gormon, 2005;Shein ve Mueller, 1992;Brenner vd., 1989;Shein vd., 1989;Schein, 1973Schein, , 1975Schein, , 1994. ...
Article
Araştırma, sosyal psikoloji alanında uzun zamandır tartışılan stereotip kavramının yönetim alanında yapılan araştırmalardaki yerini açıklamayı amaçlamaktadır. Bu amaç doğrultusunda, stereotip kavramının tanımı yapıldıktan sonra, kavramın tarihsel gelişim sürecinden, kuramsal alt yapısından, kavramı ölçme yöntemlerinden bahsedilerek yönetim literatüründeki yeriyle ilgili genel bir değerlendirme yapılacaktır. Stereotiplerin karmaşık dünyanın mantıklı bir şekilde okunmasına olanak tanıyan aygıtlar olarak görülmesi, insan ilişkilerinde temel bir vazifesinin olması konunun yönetim alanında da tartışılmaya başlanmasının haklı gerekçesi olduğu savunulabilir. İnsan ilişkilerinin yoğun bir şekilde yaşandığı işletmelerde, yönetim araştırmalarında sıklıkla vurgu yapılan kavramların (memnuniyet, güven, bağlılık, tükenmişlik, çatışma vb.) temelinde stereotiplerin yer aldığı ve işletmelerde sosyal etkileşimin pürüzsüz ve kolay bir şekilde ilerlemesine yardımcı olarak sosyal açıdan pragmatik bir işleve sahip oldukları düşünülmektedir. Araştırma sonucunda, stereotip kavramına dikkat çekilerek yönetim literatüründe yeni tartışmalar yapılabilmesi için farkındalık oluşturulması beklenmektedir. İşletme yöneticileri için çalışanlarının bilişsel yapılarını anlamalarına ve bu bilişsel yapıların davranışlara ve dolayısıyla iş ilişkilerine nasıl yansıdığını görmelerine olanak sağlayacaktır.
... 1989;1995;Eagly vd. 1992 Schein (1973;1975) betimleyici çalışmasında kavramı küresel bir fenomen olarak "yöneticiyse erkektir-think manager-think male" şeklinde açıklamıştır. (Altıntaş-Çınar, Aytaç-Kavurmacı, 2019). ...
... Yine gelecek araştırmalar açısından kültürün yönetim rolünün klişeleştirilmesi üzerindeki etkisinin incelenmesi gerektiğini söylemek mümkün olacaktır. Sonuç itibariyle ilgili yazında geçmiş dönemdeki araştırmalarda cinsiyet kalıp yargılarının liderlik algısı üzerindeki etkisini vurgulamak açısından Schein (1973Schein ( -1975 tarafından kültürel bir fenomen olarak kavramsallaştırılan "yönetici ise erkektir" algısının yönetimde cinsiyet kalıp yargılarıyla ilgili olası bir önyargı kaynağı olarak yer aldığı ifade edilmesine karşılık mevcut araştırmada elde edilen sonuçların IJSI 14/2 Aralık December 2021 ...
... In this regard, management positions are strongly regarded as masculine. [3][4][5][6] Schein's study 4 and its replications [7][8][9] clearly show that managers are perceived as possessing characteristics that are more commonly ascribed to men than to women. Additionally, in one of the most popular questionnaires for evaluating gender roles (Bem Sex Role Inventory), 2 most items for evaluating masculinity fit the personal traits of the perfect manager (eg, self-reliant, defends own beliefs, leadership ability, acts as a leader, competitive, ambitious, willing to take risks, makes decisions easily, forceful, dominant, etc.). ...
... In this regard, management positions are strongly regarded as masculine. [3][4][5][6] Schein's study 4 and its replications [7][8][9] clearly show that managers are perceived as possessing characteristics that are more commonly ascribed to men than to women. Additionally, in one of the most popular questionnaires for evaluating gender roles (Bem Sex Role Inventory), 2 most items for evaluating masculinity fit the personal traits of the perfect manager (eg, self-reliant, defends own beliefs, leadership ability, acts as a leader, competitive, ambitious, willing to take risks, makes decisions easily, forceful, dominant, etc.). ...
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Article
Purpose: The aim of the current study was to test hypotheses regarding differences in work-related feelings (ie, dejection, anxiety, anger, and happiness) and behaviors (aggressive, avoidance-passive, and proactive) between males and females, managers and non-managers, and male and female managers. Methods: This survey-based study included a total of 3019 respondents, consisting of 502 managers and 2517 employees working in non-managerial positions. Data were collected using two questionnaires developed by the authors: the scale of work-related affective feelings (WORAF) and the scale of work-related behaviors (WORAB). Results: The results revealed significant differences between managers and non-managers, with managers being happier in their jobs and exhibiting more proactive behaviors. However, there were no differences in work-related feelings or work-related behaviors between males and females in the total sample of respondents or in the group of employees holding managerial positions. Conclusion: In terms of work-related feelings and behaviors, there are no sex differences among working people. However, some differences between managers and non-managers were observed.
... High-status jobs, referring to high-level leadership jobs (e.g., a job as a professor or managing director), have always been and still are mainly filled with men (Catalyst, 2020a(Catalyst, , 2020b. Although our understanding of effective leadership is dynamic (see e.g., Eagly & Carli, 2003), since Schein's (1973Schein's ( , 1975) earliest work on the think-manager-think-male paradigm, research has repeatedly shown that the male, agentic stereotype of leadership is quite stable (Koenig et al., 2011;Schein, 2001). Thus, high-status jobs are cognitively linked to the male gender and stereotypically male, agentic requirements. ...
... Being perceived as agentic might be one mechanism that helps women to overcome stereotype biases. When women are perceived as agentic, they may be perceived as a good fit for jobs that are perceived as high in status, despite the incongruity between stereotypes of women and status (Eagly & Karau, 2002) and the "think-managerthink-male" findings (Koenig et al., 2011;Schein, 1973Schein, , 1975Schein, , 2001. That means their perceived agency can compensate for their perceived lack of fit with such jobs. ...
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Article
Evaluators’ fit assessments are not only influenced by applicants’ qualities, but also by stereotypes, especially in recruitment for high-status jobs in male-dominated fields. The unidimensional agentic stereotype of these work contexts signals agentic job and organizational requirements (stereotypically male qualities such as achievement orientation), although the actual requirements usually also include communality (stereotypically female qualities such as interpersonal skills). In a series of five experiments, we investigate the relevance of perceived applicant agency for perceived applicant fit, the influence of recruitment material, contextual differences, and the role of applicant gender. Our findings indicate that perceived applicant agency drives perceived person-job and person-organization fit in strictly male stereotyped work contexts, regardless of gender, and agentic recruitment material enhances this effect. Contrasting different contexts (high- with low-status jobs and a male-dominated with a gender-balanced and female-dominated field) revealed that the relevance of perceived agency increases with perceived job status, and the relevance of perceived communality decreases with the expected share of men. Although women were perceived as highly agentic in strictly male stereotyped work contexts, their need to be perceived as agentic also was higher than for men, due to the perceived lack of fit between women and high-status jobs. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
... First, we contribute to theory and research on the barriers that women face in achieving success in the organization's upper echelons. This past research has almost exclusively focused on the challenges women face due to the descriptive stereotyping that confronts females as they attempt to ascend into leadership positions (e.g., Eagly & Karau, 2002;Koenig et al., 2011;Schein, 1975Schein, ,1978. Our study advances this literature by proposing that the degree to which leadership endorsements convey female leaders' competence is associated with a long-term negative impact for these leaders because they (unintentionally) violate prescriptive gender stereotypes. ...
... Past research has clearly shown that females' evaluations in male-typed roles can be based upon either descriptive or prescriptive stereotypes (Eagly & Karau, 2002;Rudman & Glick, 2001). As noted above, 'descriptive' stereotypes characterize women as possessing attributes that make them generally unfit to be effective leaders and present barriers to women's ascension into top executive positions (e.g., Eagly et al., 1995;Paustian-Underahl et al., 2014;Schein, 1973Schein, , 1975. For instance, a meta-analysis by Koenig and colleagues (2011) showed that leaders tend to be perceived in terms of masculine traits rather than feminine ones. ...
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Article
Women entering leadership positions such as the CEO role face barriers in the form of pervasive stereotypic expectations by which stakeholders implicitly evaluate their effectiveness. In this study, we examine the effects that a widely used organizational practice—leadership endorsements in the CEO succession announcement—has on female CEOs’ longevity in the CEO role. In particular, we theorize that leadership endorsements of incoming female CEOs that highlight their past achievements and competence violate stakeholders’ prescriptive stereotypes, thereby increasing the likelihood of stakeholders viewing the female leaders through a stereotypical lens. Therefore, though well-intentioned, leadership endorsements in female CEOs’ succession announcements foment a stereotype threat situation that is likely to have long-term negative consequences for female leaders. We investigate and find support for this relationship using archival data for a sample of 91 female CEO successions among S&P 1500 and Fortune 500 firms between 1995 and 2012. Several post hoc analyses, including in-depth interviews with 31 female executives, further strengthen our findings and show that this effect does not occur among male CEO succession events. We also find that two key facets of the succession context work to ameliorate this negative relationship: the insider status of the female CEO and the number of female executives at the focal firm. Our findings suggest that ostensibly gender-neutral practices can have unintended negative consequences for female leaders. We conclude with a discussion of the theoretical and practical implications of our findings.
... According to role congruity theory (Eagly & Karau, 2002) there is a role incongruity between their role and gender archetype for example despite being female, they display stereotypical agentic or masculine traits or, conversely, despite being male, they display stereotypical communal or feminine characteristics (Kark, Waismel-Manor &Shamir, 2012;Larsen & Long, 1988;Saint-Machel, 2018). However, the stereotype of the successful leader is still defined in masculine terms (Koenig, Eagly, Mitchell & Ristikari, 2011;Saint-Michel, 2018) highlighted by the cliché Think male -Think leader (Schein, 1975). ...
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Article
This case study sought to address how one principal mentoring program supported the development of eight novice elementary principals serving in a large Midwestern urban school district. Using semi-structured interviews, the novice principals described their experiences as participants in the urban district’s mentoring program. Results indicated that novice principals benefit from a) formal mentoring programs, b) quality time with mentors, c) mentors with strong leadership experience, d) mentoring guidance with executing district policies and procedures allowing them to navigate job expectations, and e) a positive relationship with mentors that includes open communication.
... Irrespective of the veracity of these ideas, another interesting question is what their effect is. Possibly, such ideas are expected to produce benevolent effects. Authors may believe that sexist stereotypes that leaders require stereotypically masculine traits such as decisiveness, boldness, and aggression (Schein, 1973(Schein, , 1975 are best fought by presenting the opposite claim that stereotypically female traits are superior. Recent evidence, however, shows that such claims can paradoxically also have the opposite effect. ...
Article
An often-heard claim is that women will inevitably take over men’s dominant position in management due to superior female leadership skills. Lammers and Gast (2017) found that such claims paradoxically maintain gender inequality by undermining support for affirmative action. The original article was limited by comparing a single experimental and control text and exclusive reliance on American samples. We report a replication and extension among a German community sample ( N = 300), which tests the effects of five different experimental stimuli, primarily drawn from different German media outlets, against a control stimulus. The data replicate earlier effects and confirm that the media should be careful not to exaggerate claims about female leadership strengths.
... It is noteworthy that Creativity, an attribute traditionally associated with female leadership (Schein, 1975), was the dimension that distinguished both male and female managers from their non-managerial counterparts of the same gender. However, women in managerial posts also scored higher than female non-managers on both OCB-I, characterized by more communal behaviors, and OCB-O, which correspond to more agentic traits (Allen & Jang, 2018;Kidder & Parks, 2001). ...
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Article
A prevailing idea in the organizational context is that men and women differ in personality traits and leadership styles. Few studies, however, have examined gender differences in managerial behavior. The aim of the present study was to explore the presence of such differences in a sample of public sector employees (N = 678), focusing on personality and two key human resources constructs, namely organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs) and adaptive performance. We also compared gender differences among managers with those observed among employees without managerial responsibilities. Finally, we examined whether the attributes that distinguish managers from non-managers are the same for men and women. Mean comparison strategies and the Cohen’s d effect size index were used. The results suggest that male and female public managers have similar leadership profiles in terms of personality, OCBs and adaptive performance. In addition, and despite small gender differences in this respect, it appears that communal traits, such as Creativity or interpersonal OCBs, are becoming increasingly relevant to managerial positions in the public sector, which implies complementarity in the gender roles linked with the behaviors associated with leadership and access to management positions. Our results support both the gender-invariant role demands and the changing leadership roles perspectives and may have implications for selection and promotion policies in public sector organizations.
... However, it may also be that skills and abilities commonly linked to women are helpful, not detrimental, to SMEs sailing rougher seas [52,131]. For instance, stereotypical women characteristics such relational competencies [15,132], compassion, sensitivity, intuition, cheerfulness, and being more nurturing and empathetic [133,134] may help women to become more market-oriented [101]. Market orientation is a strategic trait related to firms that manage to survive crises, as they must rapidly redeploy their products and services to different customers [135]. ...
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Article
We investigate the relationship between women’s participation and the growth of 10,445 Brazilian SMEs operating in a widespread economic crisis. Our study is motivated by the disproportional unemployment scores observed among women during the COVID19 pandemic. We used stepwise regression and conditional process analysis to test all our hypotheses. We found that an increase of women employees in the total workforce of SMEs boosts their growth. This indicates that the disproportional spikes in women’s unemployment observed during recessions are not only unjust but also harmful to SMEs striving to weather crises. We also identified that these firms grow further by increasing women employees’ wages and job tenure, by preferring more women with higher levels of education and longer job tenure, or retaining more educated women who are better paid at the same time. Our findings rebuke the rationale behind the disproportional layoffs of women workers in times of crisis. They indicate that SMEs should sustain their female workforce to increase chances of weathering widespread economic crises. Our results can help alleviate the predicament experienced by women workers during economic crises, and support policies designed to reduce the persistent gender gap in businesses.
... Crisis management research suggests that traits, such as being understanding, intuitive, and creative, are of particular importance in times of crisis and supports a conviction that women are preferred leaders during crisis [44]. Although traits associated with managerial success are typically attributed to men [37], those useful after crisis are seen as particular to women. The glass-cliff strategy is one that capitalizes on the phenomenon think-crisis-think-female in a way that once again interrupts the power and prestige structure of an organization. ...
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Article
Many regions of the world have begun to recognize the value of female leadership. However, very few models have emerged through which female leadership situates itself into a society as viable and necessary. The purpose of this study is to highlight strategies characterized by an ethic of gender equality to construct female leadership as legitimate in the larger cultural context. We propose Iceland provides a model case with many gains towards gender equality. In this qualitative study, we use interview data to gain perspectives on leadership processes that promote an ethic of gender equality. The data illustrate a restructuring of status hierarchies that have historically maintained inequality, while highlighting historical events that have influenced interactional contexts of female leadership in Iceland. We outline and explain the overarching leadership strategy themes: (1) role modeling, (2) inclusive discussion culture, and (3) legislated equality. These three themes appear to give female leadership legitimacy, and we suggest such research will allow us, as a global community, to develop more valid theories of status interventions that promote ethics of equality.
... Essentialist (Schein, 1975) and nonessentialist theory (Acker, 1992) agree on differences between genders but disagree on their origin (natural or socially produced and reproduced in society). Here, our purpose is not to discuss or challenge such findings but to build on them to explore how gender diversity may affect firm performance. ...
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Article
The social construction of gender has led to differences in beliefs, knowledge, experiences, or networks between women and men. Some argue that mixed gender teams can show perform better. However, empirical research at the firm level has provided mixed evidence. Moreover, these studies mainly focus on the board of directors or top management teams. Few have examined how middle management and staff levels affect firm performance. These levels form the operational layers that execute the business strategy and run daily operations. Using a unique dataset of 159 large French firms, we find that gender diversity at the two organisational levels positively impacts a firm’s economic performance and contributes to its competitiveness. Gender diversity at these levels is a strategic resource that provides a sustainable competitive advantage by creating value and cannot be easily imitated by competitors quickly. We also find a nonlinear relationship due to a threshold effect related to a critical mass condition, and a hat-shaped relationship (two flat borders around the top) between gender diversity and firm performance. Specifically, firms with balanced diversity (between 40 and 60% women as employees) at the middle management and staff levels tend to be more profitable. Finally, predominantly male firms have similar performance to predominantly female firms, and that balanced-gender diversity is the real contributing factor to firm performance.
... Moreover, there appears to be a rather universal consensus with regard to leadership ideals ( Den Hartog et al., 1999 ). Hence, it is no surprise that the impact of gender stereotypes on leadership perceptions, originally researched in the context of the United States (e.g., Schein, 1973 ;1975 ), has also been found in a more diverse array of countries and political contexts ( Schein and Mueller, 1992 ;Schein et al., 1996 ;Sczesny et al., 2004 ). ...
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Article
Research on underrepresented groups in leadership has shown that women and ethnic minorities are preferred as leaders during a crisis. In the present study, we investigated factors that shape voter preferences for minority political leaders in the COVID-19 crisis. We examined participant perceptions of the severity of the COVID-19 crisis in health, social, and economic domains and self-reported political leaning, and their impact on preference for a female (vs male) or minority political leader. We collected survey data in autumn 2020 using online platforms in France, Japan, the United Kingdom, the United States, and a snowball sample in Germany (total N = 1,259). Results showed that female leaders were generally more preferred by politically left- than right-leaning participants independent of severity perceptions of the social or economic crisis. In addition, we found that preference for female leaders amongst right-leaning participants increased when their current regional leader's actions were judged insufficient to manage the health crisis, an effect primarily driven by participants in Germany and the United Kingdom. Left-leaning political orientation also predicted the preference for minority leaders across countries. Moreover, a more severe perception of the social aspects of the crisis increased minority preference, as expected, but mostly in Germany and the United States. We discuss cross-country variation of our results. Overall, our findings affirm and expand prior research showing the importance of political leaning and changing leadership demands in a crisis and their impact on the preference for minority leaders.
... Fiske, Cuddy, Glick, and Xu (2002), using the Stereotype Content Model (SCM), explained that, in a given situation, the dominant group (e.g., men) will be associated with agentic characteristics while the minority group (e.g., women) will be associated with communal characteristics. Therefore, there is an adequation between men and managers (Schein 1973(Schein , 1975; see also Bongiorno, Bain, Ryan, Kroonberg & Leach, 2021;Brenner, Tomkiewicz & Schein, 1989;Deal & Stevenson, 1998) and a mismatch between the characteristics of women and managers (see the lack-of-fit model, Heilman, 1983). These would be two of the main reasons for the glass ceiling phenomenon (Cook & Glass, 2014). ...
Preprint
The purpose of the present paper is to introduce the Gender Projection Model. After a short review of the different accounts and theories on gender discrimination in the workplace, and of the three main phenomena: the glass ceiling, the backlash effect and the glass cliff, we present the gender projection model (GPM), a cognitive and motivational model for predicting the selection and self-selection of women in management positions. Our model posits gender projection, the assignment of typical gender characteristics to the position of manager, as a central mechanism accounting for the development of the manager prototype, both the (discriminatory) behavior and attitudes of personnel decision-makers (e.g., selection and/or evaluation of a male/female candidate) and the motivation and performance of (prospective) male and female managers. We believe this model will allow a better understanding of the construction of the manager prototype to explain the under-representation of women at the highest levels of the organizational hierarchy.
... Furthermore, men are more likely to be viewed as the most qualified leaders in the workplace; hence, there are proportionately more men than women in leadership roles (Eagly & Karau, 2002;Heilman, 2001;Jeong & Harrison, 2017;Rudman et al., 2012;Schein, 1975). Indeed, women desiring leadership positions in organizations may find it necessary to resist the gender stereotypes of passivity, submission, and relationshipsabove-all-else mentality. ...
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Article
Leadership is a sacred stewardship. Women leaders bring collaboration to this stewardship, and African American women leaders bring a certain savoir faire to their hallowed leadership responsibilities. However, research is needed to appreciate the unique stresses that female African American leaders experience in their leadership roles. Stress is harmful to overall health, well-being, and leadership effectiveness. This dissertation investigated the distinctive stresses and coping resources that empower African American women to manage individual discrimination, gendered racial discrimination, institutional racism, and encounters with white privilege in the workplace. This dissertation also investigated if hope, separate from religion and spirituality, is a coping resource that these leaders use to protect themselves in sexist and racist contaminated work environments. This research study utilized a qualitative phenomenological research design with a narrative methodology, interviewing 20 female African American senior and executive healthcare leaders to understand how they described their experiences with discrimination at work. The results revealed that African American female healthcare leaders encountered daily multilayered discrimination at work. The results also revealed that the participants engaged in coping resources daily to manage their emotions, work relationships and work environments to successfully navigate working in White space. The participants in the study specifically depended on the coping toolset of faith, punctuated with hope to circumnavigate their toxic work environments.
... Gendered organizations may also exhibit a "think manager -think male" culture where traditionally masculine traits, such as competitive, ambitious, and self-confident, are associated with successful managers (Schein 1973;Schein 1975;Eagly and Karau 2002). However, women who act "masculine" at work may be penalized for incongruence with gendered expectations, but women who act "feminine" may be viewed as lacking successful leadership qualities (Ely and Padavic 2007). ...
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Article
Women are underrepresented in public sector leadership positions, including municipal management. We examine one explanation that may contribute to gender inequity in the profession ‐ a “glass cliff” phenomenon whereby councils are more likely to hire women as managers during difficult times, increasing the likelihood for women to fail in the position. Using original observational data on municipal managers in Florida, we test whether municipalities are more likely to hire women during times of fiscal stress and whether women are more likely than men to leave the position if municipal finances do not improve. Our results show that increasing budget deficits are associated with municipalities hiring women as managers. Post‐appointment, a lack of improvement in the deficit condition is associated with a higher probability of women, but not men, leaving the position. A glass cliff in municipal management could be one factor that hinders women from advancing within the field.
... The impact of gender roles and stereotypes of who belongs in the workplace, and the so-called ideal worker, are key to this idea (Epstein et al. 1999, Williams 2000, Dumas and Sanchez-Burks 2015, Reid 2015. Widely accepted beliefs about men's higher competence and social worth (Ridgeway 2001(Ridgeway , 2011Ridgeway and Correll 2004b) combined with the consistency of the masculine gender role with characteristics associated with leaders create a "think manager, think male" effect (Schein 1973(Schein , 1975(Schein , 2001Heilman 2012). Men are naturally associated with the characteristics of the ideal employee, leaving little reason to anticipate that men, simply based on their gender, will not be committed to their careers Bielby 1984, 1992;Coltrane 2004;Hakim 2018; see also Townsend 2002). ...
Article
Evidence suggests that possessing more qualifications than is necessary for a job (i.e., overqualification) negatively impacts job candidates’ outcomes. However, unfair discounting of women’s qualifications and negative assumptions about women’s career commitment imply that female candidates must be overqualified to achieve the same outcomes as male candidates. Across two studies, experimental and qualitative data provide converging evidence in support of this assertion, showing that gender differences in how overqualification impacts hiring outcomes are due to the type of commitment—firm or career—that is most salient during evaluations. Overqualified men are perceived to be less committed to the prospective firm, and less likely to be hired as a result, than sufficiently qualified men. But overqualified women are perceived to be more committed to their careers than qualified women because overqualification helps overcome negative assumptions that are made about women’s career commitment. Overqualification also does not decrease perceptions of women’s firm commitment like it does for men: supplemental qualitative and experimental evidence reveals that hiring managers rationalize women’s overqualification in a way they cannot for men by relying on gender stereotypes about communality and assumptions about candidates’ experiences with gender discrimination at prior firms. These findings suggest that female candidates must demonstrate their commitment along two dimensions (firm and career), but male candidates need only demonstrate their commitment along one dimension (firm). Taken together, differences in how overqualification impacts male versus female candidates’ outcomes are evidence of gender inequality in hiring processes, operating through gendered assumptions about commitment.
... Dzieje si tak dlatego, e wizerunek odnosz cych sukcesy mened erów cz ciej odnosi si do cech stereotypowo m skich ni stereotypowo kobiecych (Badura i in., 2018;Johnson i in., 2008;Sczesny i in., 2004) 6 , a co za tym idzie -kobiety czciej otrzymuj nieprzychyln ocen jako potencjalni liderzy (np. Braun i in., 2017;Schein, 1975). Wykazano na przyk ad, e liderzy o m skich twarzach s faworyzowani w stosunku do liderów o twarzach kobiecych (Spisak i in., 2012), a wy si liderzy s faworyzowani w stosunku do liderów ni szych (Blaker i in., 2013). ...
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Article
According to the Implicit Leadership Theory, leadership roles are assigned in the process of social construction and depend upon the level of congruence with the cognitive representation of a leader. Previous studies show that this cognitive representation is much more likely to involve a leader being a male rather than a female. The article presents the results of an experiment aimed at tentatively verifying whether the use of the feminine forms could increase the cognitive availability of the representation of a woman as a leader. In the experiment, 135 teams (N = 307 respondents) were randomly assigned to one of two experimental conditions: 1) generic instruction (without the use of feminatives, “Please, draw a leader”), 2) inclusive instruction (using feminatives, “Please, draw a leader/leaderess”). The results showed a significant interaction between the experimental manipulation and the proportion of women in the team. The use of feminine forms increased the percentage of females drawn as leaders only in teams with a high female-to-male ratio.
... Leadership is a role that has been traditionally viewed through an agentic lens where successful leaders are competitive, aggressive, and assertive (Koenig et al. 2011). While Schein (1973Schein ( , 1975 was the first to find evidence of this agentic -and therefore masculine -construal of leadership, subsequent studies have shown similar patterns across different geographic and functional spaces (e.g. Funk 2019; Heilman et al. 1989;Schein 2001;Rosenwasser and Dean 1989). ...
Article
Public evaluations of organizations and their leaders are core features of public management used to foster accountability. Yet, prior research suggests that evaluations can be unduly influenced by leaders’ personal attributes and social identities, such as those signalled by gender. We examine these expectations using preregistered vignette experiments that vary the manager’s gender and level of performance in two distinct settings: education and policing. Results across both studies suggest women and men public managers are evaluated similarly overall; however, we find that the organizational context and identity of the evaluator likely play a role in evaluations of public managers.
... Les stéréotypes de genre associent automatiquement aux hommes et aux femmes des traits, habiletés et rôles distincts. L'existence et les conséquences de ces stéréotypes ont été traitées dans de nombreuses études depuis longtemps (Fagenson, 1989(Fagenson, , 1990Schein, 1975Schein, , 1997. ...
... This effect has been empirically supported with multiple findings that people tend to hold a belief that leadership is congruent with male stereotypes and followership is congruent with female stereotypes (Braun et al., 2017;Schein & Davidson, 1993). The "think-manager-think-male" phenomenon has been replicated multiple times across a variety of contexts since its initial description (Braun et al., 2017;Koenig et al., 2011;Schein, 1973). According to role congruity theory (Eagly & Karau, 2002) this may lead to role conflict for women, defined as a state in which "attributes within the role or between multiple roles are inconsistent" (Ashforth, 2001, p. 189). ...
Article
Transitioning into leadership remains a distinct, common career experience that may have implications for employee health and wellbeing, yet these effects are not well understood. We draw upon role theory (role transitions and role expansion) to frame leadership as a dynamic career phenomenon with implications that change as individuals become socialized into their leadership role. This study adds clarity by focusing on changes over time and in response to the novel transition into leadership, and by exploring gender as a moderator of these relationships. We examine the impact of first-time leadership transitions on negative (tension, depression) and positive (emotional wellbeing, job satisfaction) indicators of wellbeing, and self-concept (self-esteem, locus of control). We used data collected every 1 to 2 years from 184 individuals (Youth Development Study Waves 12 through 19, Mortimer, 2011) to conduct two-level (time nested within person) discontinuous growth modeling. Results suggest taking on a leadership role is associated with tension at the time of transition, consistent with role theory and empirical data on macro role transitions. Over time, transitioning into a leadership role bolsters emotional wellbeing and self-esteem in a lasting way, consistent with role expansion propositions. Unexpectedly, men experienced a significant drop in self-esteem at the point of transition compared to women, but otherwise, there were no significant gender differences at the time of, or following, a leadership transition. We show transitioning into leadership is a time-sensitive double-edged sword, such that temporary tensions at the time of transition may pay off over following years in self-concept gains. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).
... Mostly all organization's environment is masculine in nature because it occupied by men largely. The earlier gendered management style debated that characteristics of successful manger Is that of man as they considered to be strict and career oriented [4]. This can be considered as an organizational barrier that women face while try for leadership positions [5]. ...
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Conference Paper
Women workforce is increasing globally due different socioeconomic changes such as increase in women education, impact of globalization etc. Women occupy 46% of US workforce and they now make 23% of Women CEOs in the USA alone. Women in a research study had indicated that in a firm people are their main concern whereas men had indicated that completion of task is their main concern. Women in spite of better educational facilities today compared to earlier days, their capabilities are still limited due to gender discrimination, job difficulties local laws in addition to family responsibilities. In this paper the details about the role of women in various sectors, the draw backs for their development and their capabilities compared to men are presented.
... As a result of this belief, women are often "punished" in a number of ways for their work and gender-role conflict. For women who choose to act in a masculine way, aligned with their work-role, they are often given lower performance evaluations than men who act in the same way for the same role (Eagly & Carli, 2007;Eagly & Karua, 2002;Powell, Butterfield, & Parent, 2002;Schein, 1975Schein, , 2001 and women who openly identify as "feminist" are evaluated particularly harshly (Haddock & Zanna, 1994). Other penalties include: being seen as less physically healthy (Costrich, et. ...
Thesis
http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/107738/1/annkeane.pdf
... Further, traits usually ascribed to leaders overlap more with traits usually ascribed to men than to women (Schein, 1975(Schein, , 2007. ...
Article
The goal of this research was to replicate findings related to followers’ negative evaluations of leaders expressing counter-stereotypical emotions (e.g., females displaying anger, males displaying sadness). Drawing on predictions of the Challenge versus Threat model, this research also extended those findings by examining whether follower positive and negative affects mediated the relationship between leaders’ counter-stereotypical emotional displays and followers’ leadership evaluations. In an online experiment, participants completed a reasoning task and received personalized performance feedback from a virtual manager represented by an avatar (male or female) displaying an emotion (neutral, angry, or sad). Participants reported task-related positive and negative affects and rated their manager (trust, perceived effectiveness, and leader-member exchange). We replicated previous studies showing that displaying counter-stereotypical emotions has a negative influence on leadership evaluations. We did not find support for the mediating role of followers’ affects in the relationship between counter-stereotypical emotional displays and leadership evaluations; although these affects influenced followers’ ratings of their manager. We discuss these findings using Backlash and Role Congruity Theory perspectives and present their theoretical and practical implications.
... This theory believes that people tend to have dissimilar beliefs about leaders and women and similar beliefs about leaders and men. In examining these beliefs earlier, Schein (1975) tested this with empirical data from USA. From this study, respondents perceived successful middle managers as significantly more similar to men than women on a large number of mainly agentic characteristics. ...
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Article
This study investigates empirically the link between females in top management and firm performance in Ghana. This study employs the Instrumental Variable (IV) Two Stage Least Squares (2SLS) technique of estimation in determining the impact of females in top management on firm performance using World Bank Enterprise Survey (WBES) data across 720 firms in Ghana. This technique is very robust as it has the power to control for any possible endogeneity bias, which can lead to spurious results. After controlling for reverse causality, our results reveal that the inclusion of females in top management impacts positively on firm performance in Ghana. We further note that though innovation has direct positive impact on firm performance, there is no evidence of any moderating roles played by innovation or education in the link between female in top management and firm performance in Ghana. The results of our study should however be interpreted with a bit of caution as we have not been able to examine the time dynamics of our findings due to lack of reliable panel data.
... Der Neuigkeitswert dieser Daten ist zwar einerseits gering, da die Unterrepräsentanz von Frauen in Führungspositionen bereits seit den 70er Jahren des letzten Jahrhunderts nicht nur Gegenstand wissenschaftlicher Untersuchungen ist (Schein 1973, Rosen/Jerdee 1974, Schein 1975, Kanter 1977, sondern auch bereits seit Jahrzehnten unter wechselnden Überschriften (z . B . ...
... Der Neuigkeitswert dieser Daten ist zwar einerseits gering, da die Unterrepräsentanz von Frauen in Führungspositionen bereits seit den 70er Jahren des letzten Jahrhunderts nicht nur Gegenstand wissenschaftlicher Untersuchungen ist (Schein 1973, Rosen/Jerdee 1974, Schein 1975, Kanter 1977, sondern auch bereits seit Jahrzehnten unter wechselnden Überschriften (z . B . ...
Article
The glass ceiling is a common metaphor for describing the under-representation of women in leadership positions. According to this metaphor, there are invisible barriers which prevent women from being promoted to management positions. The article explores the causes for the under-representation of women in management positions. Specifically, it argues that, in view of the traditional domestic and family division of labor, it is rational that personnel policies favor career opportunities for men rather than women. An egalitarian distribution of domestic and family responsibilities is therefore a basis prerequisite for egalitarian career opportunities. Zusammenfassung Die gläserne Decke ist eine seit Jahrzehnten populäre Metapher, um die Unterrepräsentanz von Frauen in Führungspositionen abzubilden. Demnach bestehen in Unternehmen unsichtbare Barrieren, die Frauen davon abhalten, obere Managementpositionen zu erreichen. Der Beitrag geht der Frage nach den Ursachen für die Unterrepräsentanz von Frauen in Führungspositionen nach und zeigt auf, warum angesichts der tradierten häus­lichen, familialen Arbeitsteilung eine rationale betriebliche Personalpolitik eher Männern als Frauen Karrierechancen eröffnet. Eine egalitäre Verteilung der Haus- und Familien­arbeit zwischen den Geschlechtern ist demnach eine Grundvoraussetzung für egalitäre Karrierechancen.
... Although it accepted that the WAMS can have some limitations corrected, this instrument has a wide scientific background in studies from numerous fields of knowledge such as in Schein [30], where research that showed that men in middle management positions obtained more success by having typical characteristics of men, concluding that stereotypes tend to reduce the opportunities for women to advance in their companies. In addition, the study of Dubno [31] concluded that women had negative attitudes such as the Queen Bee syndrome toward other women executives. ...
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Article
The pace of women’s access to leadership positions is very different from country to country. With 69.4 out of 100 points, Spain ranks fourth in the European Union (EU) on social power, first measured in the 2020 edition of the Gender Equality Index. However, a need of deepening the reasons for gender inequalities remains. The Women As Managers Scale (WAMS) is a useful tool that allows for the measurement of the attitudinal factors that hinder access to managerial positions. The aim of this study was to validate the Spanish version of the WAMS among sport managers through three factors: acceptance of women in key positions, features for business success, and barriers to access to managerial positions. For that purpose, a questionnaire—as is the original WAMS—was distributed to 401 managers working within sports organizations in the community of Madrid, Spain. Interclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and Student’s test were performed to analyze the stability of the scores. The internal consistency of the scales was assessed through Cronbach’s alpha, the Homogeneity Index, and Discriminability Index. The construct validity was completed through exploratory factor analysis using principal components. The results show that the WAMS serves as a reference for use as a measure of attitudinal factors that hinder access to an executive position. Therefore, this work generates an instrument with adequate properties in the Spanish context.
... However, it is more salient when managerial or leadership positions are concerned (Koenig et al., 2011;Kang, 2012). For example, Schein (1973Schein ( , 1975 in her studies found that both male and female respondents agreed that successful leaders possess characteristics commonly associated with men, such as leadership ability, competitiveness, self-confidence, objectivity, aggressiveness, forcefulness, ambition and desire for responsibility. By contrast, women are associated with qualities related to concern for the sympathetic treatment of others. ...
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Article
Gender stereotypes continue to exist and are transmitted through media, and through social, educational and recreational socialization, which promote gender prejudice and discrimination. This paper argues that contemporary management culture does not critically engage with the social theories of gender studies, which could help in developing gender-neutral affirmative action-oriented managerial perspectives. The paper outlines different aspects of gender stereotyping and their impact on women’s career progressions from a managerial perspective, which engages with the critical theories of gender studies. The paper contributes to existing literature by identifying the antecedents of gender stereotypes and their impacts on the career progressions of women in management. It advances theoretical understanding of three clear conceptual shifts, that is, (a) Women in Management, (b) Women and Management and (c) Gender and Management. The theoretical transition from Women in Management to Women and Management led to progressive conceptual shifts in management literature but gender stereotypes continue to exist in society.
... Various theories such as role congruity theory, organizational constraint theory, theory of numbers, and gate keeper theory explains the low presence of women at top level of organizations' hierarchy and the barriers faced by female workers. For example, according to role congruity theory, leadership itself is a masculine phenomenon and hence it does not fit very well with caring and soft stereotypical role of female (Madeline, 2001;Heilman, 2001;Schein, 1975). Similarly, according to organizational constraint theory, women face numerous constraints within the organization which shapes women's behaviour, motivation, and self-efficacy; which in return results in lesser degree of progression towards the higher level positions in organization (Cecilia & Shanti, 1999;Blackmore, 1998). ...
Full-text available
Article
Women’s presence at top managerial positions is less than men across the world and Pakistan is also no exception. Pakistan is a conservative and male dominated society where working women face a lot of obstacles while making advancement in their careers. However, due to the increase in literacy rate and greater efforts from government, civil societies, and media, working women and women at managerial positions are becoming more acceptable by the society. Keeping in view this changing scenario, the objective of the current study is to understand the working women’s experiences, barriers, and related issues while making advancement towards managerial level positions. The study is qualitative in nature and used phenomenology as a main mode of inquiry. Sample of the study was drawn from banking, education, and telecom sector in Pakistan. Data was collected from thirty female managers working at various levels among the three mentioned sectors. Key findings of the study are that Pakistani female managers face familial, organizational, and cultural barriers. The study also identified that there is greater acceptance of female managers as compared to the past. Moreover, Pakistani female managers also possess some unique leadership characteristics which are not very common among male managers.
Article
This multi-method study of managers in a grocery chain identifies a novel mechanism by which threats of gender stereotypes undermine women’s ability to be effective managers. I find that women managers face a task bind, a dilemma that managers experience as they try to disprove a negative group stereotype by doubling down on one set of tasks at the expense of other essential tasks. My analysis of interview, observational, and archival data reveals that, compared to men, women do more tasks in front of subordinates—in this setting, supervisory tasks “on the floor” of the store—in order to showcase their qualifications as managers. In doing so, they forgo attention to other tasks that are less public but no less important to being effective managers—in this setting, planning tasks in the office of the store. Neglecting office tasks ultimately undermines the profitability of women managers’ departments. This study’s identification of the task bind has implications for theory and practice related to stereotype threat and women leaders, showing how the threat of negative gender stereotypes, prompted here by concern about subordinates’ perceptions, can affect managers’ behaviors in ways that detract from the performance of managers themselves and that of their organizations.
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Purpose Women are underrepresented in most university entrepreneurship education (EE) programmes and less likely than men to pursue business venturing as a career. One reason may be the “entrepreneurial identity gap”, whereby female students do not see themselves as successful entrepreneurs. This paper aims to explore the nature of this identity gap and its relationship to entrepreneurial intent and entrepreneurship education. Design/methodology/approach A set of contemporary, gender-inclusive entrepreneurial attributes was developed using entrepreneurial subject matter experts and tested with 591 university students to explore the nature of the gendered entrepreneurial identity gap. Findings While masculine stereotypes persist and the entrepreneurial identity gap is larger for female students, results suggest that a more gender-inclusive vocabulary of entrepreneurship is emerging among the student population and an androgynous perception of the idealized entrepreneur. Entrepreneurship education had a positive influence on entrepreneurial intent. Research limitations/implications Study findings advance the conversation about entrepreneurial identity, the nature of the gendered identity gap and the role of education in closing that gap. The questionnaire and set of gender-inclusive attributes should continue to be tested beyond student samples. Practical implications Based on this study, entrepreneurship education could benefit from more gender-inclusive instructional practices and vocabulary and a broadened definition of what it means to be entrepreneurial. More students – both men and women – will see themselves as entrepreneurs and be inspired to participate in the innovation economy. Originality/value This study takes a novel approach to the study of entrepreneurial identity, developing a new set of attributes and contemporary vocabulary around business venturing.
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We present a computational method for predicting, and identifying the correlates of, leadership perceptions for prominent individuals. Our approach proxies knowledge representations for these individuals using high-dimensional semantic vectors derived from large-scale news media datasets. It then applies machine learning techniques to build a model that maps these vectors onto participant ratings of leadership effectiveness. This method greatly outperforms other approaches and achieves accuracy rates comparable to human participants in predicting leadership effectiveness judgments. Crucially, it relies on attributes and associations identified by established theories of leadership perception—notably implicit leadership theories—as guiding lay leadership perception. Thus, our model appears to have learnt the same implicit leadership cues as our human participants. In addition, we show that our approach can be used to not only predict leadership effectiveness judgments, but also to identify dimensions that people associate with effective leadership, as well as quantify the extent of this association for each dimension. We illustrate the broad applicability of our method by using it to predict leadership perceptions for over 6000 individuals in the public sphere, and to algorithmically uncover the particular traits, concepts, and attributes that people most strongly associate with effective leaders.
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300 24-64 yr old male middle managers rated either women in general, men in general, or successful middle managers on 92 descriptive terms. Results confirm the hypothesis that successful middle managers are perceived to possess characteristics, attitudes, and temperaments more commonly ascribed to men in general than to women in general. There was a significant resemblance between the mean ratings of men and managers, whereas there was no resemblance between women and managers. Examination of mean rating differences among women, men, and managers on each of the items disclosed some requisite management characteristics which were not synonymous with the masculine sex-role stereotype. Implications of the demonstrated relationship for organizational behaviors are discussed. (22 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Used an in-basket exercise to investigate the influence of sex role stereotypes on the personnel decisions of 95 male bank supervisors. 4 experiments (in-basket items) were conducted in which an employee's sex and other situational attributes were manipulated. Results confirm the hypothesis that male administrators tend to discriminate against female employees in personnel decisions involving promotion, development, and supervision. Discrimination against male employees was found in personnel decisions involving competing role demands stemming from family circumstances. Features of the decision-making process which heighten the influence of sex role stereotypes on personnel decisions are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Describes a study of 174 males employed fulltime in business or industry in management or staff positions. All Ss were graduate management students who responded to a 56-item questionnaire designed to obtain attitudes toward women with reference to work (16 items favorable; 40 items unfavorable). Questionnaires were answered during regular class sessions; 1/2 were administered by a female and 1/2 by a male. 7 factors were obtained from the 40 unfavorable items. Strongest agreement was found with "traditional mores about women deferring to men's ability and initiative and men deferring to the needs of the 'weaker sex'." Data show that married Ss, those holding highest positions in their organizations, and those working with women as peers gave more unfavorable responses. (12 ref.) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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To investigate the influence of sex-role stereotypes on evaluations of candidates for managerial positions, 235 male undergraduate business students evaluated job applicant forms which differed only in the male or female name given to the applicant. Findings confirm that sex-role stereotypes influence evaluations of applicants and selection decisions. Male applicants were accepted more frequently than equally qualified females, and were evaluated more favorably on general suitability, potential for long service, and potential for fitting in well in the organization. Also supported was the hypothesis that job demands have differential effects on evaluations of male and female applicants. Females were given lowest acceptance rates and poorest evaluation for "demanding" managerial positions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Examined the way sex-role stereotypes influence evaluations of male and female supervisory behavior. 134 male and 24 female undergraduates and 83 male and 15 female bank supervisors were asked to read 1 of 6 versions of a supervisory problem (with either a male or female supervisor and male, female, or mixed subordinates), and evaluate the effectiveness of 4 supervisory styles. Results indicate that sex-role stereotypes do influence evaluations of supervisory effectiveness for some, but not all, of the supervisory styles. Findings are discussed in terms of the potential negative consequences of sex-role stereotypes for supervisory behavior.