Article

Kreiss, J. et al. Efficacy of nonoxynol 9 contraceptive sponge use in preventing heterosexual acquisition of HIV in Nairobi prostitutes. JAMA 268, 477-482

University of Washington Seattle, Seattle, Washington, United States
JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association (Impact Factor: 35.29). 07/1992; 268(4):477-82. DOI: 10.1001/jama.268.4.477
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

To determine the efficacy of the nonoxynol 9 contraceptive sponge in preventing sexual acquisition of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
Prospective, randomized placebo-controlled trial.
Research clinic for prostitutes in Nairobi, Kenya.
One hundred thirty-eight HIV-seronegative women were enrolled, of whom 74 were assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use and 64 to placebo use. These two groups did not significantly differ with respect to demographic characteristics, sexual practices, or prevalence of genital infections at enrollment, except for a lower number of sex partners per week and a higher initial prevalence of genital ulcers among women assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use. Among the 116 women who returned for follow-up, the mean durations of follow-up were 14 and 17 months for the two groups, respectively.
HIV seroconversion.
Nonoxynol 9 sponge use was associated with an increased frequency of genital ulcers (relative risk [RR], 3.3; P less than .0001) and vulvitis (RR, 3.3; P less than .0001) and a reduced risk of gonococcal cervicitis (RR, 0.4; P less than .0001). Twenty-seven (45%) of 60 women in the nonoxynol 9 sponge group and 20 (36%) of 56 women in the placebo group developed HIV antibodies. The hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and HIV seroconversion was 1.7 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.9 to 3.0). Using multivariate analysis to control for the presence of genital ulcers at enrollment, the adjusted hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and seroconversion was 1.6 (95% CI, 0.8 to 2.8).
Genital ulcers and vulvitis occurred with increased frequency in nonoxynol 9 sponge users. We were unable to demonstrate that nonoxynol 9 sponge use was effective in reducing the risk of HIV infection among highly exposed women.

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    • "A: μ ♀ 31–34 y, μ ♂ 35–36 y; M: 100%; E: μ♀ 5–7 y012345678910111213141516, ♂ 6–7 y01234567891011121314, B:[17](Continued)[19][21](see also[22]) (Continued) "

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    • "Most interventions provided services exclusively for FSWs, though some broadened their priority population to include male and transgender sex workers [29-41]. It was often unclear whether other vulnerable groups aside from FSWs were also permitted or encouraged to access services. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Female sex workers (FSWs) experience high levels of sexual and reproductive health (SRH) morbidity, violence and discrimination. Successful SRH interventions for FSWs in India and elsewhere have long prioritised community mobilisation and structural interventions, yet little is known about similar approaches in African settings. We systematically reviewed community empowerment processes within FSW SRH projects in Africa, and assessed them using a framework developed by Ashodaya, an Indian sex worker organisation. Methods In November 2012 we searched Medline and Web of Science for studies of FSW health services in Africa, and consulted experts and websites of international organisations. Titles and abstracts were screened to identify studies describing relevant services, using a broad definition of empowerment. Data were extracted on service-delivery models and degree of FSW involvement, and analysed with reference to a four-stage framework developed by Ashodaya. This conceptualises community empowerment as progressing from (1) initial engagement with the sex worker community, to (2) community involvement in targeted activities, to (3) ownership, and finally, (4) sustainability of action beyond the community. Results Of 5413 articles screened, 129 were included, describing 42 projects. Targeted services in FSW ‘hotspots’ were generally isolated and limited in coverage and scope, mostly offering only free condoms and STI treatment. Many services were provided as part of research activities and offered via a clinic with associated community outreach. Empowerment processes were usually limited to peer-education (stage 2 of framework). Community mobilisation as an activity in its own right was rarely documented and while most projects successfully engaged communities, few progressed to involvement, community ownership or sustainability. Only a few interventions had evolved to facilitate collective action through formal democratic structures (stage 3). These reported improved sexual negotiating power and community solidarity, and positive behavioural and clinical outcomes. Sustainability of many projects was weakened by disunity within transient communities, variable commitment of programmers, low human resource capacity and general resource limitations. Conclusions Most FSW SRH projects in Africa implemented participatory processes consistent with only the earliest stages of community empowerment, although isolated projects demonstrate proof of concept for successful empowerment interventions in African settings.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · Globalization and Health
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    • "The majority of HIV prevention interventions targeting women are vaginal microbicides [6]. Beginning in 1987, there has been 14 vaginal microbicide trials for the prevention of heterosexual acquisition of HIV conducted mainly in Sub-Saharan Africa (Table 1) [7-20]. One of these trials [19] has just been completed and one is still ongoing [20]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Pregnancy is contraindicated in vaginal microbicide trials for the prevention of HIV infection in women due to the unknown maternal and fetal safety of the microbicides. Women who become pregnant are taken off the microbicide during pregnancy period but this result in reduction of the power of the trials. Strategies to reduce the pregnancy rates require an understanding of the incidence and associated risk factors of pregnancy in microbicide trials. This systematic review estimates the overall incidence rate of pregnancy in microbicide trials and describes the associated risk factors. A comprehensive literature search was carried out to identify eligible studies from electronic databases and other sources. Two review authors independently selected studies and extracted relevant data from included studies. Meta-analysis of incidence rates of pregnancy was carried out and risk factors of pregnancy were reported narratively. Fifteen studies reporting data from 10 microbicide trials (N=27,384 participants) were included. A total of 4,107 participants (15.0%) fell pregnant and a meta-analysis of incidence rates of pregnancy from 8 microbicide trials (N=25,551) yielded an overall incidence rate of 23.37 (95%CI: 17.78 to 28.96) pregnancies per 100 woman-years. However, significant heterogeneity was detected. Hormonal injectable, intra-uterine device (IUD) or implants or sterilization, older age, more years of education and condom use were associated with lower pregnancy. On the other hand, living with a man, history of pregnancy, self and partner desire for future baby, oral contraceptive use, increased number of unprotected sexual acts and inconsistent use of condoms were associated with higher pregnancy. The incidence rate of pregnancy in microbicide trials is high and strategies for its reduction are urgently required in order to improve the sample size and power of these trials.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2013 · PLoS ONE
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