Carter P, Presta L, Gorman CM, et al. Humanization of an anti-p185HER2 antibody for human cancer therapy

Department of Protein Engineering, Genentech Inc., South San Francisco, CA 94080.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (Impact Factor: 9.67). 06/1992; 89(10):4285-9. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.89.10.4285
Source: PubMed


The murine monoclonal antibody mumAb4D5, directed against human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (p185HER2), specifically inhibits proliferation of human tumor cells overexpressing p185HER2. However, the efficacy of mumAb4D5 in human cancer therapy is likely to be limited by a human anti-mouse antibody response and lack of effector functions. A "humanized" antibody, humAb4D5-1, containing only the antigen binding loops from mumAb4D5 and human variable region framework residues plus IgG1 constant domains was constructed. Light- and heavy-chain variable regions were simultaneously humanized in one step by "gene conversion mutagenesis" using 311-mer and 361-mer preassembled oligonucleotides, respectively. The humAb4D5-1 variant does not block the proliferation of human breast carcinoma SK-BR-3 cells, which overexpress p185HER2, despite tight antigen binding (Kd = 25 nM). One of seven additional humanized variants designed by molecular modeling (humAb4D5-8) binds the p185HER2 antigen 250-fold and 3-fold more tightly than humAb4D5-1 and mumAb4D5, respectively. In addition, humAb4D5-8 has potency comparable to the murine antibody in blocking SK-BR-3 cell proliferation. Furthermore, humAb4D5-8 is much more efficient in supporting antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity against SK-BR-3 cells than mumAb4D5, but it does not efficiently kill WI-38 cells, which express p185HER2 at lower levels.

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    • "Slamon et al3 demonstrated that a monoclonal antibody against HER2 inhibited the growth of breast tumor-derived cell lines that overexpress the HER2 gene. In the early 1990s, Genentech created trastuzumab (Herceptin®) from Chinese hamster ovary cells.5 Trastuzumab is the humanized monoclonal antibody directed against the extracellular domain of HER2.16 The clinical trials studying the clinical effects of trastuzumab began in 1992. "
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    ABSTRACT: Trastuzumab is a monoclonal antibody that is used in the treatment of breast cancer. Trastuzumab targets the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) receptor on breast cancer cells that express this tyrosine kinase receptor. These cancers are referred to as HER2-positive breast cancer. The original studies of trastuzumab showed improved survival in metastatic breast cancer; however, resistance often develops. In the adjuvant setting, women often progress despite therapy that includes trastuzumab. Antibody-drug conjugates are a new class of powerful drugs designed to target high-dose chemotherapy directly to the cancer cells. Trastuzumab emtansine is one of these antibody-drug conjugates and was the first Food and Drug Administration approved drug for a solid tumor. Emtansine is a potent antimicrotubule agent. Trastuzumab is used to target this potent chemotherapy agent directly to the HER2-expressing cancer cells. This review article will summarize the evidence from the preclinical studies, summarize evidence from the clinical trials, discuss current clinical trials, discuss current approval of trastuzumab emtansine, and discuss future directions of research.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · Breast Cancer: Targets and Therapy
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    • "Our data also confirm that the change of binding affinity of the 1-17-2 chimeric antibody is minimal. Traditional humanization method of CDR-grafting chooses only one single human antibody FR as template by similarity alignment [17], [47]. As there is diversity in FRs among different human antibodies, we hypothesized that the immunogenicity of rat antibody FR can be removed by epitope scanning in multiple human templates. "
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    ABSTRACT: 1-17-2 is a rat anti-human DEC-205 monoclonal antibody that induces internalization and delivers antigen to dendritic cells (DCs). The potentially clinical application of this antibody is limited by its murine origin. Traditional humanization method such as complementarity determining regions (CDRs) graft often leads to a decreased or even lost affinity. Here we have developed a novel antibody humanization method based on computer modeling and bioinformatics analysis. First, we used homology modeling technology to build the precise model of Fab. A novel epitope scanning algorithm was designed to identify antigenic residues in the framework regions (FRs) that need to be mutated to human counterpart in the humanization process. Then virtual mutation and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation were used to assess the conformational impact imposed by all the mutations. By comparing the root-mean-square deviations (RMSDs) of CDRs, we found five key residues whose mutations would destroy the original conformation of CDRs. These residues need to be back-mutated to rescue the antibody binding affinity. Finally we constructed the antibodies in vitro and compared their binding affinity by flow cytometry and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) assay. The binding affinity of the refined humanized antibody was similar to that of the original rat antibody. Our results have established a novel method based on epitopes scanning and MD simulation for antibody humanization.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2013 · PLoS ONE
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    • "HER2 overexpression is associated with lymph node metastasis, short relapse time, poor survival and decreased response to endocrine and chemotherapy [1,2]. Trastuzumab is a humanized, monoclonal antibody that specifically blocks HER2 activation and cell signaling [3]. It is approved for use in patients who have HER2-positive disease, estrogen receptor/progesterone receptor-negative disease or a high-risk feature [4]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Trastuzumab is an antibody widely used in the treatment of breast cancer cases that test positive for the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). Many patients, however, become resistant to this antibody, whose resistance has become a major focus in breast cancer research. But despite this interest, there are still no reliable markers that can be used to identify resistant patients. A possible role of several extracellular matrix (ECM) components---heparan sulfate (HS), Syn-1(Syndecan-1) and heparanase (HPSE1)---in light of the influence of ECM alterations on the action of several compounds on the cells and cancer development, was therefore investigated in breast cancer cell resistance to trastuzumab. The cDNA of the enzyme responsible for cleaving HS chains from proteoglycans, HPSE1, was cloned in the pEGFP-N1 plasmid and transfected into a breast cancer cell lineage. We evaluated cell viability after trastuzumab treatment using different breast cancer cell lines. Trastuzumab and HS interaction was investigated by confocal microscopy and Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET). The profile of sulfated glycosaminoglycans was also investigated by [35S]-sulfate incorporation. Quantitative RT-PCR and immunofluorescence were used to evaluate HPSE1, HER2 and Syn-1 mRNA expression. HPSE1 enzymatic activity was performed using biotinylated heparan sulfate. Breast cancer cell lines responsive to trastuzumab present higher amounts of HER2, Syn-1 and HS on the cell surface, but lower levels of secreted HS. Trastuzumab and HS interaction was proven by FRET analysis. The addition of anti-HS to the cells or heparin to the culture medium induced resistance to trastuzumab in breast cancer cells previously sensitive to this monoclonal antibody. Breast cancer cells transfected with HPSE1 became resistant to trastuzumab, showing lower levels of HER2, Syn-1 and HS on the cell surface. In addition, HS shedding was increased significantly in these resistant cells. Trastuzumab action is dependent on the availability of heparan sulfate on the surface of breast cancer cells. Furthermore, our data suggest that high levels of heparan sulfate shed to the medium are able to capture trastuzumab, blocking the antibody action mediated by HER2. In addition to HER2 levels, heparan sulfate synthesis and shedding determine breast cancer cell susceptibility to trastuzumab.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2013 · BMC Cancer
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