Article

Cloning of ASH, a Ubiquitous Protein Composed of One Src Homology Region (SH) 2 and Two SH3 Domains, from Human and Rat cDNA Libraries

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Abstract

The protein ASH (for abundant Src homology), composed of one Src homology region (SH) 2 and two SH3 domains, was cloned by screening human and rat cDNA libraries with an oligonucleotide probe directed to a consensus sequence of the SH2 domains. The rat-derived ASH peptide was comprised of 217 amino acids with a molecular mass of 25-28 kDa and was found to be ubiquitous in rat tissues. A human cDNA clone was also found to code for part of the same protein, suggesting that ASH is common to human and rat. The amino acid sequence of ASH was strikingly similar to Sem-5, the product of a nematode cell-signaling gene, and ASH is most probably a mammalian homologue of Sem-5. ASH bound in vitro to phosphotyrosine-containing proteins, including activated epidermal growth factor receptor, the ASH SH2 domain being responsible for the binding. Induced expression of an antisense ASH cDNA led to a reduction in cell growth. Considering these observations and the structural homology to Sem-5, ASH is likely to function as a ubiquitous signal transducer, possibly resembling Sem-5, which communicates between a receptor protein tyrosine kinase and a Ras protein.

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... This 217 amino acid, 24-kd protein contains nothing more than a SH2 domain located between two SH3 domains (Figure 4). GRB2 was cloned by using the CORT method and by screening a eDNA library with degenerate oligonucleotides that were designed to recognize SH2 domains (Lowenstein et al 1992;Matuoka et al 1992). GRB2 mRNA is detected in all tissues (Lowenstein et al 1992;Matuoka et al 1992;Suen et al 1993). ...
... GRB2 was cloned by using the CORT method and by screening a eDNA library with degenerate oligonucleotides that were designed to recognize SH2 domains (Lowenstein et al 1992;Matuoka et al 1992). GRB2 mRNA is detected in all tissues (Lowenstein et al 1992;Matuoka et al 1992;Suen et al 1993). Drosophila (Drk, for downstream of receptor kinases) (Olivier et al 1993;Simon et al 1993) and C. elegans (Sem-5) (Sternberg & Horvitz 1991) homologues of GRB2 have been identified. ...
... GRB2 associates with Tyr phosphorylated EGF, PDGF, and CSF-l receptors and with activated Flk21Flt3 in vivo and in vitro (Lowenstein et al 1992;Matuoka et al 1992;Suen et a1 1993;van der Geer & Hunter 1993). Tyr 1068 and Tyr 1086 have been identified as GRB2-binding sites in the EGF receptor (Batzer et al 1994). ...
... Grb2 (Growth factor receptor-bound 2), auch bekannt als ASH (abundant Src homology), ist ein 25 kD-Adapter-Protein, das Rezeptortyrosinkinasen mit dem Ras-Signalweg verbindet (LOWENSTEIN et al., 1992;SCHLESSINGER, 1993SCHLESSINGER, , 1994. Es besitzt drei SH-Domänen in der Reihenfolge SH3(N)-SH2-SH3(C) (LOWENSTEIN et al., 1992;MATUOKA et al., 1992). 1995 wurde die Kristallstruktur von Grb2 veröffentlicht (MAIGNAN et al., 1995). ...
... Reihenfolge SH3(N)-SH2-SH3(C) (LOWENSTEIN et al., 1992;MATUOKA et al., 1992). SHIP1 ...
... Shc proteins can associate with tyrosine-phosphorylated receptors and are themselves phosphorylated on tyrosine in response to growth factors (11). The second gene encodes an abundant 23-kDa polypeptide known as growth factor receptor-bound protein 2 (Grb2) (12)(13)(14). This protein contains SH2 and SH3 domains, although its state of phosphorylation does not appear to be increased by growth factors (12,14). ...
... The second gene encodes an abundant 23-kDa polypeptide known as growth factor receptor-bound protein 2 (Grb2) (12)(13)(14). This protein contains SH2 and SH3 domains, although its state of phosphorylation does not appear to be increased by growth factors (12,14). The association of Shc with Grb2 has been implicated in activation of the ras pathway by tyrosine kinases via association with son of sevenless (SOS), the ras nucleotide exchange factor (10,(15)(16)(17)(18)(19). ...
Article
In this study, prostaglandin (PG) F2α was found to activate mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase and MAP kinase kinase (MEK) in cultured rat puerperal uterine myometrial cells. PGF2α stimulation also led to an increase in phosphorylation of raf-1, son of sevenless (SOS), and Shc. Furthermore, we examined the mechanism by which PGF2α induced MAP kinase phosphorylation. Both pertussis toxin (10 ng/ml), which inactivates Gi/Go proteins, and expression of a peptide derived from the carboxyl terminus of the β-adrenergic receptor kinase 1 (βARK1), which specifically blocks signaling mediated by the βγ subunits of G proteins, blocked the PGF2α-induced activation of MAP kinase. Ritodrine (1 μm), which is known to relax uterine muscle contraction, attenuated PGF2α-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of MAP kinase. Moreover, to examine the role of MAP kinase pathway in uterine contraction, an inhibitor of MEK activity, PD098059, was used. Although MEK inhibitor had no effect on PGF2α-induced calcium mobilization, this inhibitor partially inhibited PGF2α-induced uterine contraction. These results provide evidence that PGF2α stimulates the MAP kinase signaling pathway in cultured rat puerperal uterine myometrial cells through Gβγ protein, suggesting that this new pathway may play an important role in the biological action of PGF2α on these cells.
... The discovery of the adaptor protein Grb2 as receptor tyrosine kinase-interacting protein 20 years ago was a key point in defining RTK signal transduction 26,27 . Since then a plethora of Grb2-interacting proteins have been reported (http://stringdb.org). ...
Article
Full-text available
The adaptor protein growth factor receptor-bound protein 2 (Grb2) is ubiquitously expressed in eukaryotic cells and involved in a multitude of intracellular protein interactions. Grb2 plays a pivotal role in tyrosine kinase-mediated signal transduction including linking receptor tyrosine kinases to the Ras/mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathway, which is implicated in oncogenic outcome. Grb2 exists in a constitutive equilibrium between monomeric and dimeric states. Here we show that only monomeric Grb2 is capable of binding to SOS and upregulating MAP kinase signalling and that the dimeric state is inhibitory to this process. Phosphorylation of tyrosine 160 (Y160) on Grb2, or binding of a tyrosylphosphate-containing ligand to the SH2 domain of Grb2, results in dimer dissociation. Phosphorylation of Y160 on Grb2 is readily detectable in the malignant forms of human prostate, colon and breast cancers. The self-association/dissociation of Grb2 represents a switch that regulates MAP kinase activity and hence controls cancer progression.
... Two degenerate primers were used in the subsequent polymerase chain reaction (PCR). One, [SH2 (2.0 µM): 5Ј-TTCCTGGTG(A/C)G(A/G) (G/C)A(G/C)(A/T/U)(G/C)-3Ј)], was based on the consensus sequence for the SH2 domain (Matuoka et al., 1992) and the other, [DD3Ј-2 (2.0 µM): 5Ј-GTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTT(G/A/C)-3Ј)], was designed to anneal to the poly-A tail. Each reaction mixture consisted of 1 µl of cDNA, 200 µM of each primer, 4 µl of 10 ϫ Ex Taq Buffer, 4 µl of 2.5 mM dNTP mix, 2 U of Ex Taq polymerase and nuclease-free water to a final volume of 40 µl. ...
Article
Sequence specific-differential display (SS-DD) is a powerful method for screening significant changes in gene expression between normal and malignant tissues. Using this method, we detected 3 genes for which the expression is much decreased in thyroid tumors. After sub-cloning and sequencing analysis, one of the genes was revealed to be acid ceramidase (AC). The expression of AC in normal thyroids and thyroid tumors was examined by semi-quantitative reverse-transcription-polymerase-chain-reaction (RT-PCR). Obvious decreases in the expression of AC mRNA were observed in 5/6 follicular adenomas, 2/2 adenomatous goiters, 3/6 papillary carcinomas and 1/2 follicular carcinomas. To confirm this result, real-time quantitative PCR analysis (TaqMan PCR) was carried out. The relative expression level of AC mRNA compared with that of GAPDH mRNA was reduced in follicular adenomas, follicular carcinomas, and papillary carcinomas. Further, the expression of AC mRNA was extremely reduced in 2 anaplastic carcinomas. These results suggest a possible relationship between thyroid tumorigenesis and the expression of AC mRNA. Moreover, the increased expression of AC mRNA in normal thyroid tissues suggests some fundamental roles of AC in thyroid function. Int. J. Cancer 81:700–704, 1999. © 1999 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
... Grb2 is a ubiquitously expressed and evolutionarily conserved adaptor protein 51 . Although extensively studied, the exact mechanism for Grb2 binding to its full length SH3-domain partners is unclear. ...
Article
T cells are essential for the adaptive immune response to pathogens. However, dysfunctional T cell activity has been implicated in numerous diseases, including the failure of organ transplants, allergic reactions, asthma, autoimmune disorders, and coronary artery disease. T cell responses to pathogens require the induction of the primary activating receptor, the T cell receptor (TCR), along with other costimulatory and adhesion receptors. Signal transduction pathways activated downstream of these receptors drive T cell responses required for the immune response and disease progression. A key question in our understanding of the mechanism of T cell activation is how signaling pathways emanating from multiple receptors integrate together to alter T cell effector functions. One integration node for intracellular signaling is the membrane-associated adaptor protein linker for the activation of T cells or LAT. Upon stimulation of the TCR and other receptors, LAT is phosphorylated at several tyrosines residues on its cytoplasmic tail. This leads to the binding of SH2 domain-containing proteins and their associated molecules and the formation of large multiprotein complexes. These dynamic and highly regulated signaling complexes facilitate the production of second messengers, activate downstream pathways, induce actin cytoskeleton polymerization, and stimulate the activity of multiple transcription factors. Thus, signaling pathways from several receptors feed into LAT, which then integrates this information and selectively induces pathways critical for T cell activation and the adaptive immune response. WIREs Syst Biol Med 2013, 5:101–110. doi: 10.1002/wsbm.1194 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.
... Plasmids encoding GST fusion proteins containing the SH domains of Grb2 [40] and the SH2 domain of Shc [41] were kindly provided by Dr T. Takenawa (University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan) and Dr T. Pawson (Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, ON, Canada) respectively. All fusion protein constructs were transformed into Escherichia coli for protein production. ...
Article
Proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 (Pyk2) (also known as RAFTK, CAK beta or CADTK) has been identified as a member of the focal adhesion kinase (FAK) family of protein-tyrosine kinases and it has been suggested that the mode of Pyk2 activation is distinct from that of FAK. In the present study we investigated the mode of Pyk2 activation in human platelets. When platelets were stimulated with thrombin, Pyk2, as well as FAK, was markedly tyrosine-phosphorylated, in a manner mostly dependent on alpha IIb beta 3 integrin-mediated aggregation. The residual Pyk2 tyrosine phosphorylation observed in the absence of platelet aggregation was completely abolished by pretreatment with BAPTA/AM [bis-(o-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetra-acetic acid acetoxymethyl ester]. The Pyk2 phosphorylation was inhibited by protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitors at concentrations that inhibited platelet aggregation. In contrast, direct activation of PKC with the active phorbol ester PMA induced the tyrosine phosphorylation of Pyk2 and FAK but only when platelets were fully aggregated with the exogenous addition of fibrinogen (the ligand for alpha IIb beta 3 integrin). Furthermore, PMA-induced Pyk2 (and FAK) tyrosine phosphorylation was also observed when platelets adhered to immobilized fibrinogen. The activation of the von Willebrand factor (vWF)-glycoprotein Ib pathway with botrocetin together with vWF failed to induce Pyk2 (and FAK) tyrosine phosphorylation. Most Pyk2 and FAK was present in the cytosol and membrane skeleton fractions in unstimulated platelets. When platelets were stimulated with thrombin, both Pyk2 and FAK were translocated to the cytoskeleton in an aggregation-dependent manner. In immunoprecipitation studies, Pyk2, as well as FAK, seemed to associate with Shc through Grb2. With the use of glutathione S-transferase fusion proteins containing Shc-SH2, Grb2-SH2, and Grb2 N-terminal and C-terminal SH3 domains, it was implied that the proline-rich region of Pyk2 (and FAK) binds to the N-terminal SH3 domain of Grb2 and that the phosphotyrosine residue of Shc binds to the SH2 domain of Grb2. Although Pyk2 and FAK have been reported to be differentially regulated in many cell types, our results suggest that, in human platelets, the mode of Pyk2 activation is mostly similar to that of FAK, in terms of aIIb beta 3 integrin-dependent and PRC-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation. Furthermore, Pyk2 as well as FAK, might have one or more important roles in post-aggregation tyrosine phosphorylation events, in association with the cytoskeleton and through interaction with adapter proteins including Grb2 and Shc.
... CsGrb2 was also found to be widely expressed in the mesenchymal tissues that composed of many adipocytes in C. sinensis adults. In rats and mice, Grb2 is widely distributed in many organs [29,38], suggesting that Grb2 was also important for basic metabolism [39]. Grb2 has been found to bind to tyrosinephosphorylated insulin receptor substrate-1, leading to the stimulation of DNA synthesis [40], increased expression and activity of the GLUT-1 glucose transporter [41]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Clonorchis sinensis causes clonorchiasis, a potentially serious disease. Growth factor receptor-bound protein 2 (Grb2) is a cytosolic protein conserved among animals and plays roles in cellular functions such as meiosis, organogenesis and energy metabolism. In the present study, we report first molecular characters of growth factor receptor bound-protein (CsGrb2) from C. sinensis as counter part of Grb2 from animals and its possible functions in development and organogenesis of C. sinensis. A CsGrb2 cDNA clone retrieved from the C. sinensis transcriptome encoded a polypeptide with a SH3-SH2-SH3 structure. Recombinant CsGrb2 was bacterially produced and purified to homogeneity. Native CsGrb2 with estimated molecular weight was identified from C. sinensis adult extract by western blotting using a mouse immune serum to recombinant CsGrb2. CsGrb2 transcripts was more abundant in the metacercariae than in the adults. Immunohistochemical staining showed that CsGrb2 was localized to the suckers, mesenchymal tissues, sperms in seminal receptacle and ovary in the adults, and abundantly expressed in most organs of the metacercariae. Recombinant CsGrb2 was evaluated to be little useful as a serodiagnostic reagent for C. sinesis human infections. Grb2 protein found in C. sinensis was conserved among animals and suggested to play a role in the organogenesis, energy metabolism and mitotic spermatogenesis of C. sinensis. These findings from C. sinensis provide wider understanding on diverse function of Grb2 in lower animals such as platyhelminths.
... A well established Ras activation pathway involves recruitment of the adaptor protein Grb2 to phosphorylated tyrosine residues on RTKs via its SH2 domain (Lowenstein et al., 1992). Grb2 contains two SH3 domains (Matuoka et al., 1992) that bind proteins with proline-rich motifs, such as the Ras GEF SOS (Simon et al., 1991;Chardin et al., 1993). Ras family members undergo farnesylation or geranylgeranylation that results in constitutive membrane association. ...
Article
Phospholipase D is a ubiquitous class of enzymes that generates phosphatidic acid as an intracellular signaling species. The phospholipase D superfamily plays a central role in a variety of functions in prokaryotes, viruses, yeast, fungi, plants, and eukaryotic species. In mammalian cells, the pathways modulating catalytic activity involve a variety of cellular signaling components, including G protein-coupled receptors, receptor tyrosine kinases, polyphosphatidylinositol lipids, Ras/Rho/ADP-ribosylation factor GTPases, and conventional isoforms of protein kinase C, among others. Recent findings have shown that phosphatidic acid generated by phospholipase D plays roles in numerous essential cellular functions, such as vesicular trafficking, exocytosis, autophagy, regulation of cellular metabolism, and tumorigenesis. Many of these cellular events are modulated by the actions of phosphatidic acid, and identification of two targets (mammalian target of rapamycin and Akt kinase) has especially highlighted a role for phospholipase D in the regulation of cellular metabolism. Phospholipase D is a regulator of intercellular signaling and metabolic pathways, particularly in cells that are under stress conditions. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the regulation of phospholipase D activity and its modulation of cellular signaling pathways and functions.
... The numbers refer to the position of the first displayed amino acid. Gg BBMIB, chicken brush border myosin IB (Knight and Kendrick-Jones, accession number X70400); Ac MIB, A. castellanii myosin IB (Jung et al., 1989b); DdMIB, D. discoideum myosin IB (Jung et al., 1989a); Sc rvs167, yeast rvs167 (Bauer et al., 1993); Hs HS1, human hematopoietic lineage cell-specific protein 1 (Kitamura et al., 1989); Gg Cortactin, chicken cortactin (p80/85) (Wu et al., 1991); Hs GRB2, human growth factor receptor-bound protein 2 (Lowenstein et al., 1992;Matuoka et al., 1992). ...
Article
In an effort to determine diversity and function of mammalian myosin I molecules, we report here the cloning and characterization of myr 3 (third unconventional myosin from rat), a novel mammalian myosin I from rat tissues that is related to myosin I molecules from protozoa. Like the protozoan myosin I molecules, myr 3 consists of a myosin head domain, a single light chain binding motif, and a tail region that includes a COOH-terminal SH3 domain. However, myr 3 lacks the regulatory phosphorylation site present in the head domain of protozoan myosin I molecules. Evidence was obtained that the COOH terminus of the tail domain is involved in regulating F-actin binding activity of the NH2-terminal head domain. The light chain of myr 3 was identified as the Ca(2+)-binding protein calmodulin. Northern blot and immunoblot analyses revealed that myr 3 is expressed in many tissues and cell lines. Immunofluorescence studies with anti-myr 3 antibodies in NRK cells demonstrated that myr 3 is localized in the cytoplasm and in elongated structures at regions of cell-cell contact. These elongated structures contained F-actin and alpha-actinin but were devoid of vinculin. Incubation of NRK cells with Con A stimulated the formation of myr 3-containing structures along cell-cell contacts. These results suggest for myr 3 a function mediated by cell-cell contact.
... Further, we have also observed that the adaptor molecule Grb2 interacts with both HER3 and MUC4 in pancreatic cancer cells, which suggests that HER3/MUC4 association leads to recruitment of Grb2 for HER3/MUC4 mediated downstream signaling pathway. Grb2 contains the SH2 domain which facilitates protein-protein interaction through phosphorylated tyrosines [48] as observed in EGFR family members. Grb2 contributes to cancer cell proliferation and migration through RTK pathways [49]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Several studies have demonstrated that MUC4 is involved in progression and metastasis of pancreatic cancer (PC). Here, we report that HER3/MUC4 interaction in HER2 low cells is critical in driving pancreatic tumorigenesis. Upon HER2 knockdown, we observed elevated expression of HER3 and MUC4 and their interactions, which was confirmed by immunoprecipitation and bioinformatics analyses. In paired human PC tissues, higher percentage of HER3 positivity (10/33, 30.3%; p = 0.001) was observed than HER2 (5/33, 15.1%; p = 0.031), which was further confirmed in spontaneous mice (KPC; KrasG12D; Trp53R172H/+; Pdx-Cre) tumors of different weeks. Mechanistically, increased phosphorylation of ERK and expression of PI3K and c-Myc were observed in HER2 knockdown cells, suggesting a positive role for HER3/MUC4 in HER2 low cells. Further, HER2 knockdown resulted in increased proliferation, motility and tumorigenicity of PC cells. Consistently, transient knockdown of HER3 by siRNA in HER2 knockdown cells led to decreased proliferation. These observations led us to conclude that HER3 interacts with MUC4 to promote proliferation in HER2 low PC cells. Further, deficiency of both HER2 and HER3 leads to decreased proliferation of PC cells. Hence targeting these newly identified HER3/MUC4 signals would improve the PC patients survival by intercepting MUC4 mediated oncogenic signaling.
... The SH2/SH3 adapters are a family of small proteins consisting almost entirely of SH2 and SH3 domains. The presently known members of the family are Grb2/Sem5/Drk/ASH (3,21,27,38); Crk, which exists in two alternatively spliced forms, termed Crk-1 and Crk-2, containing one and two SH3 domains, respectively (26,43); and Nck (18). While each of these adapters contains only SH2 and SH3 domains, the organization of these domains (see Fig. 1) and their binding specificities (51,57) are quite different. ...
Article
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SH2/SH3 adapters are thought to function in signal transduction pathways by coupling inputs from tyrosine kinases to downstream effectors such as Ras. Members of the mitogen-activated protein kinase family are known to be activated by a variety of mitogenic stimuli, including tyrosine kinases such as Abl and the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor. We have used activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase Erk-1 as a model system with which to examine whether various dominant-negative SH2/SH3 adapters (Grb2, Crk, and Nck) could block signaling pathways leading to Erk activation. Activation of Erk-1 by oncogenic Abl was effectively inhibited by Grb2 with mutations in either its SH2 or SH3 domain or by Crk-1 with an SH3 domain mutation. The Crk-1 SH2 mutant was less effective, while Nck SH2 and SH3 mutants had little or no effect on Erk activation. These results suggest that both Crk and Grb2 may contribute to the activation of Erk by oncogenic Abl, whereas Nck is unlikely to participate in this pathway. Next we examined whether combinations of these dominant-negative adapters could inhibit Erk activation more effectively than each mutant alone. When combinations of Crk-1 and Grb2 mutants were analyzed, the combination of the Crk-1 SH3 mutant plus the Grb2 SH3 mutant gave a striking synergistic effect. This finding suggests that in Abl-transformed cells, more than one class of tyrosine-phosphorylated sites (those that bind the Grb2 SH2 domain and those that bind the Crk SH2 domain) can lead to Ras activation. In contrast to results with Abl, Erk activation by EGF was strongly inhibited only by Grb2 mutants; Crk and Nck mutants had little or no effect. This finding suggests that Grb2 is the only adapter involved in the activation of Erk by EGF. Dominant-negative adaptors provide a novel means to identify binding interactions important in vivo for signaling in response to a variety of stimuli.
... Two degenerate primers were used in the subsequent polymerase chain reaction (PCR). One, [SH2 (2.0 µM): 5Ј-TTCCTGGTG(A/C)G(A/G) (G/C)A(G/C)(A/T/U)(G/C)-3Ј)], was based on the consensus sequence for the SH2 domain (Matuoka et al., 1992) and the other, [DD3Ј-2 (2.0 µM): 5Ј-GTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTT(G/A/C)-3Ј)], was designed to anneal to the poly-A tail. Each reaction mixture consisted of 1 µl of cDNA, 200 µM of each primer, 4 µl of 10 ϫ Ex Taq Buffer, 4 µl of 2.5 mM dNTP mix, 2 U of Ex Taq polymerase and nuclease-free water to a final volume of 40 µl. ...
Article
Full-text available
Sequence specific‐differential display (SS‐DD) is a powerful method for screening significant changes in gene expression between normal and malignant tissues. Using this method, we detected 3 genes for which the expression is much decreased in thyroid tumors. After sub‐cloning and sequencing analysis, one of the genes was revealed to be acid ceramidase (AC). The expression of AC in normal thyroids and thyroid tumors was examined by semi‐quantitative reverse‐transcription‐polymerase‐chain‐reaction (RT‐PCR). Obvious decreases in the expression of AC mRNA were observed in 5/6 follicular adenomas, 2/2 adenomatous goiters, 3/6 papillary carcinomas and 1/2 follicular carcinomas. To confirm this result, real‐time quantitative PCR analysis (TaqMan PCR) was carried out. The relative expression level of AC mRNA compared with that of GAPDH mRNA was reduced in follicular adenomas, follicular carcinomas, and papillary carcinomas. Further, the expression of AC mRNA was extremely reduced in 2 anaplastic carcinomas. These results suggest a possible relationship between thyroid tumorigenesis and the expression of AC mRNA. Moreover, the increased expression of AC mRNA in normal thyroid tissues suggests some fundamental roles of AC in thyroid function. Int. J. Cancer 81:700–704, 1999. © 1999 Wiley‐Liss, Inc.
... The best characterised Rasmediated signal transduction pathway is This RTK undergoes auto phosphorylation on cytoplasmic tyrosine residues in response to epidermal growth factor (EOF) stimulation. These phosphorylated residues then provide binding sites for the ^rc-homology 2 (SH2) domains of growth factor receptorbound protein 2 (Grb2) (Lowenstein et al., 1992;Matuoka et al., 1992). Grb2 consists almost entirely of one SH2 domain and two proline binding SH3 domains . ...
Thesis
The oncogene Ras can both stimulate and inhibit cell proliferation depending on the cellular context in which it is activated. Ras is believed to mediate its effects through activation of downstream effector proteins. The best characterised of these is the serine/threonine kinase, Raf. Through conditional activation of Ras or Raf we have shown that depending on the intensity of signal activation, these proteins are able to both stimulate and inhibit proliferation in murine fibroblasts. Strong signals are inhibitory to growth which is shown to be dependent upon an induction of the cell cycle inhibitor p2lCip-1 which prevents upregulated G1 cyclins from forming active complexes. Weaker signals can induce DNA synthesis in low mitogen conditions since they can upregulate cyclin D1 expression, yet are unable to stimulate p2lCip-1 expression. Thus we demonstrate that Raf controls opposing cellular responses through differential activation of cell cycle regulatory proteins. Ras however demonstrates a greater propensity to stimulate growth than Raf which correlates with an ability to downregulate Raf induction of p2lCip-1. The Ras effectors PI 3-kinase and Rif are unable to reproduce this effect and furthermore, RhoA, which has been proposed to downregulate p2lCip-1, is also unable to attenuate induction of p2lCip-1 by Raf. Indeed we show that RhoA and PI 3-kinase cooperate with Raf to induce p2lCip-1. Furthermore Raf and PI 3-kinase co-operate to induce DNA synthesis in the presence of high levels of p2lCip-1. In addition we investigate the ability of activated Rac, which has been implicated as a downstream target of Ras, to control the cell cycle. It is demonstrated that RacV12 is able to stimulate anchorage-independent growth and upregulate cell cycle regulatory proteins, yet is unable to stimulate mitogen-independent growth. Thus cell growth control by Ras depends both on signal strength and a panel of downstream targets.
... Grb2/Ash consists of one SH2 domain between two SH3 domains Matuoka et al., 1992) (Fig. 3). It is a mammalian homologue of the protein encoded by sem-5 gene of C. elegans . ...
Thesis
n-Chimaerin is a neuronal GTPase-activating protein (GAP) for the small GTP-binding protein p21rac. In this study, a variant cDNA for α-chimaerin encoding a src homology 2 (SH2) domain at the N-terminal end of the sequence, in addition to the phorbol ester binding and GAP domains, was isolated from a human foetal retinal cDNA library. Except for the N-terminal, the α-chimaerin sequence is identical to that of n-chimaerin and is derived from an alternately spliced mRNA. The extreme 5' sequence was obtained by 5'RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends) of foetal and adult brain cDNA. The combined sequence was 2.1 kb with an open reading frame of 459 amino acids. Several 5'RACE products showed heterogeneity at the 5' end indicating possible alternate exon usage. A 4 kb cDNA, containing within it a sequence encoding the C-terminal half of the SH2 domain, was also isolated from the cDNA library. The rest of this cDNA has no counterpart in the database. SH2 domains bind selective phosphotyrosine-containing proteins. The full length α-chimaerin and its SH2 domain were expressed separately in E. coli as glutathione-S-transferase (GST) fusion proteins and the recombinant proteins were used in in vitro binding assays to identify potential α-SH2 interacting proteins. Rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells have been widely used as an in vitro model of neuronal differentiation. PC12 cells were stimulated with various growth factors including nerve growth factor (NGF) and fibroblast growth factor (FGF). GST/α-SH2 fusion protein specifically bound several 32P-labelled proteins (38 kDa, 45 kDa, 60 kDa, 84 kDa) whose phosphorylation was slightly increased in growth factor stimulated PC12 cells. GST/α-SH2 did not appear to bind EGF receptor overexpressed in A431 cells. Kinase activity was found to be associated with the α-SH2 binding proteins, which phosphorylated the SH2 domain in vitro at serine and threonine residues. The presence of an SH2 domain in α-chimaerin indicates that it is likely to interact with regulatory cellular components distinct from those of n-chimaerin in signalling pathways.
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Autophosphorylated growth factor receptors provide binding sites for the src homology 2 domains of intracellular signaling molecules. In response to epidermal growth factor (EGF), the activated EGF receptor binds to a complex containing the signaling protein GRB2 and the Ras guanine nucleotide-releasing factor Sos, leading to activation of the Ras signaling pathway. We have investigated whether the platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptor binds GRB2-Sos. In contrast with the EGF receptor, the GRB2 does not bind to the PDGF receptor directly. Instead, PDGF stimulation induces the formation of a complex containing GRB2; 70-, 80-, and 110-kDa tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins; and the PDGF receptor. Moreover, GRB2 binds directly to the 70-kDa protein but not to the PDGF receptor. Using a panel of PDGF beta-receptor mutants with altered tyrosine phosphorylation sites, we identified Tyr-1009 in the PDGF receptor as required for GRB2 binding. Binding is inhibited by a phosphopeptide containing a YXNX motif. The protein tyrosine phosphatase Syp/PTP1D/SHPTP2/PTP2C is approximately 70 kDa, binds to the PDGF receptor via Tyr-1009, and contains several YXNX sequences. We found that the 70-kDa protein that binds to the PDGF receptor and to GRB2 comigrates with Syp and is recognized by anti-Syp antibodies. Furthermore, both GRB2 and Sos coimmunoprecipitate with Syp from lysates of PDGF-stimulated cells, and GRB2 binds directly to tyrosine-phosphorylated Syp in vitro. These results indicate that GRB2 interacts with different growth factor receptors by different mechanisms and the cytoplasmic phosphotyrosine phosphatase Syp acts as an adapter between the PDGF receptor and the GRB2-Sos complex.
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Meltrin α/ADAM12 is a member of the ADAM/MDC family proteins characterized by the presence of metalloprotease and disintegrin domains. This protein also contains a single transmembrane domain and a relatively long cytoplasmic domain containing several proline-rich sequences. These sequences are compatible with the consensus sequences for binding the Src homology 3 (SH3) domains. To determine whether the proline-rich sequences interact with SH3 domains in several proteins, binding of recombinant SH3 domains to the meltrin α cytoplasmic domain was analysed by pull-down assays. The SH3 domains of Src and Yes bound strongly, but that of Abl or phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase p85 subunit did not. Full-length Grb2/Ash bound strongly, whereas its N-terminal SH3 domain alone did less strongly. Src and Grb2 in bovine brain extracts also bound to meltrin α cytoplasmic domain on affinity resin. Furthermore, immunoprecipitation with a monoclonal antibody to meltrin α resulted in coprecipitation of Src and Grb2 with meltrin α in cell extracts, suggesting that Src and Grb2 are associated in vivo with meltrin α cytoplasmic domain. This notion was also supported by the findings that exogenously expressed meltrin α cytoplasmic domain coexisted with Src and Grb2 on the membrane ruffles. The C-terminal Tyr901 of meltrin α was phosphorylated both in vitro and in cultured cells by v-Src. These results may imply that meltrin α cytoplasmic domain is involved in a signal transduction for some biological function through the interaction with SH3-containing proteins.
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Natural analogues (D, C2, and VII) of actinomycin inhibit Grb2 SH2 domain binding with phosphopeptide-derived from Shc in vitro and in intracellular system. To study structure–activity relationships, 13 actinomycin analogues were synthesized and we found that the inhibition activity depended on the substituents of cyclic peptide groups in actinomycin and two analogues with Tyr residue are the most potent inhibitors with IC50 value of 0.5 and 0.8 μM, respectively.
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The vav proto-oncogene product (Vav) is expressed exclusively in hematopoietic cells and is reported to have guanine nucleotide exchange activity. Here we report that granulocyte-macrophage colonystimulating factor, interleukin-3, and erythropoietin induce tyrosine phosphorylation of Vav in a human leukemia cell line UT-7. Tyrosine phosphorylation of Vav is rapid and transient; it occurs within 1 min of the stimulation and at physiological concentrations of the factors. Furthermore, we show that Vav is constitutively associated with the adapter molecule Grb2/Ash in UT-7. These data suggest that tryosine kinases, the adapter Grb2/Ash, and the guanine nucleotide exchange factor Vav are members of a signaling pathway leading to Ras activation in hematopoietic cells.
Chapter
The human CRK protein consists of an SH2 region that binds to phosphotyrosine-containing peptides and an SH3 region which associates with cellular factors to modulate transformation. The microinjection of CRK protein induced neurite formation in PC12, a rat pheochromocytoma cell line. This activity was abolished by mutation of the CRK protein at either SH2 or SH3, and was suppressed by monoclonal antibodies against CRK SH2 or p21ras. This set of observations suggests that both the SH2 and the SH3 domains of human CRK protein are required for neuronal differentiation of PC12 cells, and that they function upstream of Ras. In addition, from the search for proteins that bind to the SH3 domain of CRK and activate Ras, we identified a new guanine nucleotide-releasing protein which was designated C3G. The nucleotide sequence of the 4.1-kb C3G cDNA contains a 3.2-kb open reading frame that encodes a 121-kDa protein. The mRNAs of both the C3G and the CRK proteins are expressed ubiquitously in adult and fetal human tissues. The overall results of this investigation suggest that the complex of CRK and C3G may transduce signals from tyrosine kinases to Ras in a number of different tissues.
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The activation of protein tyrosine kinases is a critical event in T cell antigen receptor (TCR)-mediated signaling. One substrate of the TCR-activated protein tyrosine kinase pathway is a 76-kDa protein (pp76) that associates with the adaptor protein Grb2. In this report we describe the purification of pp76 and the molecular cloning of its cDNA, which encodes a novel 533-amino acid protein with a single carboxyl-terminal Src homology 2 (SH2) domain. Although no recognizable motifs related to tyrosine, serine/threonine, or lipid kinase domains are present in the predicted amino acid sequence, it contains several potential motifs recognized by SH2 and SH3 domains. A cDNA encoding the murine homologue of pp76 was also isolated and predicts a protein with 84% amino acid identity to human pp76. Northern analysis demonstrates that pp76 mRNA is expressed solely in peripheral blood leukocytes, thymus, and spleen; and in human T cell, B cell and monocytic cell lines. In vitro translation of pp76 cDNA gives rise to a single product of 76 kDa that associates with a GST/Grb2 fusion protein, demonstrating a direct association between these two molecules. Additionally, a GST fusion protein consisting of the predicted SH2 domain of pp76 precipitates two tyrosine phosphoproteins from Jurkat cell lysates, and antiserum directed against phospholipase C-1 coprecipitates a tyrosine phosphoprotein with an electrophoretic mobility identical to that of pp76. These results demonstrate that this novel protein, which we term SLP-76 (SH2 domain-containing Leukocyte Protein of 76 kDa), is likely to play an important role in TCR-mediated intracellular signal transduction.
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p130 is a major tyrosine-phosphorylated protein that tightly binds v-Crk in v-crk-transformed cells and v-Src in v-src-transformed cells. The “substrate domain” of p130 contains 15 possible Src homology (SH) 2-binding motifs, most of which conform to the binding motif for the Crk SH2 domain. Another region near its C terminus contains possible binding motifs for the Src SH2 domain and proline-rich sequences that are candidates for SH3-binding sites. Using GST fusion proteins, we revealed that both SH2 and SH3 domains of Src bind p130, whereas v-Crk binds p130 through its SH2 domain. We located the binding site of p130 for the Src SH3 domain at the sequence RPLPSPP in the region near its C terminus. Mutations within this sequence or at Tyr of p130 caused a significant reduction in the association of p130 with Src, and no association was detected when both of them were deleted. The kinase activity in v-Crk-transformed cells was also associated with p130 through this region. On the other hand, the deletion of the substrate domain abolished the binding with v-Crk. The association through the C-terminal region of p130 with Src kinase may facilitate effective hyperphosphorylation of tyrosine residues in the substrate domain of p130, resulting in the binding of SH2-containing molecules to p130.
Article
Shc proteins are phosphorylated on tyrosine residues and associate with growth factor receptor-bound protein 2 (Grb2) upon treatment of cells with epidermal growth factor (EGF) or insulin. We have studied the role of Shc in insulin- and EGF-induced activation of p21ras in NIH 3T3 cells overexpressing human insulin receptors (A14 cells). A14 cells are equally responsive to insulin and EGF with respect to activation of p21ras. Analysis of Shc immunoprecipitates revealed that (i) both insulin and EGF treatment resulted in Shc tyrosine phosphorylation and (ii) Shc antibodies coimmunoprecipitated both Grb2 and mSOS after insulin and EGF treatment. The induction of tyrosine phosphorylation of Shc and the presence of Grb2 and mSOS in Shc immunoprecipitates followed similar time courses, with somewhat higher levels after EGF treatment. In mSOS immunoprecipitates, Shc could be detected as well. Furthermore, Shc immune complexes contained guanine nucleotide exchange activity toward p21ras in vitro. From these results, we conclude that after insulin and EGF treatment, Shc associates with both Grb2 and mSOS and therefore may mediate, at least in part, insulin- and EGF-induced activation of p21ras. In addition, we investigated whether the Grb2-mSOS complex associates with the insulin receptor or with insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1). Although we observed association of Grb2 with IRS1, we did not detect complex formation between mSOS and IRS1 in experiments in which the association of mSOS with Shc was readily detectable. Furthermore, whereas EGF treatment resulted in the association of mSOS with the EGF receptor, insulin treatment did not result in the association of mSOS with the insulin receptor. These results indicate that the association of Grb2-nSOS with Shc may be an important event in insulin-induced, mSOS-mediated activation of p21ras.
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Behavioral hyperresponsiveness entails major changes in neuronal plasticity, such as augmented striatal dopaminergic neurotransmission and changes in neuronal morphology. These two processes may be related via mechanisms involving Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases (CaMK). Dopaminergic regulation of a newly characterized CaMK-like gene, i.e., doublecortin-like kinase (DCLK), has been reported. However, it is not known if and how CaMK-like splice variants of the gene are responsive in behavioral hyperresponsiveness induced by enhanced dopaminergic neurotransmission. We, therefore, measured with quantitative in situ hybridization levels of mRNA encoding the CaMK domain-containing gene product, called DCLK or a CaMK domain-lacking variant called CaMK-related peptide (CARP) in the rat striatum. We have applied three forms of behavioral hyperresponsiveness, viz. administration of selective dopamine agonists to animals with a unilaterally dopamine-depleted striatum and psychomotor sensitization to amphetamine or morphine. DCLK mRNA only showed changes after dopamine depletion, but not after subsequent treatment with dopamine agonists during expression of amphetamine or morphine sensitization. In contrast, CARP mRNA was dramatically increased in the dopamine-depleted striatum after administration of a dopamine D1 agonist. Furthermore, CARP was upregulated and downregulated during expression of amphetamine and morphine sensitization, respectively. CARP is suggested to play a role in morphological plasticity. We, therefore, propose that the observed changes are involved in dopamine-induced changes in striatal neuronal circuitry. A hypothetical model of action of CARP is presented.
Article
Many oncogenes encode protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs). Oncogenic mutations of these genes invariably result in constitutive activation of these PTKs. Autophosphorylation of the PTKs and tyrosine phosphorylation of their cellular substrates are essential events for transmission of the mitogenic signal into cells. The recent discovery of the characteristic amino acid sequences, of thesrc homology domains 2 and 3 (SH2 and SH3), and extensive studies on proteins containing the SH2 and SH3 domains have revealed that protein tyrosine-phosphorylation of PTKs provides phosphotyrosine sites for SH2 binding and allows extracellular signals to be relayed into the nucleus through a chain of protein-protein interactions mediated by the SH2 and SH3 domains. Studies on oncogenes, PTKs and SH2/SH3-containing proteins have made a tremendous contribution to our understanding of the mechanisms for the control of cell growth, oncogenesis, and signal transduction. This review is intended to provide an outline of the most recent progress in the study of signal transduction by PTKs.
Article
Grb2 is an adaptor protein composed of a single SH2 domain flanked by two SH3 domains. Grb2 functions as an important evolutionary conserved link between a variety of cell membrane receptors and the Ras/MAP kinase-signaling cascade. Here, we describe the solution structure of Grb2 as revealed by NMR and small angle X-ray scattering measurements. We demonstrate that Grb2 is a flexible protein in which the C-terminal SH3 domain is connected to the SH2 domain via a flexible linker. This is in contrast to the previously described Grb2 crystal structure, which showed a compact structure with intramolecular contact between two SH3 domains. Binding experiments on Grb2 and peptides containing two different proline-rich sequences indicate that Grb2 adapts the relative position and orientation of the two SH3 domains to bind bivalently to the target peptide sequences.
Article
The vertebrate adapter protein termed Crk was initially identified from the chicken CT10 retrovirus on the basis of its transforming activity (Mayer et al., 1988. Nature 332, 272–275). We have identified a Drosophila protein with homology to vertebrate Crk, termed dCRK, by interaction with the protein encoded by the Drosophila myoblast city (mbc) gene. The dCRK protein has extensive homology to the both the Crk-II form of vertebrate Crk and the Crk-related protein CRKL, and includes one SH2 domain followed by two SH3 domains. A single protein of approx. 37 kDa is detected in extracts from embryos, and Northern analysis revealed a single transcript of 1.3 kb. The dCrk mRNA is abundant throughout embryogenesis, declines during the larval stages, and reappears during pupation. In addition, maternally-provided transcripts have been detected. During embryogenesis, the spatial distribution of this transcript is relatively broad and appears to include all germ layers. Finally, dCrk is located on the fourth chromosome, approximately at cytological position 101F-102A.
Article
PDGF and FGF receptors are closely related receptor tyrosine kinases that initiate complex signaling cascades after binding of their cognate polypeptide ligands. The distribution of these receptors in embryonic and adult tissues as well as the cellular responses engendered after receptor activation suggests important functions in embryonic development with more limited roles in adults. The development and progression of pathophysiologic states such as atherosclerosis and neoplastic diseases are likely mediated in part by inappropriate expression and signal transduction via FGF and PDGF receptors. Expanding knowledge of mechanisms of signal transduction downstream of activated PDGF and FGF receptors provides the basis for development of new therapeutic agents.
Article
The cellular homologs of the v-Crk oncogene product are composed exclusively of Src homology region 2 (SH2) and SH3 domains. v-Crk overexpression in fibroblasts causes cell transformation and elevated tyrosine phosphorylation of specific cellular proteins. Among these proteins is a 130-kDa protein, identified as p130cas, that forms a stable complex in vivo with v-Crk. We have explored the role of endogenous Crk proteins in Bcr-Abl-transformed cells. In the K562 human chronic myelogenous leukemia cell line, p130cas is not tyrosine phosphorylated or bound to Crk. Instead, Crk proteins predominantly associate with the tyrosine-phosphorylated proto-oncogene product of Cbl. In vitro analysis showed that this interaction is mediated by the SH2 domain of Crk and can be inhibited with a phosphopeptide containing the Crk-SH2 binding motif. In NIH 3T3 cells transformed by Bcr-Abl, c-Cbl becomes strongly tyrosine phosphorylated and associates with c-Crk. The complex between c-Crk and c-Cbl is also seen upon T-cell receptor cross-linking or with the transforming, tyrosine-phosphorylated c-Cbl. These results indicate that Crk binds to c-Cbl in a tyrosine phosphorylation-dependent manner, suggesting a physiological role for the Crk-c-Cbl complex in Bcr-Abl tyrosine phosphorylation-mediated transformation.
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Autophosphorylation of receptor tyrosine kinases provides binding sites for signaling proteins containing Src homology 2 (SH2) domains. We determined the binding sites of Shc, SH2-containing adaptor protein, within epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptors, using Chinese hamster ovary cells overexpressing EGF receptor mutants in which autophosphorylation sites, either alone or in combination, were replaced by phenylalanine. Binding of Shc to EGF receptor mutants lacking single tyrosine residues at 1148 or 1173 decreased by approximately 60 or approximately 15%, respectively, whereas other single point mutants bound the wild-type level of Shc. Binding of Shc markedly decreased in mutants lacking both tyrosine residues at 1148 and 1173. In peptide inhibition assay, phosphorylated nonameric peptide representing tyrosine 1148, DNPDpYQQDF, but not pentameric peptide, pYQQDF, inhibited the binding of glutathione S-transferase-Shc SH2 domain fusion protein to in vitro autophosphorylated EGF receptors, suggesting that N-terminal sequences adjacent to phosphotyrosine are necessary for the association of Shc. Based on results of peptide inhibition assays in which phosphorylated peptides representing tyrosines 992, 1148, and 1173 inhibited Shc binding to the receptor, we constructed another EGF receptor mutant in which one of these tyrosine residues was retained. The amount of Shc bound to mutant receptors retaining tyrosines 1148, 1173, or 992 was approximately 80, approximately 40, or approximately 10% of wild-type level, respectively. These results indicate that tyrosine 1148 of activated human EGF receptors is a major binding site of Shc and tyrosine 1173 is a secondary binding site in intact cells.
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The proto-oncogene product, Cbl, is a 120-kDa protein present in lymphocytes that contains numerous PXXP motifs in its COOH-terminal region and constitutively binds the SH3-containing adaptor protein Grb2. Cross-linking of CD3 and CD4 receptors in Jurkat T cells causes tyrosine phosphorylation of Cbl and its association with phosphatidylinositol 3′-kinase (Meisner, H., Conway, B., Hartley, D., and Czech, M. P.(1995) Mol. Cell. Biol. 15, 3571-3578). Here we demonstrate that Cbl is also present in nonlymphoid cells, and that epidermal growth factor (EGF) elicits its rapid tyrosine phosphorylation in human embryonic 293 cells. Immunoprecipitates of Cbl from lysates of these cells contain Grb2 in the basal state, while EGF stimulation causes co-precipitation of tyrosine-phosphorylated EGF receptors. Similarly, EGF receptor immunoprecipitates from EGF-treated 293 cells contain Cbl and Grb2. Both Grb2 and EGF receptors are released from Cbl in the presence of a proline-rich peptide that binds the NH-terminal SH3 domain of Grb2. These results indicate that autophosphorylated EGF receptors associate with the SH2 domain of Grb2, which is complexed through its SH3 domain with proline-rich regions of Cbl. Such recruitment of Cbl to EGF receptors may reflect an important mechanism for its tyrosine phosphorylation and for assembling signaling components that mediate or modulate EGF actions.
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We obtained three types of cDNA clones homologous to Ash/Grb2(Ash-l) cDNA from rats. One of these clones, Ash-, was an unusual transcribed gene having 93% identity in the nucleotide sequence to Ash-l. The other two clones, Ash-m and -s, had nucleotide sequences identical with Ash-l cDNA in the amino-terminal region. The coding sequence of Ash-m cDNA is 42 nucleotides shorter than that of Ash-l cDNA. The defective region of Ash-m cDNA encodes 14 amino acid residues (157 to 170 of Ash-l), which comprise the most conserved region of the second SH3 domain. On the other hand, the coding sequence of Ash-s terminated at the end of the first SH3 domain due to a stop codon at the boundary of the sequence, thereby differing from Ash-l cDNA. Cloning of the genomic DNA of the Ash-l-encoding gene, determination of the gene organization, and nucleotide sequencing revealed that the two isoforms, as well as Ash-l, are generated from a single gene by unusual alternative splicings. The gene spans more than 16 kilobases and contains 6 exons and 5 introns. Ash-m and Ash-s mRNAs were detected in various tissues by reverse-transcribed polymerase chain reaction. Ash-m physically associated with dynamin, but the association with Sos was less effective than that of Ash-l in rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cell lysates, irrespective of treatment with nerve growth factor. In contrast, Ash-s formed a complex with dynamin and Sos in cell lysates. Moreover, the newly formed carboxyl-terminal SH3 of Ash-m by splicing bound different proteins from those bound to the carboxyl-terminal SH3 domain of Ash-l, suggesting that Ash-m generates different signals. Microinjection of Ash-m or Ash-s into Balb/c 3T3 cells inhibited DNA synthesis induced by platelet-derived growth factor. These results show that these isoforms act as dominant negative regulators of mitogenic signals by Ash-l.
Article
BCR-ABL is a chimeric oncoprotein that exhibits deregulated tyrosine kinase activity and is implicated in the pathogenesis of Philadelphia chromosome (Ph1)-positive human leukemias. Sequences within the first exon of BCR are required to activate the transforming potential of BCR-ABL. The SH2/SH3 domain-containing GRB-2 protein links tyrosine kinases to Ras signaling. We demonstrate that BCR-ABL exists in a complex with GRB-2 in vivo. Binding of GRB-2 to BCR-ABL is mediated by the direct interaction of the GRB-2 SH2 domain with a phosphorylated tyrosine, Y177, within the BCR first exon. The BCR-ABL-GRB-2 interaction is required for activation of the Ras signaling pathway. Mutation of Y177 to phenylalanine (Y177F) abolishes GRB-2 binding and abrogates BCR-ABL-induced Ras activation. The BCR-ABL (Y177F) mutant is unable to transform primary bone marrow cultures and is impaired in its ability to transform Rat1 fibroblasts. These findings implicate activation of Ras function as an important component in BCR-ABL-mediated transformation and demonstrate that GRB-2 not only functions in normal development and mitogenesis but also plays a role in oncogenesis.
Article
There have been a few descriptive studies in aged rodents about transcriptome changes in the hippocampus, most of them in males. Here, we assessed the age changes in spatial memory performance and hippocampal morphology in female rats and compared those changes with changes in the hippocampal transcriptome. Old rats displayed significant deficits in spatial memory. In both age groups, hole exploration frequency showed a clear peak at hole 0 (escape hole), but the amplitude of the peak was significantly higher in the young than in the old animals. In the hippocampus, there was a dramatic reduction in neurogenesis, whereas reactive microglial infiltrates revealed an inflammatory hippocampal state in the senile rats. Hippocampal RNA-sequencing showed that 210 genes are differentially expressed in the senile rats, most of them being downregulated. Our RNA-Seq data showed that various genes involved in the immune response, including TYROBP, CD11b, C3, CD18, CD4, and CD74, are overexpressed in the hippocampus of aged female rats. Enrichment analysis showed that the pathways overrepresented in the senile rats matched those of an exacerbated inflammatory environment, reinforcing our morphologic findings. After correlating our results with public data of human and mouse hippocampal gene expression, we found an 11-gene signature of overexpressed genes related to inflammatory processes that was conserved across species. We conclude that age-related hippocampal deficits in female rats share commonalities between human and rodents. Interestingly, the 11-gene signature that we identified may represent a cluster of immune and regulatory genes that are deregulated in the hippocampus and possibly other brain regions during aging as well as in some neurodegenerative diseases and low-grade brain tumors. Our study further supports neuroinflammation as a promising target to treat cognitive dysfunction in old individuals and some brain tumors.
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Adaptor proteins are key regulators of intracellular signaling. Many aspects of their functions have been elucidated and the structures of many members of this family of proteins have been resolved. The adaptor protein Grb2 is a critical component of the cell signaling machinery that is deregulated in several pathological processes, including cancer. A plurality of interactions make Grb2 an important cellular hub linking activated cell surface receptors to downstream targets by binding to specific phosphotyrosine-containing and proline-rich sequence motifs. Its critical roles in epithelial morphogenesis and in processes such as proliferation, actin-based cell motility, invasion, and angiogenesis make it a logical therapeutic target for several pathological processes, including human cancer. In this chapter Grb2 will be used as a paradigm to illustrate how adaptor proteins are involved in cancer and how it is possible to selectively target adaptor proteins for cancer therapy.
Chapter
p21ras is a small GTPase that functions as a molecular switch in signal transduction from activated receptor tyrosine kinases to cellular targets. Recently, progress has been made in the elucidation of this signaling pathway. After a ligand binds to most, if not all, receptor tyrosine kinases, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor is activated, which brings p21ras in the GTP-bound form. This GTP-bound form of p21ras interacts with the protein kinase raf1 and induces the activation of a kinase cascade involving MEK and ERKs. Subsequently, cellular targets are phosphorylated. This p21ras signaling pathway is modulated by protein kinase C, which activates raf1 in a p21ras independent manner and, in certain cell types, by protein kinase A, which inactivates raf1.
Article
Protein enhancer of sevenless 2B, E(sev)2B, is a key adapter protein in the Ras/MAPK signaling pathway which has been reported to be involved in innate immunity. In this study, the gene that encodes AsE(sev)2B was isolated from A. sinica. It was found to contain a 636 bp open reading frame encoding 211 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 24.357 kDa and a predicted isoelectric point of 5.39. The predicted protein contains a N-terminal Src homology 3 domain (SH3), a central Src homology 2 domain (SH2), and a C-terminal Src homology 3 domain (SH3). Homology analysis revealed that AsE(sev)2B shares 49%–95% identity with E(sev)2B homologs from other species. In this study, the expression pattern and location of AsE(sev)2B during different stages of embryonic development and bacterial challenge were investigated by means of real-time qPCR, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Results showed that the highest expression level of AsE(sev)2B was at 0 h. After challenged by Gram-positive bacteria and Gram-negative bacteria, AsE(sev)2B was remarkably upregulated at 10 ⁶ cellsL ⁻¹ bacterial concentrations. These results suggested that AsE(sev)2B plays a vital role during early embryonic development and in immune responses against bacterial challenge.
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Shc protein is tyrosine phosphorylated upon B cell receptor (BCR) activation and after its phosphorylation interacts with the adaptor protein Grb2. In turn, Grb2 interacts with the guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Ras, mSOS. Several protein-tyrosine kinases (PTKs) participate in BCR signaling. However, it is not clear which PTK is involved in the phosphorylation of Shc, resulting in coupling to the Ras pathway. Tyrosine phosphorylation of Shc and its association with Grb2 were profoundly reduced in both Lyn- and Syk-deficient B cells upon BCR stimulation. Furthermore, kinase activity of these PTKs was required for phosphorylation of Shc. Shc interacted with Syk in B cells. This interaction and the requirement of Syk kinase activity for phosphorylation of Shc were also demonstrated by cotransfection in COS cells. Because Lyn is required for activation of Syk upon receptor stimulation, our results suggest that the Lyn-activated Syk phosphorylates Shc during BCR signaling.
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Regulation of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase by thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) in GH3 rat pituitary tumor cells was investigated. Both TRH and epidermal growth factor (EGF) acutely activated this enzyme, via tyrosine and serine/threonine phosphorylation. Down-regulation of cellular protein kinase C (PKC) only partly inhibited the phosphorylation of MAP kinase by TRH, suggesting both PKC-dependent and -independent pathways. Both TRH and EGF similarly increased the phosphorylation of raf-1, by a PKC-independent mechanism. Both TRH and EGF stimulated the formation of a ras-GTP complex. This activation of ras by growth factors is thought to involve the tyrosine phosphorylation of Shc. EGF stimulated the tyrosine phosphorylation of three Shc proteins and their subsequent association with its receptor. TRH stimulated the tyrosine phosphorylation of the 52-kDa Shc protein, although neither phorbol esters nor the calcium ionophore A23187 had any effect, indicating that this effect of TRH was not dependent on PKC. Both TRH and EGF induced the association of tyrosine phosphorylated Shc proteins with a fusion protein containing SH2 and SH3 domains of Grb2, another important component in ras activation. These results provide evidence that MAP kinase is acutely activated by TRH through a PKC-dependent pathway as well as a second pathway possibly involving tyrosine phosphorylation.
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Shear stress, the tangential component of hemodynamic forces, activates the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) signal transduction pathways in cultured vascular endothelial cells to induce the transcriptional activation of many immediate early genes. It appears that integrins, protein-tyrosine kinases, and the structural integrity of actin are important factors involved in these shear stress-induced responses. The underlying molecular events were investigated by the application of a shear stress of 12 dyn/cm(2) on bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC), We found that such a shear stress increased the tyrosine phosphorylation and the kinase activity of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and its association with growth factor receptor binding protein 2 (Grb2) in a rapid and transient manner, suggesting that FAK may be linked to these mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways through a Grb2.Son of sevenless (Sos) complex, FAK(F397Y), which encodes a dominant negative mutant of FAK, attenuated the shear stress-induced kinase activity of Myc epitope-tagged ERK2 and hemagglutinin epitope-tagged JNK1. Delta mSos1, encoding a dominant negative mutant of Sos in which the guanine nucleotide exchange domain has been deleted, also attenuated shear stress activation of Myc-ERK2 and hemagglutinin-JNK1, Pretreating the confluent BAEC monolayers with a blocking type antivitronectin receptor monoclonal antibody had similar inhibitory effects in these shear stress-activated ERKs and JNKs. Confocal microscopic observation further demonstrated that FAK tended to cluster with vitronectin receptor near the abluminal side of the sheared BAEC. These results demonstrate that FAK signaling is critical in the shear stress-induced dual activation of ERK and JNK.
Article
Human CRK protein is a homolog of the chicken v-crk oncogene product and consists mostly of src homology region 2 (SH2) and SH3, which are shared by many proteins, in particular those involved in signal transduction. SH2 has been shown to bind specifically to phosphotyrosine-containing peptides. We report here that both SH2 and SH3 are required for signaling from CRK protein. Microinjection of the CRK protein induced neurite formation of rat pheochromocytoma cell line PC12. This activity was abolished by mutation of the CRK protein in either SH2 or SH3. The neuronal differentiation induced by the CRK protein was blocked by an excess amount of peptides containing CRK SH3. Moreover, we identified three proteins, of 118, 125, and 136 kDa, which bound specifically to CRK SH3. The CRK-induced neuronal differentiation was also suppressed by monoclonal antibodies against either CRK SH2 or p21ras. These results suggest that both SH2 and SH3 of the CRK protein mediate specific protein-protein binding and that the resulting multimolecular complex generates a signal for neurite differentiation through activation of p21ras.
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Computer-assisted simulation is a promising approach for clarifying complicated signaling networks. However, this approach is currently limited by a deficiency of kinetic parameters determined in living cells. To overcome this problem, we applied fluorescence cross-correlation spectrometry (FCCS) to measure dissociation constant (Kd) values of signaling molecule complexes in living cells (in vivo Kd). Among the pairs of fluorescent molecules tested, that of monomerized enhanced green fluorescent protein (mEGFP) and HaloTag-tetramethylrhodamine was most suitable for the measurement of in vivo Kd by FCCS. Using this pair, we determined 22 in vivo Kd values of signaling molecule complexes comprising the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)–Ras–extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathway. With these parameters, we developed a kinetic simulation model of the EGFR-Ras-ERK MAP kinase pathway and uncovered a potential role played by stoichiometry in Shc binding to EGFR during the peak activations of Ras, MEK, and ERK. Intriguingly, most of the in vivo Kd values determined in this study were higher than the in vitro Kd values reported previously, suggesting the significance of competitive bindings inside cells. These in vivo Kd values will provide a sound basis for the quantitative understanding of signal transduction.
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An RT-PCR analysis was performed to examine changes in intracellular signal transducing molecules during in-vitro aging of human fibroblasts. Expression of Nck, c-Crk, Grb2/Ash, phosphoinositide (PI) 3-kinase p110α and Werner's syndrome gene product WRN was noticeably reduced in late passage cells, showing a concurrent downregulation of a set of signaling molecules accompanying aging.
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The cellular homologs of the v-Crk oncogene product consist primarily of Src homology region 2 (SH2)¹ and 3 (SH3) domains. v-Crk overexpression causes cell transformation and elevation of tyrosine phosphorylation in fibroblasts and accelerates differentiation of PC-12 cells in response to nerve growth factor (NGF). To further explore the role of Crk in NGF-induced PC-12 cell differentiation, we found that both NGF and epidermal growth factor stimulate the tyrosine phosphorylation of endogenous Crk II. Moreover, hormone stimulation enhanced the specific association of Crk proteins with the tyrosine-phosphorylated p130, the major phosphotyrosine-containing protein in cells transformed with v-Crk. This interaction is mediated by the SH2 domain of Crk and can be inhibited with a phosphopeptide containing the Crk-SH2 binding motif. Furthermore, the Crk-SH2 domain binds tyrosine-phosphorylated paxillin, a cytoskeletal protein, following treatment of PC-12 cells with NGF or epidermal growth factor. These data suggest that Crk functions in a number of signaling processes in PC-12 cells.
Article
We report the isolation and molecular characterization of the mouse grb2 gene. The product of this gene, the Grb2 protein, is highly related to the Caenorhabditis elegans sem-5 gene product and the human GRB2 protein and displays the same SH3-SH2-SH3 structural motifs. In situ hybridization studies revealed that the mouse grb2 gene is widely expressed throughout embryonic development (E9.5 to P0). However, grb2 transcripts are not uniformly distributed, and in certain tissues (e.g., thymus) they appear to be regulated during development. Recent genetic and biochemical evidence has implicated the Grb2 protein in the signaling pathways that link cell surface tyrosine kinase receptors with Ras. We have investigated the association of the Grb2 protein with epidermal growth factor (EGF) and nerve growth factor (NGF) receptors in PC12 pheochromocytoma cells. EGF treatment of PC12 cells results in the rapid association of Grb2 with the activated EGF receptors, an interaction mediated by the Grb2 SH2 domain. However, Grb2 does not bind to NGF-activated Trk receptors. Mitogenic signaling of NGF in NIH 3T3 cells ectopically expressing Trk receptors also takes place without detectable association between Grb2 and Trk. These results suggest that whereas EGF and NGF can activate the Ras signaling pathway in PC12 cells, only the EGF receptor is likely to do so through a direct interaction with Grb2. Finally, binding studies with glutathione S-transferase fusion proteins indicate that Grb2 binds two distinct subsets of proteins which are individually recognized by its SH2 and SH3 domains. These observations add further support to the concept that Grb2 is a modular adaptor protein.
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A lambda Insertion type cDNA cloning vector, Lambda ZAP, has been constructed. In E. coli a phagemid, pBluescript SK(−), contained within the vector, can be excised by 11 or M13 helper phage. The excision process elimlnates the need to subclone DNA inserts from the lambda phage into a plasmid by restriction digestion and ligation. This is possible because Lambda ZAP incorporates the signals for both initiation and termination of DNA synthesis from the 11 bacteriophage origin of replication (1). Six of 21 restriction sites In the excised pBluescript SK polylinker, contained within the NH2-portion of the lacZ gene, are unique in lambda ZAP. Coding sequences inserted into these restriction sites, in the appropriate reading frame, can be expressed from the lacZ promoter as fusion proteins. The features of this vector significantly increase the rate at which clones can be isolated and analyzed. The lambda ZAP vector was tested by the preparation of a chicken liver cDNA Hbrary and the isolatlon of actin clones by screening with oligonucleotide probes. Putative actin clones were excised from the lambda vector and Identified by DNA sequencing. The ability of lambda ZAP to serve as a vector for the construction of cDNA expression libraries was determined by detecting fusion proteins from clones containing glucocerbrosidase cDNA's using rabbit IgG anti-glucocerbrosidase antibodies.
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The phosphorylation of proteins at tyrosine residues is critical in cellular signal transduction, neoplastic transformation and control of the mitotic cycle. These mechanisms are regulated by the activities of both protein-tyrosine kinases (PTKs) and protein-tyrosine phosphatases (PTPases). As in the PTKs, there are two classes of PTPases: membrane associated, receptor-like enzymes and soluble proteins. Here we report the isolation of a complementary DNA clone encoding a new form of soluble PTPase, PTP1C. The enzyme possesses a large noncatalytic region at the N terminus which unexpectedly contains two adjacent copies of the Src homology region 2 (the SH2 domain) found in various nonreceptor PTKs and other cytoplasmic signalling proteins. As with other SH2 sequences, the SH2 domains of PTP1C formed high-affinity complexes with the activated epidermal growth factor receptor and other phosphotyrosine-containing proteins. These results suggest that the SH2 regions in PTP1C may interact with other cellular components to modulate its own phosphatase activity against interacting substrates. PTPase activity may thus directly link growth factor receptors and other signalling proteins through protein-tyrosine phosphorylation.
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GTPase-activating protein (GAP) enhances the rate of GTP hydrolysis by cellular Ras proteins and is implicated in mitogenic signal transduction. GAP is phosphorylated on tyrosine in cells transformed by Rous sarcoma virus and serves as an in vitro substrate of the viral Src (v-Src) kinase. Our previous studies showed that GAP complexes stably with normal cellular Src (c-Src), although its association with v-Src is less stable. To further investigate the molecular basis for interactions between GAP and the Src kinases, we examined GAP association with and phosphorylation by a series of c-Src and v-Src mutants. Analysis of GAP association with c-Src/v-Src chimeric proteins demonstrates that GAP associates stably with Src proteins possessing low kinase activity and poorly with activated Src kinases, especially those that lack the carboxy-terminal segment of c-Src containing the regulatory amino acid Tyr-527. Phosphorylated Tyr-527 is a major determinant of c-Src association with GAP, as demonstrated by c-Src point mutants in which Tyr-527 is changed to Phe. While the isolated amino-terminal half of the c-Src protein is insufficient for stable GAP association, analysis of point substitutions of highly conserved amino acid residues in the c-Src SH2 region indicate that this region also influences Src-GAP complex formation. Therefore, our results suggest that both Tyr-527 phosphorylation and the SH2 region contribute to stable association of c-Src with GAP. Analysis of in vivo phosphorylation of GAP by v-Src mutants containing deletions encompassing the SH2, SH3, and unique regions suggests that the kinase domain of v-Src contains sufficient substrate specificity for GAP phosphorylation. Even though tyrosine phosphorylation of GAP correlates to certain extent with the transforming ability of various c-Src and v-Src mutants, our data suggest that other GAP-associated proteins may also have roles in Src-mediated oncogenic transformation. These findings provide additional evidence for the specificity of Src interactions with GAP and support the hypothesis that these interactions contribute to the biological functions of the Scr kinases.
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We have determined the nucleotide sequence coding for the chicken brain alpha-spectrin. It is derived both from the cDNA and genomic sequences, comprises the entire coding frame, 5' and 3' untranslated sequences, and terminates in the poly(A)-tail. The deduced amino acid sequence was used to map the domain structure of the protein. The alpha-chain of brain spectrin contains 22 segments of which 20 correspond to the repeat of the human erythrocyte spectrin (Speicher, D. W., and V. T. Marchesi. 1984. Nature (Lond.). 311:177-180.), typically made of 106 residues. These homologous segments probably account for the flexible, rod-like structure of spectrin. Secondary structure prediction suggests predominantly alpha-helical structure for the entire chain. Parts of the primary structure are excluded from the repetitive pattern and they reside in the middle part of the sequence and in its COOH terminus. Search for homology in other proteins showed the presence of the following distinct structures in these nonrepetitive regions: (a) the COOH-terminal part of the molecule that shows homology with alpha-actinin, (b) two typical EF-hand (i.e., Ca2+-binding) structures in this region, (c) a sequence close to the EF-hand that fulfills the criteria for a calmodulin-binding site, and (d) a domain in the middle of the sequence that is homologous to a NH2-terminal segment of several src-tyrosine kinases and to a domain of phospholipase C. These regions are good candidates to carry some established as well as some yet unestablished functions of spectrin. Comparative analysis showed that alpha-spectrin is well conserved across the species boundaries from Xenopus to man, and that the human erythrocyte alpha-spectrin is divergent from the other spectrins.
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A lambda insertion type cDNA cloning vector, Lambda ZAP, has been constructed. In E. coli a phagemid, pBluescript SK(-), contained within the vector, can be excised by f1 or M13 helper phage. The excision process eliminates the need to subclone DNA inserts from the lambda phage into a plasmid by restriction digestion and ligation. This is possible because Lambda ZAP incorporates the signals for both initiation and termination of DNA synthesis from the f1 bacteriophage origin of replication (1). Six of 21 restriction sites in the excised pBluescript SK polylinker, contained within the NH2-portion of the lacZ gene, are unique in lambda ZAP. Coding sequences inserted into these restriction sites, in the appropriate reading frame, can be expressed from the lacZ promoter as fusion proteins. The features of this vector significantly increase the rate at which clones can be isolated and analyzed. The lambda ZAP vector was tested by the preparation of a chicken liver cDNA library and the isolation of actin clones by screening with oligonucleotide probes. Putative actin clones were excised from the lambda vector and identified by DNA sequencing. The ability of lambda ZAP to serve as a vector for the construction of cDNA expression libraries was determined by detecting fusion proteins from clones containing glucocerbrosidase cDNA's using rabbit IgG anti-glucocerbrosidase antibodies.
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We have determined the nucleotide sequence coding for the chicken brain alpha-spectrin. It is derived both from the cDNA and genomic sequences, comprises the entire coding frame, 5' and 3' untranslated sequences, and terminates in the poly(A)-tail. The deduced amino acid sequence was used to map the domain structure of the protein. The alpha-chain of brain spectrin contains 22 segments of which 20 correspond to the repeat of the human erythrocyte spectrin (Speicher, D. W., and V. T. Marchesi. 1984. Nature (Lond.). 311:177-180.), typically made of 106 residues. These homologous segments probably account for the flexible, rod-like structure of spectrin. Secondary structure prediction suggests predominantly alpha-helical structure for the entire chain. Parts of the primary structure are excluded from the repetitive pattern and they reside in the middle part of the sequence and in its COOH terminus. Search for homology in other proteins showed the presence of the following distinct structures in these nonrepetitive regions: (a) the COOH-terminal part of the molecule that shows homology with alpha-actinin, (b) two typical EF-hand (i.e., Ca2+-binding) structures in this region, (c) a sequence close to the EF-hand that fulfills the criteria for a calmodulin-binding site, and (d) a domain in the middle of the sequence that is homologous to a NH2-terminal segment of several src-tyrosine kinases and to a domain of phospholipase C. These regions are good candidates to carry some established as well as some yet unestablished functions of spectrin. Comparative analysis showed that alpha-spectrin is well conserved across the species boundaries from Xenopus to man, and that the human erythrocyte alpha-spectrin is divergent from the other spectrins.
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Cell lines were established from cultures derived from Fischer rat embryos according to the transfer schedule described by Todaro and Green (1963) for mouse 3T3 cells where cell crowding and serum exhaustion were kept to a minimum. Cell growth rate did not decline greatly during the course of successive 3-day transfers. Like 3T3 cells, the rat cell lines possess very low saturation densities under standard culture conditions. A clonal cell line with a relatively high plating efficiency was obtained from one of the cell lines, 3Y1. In these cloned cultures, virus growth was not detectable upon infection with SV40, while a small amount of virus was produced upon infection with polyoma virus. Morphological transformation of the cloned 3Y1 cells by SV40 and polyoma virus could be assayed with single-hit kinetics and with efficiencies comparable to those of the previously available transformation systems for each virus. Independent cell lines transformed by SV40 were consistently virus-free and all the lines tested produced SV40 upon fusion with permissive monkey cells. Most of the independent transformed cell lines isolated after polyoma infection appeared to be virus-free, although the cultures of some lines produced a small amount of polyoma virus spontaneously after a prolonged cultivation. Most of the virus-free polyoma-transformed lines produced virus upon fusion with permissive mouse cells.
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The induction of the hermaphrodite vulva and the migration of the sex myoblasts in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans are both controlled by intercellular signalling. The gonadal anchor cell induces formation of the vulva from nearby hypodermal cells, and a set of somatic gonadal cells attract the migrating sex myoblasts to their final positions. Many genes required for vulval induction have been identified, including the let-23 receptor tyrosine kinase gene and the let-60 ras gene. We report here the identification and characterization of a new gene, sem-5 (sem, sex muscle abnormal), that acts both in vulval induction and in sex myoblast migration. On the basis of its DNA sequence, sem-5 encodes a novel 228-amino-acid protein which consists almost entirely of one SH2 (SH, src homology region) and two SH3 domains. SH2 and SH3 domains are present in many signalling proteins regulated by receptor and non-receptor tyrosine kinases. Mutations that impair sem-5 activity alter residues that are highly conserved among different SH2 and SH3 domains. Our results indicate that the sem-5 gene encodes a novel protein that functions in at least two distinct cell-signalling processes.
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Protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) represent a diverse family of enzymes that exist as integral membrane and nonreceptor forms. The PTPs, with specific activities in vitro 10 to 1000 times greater than those of the protein tyrosine kinases would be expected to effectively control the amount of phosphotyrosine in the cell. They dephosphorylate tyrosyl residues in vivo and take part in signal transduction and cell cycle regulation. Most of the transmembrane forms, such as the leukocyte common antigen (CD45), contain two conserved intracellular catalytic domains; but their external segments are highly variable. The structural features of the transmembrane forms suggest that these receptor-linked PTPs are capable of transducing external signals; however, the ligands remain unidentified. A hypothesis is proposed explaining how phosphatases might act synergistically with the kinases to elicit a full physiological response, without regard to the state of phosphorylation of the target proteins.
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Phospholipase C-gamma (PLC-gamma) is a substrate of the fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR; encoded by the flg gene) and other receptors with tyrosine kinase activity. It has been demonstrated that the src homology region 2 (SH2 domain) of PLC-gamma and of other signalling molecules such as GTPase-activating protein and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-associated p85 direct their binding toward tyrosine-autophosphorylated regions of the epidermal growth factor or platelet-derived growth factor receptor. In this report, we describe the identification of Tyr-766 as an autophosphorylation site of flg-encoded FGFR by direct sequencing of a tyrosine-phosphorylated tryptic peptide isolated from the cytoplasmic domain of FGFR expressed in Escherichia coli. The same phosphopeptide was found in wild-type FGFR phosphorylated either in vitro or in living cells. Like other growth factor receptors, tyrosine-phosphorylated wild-type FGFR or its cytoplasmic domain becomes associated with intact PLC-gamma or with a fusion protein containing the SH2 domain of PLC-gamma. To delineate the site of association, we have examined the capacity of a 28-amino-acid tryptic peptide containing phosphorylated Tyr-766 to bind to various constructs containing SH2 and other domains of PLC-gamma. It is demonstrated that the tyrosine-phosphorylated peptide binds specifically to the SH2 domain but not to the SH3 domain or other regions of PLC-gamma. Hence, Tyr-766 and its flanking sequences represent a major binding site in FGFR for PLC-gamma. Alignment of the amino acid sequences surrounding Tyr-766 with corresponding regions of other FGFRs revealed conserved tyrosine residues in all known members of the FGFR family. We propose that homologous tyrosine-phosphorylated regions in other FGFRs also function as binding sites for PLC-gamma and therefore are involved in coupling to phosphatidylinositol breakdown.
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Although the oncogene product of CT10 virus, P47gag-crk, does not itself phosphorylate proteins at tyrosine residues, it elevates phosphotyrosine in transformed cells. The P47gag-crk oncoprotein contains SH2 and SH3 domains, which are conserved in several proteins involved in signal transduction, including nonreceptor tyrosine kinases. P47gag-crk bound in vitro to phosphotyrosine-containing proteins from crk-transformed cells and from cells transformed by oncogenic tyrosine kinases. The association between P47gag-crk and p60v-src, a phosphotyrosine-containing protein, was abolished by dephosphorylation of p60v-src. This suggests that the SH2 and SH3 regions function to regulate protein interactions in a phosphotyrosine-dependent manner.
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The molecular cloning of the complementary DNA coding for a 90-kilodalton fragment of tensin, an actin-binding component of focal contacts and other submembraneous cytoskeletal structures, is reported. The derived amino acid sequence revealed the presence of a Src homology 2 (SH2) domain. This domain is shared by a number of signal transduction proteins including nonreceptor tyrosine kinases such as Abl, Fps, Src, and Src family members, the transforming protein Crk, phospholipase C-gamma 1, PI-3 (phosphatidylinositol) kinase, and guanosine triphosphatase-activating protein (GAP). Like the SH2 domain found in Src, Crk, and Abl, the SH2 domain of tensin bound specifically to a number of phosphotyrosine-containing proteins from v-src-transformed cells. Tensin was also found to be phosphorylated on tyrosine residues. These findings suggest that by possessing both actin-binding and phosphotyrosine-binding activities and being itself a target for tyrosine kinases, tensin may link signal transduction pathways with the cytoskeleton.
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Src homology (SH) regions 2 and 3 are noncatalytic domains that are conserved among a series of cytoplasmic signaling proteins regulated by receptor protein-tyrosine kinases, including phospholipase C-gamma, Ras GTPase (guanosine triphosphatase)-activating protein, and Src-like tyrosine kinases. The SH2 domains of these signaling proteins bind tyrosine phosphorylated polypeptides, implicated in normal signaling and cellular transformation. Tyrosine phosphorylation acts as a switch to induce the binding of SH2 domains, thereby mediating the formation of heteromeric protein complexes at or near the plasma membrane. The formation of these complexes is likely to control the activation of signal transduction pathways by tyrosine kinases. The SH3 domain is a distinct motif that, together with SH2, may modulate interactions with the cytoskeleton and membrane. Some signaling and transforming proteins contain SH2 and SH3 domains unattached to any known catalytic element. These noncatalytic proteins may serve as adaptors to link tyrosine kinases to specific target proteins. These observations suggest that SH2 and SH3 domains participate in the control of intracellular responses to growth factor stimulation.
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BCR-ABL is a chimeric oncogene implicated in the pathogenesis of Philadelphia chromosome-positive human leukemias. BCR first exon sequences specifically activate the tyrosine kinase and transforming potential of BCR-ABL. We have tested the hypothesis that activation of BCR-ABL may involve direct interaction between BCR sequences and the tyrosine kinase regulatory domains of ABL. Full-length c-BCR as well as BCR sequences retained in BCR-ABL bind specifically to the SH2 domain of ABL. The binding domain has been localized within the first exon of BCR and consists of at least two SH2-binding sites. This domain is essential for BCR-ABL-mediated transformation. Phosphoserine/phosphothreonine but not phosphotyrosine residues on BCR are required for interaction with the ABL SH2 domain. These findings extend the range of potential SH2-protein interactions in growth control pathways and suggest a function for SH2 domains in the activation of the BCR-ABL oncogene as well as a role for BCR in cellular signaling pathways.
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The SV40 T antigen (T)/adenovirus E1A-binding domain of the retinoblastoma gene product (pRB) has been fused to S. japonicum glutathione S-transferase, and the chimera, bound to insoluble glutathione, was used to search for cellular proteins that can interact specifically with pRB. At least seven such proteins were detected in extracts of multiple human tumor cell lines. These proteins failed to bind to a family of pRB fusion proteins that harbor inactivating mutations in the T/E1A-binding domain and to the wild-type fusion protein in the presence of a peptide replica of the pRB-binding domain of T. Therefore, the binding of one or more of these proteins may contribute to the growth-suppressing function of pRB.
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Numerous oncogenes have been isolated from acutely transforming retroviruses. To date, the products of these viral oncogenes have been protein kinases, nuclear proteins, growth factors, or GTP-binding proteins. We have cloned the previously uncharacterized avian sarcoma virus CT10 and sequenced its genome. This virus encodes a protein, p47gag-crk, that has blocks of sequence similarity to the amino-terminal, non-catalytic region of the non-receptor class of tyrosine kinases. In addition, the structure of p47gag-crk has striking similarity to a 180-amino acid region of bovine brain phospholipase C. Biochemical data suggest that p47gag-crk activates one or several endogenous tyrosine kinases.
Article
The production of the second messenger molecules diacylglycerol and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate is mediated by activated phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PLC) enzymes. Here we report the cloning of a bovine brain complementary DNA encoding an enzyme PLC-148 that is characterized by calcium-dependent and phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C activity when expressed in mammalian cells. Bovine brain messenger RNA contains a 7.5-kilobase transcript corresponding to the isolated cDNA; a related transcript of the same size is present in mRNA from some but not all human cell lines tested. Southern blot analysis of the bovine genome indicated that one or possibly two genes hybridize to the cloned PLC-148 cDNA. There is a striking sequence similarity between specific regions of PLC-148 and the non-catalytic domain of the non-receptor tyrosine kinases. The newly characterized crk transforming gene of the avian sarcoma virus CT10 also contains extensive sequence similarities with PLC-148.
Article
The plasma membrane-bound mammalian ras proteins of relative molecular mass 21,000 (ras p21) share biochemical and structural properties with other guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory proteins (G-proteins). Oncogenic ras p21 variants result from amino acid substitutions at specific positions that cause p21 to occur predominantly complexed to GTP in vivo. Recently, a GTPase activating protein (GAP) with cytosolic activity has been discovered that stimulates the GTPase activity of normal but not of oncogenic ras p21. GAP might be either a negative regulatory agent which acts further upstream in the regulatory pathway or the downstream target of ras p21. We have identified a protein from bovine brain with apparent relative molecular mass 125,000 that has GAP activity. Here, using pure GAP in a kinetic competition assay, we show that GAP interacts preferentially with the active GTP complexes of both normal and oncogenic Harvey (Ha) ras p21 compared with the inactive GDP complexes. We also report the cloning and sequencing of the complementary DNA for bovine GAP. Regions of GAP share amino acid similarity with the noncatalytic domain of adenylate cyclase from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and with regions conserved between phospholipase C-148, the crk oncogene product and the nonreceptor tyrosine kinases.
Article
Proteins encoded by oncogenes such as v-fps/fes, v-src, v-yes, v-abl, and v-fgr are cytoplasmic protein tyrosine kinases which, unlike transmembrane receptors, are localized to the inside of the cell. These proteins possess two contiguous regions of sequence identity: a C-terminal catalytic domain of 260 residues with homology to other tyrosine-specific and serine-threonine-specific protein kinases, and a unique domain of approximately 100 residues which is located N terminal to the kinase region and is absent from kinases that span the plasma membrane. In-frame linker insertion mutations in Fujinami avian sarcoma virus which introduced dipeptide insertions into the most stringently conserved segment of this N-terminal domain in P130gag-fps impaired the ability of Fujinami avian sarcoma virus to transform rat-2 cells. The P130gag-fps proteins encoded by these transformation-defective mutants were deficient in protein-tyrosine kinase activity in rat cells. However v-fps polypeptides derived from the mutant Fujinami avian sarcoma virus genomes and expressed in Escherichia coli as trpE-v-fps fusion proteins displayed essentially wild-type enzymatic activity, even though they contained the mutated sites. Deletion of the N-terminal domain from wild-type and mutant v-fps bacterial proteins had little effect on autophosphorylating activity. The conserved N-terminal domain of P130gag-fps is therefore not required for catalytic activity, but can profoundly influence the adjacent kinase region. The presence of this noncatalytic domain in all known cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases of higher and lower eucaryotes argues for an important biological function. The relative inactivity of the mutant proteins in rat-2 cells compared with bacteria suggests that the noncatalytic domain may direct specific interactions of the enzymatic region with cellular components that regulate or mediate tyrosine kinase function.
Article
Plasmid expression vectors have been constructed that direct the synthesis of foreign polypeptides in Escherichia coli as fusions with the C terminus of Sj26, a 26-kDa glutathione S-transferase (GST; EC 2.5.1.18) encoded by the parasitic helminth Schistosoma japonicum. In the majority of cases, fusion proteins are soluble in aqueous solutions and can be purified from crude bacterial lysates under non-denaturing conditions by affinity chromatography on immobilised glutathione. Using batch wash procedures several fusion proteins can be purified in parallel in under 2 h with yields of up to 15 micrograms protein/ml of culture. The vectors have been engineered so that the GST carrier can be cleaved from fusion proteins by digestion with site-specific proteases such as thrombin or blood coagulation factor Xa, following which, the carrier and any uncleaved fusion protein can be removed by absorption on glutathione-agarose. This system has been used successfully for the expression and purification of more than 30 different eukaryotic polypeptides.
Article
We have cloned a full-length putative rat pancreatic lysophospholipase cDNA by an improved mRNA isolation method and cDNA cloning strategy. These new methods allow the construction of a cDNA library from the adult rat pancreas in which the majority of recombinant clones contained complete sequences for the corresponding mRNAs. A previously recognized but unidentified long and relatively rare cDNA clone containing the entire sequence from the cap site at the 5' end to the poly(A) tail at the 3' end of the mRNA was isolated by single-step screening of the library. The size, amino acid composition, and the activity of the protein expressed in heterologous cells strongly suggest this mRNA codes for lysophospholipase [Van den Bosch, H., Aarsman, A. J., DeJong, G. N., & Van Deenen, L. M. (1973) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 296, 94-104].
Article
We determined the nucleotide sequences of all coding regions and a significant part of the flanking regions of the chicken c-src gene, which is a cellular homolog of the v-src gene of Rous sarcoma virus. The c-src gene consists of 12 exons; the boundaries of the exons were determined by assuming that the amino acid sequence of its product, pp60c-src, is basically the same as that of pp60v-src. The deduced amino acid sequence of pp60c-src was very similar to that of pp60v-src, but the last 19 carboxy-terminal amino acids of pp60c-src were replaced by a new set of 12 amino acids of pp60v-src. The sequence encoding the carboxy-terminal sequence of pp60v-src was found 900 bp downstream from the termination codon of the c-src gene. We suggest that the c-src sequence was captured by a virus through recombination at both sides of the c-src gene, and that the recombinations occurred at the level of proviral DNA.
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A human diploid fibroblast-like cell strain, TIG-1, which has normal female karyotype, was established and characterized. The average in vitro lifespan is 67 population doublings. Changes in surface area, contents of protein and DNA, doubling time, saturation density, the efficiency of cell attachment and the ability of cell proliferation in a colony were examined in the course of cellular aging in culture. Characteristics of G6PD and LDH were also determined. Hydrocortisone prolongs the lifespan of this cell strain when the hormone is added to the medium in physiological concentrations.
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