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Abstract

Meta-analysis was used to cumulate the results from 633 studies of smoking cessation, involving 71,806 subjects, that reported the proportion of successful quits. Self-care methods do not appear to be as effective as formal intervention methods. Instructional programs involving physicians were not more effective than other instructional programs. Conditioning-based techniques such as aversive methods had success rates similar to those of instructional methods, and among the instructional methods, those incorporating social norms and values were more successful than those relying solely on didactic approaches. Cumulation of quit rates from all available control groups indicated that, on average, 6.4% of the smokers could be expected to quit smoking without any intervention. This figure must be subtracted from the raw success rate to obtain the net success rate for each program. Directions for future research are discussed.
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This is a book of psychiatry at its most practical level. It aims to answer the sorts of questions psychiatrists ask on a daily basis. What treatments are available for the condition that I think this patient has? What is the relative value of each of these treatments? Are there any other treatments that I should be considering if a first approach has failed? Is there any value in combinations of treatment? And, can I be sure that the evidence and recommendations I read are free from bias? The content is organised into three sections covering disease classification, the major treatment modalities and the application of these treatments to the wide range of psychiatric diagnoses. All professionals in mental health want to give the best treatments for their patients. This book provides clinicians with the knowledge and guidance to achieve this aim.
Chapter
This is a book of psychiatry at its most practical level. It aims to answer the sorts of questions psychiatrists ask on a daily basis. What treatments are available for the condition that I think this patient has? What is the relative value of each of these treatments? Are there any other treatments that I should be considering if a first approach has failed? Is there any value in combinations of treatment? And, can I be sure that the evidence and recommendations I read are free from bias? The content is organised into three sections covering disease classification, the major treatment modalities and the application of these treatments to the wide range of psychiatric diagnoses. All professionals in mental health want to give the best treatments for their patients. This book provides clinicians with the knowledge and guidance to achieve this aim.
Chapter
This is a book of psychiatry at its most practical level. It aims to answer the sorts of questions psychiatrists ask on a daily basis. What treatments are available for the condition that I think this patient has? What is the relative value of each of these treatments? Are there any other treatments that I should be considering if a first approach has failed? Is there any value in combinations of treatment? And, can I be sure that the evidence and recommendations I read are free from bias? The content is organised into three sections covering disease classification, the major treatment modalities and the application of these treatments to the wide range of psychiatric diagnoses. All professionals in mental health want to give the best treatments for their patients. This book provides clinicians with the knowledge and guidance to achieve this aim.
Chapter
This is a book of psychiatry at its most practical level. It aims to answer the sorts of questions psychiatrists ask on a daily basis. What treatments are available for the condition that I think this patient has? What is the relative value of each of these treatments? Are there any other treatments that I should be considering if a first approach has failed? Is there any value in combinations of treatment? And, can I be sure that the evidence and recommendations I read are free from bias? The content is organised into three sections covering disease classification, the major treatment modalities and the application of these treatments to the wide range of psychiatric diagnoses. All professionals in mental health want to give the best treatments for their patients. This book provides clinicians with the knowledge and guidance to achieve this aim.
Chapter
This is a book of psychiatry at its most practical level. It aims to answer the sorts of questions psychiatrists ask on a daily basis. What treatments are available for the condition that I think this patient has? What is the relative value of each of these treatments? Are there any other treatments that I should be considering if a first approach has failed? Is there any value in combinations of treatment? And, can I be sure that the evidence and recommendations I read are free from bias? The content is organised into three sections covering disease classification, the major treatment modalities and the application of these treatments to the wide range of psychiatric diagnoses. All professionals in mental health want to give the best treatments for their patients. This book provides clinicians with the knowledge and guidance to achieve this aim.
Chapter
This is a book of psychiatry at its most practical level. It aims to answer the sorts of questions psychiatrists ask on a daily basis. What treatments are available for the condition that I think this patient has? What is the relative value of each of these treatments? Are there any other treatments that I should be considering if a first approach has failed? Is there any value in combinations of treatment? And, can I be sure that the evidence and recommendations I read are free from bias? The content is organised into three sections covering disease classification, the major treatment modalities and the application of these treatments to the wide range of psychiatric diagnoses. All professionals in mental health want to give the best treatments for their patients. This book provides clinicians with the knowledge and guidance to achieve this aim.
Chapter
This is a book of psychiatry at its most practical level. It aims to answer the sorts of questions psychiatrists ask on a daily basis. What treatments are available for the condition that I think this patient has? What is the relative value of each of these treatments? Are there any other treatments that I should be considering if a first approach has failed? Is there any value in combinations of treatment? And, can I be sure that the evidence and recommendations I read are free from bias? The content is organised into three sections covering disease classification, the major treatment modalities and the application of these treatments to the wide range of psychiatric diagnoses. All professionals in mental health want to give the best treatments for their patients. This book provides clinicians with the knowledge and guidance to achieve this aim.
Chapter
This is a book of psychiatry at its most practical level. It aims to answer the sorts of questions psychiatrists ask on a daily basis. What treatments are available for the condition that I think this patient has? What is the relative value of each of these treatments? Are there any other treatments that I should be considering if a first approach has failed? Is there any value in combinations of treatment? And, can I be sure that the evidence and recommendations I read are free from bias? The content is organised into three sections covering disease classification, the major treatment modalities and the application of these treatments to the wide range of psychiatric diagnoses. All professionals in mental health want to give the best treatments for their patients. This book provides clinicians with the knowledge and guidance to achieve this aim.
Chapter
This is a book of psychiatry at its most practical level. It aims to answer the sorts of questions psychiatrists ask on a daily basis. What treatments are available for the condition that I think this patient has? What is the relative value of each of these treatments? Are there any other treatments that I should be considering if a first approach has failed? Is there any value in combinations of treatment? And, can I be sure that the evidence and recommendations I read are free from bias? The content is organised into three sections covering disease classification, the major treatment modalities and the application of these treatments to the wide range of psychiatric diagnoses. All professionals in mental health want to give the best treatments for their patients. This book provides clinicians with the knowledge and guidance to achieve this aim.
Chapter
This is a book of psychiatry at its most practical level. It aims to answer the sorts of questions psychiatrists ask on a daily basis. What treatments are available for the condition that I think this patient has? What is the relative value of each of these treatments? Are there any other treatments that I should be considering if a first approach has failed? Is there any value in combinations of treatment? And, can I be sure that the evidence and recommendations I read are free from bias? The content is organised into three sections covering disease classification, the major treatment modalities and the application of these treatments to the wide range of psychiatric diagnoses. All professionals in mental health want to give the best treatments for their patients. This book provides clinicians with the knowledge and guidance to achieve this aim.
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Conducted a partial replication of S. Schachter's (see record 1982-30809-001) findings on obesity and smoking, particularly that smoking and being overweight may be self-cured in many individuals. Interviews were conducted with 92 22–80 yr old faculty members, graduate students, and support staff of a university psychology department. Results generally support Schachter's data. (9 ref)
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Research results in the social and behavioral sciences are often conceded to be less replicable than research results in the physical sciences. However, direct empirical comparisons of the cumulativeness of research in the social and physical sciences have not been made to date. This article notes the parallels between methods used in the quantitative synthesis of research in the social and in the physical sciences. Essentially identical methods are used to test the consistency of research results in physics and in psychology. These methods can be used to compare the consistency of replicated research results in physics and in the social sciences. The methodology is illustrated with 13 exemplary reviews from each domain. The exemplary comparison suggests that the results of physical experiments may not be strikingly more consistent than those of social or behavioral experiments. The data suggest that even the results of physical experiments may not be cumulative in the absolute sense by statistical criteria. It is argued that the study of the actual cumulativeness found in physical data could inform social scientists about what to expect from replicated experiments under good conditions.
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This review examines outcome evaluations of 127 primary drug abuse prevention programs issued between 1968 and 1977. Included were studies which measured program effects on drug use, intentions to use drugs, and/or attitudes toward drug use. The studies were gathered through an extended search, and they may represent the largest collection of prevention program outcome evaluations currently available. As part of the review process, detailed summaries of all studies were prepared. Each study was described along 70 programming and research dimensions. The descriptive data were subjected to various cross-tabular and correlational analyses. This article describes characteristics of the prevention programs, program settings and target populations, research methods, and the evaluation reports themselves. Trends over time in programming and research practices are also identified. The most important findings concern program effectiveness. Overall, the 127 programs produced only minor effects on drug use behaviors and attitudes. However, in a substudy of the ten best-researched, highest-intensity service programs, effectiveness was judged to be more substantial. The best of the available evaluations are tentatively encouraging about the efficacy of 'new generation' prevention programs. The review concludes with recommendations for prevention policy making, program planning, and program evaluation.