Concept Analysis of Anxiety
Nursing diagnosis: ND: the official journal of the North American Nursing Diagnosis Association 07/1992; 3(3):107-16. DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-618X.1992.tb00215.x
Anxiety, a nursing diagnosis that impacts clients in all settings and nurses throughout the profession, is clarified through the technique of concept analysis. Uses of the concept of anxiety in prominent theories of human behavior and in nursing are reviewed. Four critical attributes occurring in all cases of anxiety are identified--model cases, a related case, a contrary case, and an illegitimate case are presented. Antecedents to anxiety are identified. Consequences of anxiety are discussed. Empirical referents that demonstrate occurrence of the concept of anxiety are determined, classified, and related to critical attributes. This concept analysis provides an essential conceptual base for instrument development and clinical research on anxiety.
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ABSTRACT: In this study, the author (a) identifies and validates critical and supportive characteristics of the nursing diagnosis anxiety, and (b) differentiates the defining characteristics of the nursing diagnosis anxiety from the nursing diagnosis fear. The sample consisted of 233 nurses with a master's degree in psychiatric-mental health nursing or medical-surgical nursing. The study design followed the nurse validation model of Gordon and Sweeney (1979) as expanded by Fehring (1986, 1987). Following concept analyses of anxiety and fear, the author developed three instruments for rating characteristics as to how representative they were of fear or anxiety. Three critical defining characteristics were identified for anxiety and six critical defining characteristics were identified for fear. Nurses differentiated between the two diagnoses but also suggested the presence of a fear-anxiety syndrome in some clients.
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