Sutter, G. & Moss, B. Nonreplicating vaccinia vector efficiently expresses recombinant genes. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 89, 10847-10851

Laboratory of Viral Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (Impact Factor: 9.67). 12/1992; 89(22):10847-51. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.89.22.10847
Source: PubMed


Modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA), a highly attenuated vaccinia virus strain that has been safety tested in humans, was evaluated for use as an expression vector. MVA has multiple genomic deletions and is severely host cell restricted: it grows well in avian cells but is unable to multiply in human and most other mammalian cells tested. Nevertheless, we found that replication of viral DNA appeared normal and that both early and late viral proteins were synthesized in human cells. Proteolytic processing of viral structural proteins was inhibited, however, and only immature virus particles were detected by electron microscopy. We constructed an insertion plasmid with the Escherichia coli lacZ gene under the control of the vaccinia virus late promoter P11, flanked by sequences of MVA DNA, to allow homologous recombination at the site of a naturally occurring 3500-base-pair deletion within the MVA genome. MVA recombinants were isolated and propagated in permissive avian cells and shown to express the enzyme beta-galactosidase upon infection of nonpermissive human cells. The amount of enzyme made was similar to that produced by a recombinant of vaccinia virus strain Western Reserve, which also had the lacZ gene under control of the P11 promoter, but multiplied to high titers. Since recombinant gene expression is unimpaired in nonpermissive human cells, MVA may serve as a highly efficient and exceptionally safe vector.

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Available from: Gerd Sutter, Jun 12, 2015
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    • "Severely attenuated, transgenes inserted (Sutter and Moss, 1992; Kochneva et al., 2012) Various cancer model (Drexler et al., 1999; Carroll et al., 1997) Various tumors (Larocca and Schlom, 2011; Amato et al., 2012; Gómez et al., 2013) MVA-5T4*, MVAhup53 "
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    ABSTRACT: Naturally occurring oncolytic viruses are live, replication-proficient viruses that specifically infect human cancer cells while sparing normal cell counterparts. Since the eradication of smallpox in the 1970s with the aid of vaccinia viruses, the vaccinia viruses and other genera of poxviruses have shown various degrees of safety and efficacy in pre-clinical or clinical application for human anti-cancer therapeutics. Furthermore, we have recently discovered that cellular tumor suppressor genes are important in determining poxviral oncolytic tropism. Since carcinogenesis is a multi-step process involving accumulation of both oncogene and tumor suppressor gene abnormalities, it is interesting that poxvirus can exploit abnormal cellular tumor suppressor signaling for its oncolytic specificity and efficacy. Many tumor suppressor genes such as p53, ATM, and RB are known to play important roles in genomic fidelity/maintenance. Thus, tumor suppressor gene abnormality could affect host genomic integrity and likely disrupt intact antiviral networks due to accumulation of genetic defects, which would in turn result in oncolytic virus susceptibility. This review outlines the characteristics of oncolytic poxvirus strains, including vaccinia, myxoma, and squirrelpox virus, recent progress in elucidating the molecular connection between oncogene/tumor suppressor gene abnormalities and poxviral oncolytic tropism, and the associated preclinical/clinical implications. I would also like to propose future directions in the utility of poxviruses for oncolytic virotherapy.
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    • "Dissemination within the host is precluded in most species, including humans, due to the extremely impaired ability to replicate in mammalian and, particularly, in human cells345. This results from a block in virion morphogenesis at a late stage of infection, thus, replication deficiency has no apparent effect on viral or recombinant gene expression345. MVA also showed an excellent safety record when administered during the smallpox eradication campaign in approximately 150,000 individuals, including many persons at risk for the conventional smallpox vaccines678. "
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    ABSTRACT: Viral vectors are promising tools for vaccination strategies and immunotherapies. However, CD8⁺ T cell responses against pathogen-derived epitopes are usually limited to dominant epitopes and antibody responses to recombinant encoded antigens (Ags) are mostly weak. We have previously demonstrated that the timing of viral Ag expression in infected professional Ag-presenting cells strongly shapes the epitope immunodominance hierarchy. T cells recognizing determinants derived from late viral proteins have a clear disadvantage to proliferate during secondary responses. In this work we evaluate the effect of overexpressing the recombinant Ag using the modified vaccinia virus early/late promoter H5 (mPH5). Although the Ag-expression from the natural promoter 7.5 (P7.5) and the mPH5 seemed similar, detailed analysis showed that mPH5 not only induces higher expression levels than P7.5 during early phase of infection, but also Ag turnover is enhanced. The strong overexpression during the early phase leads to broader CD8 T cell responses, while preserving the priming efficiency of stable Ags. Moreover, the increase in Ag-secretion favors the induction of strong antibody responses. Our findings provide the rationale to develop new strategies for fine-tuning the responses elicited by recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara by using selected promoters to improve the performance of this viral vector.
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    • "Clonal virus isolate F6 at passage 584 on primary chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEFs) was used for this study. Recombinant MVA constructs have been described previously and virus stocks were generated by standard methods (Sutter and Moss, 1992; Kremer et al., 2012). In brief, viruses were propagated on CEF, concentrated and purified by ultracentrifugation through sucrose, and titrated on CEF to determine infectious units (IU). "
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    ABSTRACT: Ectopic lymphoid tissue, such as bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) in the lung, develops spontaneously at sites of chronic inflammation or during infection. The molecular mechanisms underlying the neogenesis of such tertiary lymphoid tissue are still poorly understood. We show that the type of inflammation-inducing pathogen determines which key factors are required for the formation and maturation of BALT. Thus, a single intranasal administration of the poxvirus modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) is sufficient to induce highly organized BALT with densely packed B cell follicles containing a network of CXCL13-expressing follicular DCs (FDCs), as well as CXCL12-producing follicular stromal cells. In contrast, mice treated with P. aeruginosa (P.a.) develop BALT but B cell follicles lack FDCs while still harboring CXCL12-positive follicular stromal cells. Furthermore, in IL-17-deficient mice, P.a.-induced BALT largely lacks B cells as well as CXCL12-expressing stromal cells, and only loose infiltrates of T cells are present. We show that Toll-like receptor pathways are required for BALT induction by P.a., but not MVA, and provide evidence that IL-17 drives the differentiation of lung stroma toward podoplanin-positive CXCL12-expressing cells that allow follicle formation even in the absence of FDCs. Taken together, our results identify distinct pathogen-dependent induction and maturation pathways for BALT formation.
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