Monoamine oxidase and Cortisol response in depression and schizophrenia

ArticleinPsychiatry Research 44(1):1-8 · November 1992with9 Reads
DOI: 10.1016/0165-1781(92)90064-A · Source: PubMed
The relationship between hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function and platelet monoamine oxidase (MAO) activity was examined in drug-free depressed (n = 32) and schizophrenic (n = 36) inpatients. HPA function was measured by determining plasma cortisol levels at 8:30 a.m. and 11 p.m. before, and 8:30 a.m., 4 p.m., and 11 p.m. after administration of 1 mg of dexamethasone (DEX). There was a significant correlation between platelet MAO activity and all post-DEX cortisol levels (8:30 a.m., 4 a.m., and 11 p.m.) in depressed patients, and MAO activity and pre-DEX cortisol levels (11 p.m.) in schizophrenic patients. MAO activity was significantly higher in depressed DST nonsuppressors than in suppressors, and there were more DST nonsuppressors in high-MAO groups as compared with low-MAO groups. Our results thus suggest a strong relationship between platelet MAO activity and HPA function in depressed patients. These biochemical markers are potentially useful in the identification of biochemically and clinically homogeneous subgroups of depressed patients.
    • "The primary causes of depression include depletion of monoamines, like serotonin, noradrenaline and dopamine by monoamine oxidase overactivation, oxidative stress and hyperactivity of HPA-axis. There was a strong relationship between MAO activity and the HPA axis function in depressed patients [28]. Stress has been observed to play an important role in the etiology of psychiatric disorders [9]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: In the present study, antidepressant-like activity of palmatine was evaluated in unstressed and stressed young male Swiss albino mice. Methods: The animals were subjected to unpredictable mild stress daily for 21 successive days to induce depression-like behavior. Palmatine (0.25, 0.5, 1 mg/kg, ip) was administered for 21 successive days to unstressed and stressed mice. The antidepressant-like activity was evaluated using the tail suspension test, forced swim test and sucrose preference test. Results: Palmatine (0.5 and 1 mg/kg, ip) significantly decreased immobility periods of unstressed and stressed mice in the forced swim test and tail suspension test, thus indicating its significant antidepressant-like activity. Only the highest dose (1 mg/kg) of palmatine significantly reversed the stress-induced decrease in sucrose preference. There was no significant effect on locomotor activity of the mice by palmatine and fluoxetine. The antidepressant-like activity of palmatine was found to be comparable to fluoxetine (10 mg/kg) administered for successive 21 days. Palmatine (0.5 and 1 mg/kg, ip) significantly reversed the stress-induced increase in brain catalase levels, MAO-A activity, lipid peroxidation, plasma nitrite and corticosterone levels. Conclusions: Palmatine showed significant antidepressant-like activity in unstressed and stressed mice probably through inhibition of MAO-A activity, decrease in plasma nitrite levels and due to its antioxidant activity. In addition, palmatine also showed antidepressant-like activity in stressed mice probably through decrease in plasma corticosterone levels.
    Article · Feb 2014
    • "Additionally, acute piroxicam treatment also increased serotonin levels in the hippocampus, and celecoxib did not alter the levels of hippocampal serotonin. In fact, monoamine deficiency is important in the pathophysiology of depression (Huether et al. 1997; Pandey et al. 1992), increased monoamine metabolism may result in increased ROS generation in depression (Fridovich 1983). However, it is not the only hypothesis. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Beyond the current hypothesis of depression, several new biological substrates have been proposed for this disorder. The present study investigated whether the anti-inflammatory drugs celecoxib and piroxicam have antidepressant activity in animal models of depression. After acute administration, we observed antidepressant-like effects of celecoxib (10 mg/kg) and piroxicam (10 mg/kg) in the modified forced swim test in rats. Piroxicam increased serotonin and norepinephrine levels in the hippocampus. Prolonged (21-day) treatment with celecoxib (10 mg/kg) and piroxicam (10 mg/kg) rescued sucrose preference in a chronic mild stress model of depression. Additionally, the chronic mild stress-induced reduction of hippocampal glutathione was prevented by treatment with celecoxib and piroxicam. Superoxide dismutase in the hippocampus was increased after chronic mild stress compared with the non-stressed saline group. The non-stressed celecoxib and piroxicam groups and stressed piroxicam group exhibited an increase in hippocampal superoxide dismutase activity compared with the stressed saline group. Lipid hydroperoxide was increased in the stressed group treated with vehicle and non-stressed group treated with imipramine but not in the stressed groups treated with celecoxib and piroxicam. These results suggest that the antidepressant-like effects of anti-inflammatory drugs might be attributable to enhanced antioxidant defenses and attenuated oxidative stress in the hippocampus.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2014
    • "It is important to note that additional mechanisms might modulate the depressive-like and/or antidepressant behavior observed in our study. In fact, although monoamines' deficiency represents an important aspect involved in the pathophysiology of depression (Heuther et al., 1997; Pandey et al., 1992), the increased metabolism of monoamines can represent a cause of the increased ROS generation in depression (Fridovich, 1983). Additionally, increased glutamatergic transmission is characteristic of depression (Sanacora et al., 2012). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been shown to play a role in the pathophysiology of depression. Taking into account that experimental chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) induces depressive-like behavior and that ascorbic acid has antidepressant-like effect in animals, the objective of this study was to investigate the influence of ascorbic acid on depressive-like behavior induced by CUS paradigm, serum corticosterone levels and markers of oxidative stress in cerebral cortex and hippocampus of mice. Animals were submitted to CUS procedure during 14 days. From the 8th to the 14th day mice received ascorbic acid (10 mg/kg) or fluoxetine (10 mg/kg, conventional antidepressant, positive control) once a day by oral route. On 15th day behavioral and biochemical parameters were analyzed. CUS exposure caused a depressive-like behavior evidenced by the increased immobility time in the tail suspension test and decreased time in which mice spent grooming in the splash test. Depressive-like behavior induced by CUS was accompanied by a significant increased lipid peroxidation (cerebral cortex and hippocampus), decreased catalase (CAT) (cerebral cortex and hippocampus) and glutathione reductase (GR) (hippocampus) activities and reduced levels of glutathione (cerebral cortex). Repeated ascorbic acid or fluoxetine administration significantly reversed CUS-induced depressive-like behavior and oxidative damage. No alteration was observed in locomotor activity, corticosterone levels and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity. These findings indicate a rapid and robust effect of ascorbic acid in reversing behavioral and biochemical alterations induced by CUS in mice, suggesting that this vitamin may be an alternative approach for the management of depressive symptoms.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2011
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