An Overview of Renal Pathology in Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus in Relationship to Altered Glomerular Hemodynamics

Department of Pediatrics, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis 55455.
American Journal of Kidney Diseases (Impact Factor: 5.9). 01/1993; 20(6):549-58. DOI: 10.1016/S0272-6386(12)70217-2
Source: PubMed


Clinical diabetic nephropathy in man is the consequence of the development of a specific constellation of glomerular, tubular, vascular, and interstitial structural abnormalities accompanied by highly characteristic immunohistochemical alterations that, together, are unique to diabetes. Because changes resembling the specific pathology of diabetes do not develop in patients with conditions that lead to long-standing glomerular hyperfunction (such as unilateral nephrectomy), it is unlikely that glomerular hemodynamic abnormalities per se can be the cause of diabetic nephropathy. Whether hemodynamic abnormalities represent a risk factor that, in the presence of the diabetic state, can accelerate the rate of development of the basic lesions of diabetic nephropathy is currently unclear. However, there is considerable evidence that when the renal lesions of diabetes are far advanced, factors such as systemic hypertension can determine the rate of renal functional deterioration in diabetes as in other disorders. Although the diabetic rat may be a useful model for the study of aspects of the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy, much confusion has resulted from the inclusion of focal segmental glomerular sclerosis as a diabetic lesion. Similarly, the acceptance of all increases in urinary protein excretions in this model as resulting from or reflecting of diabetic nephropathology can be misleading. It is concluded that treatment aimed at manipulating renal hemodynamics in diabetic patients without evidence of renal disease should remain in the realm of clinical research.

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    • "The kidney injury is often irreversible when the diabetic nephropathy enters the macroalbuminuria or CKD stages [2]. However, pathologic abnormalities are noted in patients with long-standing diabetes mellitus before the onset of microalbuminuria [3]. Deterioration of renal function can be treated and delayed if renal disease is recognized and treated in a timely manner. "
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    Preview · Article · Jan 2013 · PLoS ONE
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    • "BBRC [17] [18] [19] "
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    ABSTRACT: Type IV collagen, which is encoded by six genetically distinct alpha-chains (alpha 1-alpha 6), is a major component of the kidney glomerulus. The alpha 1(IV) and alpha 2(IV) chains are present predominantly in the mesangial matrix, whereas the alpha 3(IV), alpha 4(IV), and alpha 5(IV) chains are localized almost exclusively to the glomerular basement membrane (GBM). Thickening of the GBM and expansion of the mesangial matrix are believed to contribute to the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. In the present study, we evaluated the expression of alpha 1(IV), alpha 3(IV), and alpha 5(IV) chains in rat glomerular endothelial (GEndC) and mesangial cells (GMC). Under physiological concentrations of glucose (5 mM), alpha 1(IV) and alpha 5(IV) chains were detectable in GMCs, with an obvious absence of alpha 3(IV) chain. All three isoforms tested were present in GEndCs. At diabetic concentrations of glucose (25 mM), alpha 1(IV) was up-regulated in GMCs, whereas expression level of alpha 1(IV) remained unaltered in GEndCs. The alpha 3(IV) and alpha 5(IV) chains were up-regulated in GEndCs, but remained unchanged in GMCs under diabetic glucose concentrations (25 mM). Collectively, our results demonstrate that GMC might contribute to mesangial matrix expansion, mediated by alpha 1(IV) collagen, while GEndC might contribute to thickening of GBM, mediated by alpha 3(IV) collagen, in patients with diabetic nephropathy.
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