An Overview of Renal Pathology in Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus in Relationship to Altered Glomerular Hemodynamics
Department of Pediatrics, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis 55455. American Journal of Kidney Diseases
(Impact Factor: 5.9).
01/1993; 20(6):549-58. DOI: 10.1016/S0272-6386(12)70217-2
Clinical diabetic nephropathy in man is the consequence of the development of a specific constellation of glomerular, tubular, vascular, and interstitial structural abnormalities accompanied by highly characteristic immunohistochemical alterations that, together, are unique to diabetes. Because changes resembling the specific pathology of diabetes do not develop in patients with conditions that lead to long-standing glomerular hyperfunction (such as unilateral nephrectomy), it is unlikely that glomerular hemodynamic abnormalities per se can be the cause of diabetic nephropathy. Whether hemodynamic abnormalities represent a risk factor that, in the presence of the diabetic state, can accelerate the rate of development of the basic lesions of diabetic nephropathy is currently unclear. However, there is considerable evidence that when the renal lesions of diabetes are far advanced, factors such as systemic hypertension can determine the rate of renal functional deterioration in diabetes as in other disorders. Although the diabetic rat may be a useful model for the study of aspects of the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy, much confusion has resulted from the inclusion of focal segmental glomerular sclerosis as a diabetic lesion. Similarly, the acceptance of all increases in urinary protein excretions in this model as resulting from or reflecting of diabetic nephropathology can be misleading. It is concluded that treatment aimed at manipulating renal hemodynamics in diabetic patients without evidence of renal disease should remain in the realm of clinical research.
Available from: plosone.org
- "The kidney injury is often irreversible when the diabetic nephropathy enters the macroalbuminuria or CKD stages . However, pathologic abnormalities are noted in patients with long-standing diabetes mellitus before the onset of microalbuminuria . Deterioration of renal function can be treated and delayed if renal disease is recognized and treated in a timely manner. "
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ABSTRACT: Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) and liver-type fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP) are emerging as excellent biomarkers in the urine and plasma for the early prediction of acute and chronic kidney injury. The aims of this prospective study were to determine the role of albuminuria, and that of serum and urine levels of NGAL and L-FABP as predictors of a decline in the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in patients with type 2 diabetes.
A longitudinal cohort study with one hundred forty type 2 diabetic patients was conducted. Serum and urine levels of NGAL and L-FABP, and the urine albumin excretion rate were determined. The correlation between the kidney injury biomarkers and rate of GFR decline was analyzed.
The eGFR of study subjects decreased significantly as the study progressed (86.4±31.1 vs. 74.4±27.3 ml/min/1.73 m(2), P<0.001), and the urine albumin excretion rate increased significantly (264.9±1060.3 vs. 557.7±2092.5 mg/day, P = 0.009). The baseline urine albumin excretion rate and serum L-FABP level were significantly correlated with baseline eGFR (P<0.05). The results of regression analysis for the correlations between the rate of eGFR change and the baseline levels of NGAL and L-FABP, and the urine albumin excretion rate showed that only the urine albumin excretion rate was significantly correlated with the rate of eGFR change (standardized coefficients: -0.378; t: -4.298; P<0.001).
Tubular markers, such as NGAL and L-FABP, may not be predictive factors associated with GFR decline in type 2 diabetic patients.
Available from: Fuad N Ziyadeh
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ABSTRACT: Type IV collagen, which is encoded by six genetically distinct alpha-chains (alpha 1-alpha 6), is a major component of the kidney glomerulus. The alpha 1(IV) and alpha 2(IV) chains are present predominantly in the mesangial matrix, whereas the alpha 3(IV), alpha 4(IV), and alpha 5(IV) chains are localized almost exclusively to the glomerular basement membrane (GBM). Thickening of the GBM and expansion of the mesangial matrix are believed to contribute to the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. In the present study, we evaluated the expression of alpha 1(IV), alpha 3(IV), and alpha 5(IV) chains in rat glomerular endothelial (GEndC) and mesangial cells (GMC). Under physiological concentrations of glucose (5 mM), alpha 1(IV) and alpha 5(IV) chains were detectable in GMCs, with an obvious absence of alpha 3(IV) chain. All three isoforms tested were present in GEndCs. At diabetic concentrations of glucose (25 mM), alpha 1(IV) was up-regulated in GMCs, whereas expression level of alpha 1(IV) remained unaltered in GEndCs. The alpha 3(IV) and alpha 5(IV) chains were up-regulated in GEndCs, but remained unchanged in GMCs under diabetic glucose concentrations (25 mM). Collectively, our results demonstrate that GMC might contribute to mesangial matrix expansion, mediated by alpha 1(IV) collagen, while GEndC might contribute to thickening of GBM, mediated by alpha 3(IV) collagen, in patients with diabetic nephropathy.
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ABSTRACT: Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in diabetic patients representing a huge health and economic burden. Alarming recent data described diabetes as an unprecedented worldwide epidemic, with a prevalence of ∼6.4% of the world population in 2010, while the prevalence of CKD among diabetics was approximately 40%. With a clinical field hungry for novel markers predicting DN, several clinical and laboratory markers were identified lately with the promise of reliable DN prediction. Among those are age, gender, hypertension, smoking, sex hormones and anemia. In addition, eccentric left ventricular geometric patterns, detected by echocardiography, and renal hypertrophy, revealed by ultrasonography, are promising new markers predicting DN development. Serum and urinary markers are still invaluable elements, including serum uric acid, microalbuminuria, macroalbuminuria, urinary liver-type fatty acid-binding protein (u-LFABP), and urinary nephrin. Moreover, studies have illustrated a tight relationship between obstructive sleep apnea and the development of DN. The purpose of this review is to present the latest advances in identifying promising predictors to DN, which will help guide the future research questions in this field. Aiming at limiting this paramount threat, further efforts are necessary to identify and control independent modifiable risk factors, while developing an integrative algorithm for utilization in DN future screening programs.
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