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It hurts when I do this (or you do that): Posture and pain tolerance

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Abstract

Recent research (Carney, Cuddy, & Yap, 2010) has shown that adopting a powerful pose changes people's hormonal levels and increases their propensity to take risks in the same ways that possessing actual power does. In the current research, we explore whether adopting physical postures associated with power, or simply interacting with others who adopt these postures, can similarly influence sensitivity to pain. We conducted two experiments. In Experiment 1, participants who adopted dominant poses displayed higher pain thresholds than those who adopted submissive or neutral poses. These findings were not explained by semantic priming. In Experiment 2, we manipulated power poses via an interpersonal interaction and found that power posing engendered a complementary (Tiedens & Fragale, 2003) embodied power experience in interaction partners. Participants who interacted with a submissive confederate displayed higher pain thresholds and greater handgrip strength than participants who interacted with a dominant confederate.

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... In support of the notion that expansive postures lead to stronger and more dominant selfperception, a study reports an increase of pain threshold after adopting expansive postures (Bohns & Wiltermuth, 2012). Additionally, perceived weight of a lifted object reduced from before to after adopting an expansive posture, while no such change occurred for constrictive postures (Lee & Schnall, 2014). ...
... Furthermore, it has clearly been demonstrated that posture as a social signal has implications for social interactions (Bohns & Wiltermuth, 2012;study 2;Tiedens & Fragale, 2003;Vacharkulksemsuk et al., 2016). Nevertheless, the large majority of studies on feedback effects of postural expansiveness have not focused on social cognition and behaviour, that is, cognitive processes and behaviour in response to the actions of others, but have instead focused on behaviours commonly assessed in the research field on social power (Guinote, 2017). ...
... In-out-group and preferred face selection task participants (Bohns & Wiltermuth, 2012;Carney et al., 2010;Cesario & McDonald, 2013;Cuddy et al., 2015;Fischer et al., 2011;Huang et al., 2011;Park et al., 2013). We eventually included noise patterns of 73 and 72 participants in the average in-and out-group CIs in Study 1 and 4, respectively. ...
Thesis
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Expansive and constrictive body postures serve a primary communicative function in humans and other animals by signalling power and dominance. Whether adopting such “power postures” influences the agent’s own perception and behaviour is currently a subject of debate. In this PhD thesis, I therefore explored effects of adopting power postures on behaviours closely related to the postures’ primary function of social signalling by focusing on responses to faces as particularly salient social signals. In a series of experiments, I utilized reverse correlation methods to visualize mental representations of preferred facial traits. Mental representations of implicitly as well as explicitly preferred faces evoked an affiliative and slightly dominant impression, but revealed no replicable effects of power postures. Two further separate experiments investigated posture effects on the perception of threatening facial expressions, and approach vs. avoidance actions in response to such social signals. While postures did not influence explicit recognition of threatening facial expressions, they affected approach and avoidance actions in response to them. Specifically, adopting a constrictive posture increased the tendency to avoid angry individuals. Finally, an attempt to replicate posture effects on levels of testosterone and cortisol demonstrated that even repeatedly adopting a power posture in a social context does not elicit hormonal changes. Altogether, these findings suggest that our body posture does not influence our mental representations and perception of other people’s faces per se, but could influence our actions in responses to social signals.
... ain is complex and multidimensional perception, influenced by psychological factors, which include a set of cognitive (e.g., attention), behavioral (e.g., specific behavioral responses when experienc-and neurological factors on the pain threshold are expected. Bohns and Wiltermuth (2012) suggested that participants with a power posture had a higher pain threshold than individuals with a neutral or obedient gesture [7]. However, Ge, Bennett, and Oller's (2017) findings did not reflect the effects of power gestures on pain threshold [4]. ...
... ain is complex and multidimensional perception, influenced by psychological factors, which include a set of cognitive (e.g., attention), behavioral (e.g., specific behavioral responses when experienc-and neurological factors on the pain threshold are expected. Bohns and Wiltermuth (2012) suggested that participants with a power posture had a higher pain threshold than individuals with a neutral or obedient gesture [7]. However, Ge, Bennett, and Oller's (2017) findings did not reflect the effects of power gestures on pain threshold [4]. ...
... After pre-test measurements and two minutes of poses, the post-test was performed immediately. Research tools included Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) and blood pressure cuff, and pain thresholds were recorded in millimeters of mercury, a standard unit used to report blood pressure [7]. To perform high/low power posture in this study, the gestures of Carney et al. (2010) were used with the exact instructions. ...
Article
Background and Aim: Research has shown that social power affects information processing in many ways and can induce powerful movements or gestures. This study aimed to investigate the effect of pretending power gestures on changing the pain threshold of a group of female students. Methods & Materials: The method of the present study was quasi-experimental with a pre-test post-test design with a control group. The statistical population of this study included all female students of Arak University in the academic year 2016-2017, from which 60 people selected by convenience sampling method, and randomly divided into three groups: high power posing (sitting on a chair and putting your feet on the table, placing your hands behind your head and holding your head up), low power posing (sitting on a chair with your legs together, arms between your legs and bending your head to bottom) and control. Rosenberg self-esteem scale and tourniquet technique with cuff pressure gauge (to measure pain threshold) used to collect data. After the pre-test measurements and two minutes of gestures, the post-test was performed immediately. Data were analyzed using the analysis of covariance. Ethical Considerations: This study was approved by the ethics committee of Arak University of Medical Sciences (Code: IR.ARAKMU.REC.1399.276). Results: The results showed that pretending high/low power gesture significantly affects pain threshold; pretending to have a high-power gesture increases the pain threshold, and pretending to have a low-power gesture lowers the pain threshold. Conclusion: Based on the results, using power gestures as a simple tool in pain situations is recommended for pain management or as a supplement to analgesics.
... Because adopting such a low-power pose may negatively impact patients, incorporating high-power posing for patients into their physical therapy intervention could potentially be useful in reversing those negative effects and improving patient outcomes. It was found that adopting a high-power pose can increase pain tolerance as measured by the tourniquet technique, which involves using a blood pressure cuff to reduce blood flow to the participant's arm and inducing pain 22) . The same study also showed that interacting with individuals adopting a high-power pose can decrease pain thresholds and grip strength 22) . ...
... It was found that adopting a high-power pose can increase pain tolerance as measured by the tourniquet technique, which involves using a blood pressure cuff to reduce blood flow to the participant's arm and inducing pain 22) . The same study also showed that interacting with individuals adopting a high-power pose can decrease pain thresholds and grip strength 22) . However, the postural interventions used in the study include standing and sitting which may alter the blood flow to the arm and confound the pain threshold tolerance measurements using the tourniquet technique. ...
... The data did not show significant benefits of high-power posing in increasing grip strength and pain threshold compared to low-power posing. We were not able to repeat the experiment results by Bohns on the benefits of high-power posing on pain threshold 22) . It is possible that this is because there are differences in the postural intervention and pain threshold measurement between the research projects. ...
Article
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[Purpose] Postural assessment and correction is a common approach in patient management to decrease symptoms and improve function for patients. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of high-power posing on muscle strength and pain threshold. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty-one subjects, 16 females and 15 males, mean age 28.9 (SD 10.8) years old, were recruited through a convenience sampling on the university campus. The research design was a randomized controlled trial. In the experimental group, the subjects were instructed to stand in a high-power posture. In the control group, the subjects were instructed to stand in a low-power posture. Grip strength and pain threshold measurements were conducted before and after the postural intervention. [Results] The grip strength changed by −3.4 (−3.7, 0.3) % and 1.7 (−3.6, 5.3) % for the experimental and control groups, respectively. The pain threshold changed by 0.6 (−9.9, 10.4) % and 15.1 (−9.3, 24.4) % for the experimental and control groups, respectively. However, both changes were not significant as all the 95% CIs included 0. [Conclusions] The data did not show significant benefits of high-power posing in increasing grip strength and pain threshold compared to low-power posing.
... Over the last decade, experimental evidence has accumulated showing a causal association between social support and pain. While several groups of researchers have employed temperature-related methods of inducing pain, such as having participants reach into a bucket of cold water (Brown et al. 2003;Jackson et al. 2005;McClelland and McCubbin 2008) or delivering thermal stimulation through a thermode (Master et al. 2009;Montoya et al. 2004;Younger et al. 2010), others have induced pain by reducing blood flow to the arm through a blood pressure cuff (Bohns and Wiltermuth 2012). Across these studies, participants report less pain when receiving social support than when dealing with pain alone or engaging in non-support-related activities. ...
... Across these studies, participants report less pain when receiving social support than when dealing with pain alone or engaging in non-support-related activities. Some research implies that this effect may be independent of whether social support is provided by a friend, stranger (Brown et al. 2003), loved other (Montoya et al. 2004), experimenter (Jackson et al. 2005), or confidant (Bohns and Wiltermuth 2012). However, more recent research suggests that holding a loved other's hand is more effective in reducing pain than holding a stranger's hand (Master et al. 2009) and that viewing pictures of a romantic partner lessens pain more effectively than viewing pictures of an equally attractive acquaintance (Younger et al. 2010) or stranger (Eisenberger et al. 2011;Master et al. 2009). ...
Article
Can close brand relationships insulate against physical pain? The idea that close interpersonal relationships help people cope with pain has received increasing support in social psychology. It is unknown, however, whether close brand relationships can do the same and, if so, why. Seven studies are reported here to fill this knowledge gap. Experiments 1a and 1b are the first to demonstrate that when confronted with a loved brand (vs. control), consumers are able to insulate themselves against physical pain. Experiment 2 provides evidence that the paininsulating effectiveness of close brand relationships is not just due to brands representing mere distractions. Using a multistudy, multimethod approach to test for mediation, experiments 3 through 5 provide convergent empirical support for the hypothesis that feelings of social connectedness mediate the effect of close brand relationships on pain. Study 6 categorizes the 1,105 brand love essays written by participants in our experiments to show that loved brands provide feelings of social connectedness, mostly metaphorically and indirectly and, to a lesser extent, directly. In summary, close brand relationships can help insulate consumers against physical pain due to brands' ability to provide a semblance of social connectedness. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Journal of Consumer Research, Inc. All rights reserved.
... In sum, six of seven studies concluded that positive NBs of experimenters/clinicians resulted in lower pain reports (64,67,70,71), more accurate pain ratings (69), and less narcotic use and better physical and emotional state (46), whereas negative NBs led to higher pain reports and lower pain tolerance (67,70,71). On the other hand, one study failed to find a significant effect of experimenters/clinicians NB (66) ( Table 3). ...
... In sum, six of seven studies concluded that positive NBs of experimenters/clinicians resulted in lower pain reports (64,67,70,71), more accurate pain ratings (69), and less narcotic use and better physical and emotional state (46), whereas negative NBs led to higher pain reports and lower pain tolerance (67,70,71). On the other hand, one study failed to find a significant effect of experimenters/clinicians NB (66) ( Table 3). ...
Article
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Previous research has indicated that the sex, status, and non-verbal behaviors of experimenters or clinicians can contribute to reported pain, and placebo and nocebo effects in patients or research participants. However, no systematic review has been published. Objective: To investigate the effects of experimenter/clinician characteristics and non-verbal behavior on pain, placebo, and nocebo effects. Methods: Using EmBase, Web of Knowledge, and PubMed databases, several literature searches were conducted to find studies that investigated the effects of the experimenter’s/clinician’s sex, status and non-verbal behaviors on pain, placebo, and nocebo effects. Results: Thirty-four studies were included, twenty on the effects of characteristics of the experimenter/clinician, eleven on the role of non-verbal behaviors, and three on the effects of both non-verbal behaviors and characteristics of experimenters/clinicians on pain and placebo/nocebo effects. Experimenters/clinicians induced lower pain report in participants of the opposite sex. Furthermore, higher confidence, competence, and professionalism of experimenters/clinicians resulted in lower pain report and higher placebo effects, whereas lower status of experimenters/clinicians such as lower confidence, competence, and professionalism generated higher reported pain and lower placebo effects. Positive non-verbal behaviors (e.g. smiling, strong tone of voice, more eye contact, more leaning toward the patient/participant, and more body gestures) contributed to lower reported pain and higher placebo effects, whereas negative non-verbal behaviors (i.e. no smile, monotonous tone of voice, no eye contact, leaning backward from the participant/patient, and no body gestures) contributed to higher reported pain and nocebo effects. Conclusion: Characteristics and non-verbal behaviors of experimenters/clinicians contribute to the elicitation and modulation of pain, placebo and nocebo effects.
... gerontechnology). Several scholars have found that power posingthat is, posing as if one possesses (high or low) powerproduces many of the same effects as actually possessing power (Bohns and Wiltermuth 2012). For example, power posing through high-power poses (e.g. ...
... Thus, the findings add theoretical support to research that suggests that power posing can produce similar impacts to actual possession of power (e.g. thought abstraction, action orientation; Bohns and Wiltermuth 2012;Cuddy, Wilmuth, and Carney 2012;Huang et al. 2011). Furthermore, the study contributes to theoretical extension by documenting the existence and importance of power in a people-object relationship, in which the feeling of being powerful is central to the formation of perceptual beliefs about and future intentions to adopt new technologies, especially those developed for and targeted to older adults (e.g. ...
Article
Recognising the rise of an aging population and independent living among older adults, many governments and organisations have developed and promoted new technologies in the form of gerontechnologies to support the needs and enhance the well-being of older adults. However, the adoption of products using such technology remains modest among the aging population. This study introduces the notion of power in the form of power posing and examines its impact on new technology adoption, particularly gerontechnology, among older adults. Using an experimental approach on a sample of older adults exposed to an in-house near-field communication-enabled light system, the study finds that high-power poses have a greater and more positive impact on older adults’ perceived ease of use of, perceived usefulness of, and intentions to use gerontechnology than low-power poses. Implications, limitations, and future research directions are discussed.
... No control group was used. In Study 1, and in line with other research (Bohns and Wiltermuth 2012;Kwon and Kim 2015), the effects of the low power posing and the control group were pretty much identical. Furthermore, most power posing studies have compared only the effects of high and low power poses without any control group (Carney et al. 2010;Carney et al. 2015;Huang et al. 2011;Lee and Schnall 2014;Michalak et al. 2014;Ronay et al. 2017). ...
... In the literature, the findings on the effect of low power posing on different dependent measures are heterogeneous. Some studies found negative outcomes of low power posing (Allen et al. 2013), but in other studies, there was no difference between low power poses and neutral conditions (Bohns and Wiltermuth 2012;Kwon and Kim 2015). If a study does not use either a control group or a pre-post design, it cannot determine whether low power posing has an effect or is similar to a control condition. ...
Article
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The aim of the present studies was to investigate how high and low power posing influence self-esteem. High power posing is understood as the nonverbal expression of power through open, expansive body postures, whereas low power posing is marked by contractive and closed body postures. We conducted three studies with different methodological designs to test the effects of power posing. In Study 1, we randomly assigned 120 students to one of two power posing groups or a control group. All participants completed the State Self-Esteem Scale before and after the intervention. In Study 2, we examined effects outside the laboratory in a natural environment. We asked 49 participants to engage in high power posing in their homes. In Study 3, a total of 98 participants took part in an independent-groups posttest design (low power posing vs. high power posing). We also controlled for participants’ awareness of the research hypotheses. Consistent with our hypotheses, high power posing significantly affected self-esteem in all three studies. Contrary to our expectations, low power posing had no effect on self-esteem in Study 1. Possible explanations and implications are discussed.
... Indeed, a burgeoning social psychological literature on power suggests many positive effects. For example, feeling powerful (via embodiment, social roles-existing or manipulated, or implicit priming; for reviews, see Sturm & Antonakis, 2015) increases positive self-view (Briñ ol, Petty, & Wagner, 2009;Nair, Sagar, Sollers, Consedine, & Broadbent, 2015), pain tolerance (Bohns & Wiltermuth, 2012), performance under stress (Cuddy, Wilmuth, Yap, & Carney, 2015), and action orientation (Huang, Galinsky, Gruenfeld, & Guillory, 2011;Park, Streamer, Huang, & Galinsky, 2013), as well as decreases stress (Carney, Cuddy, & Yap, 2010). In addition, people who have power are better able to regulate their goal-directed behavior (Guinote, 2007), differentiate goal-relevant from goal-irrelevant information (Smith, Jostmann, Galinsky, & van Dijk, 2008), and seek rewards and opportunities (Keltner, Gruenfeld, & Anderson, 2003). ...
Article
The potentially exploitative effects of power and incentive were examined. In the study, 250 participants heard a confederate admit or deny a misdeed and were pressured by the experimenter to inform on the confederate, sometimes in exchange for a small reward. The majority of participants knowingly falsely informed on the confederate when put in a position of high power and offered an incentive. Participants truthfully informed on the confederate regardless of power or incentive. Results are interpreted in light of social psychological theories of social power, which suggest that harmful opportunism is a likely but not inevitable effect of empowerment.
... Similarly, a growing number of studies have investigated the relationship between expansive nonverbal behaviors and indications of power or powerlessness, suggesting that expansive physical expression both reflects and also produces power. Research has found that holding dominant or expansive postures increases subjects' feelings of power, confidence, pain tolerance, self-esteem, and lowers fear (Huang, Galinsky, Gruenfeld, & Guillory, 2011;Bohns & Wiltermuth, 2012;Nair, Sagar, Sollers, Consedine, & Broadbent, 2014). In fact, posing powerfully is reported to have a greater impact on subjects' action orientation and thought abstraction than by actually occupying a powerful role (Huang, Galinsky, Gruenfeld, & Guillory, 2011). ...
Article
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When feeling powerful humans and other animals display expansive postures, but can posing in expansive and powerful postures also generate empowerment? Researchers have studied the “power posing effect” the concept that powerful expansive postures generate empowerment, and found conflicting evidence. Some evidence of power posing’s impact shows increased hormones and a variety of behaviors indicating greater confidence. Yet still others have found no effect on hormones or behaviors, and suggest the impact of power posing is overstated. The goal of this project was to replicate and extend previous knowledge and contribute to the debate as to the efficacy of power posing, specifically examining the impact on participants’ self-reported social problem-solving efficacy, self-esteem, and optimism. 119 participants were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: high power pose, low power pose, or a control group with a puzzle solving task, and asked to complete self-report measures of optimism, self-esteem, and problem-solving self-efficacy. Current findings suggest expansive posture demonstrates no measurable impact on psychological attitudes, and contributes to recent literature contradicting the power posing effect. Research and practical implications are discussed.
... These results are important because they call for more attention on the topic of the effect of power poses. Whereas several studies published in the last years reported a significant effect of power poses at the behavioral, neuroendocrine, and emotional level (Bohns & Wiltermuth, 2012;Carney, et al., 2010;Huang, Galinsky, Gruenfeld, & Guillory, 2011;Park, Streamer, Huang, & Galinsky, 2013), recently some studies have questioned whether a real effect of power poses on behavior and hormones really exists (Ranehill et al., 2015) or have focused on the moderators of the effect of power poses (Cesario & McDonald, 2103). ...
Article
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Previous research investigated the effects of power poses at the behavioral, subjective, and neuroendocrine level. However, it is not clear whether the same effects would be obtained also by just imagining, rather than adopting, a power pose. We planned to investigate this question by asking 200 participants to either perform or imagine a constrictive or an expansive body posture during 2 min and then measure the effect on a gambling decision task and on felt power. We followed a sequential analysis procedure by running the first 100 participants in the performed posture condition in order to check the presence of the power posing effect. Because no effect of power poses on gambling decision or on felt power was found, we ran the remaining 100 participants also in the performed instead of the imagined condition. The results after running 200 participants confirmed that power poses did not affect gambling decision. However, participants felt more powerful after adopting an expansive pose compared to a constrictive pose. Exploratory analyses found that this effect was mainly driven by male participants. In addition, participants rated themselves as being more able to adopt the expansive body posture and they reported to put more effort in adopting the restrictive body posture. Overall, our results indicate that the effect of power poses on behavior might not be as widespread as previously thought of and suggest that moderators should be investigated carefully in future research.
... These results are important because they call for more attention on the topic of the effect of power poses. Whereas several studies published in the last years reported a significant effect of power poses at the behavioral, neuroendocrine, and emotional level Bohns & Wiltermuth, 2012;, recently some studies have questioned whether a real effect of power poses on behavior and hormones really exists or have focused on the moderators of the effect of power poses . ...
... (SeeFigure 1for examples.) Holding expansive poses can increase the subjective experience of power (Carney, Cuddy, & Yap, 2010;Huang, Galinsky, Gruenfeld, & Guillory, 2011), risk-taking behavior (Carney et al., 2010;Huang et al., 2011), abstract thinking (Huang et al., 2011), testosterone (Carney et al., 2010), the implicit activation of power (through a word completion task;Huang et al., 2011), pain tolerance (Bohns & Wiltermuth, 2012), and effectiveness at mock job interviews (Cuddy, Wilmuth, Yap, & Carney, 2015).Researchers have combined ideas from evolutionary theories and the "embodiment" literature to argue that expansive poses have a direct and unmediated effect on the psychology of power. The argument is that because size and power have been closely tied throughout evolution, power is "embodied" and therefore increasing one's size should induce power. ...
Article
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Strong claims have been made that power poses can significantly improve one's life. Starting from an evolutionary perspective, we reason that expansive poses will have no impact in more realistic situations, as in the presence of an interaction partner or when participants are aware of what the pose should accomplish. Across four dyadic studies including both commonlyused outcomes as well as a negotiation task (which could actually have direct benefits for one's life), we find nearly uniform null effects of holding expansive poses, despite checks confirming the success of the manipulation. For example, in two of the studies, participants watched a popular TED talk on power poses, held an expansive pose, and then completed a negotiation in the presence of a partner, as might happen in real life. We argue that researchers should stop recommending power poses as an empirically-supported strategy for improving one's life.
... The relatively few studies investigating psychological associations with upright posture have mainly focused on workplace factors such as over-commitment (Bruno Garza et al., 2013) and mental concentration (Shahidi et al., 2013), or emotions such as pride (Stepper and Strack, 1993) and disappointment (Oosterwijk et al., 2009). There is also an interesting body of work investigating how using upright rather than stooped posture might prime cognitive-behavioral modes such as risk-tolerance (Carney et al., 2010), memory for pleasant experiences (Riskind, 1983), memory for words with valence (Michalak et al., 2014), persistence at solving puzzles (Riskind and Gotay, 1982), pain tolerance (Bohns and Wiltermuth, 2012) and willingness to violate social norms (Yap et al., 2013). The possible connection between the effects of posture at a given moment and the influence of habitual posture bears further investigation. ...
Article
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Objectives: Aging is associated with cognitive decline, including visuomotor and memory concerns, and with motor system changes, including gait slowing and stooped posture. We investigated the associations of visuomotor performance and episodic memory with motor system characteristics in healthy older adults. Methods: Neurologically healthy older adults (N = 160, aged 50–89) completed a battery of cognitive and motor tasks. Cognitive variables were grouped by principal components analysis (PCA) into two components: visuomotor performance and verbal episodic memory. Our primary predictor variables were two aspects of motor function: timed-up-and-go (TUG) speed and neck angle. Additional predictor variables included demographic factors (age, sex and education) and indicators of physical fitness (body mass index/BMI and grip strength). All seven predictor variables were entered stepwise into a multiple regression model for each cognitive component. Results: Poor visuomotor performance was best predicted by a combination of advanced age, high BMI and slow TUG, whereas poor verbal memory performance was best predicted by a combination of advanced age, male sex, low education and acute neck angle. Conclusions: Upright posture and mobility were associated with different cognitive processes, suggesting different underlying neural mechanisms. These results provide the first evidence for a link between postural alignment and cognitive functioning in healthy older adults. Possible causal relationships are discussed.
... The Somatic Marker Hypothesis describes the important role of somatic feedback ("markers") in evaluative cognition, i.e., in judging a scenario as good or bad, in particular through (covert) biasing signals (Damasio, 1996). It therefore provides an excellent framework for explaining a range of somatic effects on pain perceptions documented by the literature, such as sleep-deprivation causing hyperalgesia (Schuh-Hofer, Baumgaertner, & Treede, 2015) and power-poses increasing pain thresholds (Bohns & Wiltermuth, 2012). In these examples, perceived vulnerability seems to scale pain-perception. ...
Article
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Traditionally pain has been considered to be a physiological phenomenon. More recently, however, cognitive and social psychological effects have been found to play important roles in the experience of acute and chronic pain. This also has shed new light on the sources of pain and alleys for treatment. In this essay, I will review relevant theories and research and derive pain-perception, pain-aversion, motivation, and psychogenesis as the recurrent mechanisms through which the impact of cognitive, somatic, social, and therapeutic processes on pain-suffering can be described. Building on this, I put forward what I would like to call a Computational Theory of Pain to explain the experience of pain and psychological approaches for treating it.
... Specifically, power posing, that is, deliberately adopting an open and expansive high-power posture, induces effects in the poser that mirror the abovementioned consequences of actual social power (for a recent review, see Carney et al., 2015). For example, expansive postures were shown to parallel desirable effects of actual power in terms of enhanced abstract thinking (Huang et al., 2011), increased thought confidence (Briñol et al., 2009), better mood and self-esteem (Nair et al., 2015), more risk taking (Carney et al., 2010;Cesario and McDonald, 2013), greater action orientation (Huang et al., 2011;Park et al., 2013), improved performance in subsequent social evaluation situations , increased pain tolerance (Bohns and Wiltermuth, 2012), and more functionally adequate hormonal reactions (Carney et al., 2010; but see Ranehill et al., 2015), while reliably increasing the subjective sense of power (Carney et al., 2010;Huang et al., 2011;Park et al., 2013;Cuddy et al., 2015). ...
Article
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Power posing, the adoption of open and powerful postures, has effects that parallel those of actual social power. This study explored the social evaluation of adopting powerful vs. powerless body postures in men and women regarding perceived warmth, competence, and the likelihood of eliciting admiration, envy, pity, and contempt. Previous findings suggest that the display of power by women may have side effects due to gender stereotyping, namely reduced warmth ratings and negative emotional reactions. An experiment (N = 2,473) asked participants to rate pictures of men and women who adopted high-power or low-power body postures. High-power posers were rated higher on competence, admiration, envy, and contempt compared to low-power posers, whereas the opposite was true for pity. There was no impact of power posing on perceived warmth. Contrary to expectations, the poser's gender did not moderate any of the effects. These findings suggest that non-verbal displays of power do influence fundamental dimensions of social perception and their accompanying emotional reactions but result in comparably positive and negative evaluations for both genders.
... The idea that perception of and interaction with the physical world is central to the development and functioning of cognitive processes (Lakoff & Johnson, 1999;Wilson, 2002) challenges the classical distinction between body and mind. Studies have shown, for example, that participants' facial expressions can influence their affective judgments (Strack, Martin, & Stepper, 1988), that making a fist can increase willpower (Hung & Labroo, 2011;Schubert & Koole, 2009), and that posture can moderate affective, social and even pain responses to various stimuli (Bohns & Wiltermuth, 2012;Briñol, personality traits to affect tempo responsiveness remains open as well. The following research questions have therefore emerged from the existing literature: RQ 1) How might personality and trait empathy relate to dancers' embodied sensitivity to differences in a basic musical feature (tempo)? ...
Article
Previous research has shown broad relationships between personality and dance, but the relationship between personality and specific structural features of music has not been explored. The current study explores the influence of personality and trait empathy on dancers' responsiveness to small tempo differences between otherwise musically identical stimuli, measured by difference in the amount in acceleration of key joints. Thirty participants were recorded using motion capture while dancing to excerpts from six popular songs that were time-stretched to be slightly faster or slower than their original tempi. Analysis revealed that higher conscientiousness and lower extraversion both correlated with greater responsiveness to tempo change. Partial correlation analysis revealed that conscientiousness remained significantly correlated with responsiveness when extraversion was controlled, but not vice versa. No effect of empathy was found. Implications are discussed.
... Research has shown that open, expansive postures can lead to elevated testosterone, reduced cortisol, increased perceptions of power and risk-tolerance compared to closed, hunched postures (Carney, Cuddy, & Yap, 2010), although a larger trial failed to replicate the hormonal results (Ranehill et al., 2015). A recent review summarised research on the effects of expansive body posture relative to contracted posture in healthy participants (Carney, Cuddy, & Yap, 2015), with studies showing increased feelings of pride (Stepper & Strack, 1993), confidence in thoughts (Brinol, Petty, & Wagner, 2009), pain tolerance (Bohns & Wiltermuth, 2012), and increased eating (Allen, Gervais, & Smith, 2013), supporting embodiment theory. ...
Article
Background and objectives: Slumped posture is a diagnostic feature of depression. While research shows upright posture improves self-esteem and mood in healthy samples, little research has investigated this in depressed samples. This study aimed to investigate whether changing posture could reduce negative affect and fatigue in people with mild to moderate depression undergoing a stressful task. Methods: Sixty-one community participants who screened positive for mild to moderate depression were recruited into a study purportedly on the effects of physiotherapy tape on cognitive function. They were randomized to sit with usual posture or upright posture and physiotherapy tape was applied. Participants completed the Trier Social Stress Test speech task. Changes in affect and fatigue were assessed. The words spoken by the participants during their speeches were analysed. Results: At baseline, all participants had significantly more slumped posture than normative data. The postural manipulation significantly improved posture and increased high arousal positive affect and fatigue compared to usual posture. The upright group spoke significantly more words than the usual posture group, used fewer first person singular personal pronouns, but more sadness words. Upright shoulder angle was associated with lower negative affect and lower anxiety across both groups. Limitations: The experiment was only brief and a non-clinical sample was used. Conclusions: This preliminary study suggests that adopting an upright posture may increase positive affect, reduce fatigue, and decrease self-focus in people with mild-to-moderate depression. Future research should investigate postural manipulations over a longer time period and in samples with clinically diagnosed depression. Link to paper http://authors.elsevier.com/a/1TUUI1KHtEtgN
... Furthermore, Carney, Cuddy, and Yap (2010) found that when male participants adopted a strong 'power' pose, they reported feeling more powerful, engaged in more risk-taking behaviour, and experienced hormonal changes (increased testosterone, reduced cortisol). Adopting these power poses also has important implications; they can make people feel physically stronger (Lee & Schnall, 2014) and more resilient to pain (Bohns & Wiltermuth, 2012) and perform better in job interviews (Carney, Wilmuth, & Yap, 2015). Therefore, a natural association between strong postures and feelings of power appears to be apparent. ...
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Individuals often receive judgements from others based on their clothing and their posture. While both of these factors have been found to influence judgements of competency independently, their relative importance in impression formation is yet to be investigated. We address this by examining interactive effects of posture and clothing on four competency measures: confidence, professionalism, approachability, and likeliness of a high salary. Participants rated photographs of both male and female models pictured in different postures (strong, neutral, weak) in smart clothing (a suit for males; both a trouser suit and skirt suit for females) and casual clothing. We confirm that posture manipulations affected judgements of individuals differently according to the clothing they were pictured in. The nature of these interactions varied by gender and, for women, competency judgements differed according to attire type (trouser or skirt suit). The implications of these findings in relation to impression formation are discussed.
... In the Experiment 3 of [62], the attendee, depending on the gazing condition, also adopted a more or less contracted body posture: neutral in the directed gaze condition vs. contracted in the not-directed gaze condition (see left and right pictures of Fig 1 Experiment 3 in [62]). According to recent results [131,132], the attendee's body posture could have signalled a higher social power/status of the attendee in the directed gaze condition, rather than in the not-directed gaze condition, thus producing an effect similar to the one we observed. ...
Article
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Ample evidence attests that social intention, elicited through gestures explicitly signaling a request of communicative intention, affects the patterning of hand movement kinematics. The current study goes beyond the effect of social intention and addresses whether the same action of reaching to grasp an object for placing it in an end target position within or without a monitoring attendee's peripersonal space, can be moulded by pure social factors in general, and by social facilitation in particular. A motion tracking system (Optotrak Certus) was used to record motor acts. We carefully avoided the usage of communicative intention by keeping constant both the visual information and the positional uncertainty of the end target position, while we systematically varied the social status of the attendee (a high, or a low social status) in separated blocks. Only thirty acts performed in the presence of a different social status attendee, revealed a significant change of kinematic parameterization of hand movement, independently of the attendee's distance. The amplitude of peak velocity reached by the hand during the reach-to-grasp and the lift-to-place phase of the movement was larger in the high rather than in the low social status condition. By contrast, the deceleration time of the reach-to-grasp phase and the maximum grasp aperture was smaller in the high rather than in the low social status condition. These results indicated that the hand movement was faster but less carefully shaped in presence of a high, but not of a low social status attendee. This kinematic patterning suggests that being monitored by a high rather than a low social status attendee might lead participants to experience evaluation apprehension that informs the control of motor execution. Motor execution would rely more on feedforward motor control in the presence of a high social status human attendee, vs. feedback motor control, in the presence of a low social status attendee.
... Many studies describe various situations in which an activated sense of power in one context affected the person's reaction in a subsequent, unrelated domain; activating perceived power led to more optimism than that in a control group (Anderson and Galinsky 2006). Similarly, activation of power leads to higher risk tolerance (Carney, Cuddy, and Yap 2010) as well as increased physical pain thresholds (Bohns and Wiltermuth 2012). These elaborations indicate that perceived power can (1) lead to positive behavioral effects and (2) be experienced as a transitory state, triggered by ''levers'' that might not objectively indicate actual power but nonetheless change the person's response in a host of subsequent domains. ...
Article
Challenging the conventional perception that “power corrupts,” the authors assert that activation of customer power before a service encounter can lead to less negative behavioral manifestations toward a service provider after a service failure. Three experimental studies help substantiate this contention. Study 1 shows a sequential mediation process of how increased power leads to a more positive secondary appraisal and lessens the perceived severity of a failure. This process ultimately leads to (1) lower intentions for revenge and (2) lower demanded compensation. Study 2 solidifies these findings using stimuli for power inducement easily replicable by service managers. Study 3 establishes the boundary conditions and finds that the positive effects of power in postservice failure only holds for a single service failure context but not a double deviation context. This research offers an integrated explanation of how power leads to more positive behavioral actions through a sequential mediation effect involving cognitive appraisals. In doing so, this research sheds light on the nuances of power in affecting customer behavior. The practical method of activating perceived power may motivate service managers to apply it to buffer the potential negative effects of service failure. However, caution is advised, as such effects may diminish in the context of a series of failed resolution attempts.
... However, body postures have been reported to affect motivation (Friedman and Elliot 2008;Riskind and Gotay 1982) and activity in response to asymmetrical cortical emotion manipulations (Harmon-Jones and Peterson, 2009). Most relevant research has focused on the dominant posture (Bohns and Wiltermuth 2012;Carney et al. 2010;Yap et al. 2013;Huang et al. 2011). Research has indicated that these expansive postures may activate mental concepts and emotions associated with power, thereby causing people to engage in approach-oriented, dishonest, and risk-seeking behaviors. ...
... Cuddy et al. [22] state that it is theoretically and practically unclear how to establish a condition without power, i.e. a neutral condition. Bohns and Wiltermouth [36] thus reported finding no statistically significant differences between neutral and submissive postures when investigating the correlation between pain threshold and physical posture. Therefore, we cannot claim that neutral postures included in our study truly represented a neutral condition. ...
Article
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The objective of this study was to identify whether the changes in assuming power poses during a conversation between a pair of individuals, who were previously familiar with each other, influence the hierarchy of power, changes in it, as well as maintenance and adoption of different roles in the hierarchy. We assumed changes in roles of power on the basis of changes in visual dominance behaviour, which proved to be a reliable indicator of the social power of the individual in previous researches. Each pair conversed on predefined topics three times for three minutes. By placing individuals in a neutral or expansive posture, the purpose of which was covered by the use of a cover story, we created a difference in nonverbal expression of power between the two individuals. In the first conversation, both individuals adopted a neutral pose. In the second conversation, one individual adopted an expansive posture, while the other remained in a neutral one, and vice versa in the third conversation. Interactions were filmed with two cameras, which enabled us to analyse nonverbal behaviour. The results show that the differences in displays of power with expansive body postures between individuals are not associated with changes in visual dominance behaviour of individuals. From this we conclude that in the relations in which the social hierarchy of power is already established, the use of power poses does not help increase the power of the individual who adopts the posture.
... Nevertheless, the latter effects were much smaller than the within-modality expectation effects, consistent with the current study. This difference between two studies employing a similar paradigm may be explained by a few changes in the experimental protocol due to MRI constraints (longer/jittered interval between the cue and the stimulus, reduced number of repetitions, subject's posture, etc; see 530 ), which might have further weakened the modality-independent expectancy effect. ...
Thesis
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Although expectancy effects have been described before (e.g. placebo effect), no one ever questioned their specificity. After all, it might be that when people anticipate pain, they form a representation of the approaching event, which could be shared with other aversive experiences, such as the case of disgust. In the present thesis, I examined the nature and specificity of expectancy of pain and disgust in the context of perceptual decisions (Experiments 1 & 2) and higher cognitive (moral) decisions (Experiments 3 & 4). I conducted four experiments to analyze behavioral, physiological and neural measures (using fMRI) from healthy human volunteers, which were all engaged in a new experimental set-up, specifically developed for testing the following experimental questions: (1) to which degree pain and disgust expectations recruit similar/dissociated representations of the upcoming event? (2) to which extent pain and disgust expectations affect high-level decisions, such as those involving morally-questionable behavior?
... Other researchers have used erect versus slouched sitting positions and have sometimes had participants adopt yoga body postures (Bohns & Wiltermuth, 2012). Time in posture varies from study to study and ranges from 20 seconds to repeating poses across a time span of 90 minutes. ...
Chapter
Power posing is the nonverbal expression of power. High power poses can be seen in open, expansive body postures, whereas low power poses are characterized by contractive, slumped body postures.
... Considering the motor adaptation to pain from the micro (single moto neuron) to macro (coordination of whole-muscle behavior) levels (Hodges and Tucker 2011), multiple points along the motor nerve pathways may be influenced that will alter motor behavior (Adolph and Franchak 2017). It has been advocated that posture correction is associated with improved self-esteem (Ramezanzade and Arabnarmi 2011); furthermore, a confident posture may influence emotions (Gronau et al. 2017) even if not a huge effect but enough to alter pain sensitivity (Bohns and Wiltermuth 2012). Posture correction can improve mood and muscles function more efficiently and feel-good as a worthy consequence (Adolph and Franchak 2017). ...
Article
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Purpose To investigate the effect of therapeutic exercise (TE) on pain, disability, posture, and health status in female dentists suffering from chronic neck pain (NP). Methods 48 female dentists (40–45 years) suffering from NP were randomly divided into two experimental (n = 24) and control (n = 24) groups. Experimental group received 8 weeks of TE aimed to improve (1) muscle coordination and proprioception, (2) muscular endurance, and (3) muscle strength. Control group received no specific exercises. The pain, disability, posture (forward head and protracted shoulder angles), and health status were assessed at baseline and after an 8-week TE by visual analogue scale (VAS), neck disability index (NDI), photogrammetry, and self-rated general health questionnaire, respectively. Wilcoxon and Mann–Whitney non-parametric tests were used for statistical analysis. Results There were significant between-group differences in neck pain [p = 0.003, 0.86 (0.09–1.65)], disability [p = 0.009, ES (95% CI) = 0.78 (0.020–1.37)], forward head angle [p = 0.039, ES (95% CI) = 0.61 (0.034–1.19)], protracted shoulder angle [p = 0.031, ES (95% CI) = 0.64 (0.062–1.22)], and health status [p = 0.022, ES (95% CI) = 0.68 (0.102–1.26)] favoring the corrective exercise group. There were significant within-group changes in pain, disability, posture, and health status in the experimental group. However, there were no within group changes in the control group. Conclusions TEs successfully alleviated pain, disability, posture, and health status in female dentists suffering from chronic NP. Considering the extremely large effect size of TEs, this intervention was recommended to neck pain treatment in patients suffering from chronic NP, poor posture, and health problem.
... Moreover, only three out of about 60 studies in total (Carney et al., 2015;Cuddy et al., 2018;Jonas et al., 2017) used within-subject designs. These three studies observed either a change only after expansive postures (Bohns & Wiltermuth, 2012;Lee & Schnall, 2014) or no significant effect (Jamnik & Zvelc, 2017). Similarly, only four studies included a control group, and observed a significant difference only for the constrictive posture (Cesario & McDonald, 2013) or no significant effects (Davis et al., 2017;Nielsen, 2017;Smith & Apicella, 2017). ...
Preprint
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Individuals’ opportunities for action in threatening social contexts largely depend on their social power. While powerful individuals can afford to confront aggressors and dangers, powerless individuals need others’ support and better avoid direct challenges. Here, we investigated if adopting expansive or constrictive postures, which function as social signals of power, impacts individuals’ approach and avoidance decisions in response to social threat signals using a within-subject design. Overall, participants more often chose to avoid rather than to approach angry individuals, but showed no clear approach or avoidance preference for fearful individuals. Crucially, constrictive posture considerably increased the tendency to avoid angry individuals, whereas expansive postures induced no substantial changes. This suggests that adopting power-related postures can impact action decisions in response to social threat signals. The present results emphasize the social function of power postures and are discussed in the context of the debate on the replicability of power posture effects.
... First, no control group was used. This decision was based on the considerations that most power posing studies only compared high power poses with low power poses (for an overview, see Carney et al., 2015), and in previous research, effects of low power poses were very similar to those from control groups (Bohns & Wiltermuth, 2012;K€ orner et al., 2019;Kwon & Kim, 2015). Second, the indirect measures were three pictorial tests that had been developed for the study but had not been psychometrically tested. ...
Article
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Do expansive body postures increase self-esteem in children? Power posing is a popular but also controversial topic. Still, there has been no research on the possible effects in children. To investigate the influence of power posing in children, 108 German fourth graders were randomly assigned to a high versus a low power posing group. Self-esteem was self-reported; feelings were assessed indirectly. There was an effect of power posing on self-reported global and school self-esteem. Furthermore, children who had performed high power poses in comparison with those who had performed low power poses mentioned more positive feelings, higher power feelings, and a more positive student–teacher relationship. Results are interpreted with regard to the context and the cultural dependency of the power posing effect. Implications for school practice are addressed.
... 26 Possible examiner effects during NFR assessments were also seldom addressed, with two studies indicating the same examiner completing all NFR assessments 30,34 -one study indicating blinded examiners 31 and one study making use of a separated testing room with microphones to mitigate any examiner influence. 28 Given well-documented influences of examiner's sex on pain-related outcomes, 35,36 as well as the influence of examiner's position and posture on pain ratings, 37 this is an area in need of improved reporting as well as further exploration within NFR assessments. ...
Article
The nociceptive flexion reflex (NFR) is used in neurophysiological research as an objective measure of nociception. NFR thresholds are reduced in numerous chronic pain pathologies, which are indicative of common central hyperexcitability within conditions. However, variation exists in both the NFR assessment and determinants of NFR threshold among research groups. Our purpose was to provide a review of the recent literature to (a) confirm the NFR threshold’s efficacy in identifying those with chronic pain compared to controls and (b) provide a narrative synthesis on the current methodology used to assess the NFR in clinical populations. We conducted a review of multiple databases (MEDLINE, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Google Scholar and Cochrane Library), including articles that reported controlled clinical studies of humans, in English, comparing NFR thresholds within chronic pain conditions to matched control subjects, published since the last NFR review in 2010. Our search resulted in nine studies included in our narrative synthesis and eight studies included in a meta-analysis. There was a significant pooled standardized mean difference in NFR threshold between chronic pain conditions and controls (−0.94, 95% confidence interval (CI) −1.33 to −0.55, p < 0.0001), with substantial heterogeneity of pooled estimates ( I ² = 87%, τ ² = 0.41, Q = 76.13, the degrees of freedom (df) = 11, p < 0.0001). Significant variations in participant positioning, stimulation parameters and determinants of the NFR threshold were evident among included studies. We provided a narrative synthesis on the methodologies of included studies, as a recommendation for future studies in the assessment of the NFR in chronic pain.
... Using the initial two-step paradigm, first inducing postures and then measuring outcomes (Carney et al., 2010), researchers found that holding expansive postures (vs. contractive postures) had positive effects on a wide range of outcomes, such as feeling of power (Bombari, Schmid Mast, & Pulfrey, 2017;Cuddy et al., 2018;Gronau et al., 2017;Park, Streamer, Huang, & Galinsky, 2013;Ranehill et al., 2015), implicit activation of power (Huang, Galinsky, Gruenfeld, & Guillory, 2011), pain tolerance (Bohns & Wiltermuth, 2012), self-esteem (Körner, Petersen, & Schütz, 2019), job interview performance (Cuddy, Wilmuth, Yap, & Carney, 2015), antisocial behaviors (Meier, Schöbel, & Feufel, 2019;Yap et al., 2013), creative thinking (Andolfi et al., 2017;Hao et al., 2017), and so forth. ...
Preprint
Can an individual’s body posture (expansive or contractive) affect their creative thinking (divergent or convergent)? Based on embodied cognition and the debate about the impact of nonverbal physical postures expressing power on psychological and behavioral outcomes, five experiments were conducted. We tested the prediction that expansive postures would have a positive effect on creativity tasks that have no right or wrong answer or optimal solution (divergent thinking), whereas contractive postures would have a positive effect on tasks with a right answer or an optimal solution (convergent thinking). As predicted, results revealed a positive effect of expansive postures on performance of creativity tasks requiring divergent thinking, such as producing original ideas (Study 1) or objects, either by combining shapes to create an original toy (Study 2) or by combining fragments to produce an original drawing (Study 3). Conversely, a positive effect of contractive postures was found on performance of insight tasks requiring convergent thinking, in which participants had to associate elements to discover a unifying and correct solution (Study 4) or overcome initial task constraints to find an optimal solution to a problem (Study 5). These findings open up new avenues for research in embodied creativity.
... Using the initial two-step paradigm, first inducing postures and then measuring outcomes (Carney et al., 2010), researchers found that holding expansive postures (versus contractive postures) had positive effects on a wide range of outcomes, such as feeling of power Cuddy et al., 2018;Gronau, Van Erp, Heck, Cesario, Jonas, & Wagenmakers, 2017;Park, Streamer, Huang, & Galinsky, 2013;Ranehill, Dreber, Johannesson, Leiberg, Sul, & Weber, 2015), implicit activation of power (Huang, Galinsky, Gruenfield, & Guillory, 2011), pain tolerance (Bohns & Wiltermuth, 2012), selfesteem (Körner, Petersen, & Schütz, 2019), job interview performance (Cuddy, Wilmuth, Yap, & Carney, 2015), anti-social behaviors (Meier, Schöbel, & Feufel, 2019;Yap et al., 2013), creative thinking (Andolfi et al., 2017;Hao et al., 2017), etc. ...
Article
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Preprint can be downloaded at https://psyarxiv.com/6gxhe/ Can an individual’s body posture (expansive or contractive) affect their creative thinking (divergent or convergent)? Based on embodied cognition and the debate about the impact of nonverbal physical postures expressing power on psychological and behavioral outcomes, five experiments were conducted. We tested the prediction that expansive postures would have a positive effect on creativity tasks that have no right or wrong answer or optimal solution (divergent thinking), whereas contractive postures would have a positive effect on tasks with a right answer or an optimal solution (convergent thinking). As predicted, results revealed a positive effect of expansive postures on performance of creativity tasks requiring divergent thinking, such as producing original ideas (Study 1) or objects, either by combining shapes to create an original toy (Study 2) or by combining fragments to produce an original drawing (Study 3). Conversely, a positive effect of contractive postures was found on performance of insight tasks requiring convergent thinking, in which participants had to associate elements to discover a unifying and correct solution (Study 4) or overcome initial task constraints to find an optimal solution to a problem (Study 5). These findings open up new avenues for research in embodied creativity.
Conference Paper
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Drug of abuse or illicit drugs have become a serious issue and global evils during the last few years. In present scenario, drug abuse detection in keratinized matrices, such as hair and nail clippings, has gain considerable attention because of several benefits over drug testing methodologies employing body fluids, such as urine or serum. Keratinized matrices such as fingernail and toenails can accumulate drugs with long term exposure. Cannabis is one of the most commonly abused drugs worldwide as well as Nail is one of the physical evidence that can be encountered in criminal cases related to homicide and sexual offences etc. The present study is focused on the extraction and identification of cannabinoids and their metabolites in the nails using High Performance Liquid Chromatographic analysis. Keywords: Drug of Abuse, Keratinized Matrices, Cannabis, HPLC.
Article
This article explores how dance is currently understood as a medium for reshaping our relationships to the more-than-human. It reviews literature across the field of dance and ecology to present keys clusters of understanding and pathways for future research. These areas include (1) body as place/Earth, advocating practices that work to re-embed our sense of self within wider ecologies, (2) embodying shared agency, which examines the agentic capacity of place and the radical displacement of human subjectivities, and (3) rhythms of co-becoming, which invites dancers to consciously participate in the co-creation of reality towards ecological balance. Key authors across these areas draw from theories in materiality, feminist theory, phenomenology, object-oriented ontology, ecosophy/deep ecology and somatic ecology to demonstrate the necessary inclusion of dance in strategies for ecological renewal. Overall, these areas contribute to a bold vision for dance in catalysing more embodied ethical relationships with the living ecologies we belong to. This review also importantly reinstates the body as a site of evolutionary intelligence that can guide us towards necessary shifts in relational ontologies for our collective survival.
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This chapter provides an overview of measures and experimental manipulations developed and used in research on social status. Our goal is to provide researchers with a resource for identifying and selecting appropriate self-report and other-report scales, behavioral measures, and experimental manipulation tools for their future empirical work on status. We provide a brief summary of each tool and how it was developed, noting, where relevant, its original source, reliability, validity, and frequency of use. We conclude with recommendations for how researchers might select among the reviewed measures and manipulations. © Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014. All rights are reserved.
Article
Across two field studies of romantic attraction, we demonstrate that postural expansiveness makes humans more romantically appealing. In a field study (n= 144 speed-dates), we coded nonverbal behaviors associated with liking, love, and dominance. Postural expansiveness-expanding the body in physical space-was most predictive of attraction, with each one-unit increase in coded behavior from the video recordings nearly doubling a person's odds of getting a "yes" response from one's speed-dating partner. In a subsequent field experiment (n= 3,000), we tested the causality of postural expansion (vs. contraction) on attraction using a popular Global Positioning System-based online-dating application. Mate-seekers rapidly flipped through photographs of potential sexual/date partners, selecting those they desired to meet for a date. Mate-seekers were significantly more likely to select partners displaying an expansive (vs. contractive) nonverbal posture. Mediation analyses demonstrate one plausible mechanism through which expansiveness is appealing: Expansiveness makes the dating candidate appear more dominant. In a dating world in which success sometimes is determined by a split-second decision rendered after a brief interaction or exposure to a static photograph, single persons have very little time to make a good impression. Our research suggests that a nonverbal dominance display increases a person's chances of being selected as a potential mate.
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Chronic pain remains one of the most persistent healthcare challenges in the world. To advance pain treatment, experts have recently introduced research-driven subtypes of chronic pain based on proposed underlying mechanisms. Nociplastic pain (e.g., nonspecific chronic low back or fibromyalgia) is one such subtype which may involve a greater etiologic role for brain plasticity, painful emotions induced by life stress and trauma, and unhealthy emotion regulation. In particular, correlational and behavioral data link anger and the ways anger is regulated with the presence and severity of nociplastic pain. Functional neuroimaging studies also suggest nociplastic pain and healthy anger regulation demonstrate inverse patterns of activity in the medial prefrontal cortex and amygdala; thus, improving anger regulation could normalize activity in these regions. In this Mini-Review, we summarize these findings and propose a unified, biobehavioral model called the Anger, Brain, and Nociplastic Pain (AB-NP) Model, which can be tested in future research and may advance pain care by informing new treatments that address anger, anger regulation, and brain plasticity for nociplastic pain.
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This manuscript was published in the journal Društvena istraživanja: Journal for General Social Issues 28(2):361–362 and is available online (https://hrcak.srce.hr/220936) with the following DOI: https://doi.org/10.5559/di.28.2.11 .................................................................................................................................................. PLEASE CITE AS: Gabrić, P. (2019). Konferencija: Cognitive Science. Društvena istraživanja: Journal for General Social Issues, 28(2), 361–362. https://doi.org/10.5559/di.28.2.11 .................................................................................................................................................. Konferencija "Cognitive Science" održala se na Institutu "Jožef Stefan" u Ljubljani 11. listopada 2018. u sklopu 21. Međunarodne multikonferencije "Information Society". Konferenciju "Cognitive Science" organiziralo je Slovensko društvo za kognitivnu znanost. Cilj konferencije bio je povezati stručnjake iz raznih disciplina koje se bave kognicijom te omogućiti razmjenu raznolikih i izazovnih ideja.
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Adopting expansive (vs. contractive) body postures may influence psychological states associated with power. The current experiment sought to replicate and extend research on the power pose effect by adding another manipulation that embodies power—eye gaze. Participants (N = 305) adopted expansive (high power) or contractive (low power) poses while gazing ahead (i.e., dominantly) or down at the ground (i.e., submissively). Afterward, participants played a hypothetical ultimatum game, made a gambling decision, and reported how powerful and in charge they felt. Neither body posture nor eye gaze influenced the gambling decision, and contrary to the predictions, adopting an expansive pose reduced feelings of power. We also found that holding a direct gaze increased the probability of rejecting a low offer on the ultimatum game. We consider why power posing did not have the predicted effects.
Article
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Research on the effects of body positions has attracted enormous attention in recent years but has been plagued by failed replication attempts. Today, there is some confusion about which effects can be considered reliable. One problem that may have contributed to this confusion is the fact that most previous studies have not clearly distinguished between different types of body positions. We apply the dominance‐prestige framework to distinguish between two types of body positions. On the basis of this reasoning, we argue that research on so‐called power poses in fact has analyzed expansiveness as an indicator of dominance, whereas research on postures has focused on the straightness of the spine, which may be seen as a display of prestige. We review the literature and conclude that there is no clear evidence that short‐term interventions involving body positions affect physiology or behavior. Still, there are effects on actors' self‐perceptions. Repeatedly, studies on power poses have found effects on feelings of power and self‐evaluations, and studies on postures have found effects on emotional experience. However, there is hardly any research that has directly compared the two types of interventions.
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Most emotional stimuli, including facial expressions, are judged not only by their intrinsic characteristics, but also by the context in which they appear. Gaze direction, for example, modifies the salience of explicitly presented facial displays. Yet, it is unknown whether this effect persists when facial displays are no longer task-relevant. Here, we first varied the salience of fearful, angry or neutral displays using gaze direction, while participants performed a gender (attended faces) or a scene discrimination task (unattended faces). Best performance occurred when faces were unattended and emotional expressions were highly salient (direct anger and averted fear), suggesting that these combinations are sufficiently important to capture attention and enhance visual processing. In a second experiment, we transiently changed participants’ individual characteristics by instructing them to hold either expansive or constrictive postures. Best performance occurred for direct anger and averted fear following expansive and constrictive postures, respectively, demonstrating that stimulus and observer characteristics jointly determine the attribution of relevance of threatening facial expressions and their interaction with attention.
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Objective. To examine the effects of a new wearable type of lumbosacral support on low back pain. Methods. A total of 121 healthcare workers participated in this study. They were randomly allocated into the experimental and control groups and the former wore the support with signals of compression on the back by poor posture for the first 3 months. The control group remained on a waiting list for the first 3 months. Medical history, musculoskeletal symptoms, feeling in good posture, sleep habits, psychological distress, Roland–Morris Disability Questionnaire, and Somatosensory Amplification Scale (SSAS) were evaluated. The range of motion (ROM) in the shoulder and hip joints as well as spinal alignment were evaluated. Our primary concern was the difference in the change of low back pain measured by visual analog scale (VAS) between the two groups Results. A total of 54 participants in the experimental and 53 participants in the control groups were analyzed. VAS and SSAS scores as well as lumbar spinal ROM in the experimental group significantly decreased. Low back pain (OR = 0.401, 95% CI = 0.168–0.954) and neck pain in the experimental group (OR = 0.198, 95% CI = 0.052–0.748) significantly decreased. Conclusions. The new lumbar support reduced VAS and SSAS scores, lumbar spinal ROM, low back pain, and neck pain. This new type of lumbar support reduced low back pain among healthcare workers.
Article
This review and meta-analysis explores the experimental effects of expansive and contractive motor displays on affective, hormonal, and behavioral responses. Experimental studies were located through systematic literature searches. Studies had to manipulate motor displays to either expansive or contractive displays and investigate the effect of the displays on affect, hormones, or overt behavior. Meta-analyses were conducted to determine the pooled, standardized mean differences between the effects of motor displays on affective, hormonal, and behavioral responses. From 5,819 unique records, 73 relevant studies were identified. Robust differences between expansive and contractive displays emerged for affective responses and overt behavioral responses across contexts, type of manipulation, and methods of measurement. The results suggest that the effects are driven by the absence of contractive motor displays (contractive vs. neutral displays: Hedges’s g = 0.45) rather than the presence of expansive displays (expansive vs. neutral displays: g = 0.06). The findings stand as a corrective to previous research, as they indicate that it is the absence of contractive displays rather than the presence of expansive displays that alters affective and behavioral responding. Future research should include neutral control groups, use different methods to assess hormonal change, and investigate these effects in the context of ideographic goals.
Book
Organizational or corporate ‘culture’ is the most overused and least understood word in business, if not society. While the topic has been an object of keen academic interest for nearly half a century, theorists and practitioners still struggle with the most basic questions: What is organizational culture? Can it be measured? Is it a dependent or independent variable? Is it causal in organizational performance, and, if so, how? Paradoxically, managers and practitioners ascribe cultural explanations for much of what constitutes organizational behavior in organizations, and, moreover, believe culture can be engineered to their own designs for positive business outcomes. What explains this divide between research and practice? While much academic research on culture is challenged by ontological, epistemic and ethical difficulties, there is little empirical evidence to show culture can be deliberately shaped beyond espoused values. The gap between research and practice can be explained by one simple reason: the science and practice of culture has yet to catch up to managerial intuition.Managers are correct in suspecting culture is a powerful normative force, but, until now, current theory and research is not able to adequately account for cultural behavior in organizations.Rethinking Culture describes and presents evidence for a new framework of organizational culture based on the cognitive science of the so-called cultural mind. It will be of relevance to academics and researchers with an interest in business and management, organizational culture, and organizational change, as well as cognitive and cultural anthropologists and sociologists interested in applications of theory in organizational and institutional settings.
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In this article, utilizing the Graham Technique as a tool, I discuss strategies I use in my class to support dance as a way to challenge or transcend sanctioned female identities by shifting the focus from presentation to self-discovery, encouraging ownership of the movement, and exploring a range of physicalities that embody different aspects of the psyche, some socially defined as “masculine” or “feminine” movement. I engage with research coming out of psychology and neurobiology to support the exploration of a diverse range of movement qualities to cultivate both physical and psychological fluidity between expressions. I examine feminist scholarship that views the female body as being socially structured to adopt a physicality that is passive in nature, and frame Martha Graham and her technique in the attempt to defy socialized female comportment. This article seeks to find a connection between a woman's physicality and her sense of agency.
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Existing definitions can be structural or functional, refer to roles or to agonistic behaviour, regard dominance as a property of individuals or as an attribute of dyadic encounters, concentrate on aggression or on the lack of it, and be based either on theoretical constructs or on observable behaviour. Thirteen definitions of dominance are reviewed, and their usefulness assessed with respect to their descriptive value. By virtue of its high descriptive value, the original definition of dominance by Schjelderupp-Ebbe (1922) emerged as the basis to formulate a structural definition with wide applicability and which reflects the essence of the concept: Dominance is an attribute of the pattern of repeated, agonistic interactions between two individuals, characterized by a consistent outcome in favour of the same dyad member and a default yielding response of its opponent rather than escalation. Dominance status refers to dyads while dominance rank, high or low, refers to the position in a hierarchy and, thus, depends on group composition. Dominance is a relative measure and not an absolute property of individuals. Discussion includes reference to the heritability of dominance, application of dominance to groups rather than individuals, and the role of individual recognition and memory during agonistic encounters. -from Author
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This study explored two questions: Do people tend to display and experience other people's emotions? If so, what impact does power have on people's susceptibility to emotional contagion? We speculated that the powerless should pay more attention to their superiors (than their superiors pay to them) and should thus be especially likely to “catch” their superion' emotions as well. College students, given the role of “teacher” (powerful person) or “learner” (powerless person), observed videotapes of another (fictitious) subject relating an emotional experience. They were asked what emotions they felt as they watched their partner describe the happiest and saddest event in his life. In addition, they were videotaped as they watched the tape. As predicted, clear evidence of emotional contagion was obtained in this controlled laboratory setting. However, a direct (rather than inverse) relation between power and emotional contagion was found. Powerful subjects were more likely to display their subordinate's feelings than subordinates were to display those of the powerful other. Several possible explanations for these unexpected results were proposed.
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Three experiments explored whether hierarchical role and body posture have independent or interactive effects on the main outcomes associated with power: action in behavior and abstraction in thought. Although past research has found that being in a powerful role and adopting an expansive body posture can each enhance a sense of power, two experiments showed that when individuals were placed in high- or low-power roles while adopting an expansive or constricted posture, only posture affected the implicit activation of power, the taking of action, and abstraction. However, even though role had a smaller effect on the downstream consequences of power, it had a stronger effect than posture on self-reported sense of power. A final experiment found that posture also had a larger effect on action than recalling an experience of high or low power. We discuss body postures as one of the most proximate correlates of the manifestations of power.
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Humans and other animals express power through open, expansive postures, and they express powerlessness through closed, contractive postures. But can these postures actually cause power? The results of this study confirmed our prediction that posing in high-power nonverbal displays (as opposed to low-power nonverbal displays) would cause neuroendocrine and behavioral changes for both male and female participants: High-power posers experienced elevations in testosterone, decreases in cortisol, and increased feelings of power and tolerance for risk; low-power posers exhibited the opposite pattern. In short, posing in displays of power caused advantaged and adaptive psychological, physiological, and behavioral changes, and these findings suggest that embodiment extends beyond mere thinking and feeling, to physiology and subsequent behavioral choices. That a person can, by assuming two simple 1-min poses, embody power and instantly become more powerful has real-world, actionable implications.
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From W.B. Cannon's identification of adrenaline with "fight or flight" to modern views of stress, negative views of peripheral physiological arousal predominate. Sympathetic nervous system (SNS) arousal is associated with anxiety, neuroticism, the Type A personality, cardiovascular disease, and immune system suppression; illness susceptibility is associated with life events requiring adjustments. "Stress control" has become almost synonymous with arousal reduction. A contrary positive view of peripheral arousal follows from studies of subjects exposed to intermittent stressors. Such exposure leads to low SNS arousal base rates, but to strong and responsive challenge- or stress-induced SNS-adrenal-medullary arousal, with resistance to brain catecholamine depletion and with suppression of pituitary adrenal-cortical responses. That pattern of arousal defines physiological toughness and, in interaction with psychological coping, corresponds with positive performance in even complex tasks, with emotional stability, and with immune system enhancement. The toughness concept suggests an opposition between effective short- and long-term coping, with implications for effective therapies and stress-inoculating life-styles.
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43 college students suffering from recurrent tension headache were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 EMG biofeedback training conditions. Although all Ss were led to believe they were learning to decrease frontal EMG activity, actual feedback was contingent on decreased EMG activity for half of the Ss and increased EMG activity for the other half. Within these 2 groups, Ss also viewed bogus video displays designed to convince them they were achieving large (high success) or small (moderate success) reductions in EMG activity. Results show that regardless of actual changes in EMG activity, Ss receiving high-success feedback had substantially greater improvement in headache activity (53%) than Ss receiving moderate success feedback (26%). Performance feedback was also related to score changes in locus of control and self-efficacy measures administered pre- and posttreatment. Changes in these 2 cognitive variables during biofeedback training were correlated with reductions in headache activity following treatment, while changes in EMG activity exhibited during training were uncorrelated with outcome. (54 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Two studies examine complementarity (vs. mimicry) of dominant and submissive nonverbal behaviors. In the first study, participants interacted with a confederate who displayed either dominance (through postural expansion) or submission (through postural constriction). On average, participants exposed to a dominant confederate decreased their postural stance, whereas participants exposed to a submissive confederate increased their stance. Further, participants with complementing responses (dominance in response to submission and submission in response to dominance) liked their partner more and were more comfortable than those who mimicked. In the second study, complementarity and mimicry were manipulated, and complementarity resulted in more liking and comfort than mimicry. The findings speak to the likelihood of hierarchical differentiation.
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The experience of pain arises from both physiological and psychological factors, including one's beliefs and expectations. Thus, placebo treatments that have no intrinsic pharmacological effects may produce analgesia by altering expectations. However, controversy exists regarding whether placebos alter sensory pain transmission, pain affect, or simply produce compliance with the suggestions of investigators. In two functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiments, we found that placebo analgesia was related to decreased brain activity in pain-sensitive brain regions, including the thalamus, insula, and anterior cingulate cortex, and was associated with increased activity during anticipation of pain in the prefrontal cortex, providing evidence that placebos alter the experience of pain.
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Using the circumplex model of interpersonal behavior [Handbook of research methods in clinical psychology, 1982], this study tested the communal coping model of catastrophizing (CCM) in a large (N = 179) sample of patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), a common, benign chronic pain disorder associated with significant painful extraintestinal comorbidity (e.g. headache, low back pain). Patients completed the Coping Strategies Questionnaire, the Brief Symptom Inventory, and the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems. The main findings were: (1) individuals who reported higher levels of catastrophizing described greater interpersonal problems; (2) the interpersonal problems described by catastrophizers fell within the friendly and friendly submissive quadrants of the circumplex supporting the notion that they have an interpersonal style demanding support and care-taking [Pain 103 (2003) 151]; (3) the pain coping behavior most strongly associated with interpersonal problems was catastrophizing; and (4) the relationship between interpersonal problems and catastrophizing remained after removing the influence of general symptomatic distress (i.e. an overall tendency to complain of psychological problems in general). In general, data provide evidence supporting the interpersonal distinctiveness of pain catastrophizing as postulated by the CCM. Advantages of a circumplex model and of interpersonal theory for understanding and testing the CCM are discussed.
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The authors propose that automatic social behavior may result from perceivers preparing to interact with primed social group members. In Study 1, participants primed with a disliked outgroup (gay men) showed evidence of interaction preparation (aggression) rather than direct stereotypic trait expression (passivity). In Study 2, participants with implicit positive attitudes toward the elderly walked more slowly after "elderly" priming, but participants with negative attitudes walked more quickly, results consistent with a preparatory account; the reverse was found priming "youth." Study 3 demonstrated that the accessibility of a primed category follows a pattern more consistent with that of goal-related constructs (including post-goal-fulfillment inhibition) than that of semantically primed constructs. Implications for the function of stored knowledge are discussed.
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Overconfidence has long been noted by historians and political scientists as a major cause of war. However, the origins of such overconfidence, and sources of variation, remain poorly understood. Mounting empirical studies now show that mentally healthy people tend to exhibit psychological biases that encourage optimism, collectively known as 'positive illusions'. Positive illusions are thought to have been adaptive in our evolutionary past because they served to cope with adversity, harden resolve, or bluff opponents. Today, however, positive illusions may contribute to costly conflicts and wars. Testosterone has been proposed as a proximate mediator of positive illusions, given its role in promoting dominance and challenge behaviour, particularly in men. To date, no studies have attempted to link overconfidence, decisions about war, gender, and testosterone. Here we report that, in experimental wargames: (i) people are overconfident about their expectations of success; (ii) those who are more overconfident are more likely to attack; (iii) overconfidence and attacks are more pronounced among males than females; and (iv) testosterone is related to expectations of success, but not within gender, so its influence on overconfidence cannot be distinguished from any other gender specific factor. Overall, these results constitute the first empirical support of recent theoretical work linking overconfidence and war.
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Placebo-induced expectancies have been shown to decrease pain in a manner reversible by opioid antagonists, but little is known about the central brain mechanisms of opioid release during placebo treatment. This study examined placebo effects in pain by using positron-emission tomography with [¹¹C]carfentanil, which measures regional μ-opioid receptor availability in vivo. Noxious thermal stimulation was applied at the same temperature for placebo and control conditions. Placebo treatment affected endogenous opioid activity in a number of predicted μ-opioid receptor-rich regions that play central roles in pain and affect, including periaqueductal gray and nearby dorsal raphe and nucleus cuneiformis, amygdala, orbitofrontal cortex, insula, rostral anterior cingulate, and lateral prefrontal cortex. These regions appeared to be subdivided into two sets, one showing placebo-induced opioid activation specific to noxious heat and the other showing placebo-induced opioid reduction during warm stimulation in anticipation of pain. These findings suggest that a mechanism of placebo analgesia is the potentiation of endogenous opioid responses to noxious stimuli. Opioid activity in many of these regions was correlated with placebo effects in reported pain. Connectivity analyses on individual differences in endogenous opioid system activity revealed that placebo treatment increased functional connectivity between the periaqueductal gray and rostral anterior cingulate, as hypothesized a priori, and also increased connectivity among a number of limbic and prefrontal regions, suggesting increased functional integration of opioid responses. Overall, the results suggest that endogenous opioid release in core affective brain regions is an integral part of the mechanism whereby expectancies regulate affective and nociceptive circuits. • neuroimaging • periaqueductal gray • expectancy • affective neuroscience
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The chameleon effect refers to nonconscious mimicry of the postures, mannerisms, facial expressions, and other behaviors of one's interaction partners, such that one's behavior passively rind unintentionally changes to match that of others in one's current social environment. The authors suggest that the mechanism involved is the perception-behavior link, the recently documented finding (e.g., J. A. Bargh, M. Chen, & L. Burrows, 1996) that the mere perception of another' s behavior automatically increases the likelihood of engaging in that behavior oneself Experiment 1 showed that the motor behavior of participants unintentionally matched that of strangers with whom they worked on a task. Experiment 2 had confederates mimic the posture and movements of participants and showed that mimicry facilitates the smoothness of interactions and increases liking between interaction partners. Experiment 3 showed that dispositionally empathic individuals exhibit the chameleon effect to a greater extent than do other people.
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Reviews Interpersonal Diagnosis of Personality by Timothy Leary (see record 1957-02556-000), which examines Leary's approach to personality measurement, which he calls dynamic behaviorism. In the course of an opening discussion of psychology, philosophy of science, the complexity of personality, and like topics, Leary sets forth nine working principles which served as guides for himself and his colleagues over the years of their project. The project is a grand effort in a difficult field, and those of us who are interested in personality assessment will have to read Leary's exploration with considerable care. This is not an easy book, but the reader will be repaid for his efforts by a specification and elaboration of dimensions which Sullivan had insisted upon in the course of his professional career. The reader will note that there are literally thousands of possible combinations and premutations among variables and levels. The fruitfulness and practicality of such a system of multilevel diagnosis will have to be demonstrated before other individuals will be persuaded to adopt the system. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Reviews experimental research relating types of personal control to the experience of stress. 3 main types of personal control may be distinguished: (a) behavioral (direct action on the environment), (b) cognitive (the interpretation of events), and (c) decisional (having a choice among alternative courses of action). Each type of control is related to stress in a complex fashion, sometimes increasing it, sometimes reducing it, and sometimes having no influence at all. It may be generally said that the relationship of personal control to stress is primarily a function of the meaning of the control response for the individual, i.e., the stress-inducing or stress-reducing properties of personal control depend upon the nature of the response and the context in which it is embedded and not just upon its effectiveness in preventing or mitigating the impact of a potentially harmful stimulus. (66 ref.) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Integrates previous theory and research addressing interpersonal complementarity, a construct that is central to refined and extended research and clinical applications of interpersonal theory. The 1982 Interpersonal Circle is presented, which the present author constructed as a comprehensive taxonomy of the domain of 2-dimensional interpersonal behavior. The 1982 Circle integrates and expands the content of 4 major adult interpersonal measures (the Interpersonal Check List, the Interpersonal Adjective Scales, the Interpersonal Behavioral Inventory, and the Impact Message Inventory) to provide a circle taxonomy consisting of 16 segments 128 subclasses, 2 levels, and 350 bipolar items. Previous conceptions of interpersonal complementarity are reviewed and, using the 1982 Circle as a theoretical and operational guide, 11 propositions of complementarity as they apply in personality, psychopathology, and psychotherapy are derived. (108 ref)
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Adaptive action is the function of cognition. It is constrained by the properties of evolved brains and bodies. An embodied perspective on social psychology examines how biological constrains give expression to human function in socially situated contexts. Key contributions in social psychology have highlighted the interface between the body and cognition, but theoretical development in social psychology and embodiment research remain largely disconnected. The current special issue reflects on recent developments in embodiment research. Commentaries from complementary perspectives connect them to social psychological theorizing. The contributions focus on the situatedness of social cognition in concrete interactions, and the implementation of cognitive processes in modal instead of amodal representations. The proposed perspectives are highly compatible, suggesting that embodiment can serve as a unifying perspective for psychology. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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In two vignette studies we examined beliefs about the nonverbal behavior and communication skills associated with high and low social power. Power was defined as both a trait (personality dominance) and a role (rank within an organization). Seventy nonverbal behaviors and skills were examined. Both Study 1 (a within-participants design) and Study 2 (a between-participants design) yielded highly similar results. Significant differences emerged for 35 of the 70 behaviors. The gender of the target individuals did not moderate beliefs about the relation of nonverbal behavior and power.
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Several recent experiments have demonstrated that modulation of the facial expressive response is accompanied by changes in autonomic arousal and subjective response to painful stimuli. The present study asked whether facial self-regulation may also bring about changes in covert vicarious emotional experience. Three groups of subjects were exposed to a videotaped model displaying intermittent pain to shock in a differential vicarious autonomic conditioning paradigm. Subjects in the inhibit and amplify groups were asked, respectively, (a) to inhibit their facial muscles or (b) to pose a facial response of pain when the model was shocked. It was predicted that the inhibit group would show less autonomic arousal to the model's expressive display (empathy) and less conditioning (as measured by skin conductance and heart rate change), and the amplify group more empathy and conditioning, than a third group who was given no facial instruction. In fact, the amplify group showed more skin conductance arousal, heart rate acceleration, and activity in response to the model's expressive display of pain than did the other two groups (which were not different from each other), but no more autonomic or facial conditioning. The overall pattern of physiological data is interpreted as generally supportive of a facial feedback theory of emotion: where significant between-groups' differences were obtained in facial activity, as in vicarious instigation, autonomic arousal differences also emerged; where no expressive differences were obtained, as in vicarious conditioning, no differences in autonomic arousal were found.
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In line with recent theories of embodied cognition, the authors propose that the self-concept may be embodied in sensory-motor representations. To test this notion, two studies investigated the effects of bodily feedback from a gesture associated with power (making a fist) on the self-concept. As expected, making a fist led male participants to perceive themselves as more assertive and esteemed (Study 1) and to display stronger associations between the self-concept and power (Study 2), while these effects were absent among female participants. The gender difference may reflect that men are more prone to use physical force to gain social influence. The results indicate that people’s conceptions of themselves are partly grounded in bodily experiences.
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Three experiments demonstrated that the experience of power leads to an illusion of personal control. Regardless of whether power was experientially primed (Experiments 1 and 3) or manipulated through roles (manager vs. subordinate; Experiment 2), it led to perceived control over outcomes that were beyond the reach of the power holder. Furthermore, this illusory control mediated the influence of power on several self-enhancement and approach-related outcomes reported in the power literature, including optimism (Experiment 2), self-esteem (Experiment 3), and action orientation (Experiment 3). These results demonstrate the theoretical importance of perceived control as a generative cause of and driving force behind many of power's far-reaching effects. A fourth experiment ruled out an alternative explanation: that positive mood, rather than illusory control, is at the root of power's effects. The discussion considers implications for existing and future research on the psychology of power, perceived control, and positive illusions.
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In this experiment, we tested for opioid and nonopioid mechanisms of pain control through cognitive means and the relation of opioid involvement to perceived coping efficacy. Subjects were taught cognitive methods of pain control, were administered a placebo, or received no intervention. Their pain tolerance was then measured at periodic intervals after they were administered either a saline solution or naloxone, an opiate antagonist that blocks the effects of endogenous opiates. Training in cognitive control strengthened perceived self-efficacy both to withstand and to reduce pain; placebo medication enhanced perceived efficacy to withstand pain but not reductive efficacy; and neither form of perceived self-efficacy changed without any intervention. Regardless of condition, the stronger the perceived self-efficacy to withstand pain, the longer subjects endured mounting pain stimulation. The findings provide evidence that attenuation of the impact of pain stimulation through cognitive control is mediated by both opioid and nonopioid mechanisms. Cognitive copers administered naloxone were less able to tolerate pain stimulation than were their saline counterparts. The stronger the perceived self-efficacy to reduce pain, the greater was the opioid activation. Cognitive copers were also able to achieve some increase in pain tolerance even when opioid mechanisms were blocked by naloxone, which is in keeping with a nonopioid component in cognitive pain control. We found suggestive evidence that placebo medication may also activate some opioid involvement. Because placebos do not impart pain reduction skills, it was perceived self-efficacy to endure pain that predicted degree of opioid activation.
Article
The cold-pressor task was used with 102 female undergraduates in 2 experiments to determine (a) whether self-efficacy has validity as a true causal determinant of behavior change or is a correlate of change that has already occurred and (b) how perceptions of control and self-efficacy interact to determine choice behavior, persistence, and the impact of an aversive stimulus. Results of Experiment 1 indicate that self-efficacy expectations affected performance beyond what would have been expected from past performance alone. Changes in self-efficacy expectations predicted changes in cold-pressor tolerance. These findings suggest that self-efficacy expectations can be causal determinants of behavior in an aversive situation. Results of Experiment 2 indicate that self-efficacy was separable from control and that performance was best if both high levels of perceived control and self-efficacy were present. These findings support the notion that self-efficacy expectations can mediate the desirability of providing control, in that those who benefit most from control are those who are most confident they can exercise it.
Article
Offers explicit conceptual explanations of why and when distraction will be effective in coping with pain-produced distress and reviews research related to this conceptual scheme. A theoretical case for the effectiveness of distraction is drawn from assumptions about the importance of cognition in mediating the pain experience and the limited capacity available for focusing attention on different stimulus events. Combining these assumptions led to 4 principles that were examined with available data. Principle 1 holds that distractions will reduce stress as compared with uninstructed and placebo control conditions. Principle 2 maintains that distraction techniques that require more attentional capacity will be more effective. Principle 3 contends that distraction will have stronger effects on pain stimuli of low intensity. Principle 4 predicts that distraction will be more effective than sensation redefinition for mild pain stimuli, but the reverse will be true for intense pain stimuli. Data support these principles. Research is needed to compare distraction and expectancy control conditions, to test distraction for clinical as opposed to acute pain, to compare distraction strategies that vary in quantified attentional requirements, and to discover the features of pain stimuli. (89 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Bandura's (1977) self-efficacy theory of mastery behavior distinguishes self-efficacy expectancies from outcome expectancies. The relative roles of self-efficacy expectancies, outcome expectancies, and importance were studied as predictors of persistence of pain control in medication-free childbirth. Fifty-two primiparous women made self-efficacy judgments before and during labor and then reported in postdelivery interviews the timing and amount of medication use during labor and delivery. Self-efficacy expectancies predicted persistence in pain control without medication better than outcome expectancies, importance, and seven other alternative predictors, supporting several aspects of construct validation of the self-efficacy expectancy construct. However, self-efficacy and outcome expectancies were very highly correlated and largely redundant in their correlations with mastery. Three possible reasons and implications for the lack of differentiation of self-efficacy and outcome expectancies are discussed.
Article
Two experiments combining intergroup and intrasubject designs were conducted to test the hypothesis that self-percepts of efficacy operate as cognitive mediators of coping behavior and fear arousal. Differential levels of self-efficacy were induced in phobic subjects through either inactive mastery or modeling. Their coping behavior and accompanying fear arousal were then measured. In the next phase, self-efficacy was successively raised to designated levels within the same subjects, whereupon their behavior and fear arousal were again measured. Coping behavior corresponded closely to instated self-percepts of efficacy, with higher levels of perceived self-efficacy being accompanied by greater performance attainments. The efficacy-action relationship was replicated across different modes of efficacy induction, different types of behavioral dysfunctions, and in both intergroup and intrasubject comparisons. The hypothesis that fear arousal stems largely from perceived coping inefficacy also received support from the findings. As subjects' self-efficacy level was raised, they experienced progressively less anticipatory and performance distress while coping with threats. Results of a third experiment using cardiac acceleration and elevation in blood pressure as indicants of arousal further corroborate the generality of the relationship between perceived coping inefficacy and stress reactions.
Article
Discovery of the involvement of endogenous opiates in placebo analgesia represents an important step in understanding the mechanisms underlying placebo response. In the present study, we investigated the effects of the opiate antagonist naloxone and the cholecystokinin antagonist proglumide on placebo analgesia in a human model of experimentally induced ischemic pain. First, we found that part of the placebo response was reversed by naloxone, confirming previous studies on the role of opioids in the placebo phenomenon. Second, since it was demonstrated that the action of exogenous and endogenous opiates is potentiated by proglumide, we analysed the effects of this cholecystokinin antagonist on placebo response and found that it enhanced placebo analgesia. The placebo effect can thus be modulated in two opposite directions: it can be partially abolished by naloxone and potentiated by proglumide. The fact that placebo potentiation by proglumide occurred only in placebo responders, but not in non-responders, suggests that activation of an endogenous opiate system is a necessary condition for the action of proglumide. These results suggest an inhibitory role for cholecystokinin in placebo response, although the low affinity of proglumide for cholecystokinin receptors does not rule out the possibility of other mechanisms.
Article
The underlying bases of the considerable interindividual variability in pain-related traits are starting to be revealed. Although the relative importance of genes versus experience in human pain perception remains unclear, rodent populations display large and heritable differences in both nociceptive and analgesic sensitivity. The identification and characterization of particularly divergent populations provides a powerful initial step in the genetic analysis of pain, because these models can be exploited to identify genes contributing to the behavior-level variability. Ultimately, DNA sequence differences representing the differential alleles at pain-relevant genes can be identified. Thus, by using a combination of "top-down" and "bottom-up" strategies, we are now able to genetically dissect even complex biological traits like pain. The present review summarizes the current progress toward these ends in both humans and rodents.
Article
The chameleon effect refers to nonconscious mimicry of the postures, mannerisms, facial expressions, and other behaviors of one's interaction partners, such that one's behavior passively and unintentionally changes to match that of others in one's current social environment. The authors suggest that the mechanism involved is the perception-behavior link, the recently documented finding (e.g., J. A. Bargh, M. Chen, & L. Burrows, 1996) that the mere perception of another's behavior automatically increases the likelihood of engaging in that behavior oneself. Experiment 1 showed that the motor behavior of participants unintentionally matched that of strangers with whom they worked on a task. Experiment 2 had confederates mimic the posture and movements of participants and showed that mimicry facilitates the smoothness of interactions and increases liking between interaction partners. Experiment 3 showed that dispositionally empathic individuals exhibit the chameleon effect to a greater extent than do other people.
Article
The affective dimension of pain is made up of feelings of unpleasantness and emotions associated with future implications, termed secondary affect. Experimental and clinical studies show serial interactions between pain sensation intensity, pain unpleasantness, and secondary affect. These pain dimensions and their interactions relate to a central network of brain structures that processes nociceptive information both in parallel and in series. Spinal pathways to limbic structures and medial thalamic nuclei provide direct inputs to brain areas involved in affect. Another source is from spinal pathways to somatosensory thalamic and cortical areas and then through a cortico-limbic pathway. The latter integrates nociceptive input with contextual information and memory to provide cognitive mediation of pain affect. Both direct and cortico-limbic pathways converge on the same anterior cingulate cortical and subcortical structures whose function may be to establish emotional valence and response priorities.
Animal and human research has shown that pain sensitivity changes during the menstrual cycle. This has sometimes been ascribed to hormonal variations. The aim of the present study was to examine how perception of pain, induced by the cold pressor test to the dominant hand, was related to gender and phases of the menstrual cycle. A repeated-measures design was used, where twenty-two female students participated at two different phases of the menstrual cycle (days 2-4 and days 20-24). A control group of nineteen male students participated on two occasions, separated by a three week period. The cycle phase during which each woman began her participation was randomized. Pain was induced using the cold pressor test. Pain threshold was determined as the duration of time between when the subject first reported pain and exposure to the painful stimulus. Pain tolerance was determined as the duration of time until the subject withdraw her/his hand from the test water because the pain was too intensive. The results showed that men tolerated significantly greater pain than women. Women's pain threshold was significantly higher during the second phase of the menstrual cycle. Systolic pressure was higher in men than women, increasing more in men in response to cold pressor testing than women. Further research, including measurements of plasma hormone levels during the menstrual cycle, is needed to clarify the role played by estrogens in pain perception.
Article
Research has demonstrated that women report more pain than men, and clinical observations suggest that attenuated adrenocortical activity is associated with high pain sensitivity. The extent to which cortisol concentrations and hemodynamics contribute to gender differences in pain sensitivity has not been investigated. Thirty-four women and 31 men performed the hand cold pressor test (CPT). Participants rated their pain every 15 s during a 90-s CPT and a 90-s post-CPT recovery period and reported pain using the McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ). Salivary cortisol samples and cardiovascular measures were collected prior to, during, and after the CPT. Women reported greater pain than men during and after the CPT and on the MPQ (Ps<0.01). CPT disrupted the expected diurnal decline in cortisol, as shown by a significant increase in cortisol concentration post-CPT (P<0.01) in men and women. Regression analyses revealed that pre-CPT cortisol concentrations predicted lower pain reports during and after CPT in men only (P<0.01). Systolic blood pressure (BP) and stroke volume correlated negatively with pain reports only in women (Ps<0.05). Controlling for potential confounding variables did not alter these relationships. The negative association between pre-CPT cortisol and pain perception in men and the association between BP and pain in women demonstrate different physiological predictors of pain perception in men and women.
Article
This article examines how power influences behavior. Elevated power is associated with increased rewards and freedom and thereby activates approach-related tendencies. Reduced power is associated with increased threat, punishment, and social constraint and thereby activates inhibition-related tendencies. The authors derive predictions from recent theorizing about approach and inhibition and review relevant evidence. Specifically, power is associated with (a) positive affect, (b) attention to rewards, (c) automatic information processing, and (d) disinhibited behavior. In contrast, reduced power is associated with (a) negative affect; (b) attention to threat, punishment, others' interests, and those features of the self that are relevant to others' goals; (c) controlled information processing; and (d) inhibited social behavior. The potential moderators and consequences of these power-related behavioral patterns are discussed.
Article
The hormone testosterone (T) is involved in the control of aggressive behavior in male vertebrates. T enhances the frequency and intensity of aggressive behaviors during competitive interactions among males. By promoting high-intensity aggression, T also increases the risk of injury and presumably the perception of painful stimuli. However, perception of painful stimuli during fights could counteract the expression of further aggressive behavior. We therefore hypothesize that one function of T during aggressive interactions is to reduce nociception (pain sensitivity). Here, we experimentally document that T indeed reduces behavioral responsiveness to a thermal painful stimulus in captive male house sparrows (Passer domesticus). Skin nociception was quantified by foot immersion into a hot water bath, a benign thermal stimulus. Males treated with exogenous testosterone left their foot longer in hot water than control birds. Conversely, males in which the physiological actions of testosterone were pharmacologically blocked withdrew their foot faster than control birds. Testosterone might exert its effects on pain sensitivity through conversion into estradiol in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord. Decreased nociception during aggressive encounters may promote the immediate and future willingness of males to engage in high-intensity fights.
Article
The vertical dimension of interpersonal relations (relating to dominance, power, and status) was examined in association with nonverbal behaviors that included facial behavior, gaze, interpersonal distance, body movement, touch, vocal behaviors, posed encoding skill, and others. Results were separately summarized for people's beliefs (perceptions) about the relation of verticality to nonverbal behavior and for actual relations between verticality and nonverbal behavior. Beliefs/perceptions were stronger and much more prevalent than were actual verticality effects. Perceived and actual relations were positively correlated across behaviors. Heterogeneity was great, suggesting that verticality is not a psychologically uniform construct in regard to nonverbal behavior. Finally, comparison of the verticality effects to those that have been documented for gender in relation to nonverbal behavior revealed only a limited degree of parallelism.
Article
In 6 studies, the authors examined the perception of dominance complementarity, which is the perception of a target as different from the self in terms of dominance. The authors argue that these perceptions are motivated by the desire for positive task relationships. Because dominance complementarity bodes well for task-oriented relationships, seeing dominance complementarity allows one to be optimistic about a work relationship. As evidence that perceptions of dominance complementarity are an instance of motivated perception, the authors show that complementary perceptions occur when participants think about or expect task-oriented relationships with the target and that perceptions of dominance complementarity are enhanced when individuals care about the task component of the relationship.
Change in grip force (depicted as difference scores; statistical analysis examined time 2 controlling for time 1; error bars are SEs)
  • Fig
Fig. 5. Change in grip force (depicted as difference scores; statistical analysis examined time 2 controlling for time 1; error bars are SEs).
Interpersonal diagnosis of personality
  • T Leary
Leary, T. (1957). Interpersonal diagnosis of personality. New York: Ronald Press.