Article

The "What" and "Why" of Goal Pursuits: Human Needs and the Self-Determination of Behavior

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  • Australian Catholic University North Sydney
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Abstract

Self-determination theory (SDT) maintains that an understanding of human motivation requires a consideration of innate psychological needs for competence, autonomy, and relatedness. We discuss the SDT concept of needs as it relates to previous need theories, emphasizing that needs specify the necessary conditions for psychological growth, integrity, and well-being. This concept of needs leads to the hypotheses that different regulatory processes underlying goal pursuits are differentially associated with effective functioning and well-being and also that different goal contents have different relations to the quality of behavior and mental health, specifically because different regulatory processes and different goal contents are associated with differing degrees of need satisfaction. Social contexts and individual differences that support satisfaction of the basic needs facilitate natural growth processes including intrinsically motivated behavior and integration of extrinsic motivations, whereas those that forestall autonomy, competence, or relatedness are associated with poorer motivation, performance, and well-being. We also discuss the relation of the psychological needs to cultural values, evolutionary processes, and other contemporary motivation theories.

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... 14) es, según la teoría de la autodeterminación y el trabajo de Deci y Ryan (2000;, una de las tres grandes necesidades, junto con la autonomía y la competencia. Deci y Ryan encontraron que la capacidad de establecer relaciones es universal e innata a los humanos, y un elemento requerido para nuestro bienestar psicológico (Deci & Ryan, 2000;Ryan & Deci, 2002;Ryff & Keyes, 1995). Se demostró que la mayor parte de lo que hace la gente es en nombre de este impulso interpersonal (Baumeister & Leary, 1995). ...
... Este artículo presenta un enfoque escalonado piramidal basado en estudios y hallazgos realizados sobre la construcción de una intimidad, compromiso y confianza saludables en el entorno en línea (Salaric, relationships and health The need of relatedness -the need for "warm, mutual and trusting relationships with people that you care about" (Desmet & Fokkinga, 2018;p.14) is, according to self-determination theory and the work of Deci and Ryan (2000;, one of the big three needs, along with autonomy and competence. Deci and Ryan found relatedness to be universal and innate to humans, and a required element to one's psychological well-being (Deci & Ryan, 2000;Ryan & Deci, 2002;Ryff & Keyes, 1995). ...
... is, according to self-determination theory and the work of Deci and Ryan (2000;, one of the big three needs, along with autonomy and competence. Deci and Ryan found relatedness to be universal and innate to humans, and a required element to one's psychological well-being (Deci & Ryan, 2000;Ryan & Deci, 2002;Ryff & Keyes, 1995). It was shown that most of what people do is in the name of this interpersonal drive (Baumeister & Leary, 1995). ...
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humans have the innate need to belong and relate to others. stable relationships are a great influencer of happiness and health and, therefore, should receive stronger attention for their nurture. online environment is steadily becoming the primary source of relationship formation, however, its instability poses threats to build stable relationships. since online communication is increasingly used in relationship formation and communication, it holds opportunities for design interventions that support stable relationship creation. this paper introduces a pyramidical laddering approach that guides the building of online communication from the basis of stable creation of intimacy, to satisfying the needs of belonging and relatedness, to ultimately delivering well-being. the approach that was developed through the authors’ prior research aims to deal with the identified main barriers of online communication, distrust and disengagement, and their influence on the formation of stable connections in order to enable healthy intimacy formation in the online environment. this paper brings attention to the importance of romantic relationships on health and highlights opportunities for further research in the thus far under-researched area of design for relation making to support well-being and health of society.
... Based on the Self-determination theory framework (Deci & Ryan, 2000;Ryan & Deci, 2017), and Holding et al.'s (2020) previous work, we propose that through these sacrifices, workers may well be sacrificing their basic psychological needs-at work and in their personal life-in order to create the necessary leeway to better fulfill roles, responsibilities, or goals in the alternate domain. For instance, workers may turn in a less than perfect report-a sacrifice of competence at work -to spend more time with their families. ...
... We argue, however, that trade-offs affecting workers' psychological need satisfaction can be even more deleterious. Based on the premises of self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 2000;Ryan & Deci, 2017) and recent work from Holding et al. (2020), we propose that sacrificing basic psychological needs to manage the work-personal interface will have detrimental effects on individuals' well-being, as well as enhanced work-family conflicts. Hence, there are two primary purposes for this investigation. ...
... The present research contributes to existing knowledge by extending the rare research on sacrifices workers impose on themselves to manage their worklife interface better. Another significant contribution lies in the introduction and integration of Self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 2000;Ryan & Deci, 2017) within the worklife interface literature: the addition of a motivational component (i.e., psychological needs) provides new insights into workers' strategies to juggle work and non-work requests and further our understanding of the results that follow. ...
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Research has suggested that sacrifices are made to manage the work-home interface. They have been however, related to various deleterious effects. Drawing from self-determination theory, we argue that the sacrifice of psychological needs is worse than the sacrifice of activities such as maintenance and leisure in terms of personal functioning. The present two studies investigate whether sacrifices made in one life sphere to attend matters in another are negatively related to well-being and satisfaction, through enhanced work-family conflict, and whether all sacrifices are created equal. One transversal (n = 141) and one three-wave prospective (n = 78) study were conducted among convenience samples of workers who answered online surveys. Results revealed that personal psychological need sacrifices were negatively related to well-being via family to work conflict (FWC) and work to family conflict (WFC), over and beyond other types of sacrifice. In addition, personal psychological need sacrifices led to decreased life and professional satisfaction over 3 months, via FWC and WFC. Hence, need sacrifices, especially those made in the personal sphere, come at a cost and may not be the best long-term strategy to manage one’s work-home interface.
... It can be defined as internal processes that give energy and direction to behavior (Seli and Dembo, 2012), or, in other words, the willingness to make physical or mental efforts focused on a goal or outcome (Rodríguez, 2006;Schunk, Meece and Pintrich, 2012). Theorists in this field -most particularly the authors of the Self-Determination Theory (Deci and Ryan, 2000) -consider it a continuum in which, at one end, there will be demotivation, extrinsic motivation and its forms of regulation (ranging from the most external to integrated regulation), and, at the other, there will be intrinsic motivation. In general terms, extrinsic motivation, in its most extreme characterization, would be associated with engagement in actions due to the need to avoid punishment and the search for reward or recognition, while intrinsic motivation would be inherent to the activity itself and would be related to actions performed by choice, interest or pleasure (Deci and Ryan, 2000;2002;Reeve, 2002;Boruchovitch, 2008;Sogunro, 2015;Bzuneck and Boruchovitch, 2019;Ryan and Deci, 2017;. ...
... Theorists in this field -most particularly the authors of the Self-Determination Theory (Deci and Ryan, 2000) -consider it a continuum in which, at one end, there will be demotivation, extrinsic motivation and its forms of regulation (ranging from the most external to integrated regulation), and, at the other, there will be intrinsic motivation. In general terms, extrinsic motivation, in its most extreme characterization, would be associated with engagement in actions due to the need to avoid punishment and the search for reward or recognition, while intrinsic motivation would be inherent to the activity itself and would be related to actions performed by choice, interest or pleasure (Deci and Ryan, 2000;2002;Reeve, 2002;Boruchovitch, 2008;Sogunro, 2015;Bzuneck and Boruchovitch, 2019;Ryan and Deci, 2017;. In terms of motivation in its various forms, people can act because they value an activity or for personal interest, but they can also engage in it due to coercion or fear, for example. ...
... Only extrinsic motivation had a weak and negative correlation with learning strategies related to social self-regulation, indicating that more extrinsically motivated students employed fewer strategies such as studying in groups or with the help of colleagues. The literature shows that extrinsically motivated students tend to be more concerned about their performance, with doing well, and doing better than their colleagues (Ames, 1992;Deci and Ryan, 2000;Sogunro, 2015;Bzuneck and Boruchovitch, 2019). The result may be related to this fact, so future studies are recommended in order to assess this hypothesis in larger and more representative samples. ...
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Studies emphasize the role of psychological variables as favoring knowledge acquisition and transversal competencies in Higher Education, as well as students’ performance and academic success. Among the psychological variables, self-efficacy perception, motivation to learn and learning strategies stand out. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between these variables and their impact on academic success, as assessed by the performance coefficient. The study enrolled 521 students of both sexes, of different year of study, in the three areas of knowledge. Data indicate a correlation between the studied psychological variables, which explained about 11% of the variation in academic performance, with fluctuations in this percentage explained according to the scientific area of the courses. Strong correlations were observed between self-efficacy and extrinsic motivation with academic performance, highlighting the need for new investigations about learning strategies.
... In line with this theory, Making a HIIT aims to enhance HPE lessons by introducing curriculum content targeting high-intensity physical activity and using co-design, which could potentially enhance student engagement throughout the intervention [21]. Making a HIIT also includes components that support the basic psychological needs (autonomy, competence, and relatedness) described within self-determination theory (SDT), including the co-design process, exercise modifications, and partner and group workouts [22,23]. The combined use of these two theories to inform the study aim to support meaningful opportunities for physical activity and foster students' motivation to participate. ...
... Three innate psychological needs are encompassed within SDT: autonomy (the need to be self-governed), relatedness (need to feel connected and accepted by others), and competence (the need to succeed in various tasks) [22]. The basic needs theory within SDT hypothesizes that when these needs are met students will have improved intrinsic motivation, wellbeing, and health [22,54,55]. ...
... Three innate psychological needs are encompassed within SDT: autonomy (the need to be self-governed), relatedness (need to feel connected and accepted by others), and competence (the need to succeed in various tasks) [22]. The basic needs theory within SDT hypothesizes that when these needs are met students will have improved intrinsic motivation, wellbeing, and health [22,54,55]. Five 7-point Likert scale questions will be used to assess each need. ...
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Background High-intensity interval training (HIIT) is an effective strategy for improving a variety of health outcomes within the school setting. However, there is limited research on the implementation of school-based HIIT interventions and the integration of HIIT within the Health and Physical Education (HPE) curriculum. The aims of the Making a HIIT study are to: 1) describe the methodology and evaluate the feasibility of co-designing HIIT workouts with students and teachers in HPE; 2) determine the effect of co-designed HIIT workouts on cardiorespiratory and muscular fitness, and executive function; 3) understand the effect of co-design on students’ motivation, enjoyment, and self-efficacy towards the workouts; and 4) evaluate the implementation of the intervention. Methods Three schools will participate. Within each school, three different groups will be formed from Year 7 and 8 classes: 1) Co-Designers; 2) HIIT Only; and 3) Control. The study will include two phases. In phase one, Group 1 will co-design HIIT workouts as part of the HPE curriculum using an iterative process with the researcher, teacher, and students as collaborators. This process will be evaluated using student discussions, student surveys, and teacher interviews. In phase two, Groups 1 and 2 will use the co-designed 10-minute HIIT workouts in HPE for 8-weeks. Group 3 (control) will continue their regular HPE lessons. All students will participate in cardiorespiratory fitness, muscular fitness, and executive function assessments before and after the HIIT program or control period. Students will complete questionnaires on their motivation, enjoyment, and self-efficacy of the workouts. Differences between groups will be assessed using linear regressions to account for covariates. Heart rate and rating of perceived exertion will be collected during each HIIT session. The implementation will be evaluated using the Framework for Effective Implementation. Ethical approval was granted by the University of Queensland Human Research Ethics Committee and other relevant bodies. Discussion This study will be the first to co-design HIIT workouts with teachers and students within the HPE curriculum. As this study relies on co-design, each HIIT workout will differ, which will add variability between HIIT workouts but increase the ecological validity of the study. Trial registration ACTRN, ACTRN12622000534785 , Registered 5 April 2022 – Retrospectively registered, https://www.anzctr.org.au/ACTRN12622000534785.aspx
... En esta línea, Himeno y Tano (2019) basan su estudio de los juegos sociales para smartphones en la pirámide de necesidades de Maslow (1943). Ryan y colaboradores (2006) investigaron la motivación para jugar juegos de computadora a través de tres necesidades psicológicas básicas incluidas en la Teoría de la Autodeterminación (Deci & Ryan, 2000). La segunda razón es que las necesidades han desempeñado un papel clave en los efectos sobre el bienestar relacionados con el covid-19: en el contexto de la pandemia, la disminución del bienestar parece haberse derivado en gran medida del obstáculo para ejecutar las prácticas que las personas normalmente realizan para satisfacer sus necesidades. ...
... Two examples of fundamental needs are relatedness ("having warm, mutual, trusting relationships with people who you care about"; Desmet & Fokkinga, 2020, p. 10) and autonomy ("being the cause of your actions and feeling that you can do things your own way"; Desmet & Fokkinga, 2020, p. 9). They are the basic requirements for the functioning of an organism (Deci & Ryan, 2000), the basic nutriments of human well-being (Tay & Diener, 2011), and a direct source of meaning and pleasure (i.e., events and activities that fulfil our needs are experienced as meaningful and pleasurable; Sheldon et al., 2001). We used psychological needs as a lens for our inquiry for two reasons. ...
... The first is direct relationship between games and psychological needs: Gameplay is driven by intrinsic motivation, which arises from fundamental need fulfilment (Deterding et al., 2011). In line with this, Himeno and Tano (2019) based their study of social games for smartphones on Maslow's (1943) hierarchy of needs, and Ryan et al. (2006) investigated the motivation for computer game play via three basic psychological needs included in Self-Determination Theory (Deci & Ryan, 2000). The second reason is that needs have played a key role in the covid-19 related well-being effects: In the context of the pandemic, diminished well-being seemed to have largely stemmed from the hindrance of practices that people normally engage in to fulfil their needs. ...
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The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in various unpleasant affective responses and dysfunctional behaviours, which created an urgent demand for effective interventions to support people’s coping and resilience. In addition to common forms of intervention, alternative approaches have also been explored, including the use of COVID-19-themed games to educate people about the pandemic. The present study explores the diversity of games and gamified interventions developed for the context of the COVID-19 pandemic through the lens of fundamental human needs. By providing an example of how human needs can inform design decisions, the article aims to inform and inspire readers who are interested in developing new impactful game-based interventions for similar large-scale crises.
... In a similar vein, the motivational process of the JD-R theory (Demerouti et al., 2001) considers job characteristics as job resources, i.e., motivational aspects of work that help employees to reduce job demands and promote personal development fulfilling fundamental psychological needs Similarly, self-determination theory (SDT; Deci and Ryan, 2000) is a motivational theory aligning with JCT, in the sense that SDT also portrays work environment characteristics as influential on work outcomes -albeit, through the satisfaction of basic psychological needs of autonomy, competence and relatedness. Autonomy refers to the need for individuals to be in control of their actions and behaviour, competence is the need to feel efficacy when dealing with the environment, and relatedness is the need to feel connected and valued (Deci and Ryan, 2000). ...
... In a similar vein, the motivational process of the JD-R theory (Demerouti et al., 2001) considers job characteristics as job resources, i.e., motivational aspects of work that help employees to reduce job demands and promote personal development fulfilling fundamental psychological needs Similarly, self-determination theory (SDT; Deci and Ryan, 2000) is a motivational theory aligning with JCT, in the sense that SDT also portrays work environment characteristics as influential on work outcomes -albeit, through the satisfaction of basic psychological needs of autonomy, competence and relatedness. Autonomy refers to the need for individuals to be in control of their actions and behaviour, competence is the need to feel efficacy when dealing with the environment, and relatedness is the need to feel connected and valued (Deci and Ryan, 2000). ...
... Several studies have integrated SDT into the JCT framework (Fernet et al., 2013;Olafsen and Halvari, 2017), which is consistent with Deci and Ryan's (2000) proposition that satisfaction of psychological needs mediates the effects of job characteristics on favorable work outcomes. ...
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The purpose of the present study is to examine the dynamic relationship between daily job characteristics proposed by job characteristics theory (job autonomy, task variety, significance, identity, and feedback) and change oriented organizational citizenship behavior (OCB-CH). A daily diary survey study design was used, in which 61 employees working in different organizations in Greece, completed a structured questionnaire for five consecutive working days (N = 305 occasions). Results from multilevel regression analysis supported the role of daily job autonomy, daily task significance and daily job feedback as within-person positive correlates of OCB-CH. Our model explained 17.72% of the variance in OCB-CH ratings. The study highlights the importance of core job characteristics, for the execution of daily OCB-CH in organizations. However not all job characteristics are suitable for promoting the execution of daily OCB-CH. Managers can enhance their employees’ daily OCB-CH by interventions aiming at increasing daily task variety, and task significance along with the degree of daily job autonomy granted to employees.
... Then, significant group differences in school belongingness on well-being indicators were found. Selfdetermination theory (Deci & Ryan, 2000) and related research have already emphasized the crucial role of schoolbased belongingness for psychological well-being and overall adjustment (Arslan, 2021a;Arslan & Allen, 2021;Dubow et al., 1991;Ryzin et al., 2009) and better school functioning (Ryzin et al., 2009). The current results approved these early findings higher school belongingness in academically at-risk adolescents was an indicator of increased psychological and emotional well-being. ...
... As explained, revealed, and discussed above, school belongingness is a school-based contributor to the fulfillment of a basic psychological need, which is crucially important for the personal and academic recoveries and development of students. As the need-to-belong theory (Baumeister & Leary, 1995) and the self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 2000) have already described belongingness as a basic motivational human need, and the current findings have captured the importance of these theoretical views in the school context, specifically through the concept of school belongingness. Furthermore, all these findings emphasize the vitality of applying school belongingness-oriented prevention and intervention programs for promoting psychological health and academic improvement in the school environment. ...
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The fundamental psychological need for belongingness in the school setting is a crucial determinant of students' school-based and overall functioning in life. This study aims to examine the effects of school belongingness on resilience (academic resilience and buoyancy), social support, psychological well-being, and distress in academically at-risk adolescents. The study participants comprised 257 academically at-risk adolescents attending a public secondary and high school in a city in Turkey. Students were 42% (n = 109) female and 58% (n = 148), ranging in age between 11 and 18 years (M = 13.825, SD = 1.673). Results revealed that a school-based sense of inclusion was significantly and positively related to academic resilience, academic buoyancy, social functioning, and psychological well-being, but negatively to psychological and emotional distress. The findings also highlighted the crucial role of school belonging for academically high-risk adolescent groups' mental health and well-being. All findings were discussed under the related literature and suggestions were made for future research and practices.
... The theoretical framework of this research and the study variables are derived from TAM (Davis, 1989) and SDT (Deci & Ryan, 2000). Davis (1989) proposed a technology acceptance model to describe the acceptance and the use of information technology (IT). ...
... Lee et al.'s (2015) findings confirmed an important relationship between the SDT and technology acceptance. SDT is a contemporary macro-theory of motivation, presuming that people naturally tend to be motivated to achieve social cohesion, well-being, and personal growth by combining external rules in selfregulations (Deci & Ryan, 2000;Lee et al., 2015). This theory offers two motivations for adopting technology. ...
Article
Evidence shows that smart phones have increasingly become an essential part of people's everyday lives and leisure activities. However, the role that mobile phones play in tourist engagement with leisure activities remains ambiguous. Therefore, the aim of this research was to assess the features of mobile apps of E-leisure (MAOEL) leading to tourist engagement and the antecedents and consequences of engagement. In this study, the technology acceptance model and self-determination theory were used. The study data were collected from 383 international tourists, who visited Iran in September and November 2019. Statistical analysis with structural equation modelling was performed with Smart PLS 3.0 software. The findings show that factors, including perceived ease of use, subjective norms, perceived enjoyment, and perceived usefulness, are important for enhancing tourist engagement with MAOEL. Also, tourist engagement with MAOEL and its reinforcement leads to increasing attitude toward brand and brand usage intention. These findings will help leisure service managers and practitioners to use mobile applications to improve and develop tourists' E-leisure experiences. ARTICLE HISTORY
... For example, findings indicate that teachers who develop more meaningful connections tend to observe not only better student outcomes (e.g., academic motivation and performance; Roorda et al., 2011) but also higher levels of motivation and well-being in themselves (e.g., self-efficacy, positive emotions; Spilt et al., 2011). To further understand how teachers approach teacher-student relationships, social motivation researchers have proposed multiple relevant constructs including relatedness (Deci & Ryan, 2000), interpersonal self-efficacy (Veldman et al., 2017), and social/relational goal orientations (Butler, 2012). Whereas relatedness pertains to perceptions of closeness with students and self-efficacy reflects perceived interpersonal competencies, social goals instead involving teachers' willingness to actively initiate and develop relationships with students. ...
Article
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Positive teacher-student relationships are recognized as critical social resources for promoting dyadic well-being and adaptive instruction. However, there is scarce research on the relationship between teachers’ motivation for connecting with students and teachers’ psychological adjustment. To explore the relationship, this study applied the job demands-resources model to investigate how teachers’ social goal orientations corresponded with their well-being, job satisfaction, and school commitment, with burnout and work engagement as mediating variables. Whereas teachers’ social mastery-approach goals (attempting to improve student relationship-building competencies) were expected to serve as beneficial psychological resources, their social work-avoidance goals (putting minimum effort into student relationships) were hypothesized to function as would detrimental occupational demands. Findings from mediational structural equation modeling of questionnaire responses from Canadian K-12 teachers (N = 154) showed teachers with stronger social mastery-approach goals to be more engaged and, in turn, report greater well-being, job satisfaction, and school commitment. In contrast, teachers with stronger social work-avoidance goals reported less work engagement that was further associated with lower well-being and job satisfaction, as well as greater burnout and, in turn, poorer job satisfaction. Implications concerning teachers’ interpersonal appraisals and psychological health initiatives were discussed.
... Vallerand and his colleagues [50][51][52] developed a passion model for the inherent dualism of passion. Similar to the self-determination theory proposed by Deci & Ryan [53], DMP states that humans are motivated to examine their surroundings in order to grow. Vallerand et al. [51] characterized passion as a strong tendency towards a self-defined activity that one prefers, deems necessary, and in which one invests time and energy on a regular basis. ...
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Composting is a sustainable way of transforming organic waste into valuable organic fertilizers which have the potential to act as soil conditioners by controlling various biological processes. The prime objective of the current study was to determine the influencing factors behind the intent of home food waste composting, by employing the combined model of Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and Dualistic Passion Model (DMP). The combined model showed a higher predictive ability in comparison to the individual TPB model. The fit statistic of the integrated model was deemed good, and 65% of the variance for home composting intention was explained. Using a face-to-face questionnaire survey, a total of 203 valid responses were gathered from home gardeners and tested via a unique two-step methodology: the PLS-SEM and the artificial neural network (ANN). The results revealed that the composting intention can be significantly influenced by attitude, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control. The study also confirmed the positive effect of harmonious passion and the negative effect of obsessive passion on the intention of food waste composting. Furthermore, the hybrid method produced more reliable results because HP was found to be the most important variable in both ANN and PLS-SEM results, while PBC was observed to be the second most important variable in ANN and the fourth most important in PLS-SEM. The results of the current study not only highlight the importance of passion in determining food waste composting intention in Dhaka, Bangladesh, but also provide helpful information for designing effective, sustainable tactics for encouraging residents to compost food waste at home.
... Moreover, collaborative groups are mostly organised outside lecture halls without professor's guidance. Students that appreciated group work and collaborative activities are found to have a greater occurrence of deep learning strategies, confirming also other studies findings (Deci & Ryan, 2000;Scager et al., 2016). Students' option regarding the crucial component of a good master program is building collaborative groups and mentoring teacher-students groups activities (M = 5.6, SD = 0.842). ...
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Student’s voice is frequently not relevant for study program design. The issue addressed in this study is the analysis of student voice in master programs. It does this by aiming to identify student perceptions and expectations, their achievement goals, as well as students’ perceptions and expectation for an optimal learning environment. This addresses their need and desire to pursue a program which supports workplace trends. Cross-sectional research was undertaken to understand students’ demands in master’s programs, their learning strategies and study skills and accordingly increase opportunities for learning and career advancement with a structured and comprehensive approach. The results confirm that students are highly motivated when pursuing master programs, expecting to receive a solid professional preparation and benefit from practical activities. The impact of the master program activities on learning outcomes of students was ranked in descending order of the average score: educational objectives attained (M = 5.36), increased interest for learning and professional development (M = 5.39), the great impact of practical activities on learning (M = 5.41), intellectual challenging activities (M = 5.43). Faculty and university management should consider student voice to improve and innovate master programs, being valuable experts when it comes to their own learning experience.
... Tailoring the type of sleep intervention and the mode of delivery to the individual means that there will be a higher degree of autonomy (having a sense of choice) and competence (feeling able to perform a task). These are important mediators of behaviour change and intrinsic motivation [62]. Supporting an individual to improve their sleep through a behavioural intervention requires the individual to feel motivation first to engage in, and then to sustain the behaviour. ...
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Background Up to 20% of patients experience long-term pain and dissatisfaction after total knee replacement, with a negative impact on their quality of life. New approaches are needed to reduce the proportion of people to go on to experience chronic post-surgical pain. Sleep and pain are bidirectionally linked with poor sleep linked to greater pain. Interventions to improve sleep among people undergoing knee replacement offer a promising avenue. Health beliefs and barriers to engagement were explored using behaviour change theory. This study followed stages 1–4 of the Medical Research Council’s guidance for complex intervention development to develop a novel intervention aimed at improving sleep in pre-operative knee replacement patients. Methods Pre-operative focus groups and post-operative telephone interviews were conducted with knee replacement patients. Before surgery, focus groups explored sleep experiences and views about existing sleep interventions (cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia, exercise, relaxation, mindfulness, sleep hygiene) and barriers to engagement. After surgery, telephone interviews explored any changes in sleep and views about intervention appropriateness. Data were audio-recorded, transcribed, anonymised, and analysed using framework analysis. Results Overall, 23 patients took part, 17 patients attended pre-operative focus groups, seven took part in a post-operative telephone interview, and one took part in a focus group and interview. Key sleep issues identified were problems getting to sleep, frequent waking during the night, and problems getting back to sleep after night waking. The main reason for these issues was knee pain and discomfort and a busy mind. Participants felt that the sleep interventions were generally acceptable with no general preference for one intervention over the others. Views of delivery mode varied in relation to digital move and group or one-to-one approaches. Conclusion Existing sleep interventions were found to be acceptable to knee replacement patients. Key barriers to engagement related to participants’ health beliefs. Addressing beliefs about the relationship between sleep and pain and enhancing understanding of the bidirectional/cyclical relationship could benefit engagement and motivation. Individuals may also require support to break the fear and avoidance cycle of pain and coping. A future intervention should ensure that patients’ preferences for sleep interventions and delivery mode can be accommodated in a real-world context.
... Such affective conflicts promote the emergence of worry, inhibition, pain avoidance, and frustration during learning. Negative affective states have been highly correlated with a decrease in intrinsic motivation (Deci et al., 2000), outcome expectancies for mastery (Pekrun et al., 2009), rate of performance (Larsen et al., 2004), perceptions of competence (Woolworth et al., 2008), satisfaction with one's progress in achieving goals. In the context of achievement emotions, a fixed mindset leads to unrealizable goals and lower or negative achievement emotions for high-risk learning activities ( Dweck, 2007). ...
... Deci and Ryan (2012) defined autonomy as an individual's need to act with a sense of ownership of their behavior and feel psychologically free. Experiencing autonomy does not mean acting independently of others but refers to being able to control one's own actions, which may exist within a framework set by others (Deci & Ryan, 2000;Van den Broeck et al., 2010). Social contexts vary significantly in terms of the degree to which they allow or hinder the satisfaction of this need. ...
Article
Based on a longitudinal survey of K-12 teachers in Switzerland (N = 533), a conditional effects model was used to analyze the relationships between teachers' work overload, prolonging working hours as a coping strategy, autonomy, and exhaustion. The findings showed that the effect of work overload on exhaustion was fully mediated by prolonging working hours. Autonomy moderated the longitudinal effects of work overload on exhaustion. Simple slope analyses demonstrated that autonomy buffered the negative effects of work overload on exhaustion.
... In our prior qualitative research with ART-eligible adults living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa, our group developed an explanatory model of treatment refusal [31], informed by literature on ART non-initiation, and prior research performed by members of our team focused on barriers to engagement in care [32][33][34][35]. While a model for ART initiation among PLHIV may not be directly applicable to PrEP initiation among women who are at high-risk for HIV acquisition, we believe that the framework, based on the Theory of Triadic Influence [36], provides a useful foundation by focusing on three "streams of influence" impacting health behavior at the individual-, social-, and structural-levels [37,38]. Specifically, at the individual level, the perceived risks associated with starting PrEP may be greater than maintaining the status quo. ...
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Few studies have focused on understanding pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) non-initiation among young, high-risk women in sub-Saharan Africa. This study aimed to qualitatively explore why young women in Kenya at high-risk for HIV chose not to enroll in a PrEP adherence trial. We performed 40 semi-structured interviews with young high-risk women assessing concerns about PrEP and/or study participation. We also assessed community-level factors influencing decision-making around PrEP through 10 focus groups involving peers, young men, caregivers, and community leaders. Our qualitative data reflect the complexity of navigating barriers preventing PrEP initiation in settings where taking PrEP may be perceived as immoral behavior. Framed within the context of risk perception, the decision to start PrEP may run counter to the potential risk of losing support from one's community. Our findings suggest that approaches addressing social norms, while de-medicalizing HIV prevention services, are needed to further increase PrEP uptake among young Kenyan women.
... Such affective conflicts promote the emergence of worry, inhibition, pain avoidance, and frustration during learning. Negative affective states have been highly correlated with a decrease in intrinsic motivation (Deci et al., 2000), outcome expectancies for mastery (Pekrun et al., 2009), rate of performance (Larsen et al., 2004), perceptions of competence (Woolworth et al., 2008), satisfaction with one's progress in achieving goals. In the context of achievement emotions, a fixed mindset leads to unrealizable goals and lower or negative achievement emotions for high-risk learning activities ( Dweck, 2007). ...
... Its self-transcendent nature allows individuals to set aside their day-to-day concerns and reach out beyond their self-boundary (Jiang et al., 2018;Jiang & Sedikides, 2021;Reed, 1991), which liberates individuals from the constraints of daily life and fosters a sense of autonomy. Autonomy enables a sense of freedom to follow one's own heart and encourages people to pursue their intrinsic goals (Deci & Ryan, 2000). Consistent with these suggestions, Jiang and Sedikides (2021) further found that awe motivated people to pursue the authentic self, as manifested by their important goals and values. ...
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RESUMO Estudos enfatizam o papel de variáveis psicológicas como favorecedoras da aquisição de conhecimentos e de competências transversais no Ensino Superior, assim como do desempenho e sucesso acadêmico dos estudantes. Entre as variáveis psicológicas, destacam-se a percepção de autoeficácia, a motivação para aprender e as estratégias de aprendizagem. Este estudo objetivou avaliar a relação entre tais variáveis e seu impacto no sucesso acadêmico, avaliado por meio do coeficiente de rendimento. Participaram 521 estudantes de ambos os gêneros, em diferentes anos de formação e de cursos das três áreas de conhecimento. Os dados indicam correlação entre as variáveis psicológicas estudadas, que explicam 11% da variação do rendimento acadêmico, havendo oscilações nessa percentagem em função da área científica dos cursos. Observaram-se fortes correlações da autoeficácia e da motivação extrínseca com o rendimento, e indica-se a necessidade de novas investigações acerca das estratégias de aprendizagem.
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Purpose This study supposes to provide new insights into the role of leader behaviors in motivating employees by examining how and when spiritual leadership and contingent reward leadership facilitate employee vigor at work. Design/methodology/approach Drawing from self-determination theory (SDT), the current study proposes that spiritual leadership intrinsically motivates employees, whereas contingent reward leadership extrinsically motivates employees – both of which subsequently improve employee vigor at work. The theoretical model was tested through a sample of 191 employees collected across three time points in China. Findings Results revealed that spiritual leadership positively facilitates employee vigor at work through enhancing their work enjoyment, and employees' need for achievement can amplify the effects of spiritual leadership. In addition, employees' performance-reward expectancy transmits the effects of contingent reward leadership on employee vigor at work, and leaders' performance expectations play a key role in strengthening the positive influences of contingent reward leadership. Originality/value Based on SDT, this study provides a comprehensive explanation of how and when two patterns of leader behaviors affect employee vigor at work. Therefore, the authors provide significant insights for leadership and work design in human resource management.
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Purpose The content of training (art-based method) and instructional strategies (blended learning) can improve business school students' creativity and attempts to determine how training can be maintained using longitudinal tracking. The study aims to answer (1) whether the incorporation of art-based methods enhances the creativity of students compared to traditional face-to-face (F2F) teaching, and (2) whether such creative training and blended teaching methods have a higher transfer of training. Design/methodology/approach This study adopted a two-stage design (1) it adopted a 2 × 2 (with or without art-based methods * blended teaching or F2F teaching) between-subject design of experiments with 221 participants and (2) a one-year follow-up study was conducted (participants who were employed for 6 months to one year after graduation) with 187 participants and their directors. Findings The results showed that the inclusion of art-based methods in the creative training of students strengthens creative ability of the students; there were no significant differences between blended and traditional learning. The authors examined the effect of transferring creative training through a questionnaire analysis of participants and employers of the participants. Self-regulated and self-directed learning positively influence motivation to transfer, which positively influences creative performance. Originality/value The higher the level of self-regulated and self-directed learning of students, the more effective the transfer of creative training is over time.
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This research explores the eudaimonic environmental pursuit of Generation Zers. Although how they can contribute to the environment has gained traction, extant tourism research in this regard largely lags behind. Drawing on self-determination and self-efficacy theories, this inquiry fills this void by proposing a model that delineates a motivation–behavior–goal mechanism to illuminate how pursuits for environmental sustainability can develop into self-actualization. Using an explanatory sequential design, we first undertook a survey-based investigation with data acquired through purposive sampling to sample Generation Zers who had attended a minimum of one green volunteer trip in the prior year. Results first unravel how eudaimonic environmental motivation can induce green travel involvement, leading to environmental citizenship. Exhibiting environmental citizenship presents an avenue to foster environmental goal attainment and subsequent self-actualization, synthesizing a path that depicts behavior-goal-actualization of oneself. The moderating effect of environmental self-efficacy is also warranted. A post-hoc study was followed using semistructured interviews to explore Generation Zers’ eudaimonic environment pursuits and goal attainment. Our findings pave the way for a better understanding of behavioral engagement and pursuits of this rising cohort towards a greener tomorrow. It lays the groundwork to bring personal growth needs for environmental goal attainment to light.
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In this study, the relationship between the Dark Triad (Machiavellianism, psychopathy, and narcissism) personality traits and voice behaviour of hotel employees, with the moderating effect of intention to leave, was investigated. A purposive sampling method was used with employees of five-star hotels in Taiwan. The total number of questionnaires distributed was 450, with 150 each in the northern, central, and southern regions of Taiwan. The number of valid questionnaires was 336, and the valid questionnaire return rate was 74.67 %. Analysis demonstrated that (1) Machiavellianism is positively related to voice behaviour; (2) psychopathy is negatively related to voice behaviour; (3) narcissism is positively related to voice behaviour; (4) intention to leave moderates the relationship between Machiavellianism and voice behaviour; and (5) intention to leave moderates the relationship between psychopathy and voice behaviour. Implications for management and recommendations for follow-up investigations are proposed based on the research results.
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Despite the conceptual proximity between the basic needs and agency and communion and their similar function for psychological functioning, studies investigating their interplay are scarce. This study aims to investigate their joint role in hedonic and eudaimonic well-being in light of the COVID-19 pandemic. Self-reports were collected from 13,313 adolescents (Sample 1) and 1,707 young adults (Sample 2) from Austria. The results show the importance of both agency and communion for the fulfillment of different basic needs and their role in well-being, with a universal interaction effect between communion and perceived competence on intrinsic motivation (eudaimonic aspect) in both gender groups in adolescence, as well as on positive emotions (hedonic aspect) among young women. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
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Social media-based racism is growing exponentially with new social media platforms developing at a rate that research struggles to keep up with. Football is an active participant on these platforms which has subse- quently led to well documented media reports of racial abuse. However, research has been limited within English football when attempting to understand the extent of social media-based racism, social media behaviour, racism campaigns, programmes and legislation to tackle online racism within the industry, which this paper addresses. The purpose of this paper is to provide a critical review of the literature on social media-based racism within male English football through the lens of applied psychology. Opportunities for applied psychology from a social justice perspective to challenge social media-based racism through therapy, research, and training are highlighted. Micro and macro approaches to address social media-based racism are examined, with proposed future developments discussed.
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Research concerning rational emotive behaviour therapy (REBT) and autonomous and controlled motivation within athletic settings is burgeoning. It is proposed that irrational beliefs (i.e., illogical, rigid, and extreme) together with controlled forms of motivation, can determine psychological well-being and physical health in these contexts. For example, research indicates that extreme negative self-evaluation (i.e., self-depreciation) is related to more controlled (less autonomous) motivation regulation, which may underpin poorer health. Though, research is yet to understand the concomitant influence of both irrational beliefs and motivation regulation on work related variables such as presenteeism, persistence and turnover intention, as well as non-work-related variables such as life satisfaction and mental-wellbeing. The present two study paper examines the latent profile structure of irrational beliefs and motivation regulation, and how these latent profiles relate to health and work-related variables. Across studies 1 and 2, results indicated a two-class profile whereby class 1 is characterised by low irrational beliefs and high self-determined motivation (low irrational engagement), and class 2 is characterised by high irrational beliefs and low self-determined motivation (high irrational engagement). Those in Class 2 reported poorer life satisfaction, persistence, and presenteeism, as well as greater depression, anxiety, stress, intention to quit, and absenteeism than those in class 1. Thus, findings indicate that poorer work and health outcomes are associated with greater irrational work engagement. The findings are discussed in relation to the practical implications for occupational workers.
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Research on dispositional authenticity has accelerated in recent years. Using the Authenticity Scale and drawing upon Self-Determination Theory, we conducted a Latent Profile Analysis to determine whether two or more distinct classes of authentic self-development were identifiable across separate samples (Ns = 344 and 378) of emerging adults (18–22 year olds). We also tested whether multidimensional perfectionism and attachment insecurity were correlated with the classes of authentic self-development, and examined the association between class membership and levels of psychological need satisfaction and frustration. Our findings supported the presence of a 3-class configuration which we respectively labelled “Consolidated Authenticity,” “Unintegrated Authenticity,” and “Pre-Emergent Authenticity.” This class structure was replicated in a separate, independent sample. Results highlighted relevant variation in authentic self-development across the identified classes and yielded support for our model involving hypothesized influences on, as well as contemporary outcomes associated with, participants’ class membership.
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This study aims to provide a bibliometric analysis of the literature on thriving at work in psychology and business/management produced between 2001 and 2021, using the Web of Science (WoS) database. The analyses allowed us to identify, through 190 documents, the emergence of the concept of thriving at work and its development. The main research variables related to this concept and its methodology were identified. Likewise, the most influential authors, the most cited articles, the more frequently cited journals, and the countries contributing to developing this construct are analyzed. In addition, an analysis of co-citation, co-occurrences, and bibliographic coupling was conducted. Finally, content analysis of the most popular keywords and the co-citation of cited references are conducted. These analyses allow the identification of the main developments in the topic of thriving at work. The theoretical and practical implications of this bibliometric analysis are discussed.
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Les enseignants d'éducation physique et à la santé (ÉPS) rapportent avoir de la difficulté à soutenir la motivation des élèves. Afin de pouvoir orienter la formation initiale de manière à contrer cette difficulté, les perceptions de futurs étudiants en enseignement de l'ÉPS, 51 participants (M = 22,4 ans; É-T = ,39) ont été recrutés lors de tests d'admission. Ils ont rempli un questionnaire et se sont prononcés selon deux scénarios d'enseignement. Les résultats ont montré que leurs perceptions sont assez mitigées et qu'ils ont un répertoire de stratégies motivationnelles peu varié. La formation initiale devrait donc offrir des occasions aux étudiants d'apprendre à mobiliser des stratégies pour mettre en place un climat motivationnel engageant en ÉPS. Mots-clés : formation initiale en enseignement de l'éducation physique, motivation, confiance, dimension affective, stratégies motivationnelles Abstract : Physical and health education (PSE) teachers report having difficulty supporting student motivation. In order to be able to influence the initial training in such a way as to counter this difficulty, the perceptions of future students in PSE teaching, 51 participants (M = 22.4 years; S-T =. 39) were recruited during admission tests. They filled out a questionnaire and gave their opinion according to two teaching scenarios. The results showed that their perceptions are quite mixed and that they have an unvaried repertoire of motivational strategies. Initial training should therefore offer opportunities for students to learn how to mobilize strategies to establish an engaging motivational climate in PSE.
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The purpose of this study was to explore how trained, four-year success coaches perceive their coaching practice with students in higher education, particularly in the context of their meetings. While coaching programs have proliferated, little is known about coaching as a practice in higher education and it is difficult to generalize findings because professionals are ‘coaching’ in different ways. Some academic coaches in the field have stated they were given a title, but they are not ‘coaching’ (Sepulveda, 2017). Little is known about coaching as a practice, and this study will help to fill this gap. Taking a narrative approach, I used self-determination theory as a lens to explore the perceptions of trained, four-year success coaches to understand what they perceived they strategically do in their meetings with students. I interviewed 18 coaches in higher education across the United States and asked for stories in how they have helped students in each meeting, and throughout their meetings. In this narrative study, I explored how coaches approach their meetings and what skills they incorporate. Through semi-structured interviews I elicited stories of growth, development, and intentionality in their practices. Beliefs, skills, conversational framework, the progression over time, the training, growth, and development and the role make up coaching practices in higher education. It is the consistent combination of these that make the coaching practice a unique student support service. This study builds upon self-determination theory and I draw conclusions about what findings mean for coaching practices in higher education.
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Purpose As workplaces and relationships evolve with increasing complexity, co-worker dynamics have become a key concern for HR managers and scholars. An important yet overlooked aspect of co-worker dynamics is gratitude. This paper adopts a relationship-specific conceptualization of gratitude and explores its influence on prosocial behaviors within co-worker dyads. The proposed model also suggests structural-relational factors under which these relationships are affected. Design/methodology/approach The conceptual paper draws insights from personal relationships to consider an alternative side of gratitude’s prosocial action tendencies, thereby highlighting two: risk-oriented and opportunity-oriented. These assumptions are then situated within the affect theory of social exchange to predict gratitude’s influence on prosocial behaviors within co-worker dyads. Findings The proposed model illuminates the importance of studying relationship-specific gratitude within co-worker relations by illustrating its effects on two types of prosocial action tendencies – opportunity-oriented and risk-oriented and varying prosocial behaviors (from convergent to divergent). Structural-relational factors, such as positional and physical distance between co-workers, are considered to affect these relationships. Originality/value While the study of gratitude in the workplace is emerging, little research has examined its influence on the nature of prosocial behaviors within co-worker relations. This paper advances the notion that gratitude serves an adaptive function in co-worker dyads, thereby highlighting the risk-oriented and opportunity-oriented continuum, and its implications for the type and scope of prosocial behaviors exchanged.
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The main challenge for sustainable events is to attract residents to participate and to continue participating. Motivation can be used to explain a place and the intention to revisit a place. The main purpose of this study was to explore residents’ place meanings at Peony Culture Festival Luoyang China (PCFLC) and the impact of residents’ motivation on place meaning and place satisfaction with respect to PCFLC. A sequential mixed-methods approach was adopted. In-depth interviews and questionnaires were used to collect data. The thematic analysis yielded four themes of residents’ place meanings in PCFLC. Structural equation modeling via the bootstrap approach was used to examine the role of residents’ motivation in place making in PCLFC. The results indicated that residents’ place meanings in PCFLC consisted of self-identification, self-development, economic dependence, and leisure, which enriched the types of place meanings. In addition, place meaning had a mediating role in the relationship between autonomous motivation and place satisfaction and a masking role in the relationship between controlled motivation and place satisfaction from the perspective of the self-determination theory. The paper provides a theoretical perspective to explain the effects of motivation on place making and puts forward a practical proposal for the products and marketing of events.
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There is a need for positive youth development/strengths-based approaches to support the wellbeing and social inclusion of young people experiencing or at risk of homelessness. My Strengths Training for Life™ (MST4Life™) uses a strengths-based approach with the aim to improve young people’s resilience, self-worth, wellbeing and engagement in education, employment, and training. This mixed methods study assessed the fidelity of delivery style of the MST4Life™ programme, the extent to which frontline service staff can delivery psychologically informed programmes to service users and identified barriers and enablers to delivering with fidelity to the intended style. Observations of programme delivery (two facilitators per session) took place across early, middle, and late phases of the programme across a pilot phase (n =18) and main study (n = 45). Facilitators also completed self-reflection forms following each session. The mean observation score was 82.2 ± 15.7%, and facilitator self-report mean adherence score was 89.3 ± 6.2% which indicate that the programme was delivered with high fidelity. Quantitative data was also analysed using non-parametric statistical test (Mann-Whitney U Test). There was a significant difference between observation scores for deliverers with postgraduate psychology training compared to deliverers without postgraduate psychology training (p =.029). Qualitative data were analysed using inductive thematic analysis. Barriers and enablers included communication, frontline staff support, logistics, and participant behaviours. Overall, this study highlights that despite the challenges of delivering complex community programmes to young people experiencing homelessness, it was possible for frontline service staff to deliver MST4Life™ with high fidelity.
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Purpose-Building on the self-determination theory (SDT), the purpose of this study is to empirically examine the influence of work meaningfulness (WM) on employees' involvement in playful work design (PWD) in the context of software development firms in Pakistan. Design/methodology/approach-For the present study, a two-wave employee survey (online questionnaire) was used for data collection. The data were collected through an adopted questionnaire from employees working in software development firms in Pakistan. structural equation modeling and Hayes Process Macro of SPSS were used to analyze data collected from 305 respondents. Findings-The findings of this study show that work meaningfulness and epistemic curiosity (EC) positively and significantly influence employee playful work design strategies. Moreover, the relationship between work meaningfulness and playful work design was partially mediated by employee epistemic curiosity. This mediating role of epistemic curiosity is strengthened by the presence of the perceived leader's autonomous support (LAS). Research limitations/implications-Employees improve their personal work experience through playful work design. Theoretically, this study contributes to the body of knowledge on the factors (work meaningfulness, epistemic curiosity and leader's autonomous support) that can influence employees' self-determination to design fun and competition into their work. This study contributes to the theory by introducing the antecedents (work meaningfulness and epistemic curiosity), of employee playful work design and explores the role of epistemic curiosity as a mediator and the leader's autonomous support as a moderator through SDT perspective. Practical implications-For practitioners, this study pinpoints that software development firms can consider improving employees' perception of work meaningfulness, which can lead them to become epistemically curious to proactively design their work experience for their psychological need fulfillment, well-being and better functioning. Moreover, leader's autonomous support can support involvement in playful work design. Originality/value-The current study is the first investigation in the Asian context to study the antecedents of playful work design and a critical boundary condition. This study extends the literature on the antecedents of employee playful work design and explores the role of epistemic curiosity as a mediator and the leader's autonomous support as a moderator specifically through a self-determination perspective.
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The attempt to understand human infant-mother attachment in terms of evolutionary-ethological theory (Bowlby l958, l969/82) led to a major conceptual breakthrough. Infant behaviors that had previously seemed inexplicable, puzzling, or even irrational, made sense within this new framework: the infant's distress upon separation from the mother, the tendency to follow mother about, to use her as a base for exploratory excursions , to keep visual tabs on her while exploring, to retreat to her in the presence of an unfamiliar adult, and to grieve in response to long absences or loss. Human infants' attachment behavior could now be interpreted as homologous with similar behavior shown by nonhuman primate species (see Bowlby, l969; DeVore, l965). The emphasis on the biological function of attachment was important because it drew attention to the fact that the infant's tie to the primary caregiver need not be, indeed, could not be, explained solely in terms of cognitive and socio-emotional milestones. On the other hand, specifically human affective, cognitive-representational and communicative capacities presumably have a major impact on the specifically human development of attachment relations. So far this aspect of attachment has remained under-explored in infant research, but I believe that further progress in understanding the development of attachment in infancy now requires that we pay close attention to what the human ability to construct and share representations means for the development of early attachment relations. Attachment theory has been concerned with the psychological aspect of attachment, but the main focus has been on the experience of young children, adolescents and adults-not on infants (Bowlby, l973; l980). The account of attachment in infancy is primarily couched in terms of proximity-regulation to a protective figure (Bowlby, l969). Although Bowlby mentions and explains the concept of "internal working models" of the self and attachment figures in the l969 volume, is only in the second and third volumes of the attachment trilogy (l973, l980) that he elaborates on the significance of these working models for the functioning and development of attachment relationships. It is in these later writings that the reader is strongly reminded that attachment theory is concerned with some of the same issues that have long been the focus of psychoanalytic theories of (love) object relations.
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Book
I: Background.- 1. An Introduction.- 2. Conceptualizations of Intrinsic Motivation and Self-Determination.- II: Self-Determination Theory.- 3. Cognitive Evaluation Theory: Perceived Causality and Perceived Competence.- 4. Cognitive Evaluation Theory: Interpersonal Communication and Intrapersonal Regulation.- 5. Toward an Organismic Integration Theory: Motivation and Development.- 6. Causality Orientations Theory: Personality Influences on Motivation.- III: Alternative Approaches.- 7. Operant and Attributional Theories.- 8. Information-Processing Theories.- IV: Applications and Implications.- 9. Education.- 10. Psychotherapy.- 11. Work.- 12. Sports.- References.- Author Index.
Chapter
Intrinsic motivation is based in the human need to be competent and self-determining in relation to the environment. We now look at how this develops and evolves. In so doing we will consider both how intrinsic motivation affects development and how intrinsic motivation develops.
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The abstract for this document is available on CSA Illumina.To view the Abstract, click the Abstract button above the document title.
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