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Evaluation of Water Quality with Waterborne Diseases for Assessing Pilgrimage Impact along River Indrayani, Pune (India)

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Water pollution due to residents and pilgrims causing waterborne health related diseases especially AGI (Acute Gastro Enteritis) amongst local population. The river water monitoring was carried and a questioner based survey was used to estimate water-borne and enteric disease incidence amongst the local residents and floating population consisting of pilgrims, tourists etc. 1.75% of local population suffered AGI at Alandi and 1.53% local population suffered due to AGI at Dehu. Various health disorders such as skin itching, ear pain, throat irritation, nausea etc were reported in the pilgrims. Multi-criteria approach is used to evolve composite quality index (CQI). The impact due to occurrence of AGI for various factors calculated using a parameter called as Odd Ratio (OR). It is observed that the odd ratio (OR) has decreased by 28% and 32% in Dehu and by 49% and 63% at Alandi during pilgrimage periods of Ashadi and Kartiki respectively, thereby indicating increased trend of number of people suffering from AGI due to pilgrim activities during pilgrimage period in comparison to non pilgrimage period.
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International Journal of Environmental Protection IJEP
DOI 10.5963/IJEP0201002
IJEP Vol.2 No.1 January 2012 PP.8-14 www.ij-ep.org
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World Academic Publishing
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Evaluation of Water Quality with Waterborne
Diseases for Assessing Pilgrimage Impact along
River Indrayani, Pune (India)
1
Marale S. M.
*
,
2
Mahajan D. M.,
3
Gavali R., S.
4
Rao K. R.
1
Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Pune, India
2
Department of Botany, Waghire College, University of Pune, India
3
School of Earth Sciences, University of Solapur, India
4
College of Military Engineering, Khadaki, Pune, India
*
maralesanjay@gmail.com
Abstract-Water pollution due to residents and pilgrims causing
waterborne health related diseases especially AGI (Acute Gastro
Enteritis) amongst local population. The river water monitoring
was carried and a questioner based survey was used to estimate
water-borne and enteric disease incidence amongst the local
residents and floating population consisting of pilgrims, tourists
etc. 1.75% of local population suffered AGI at Alandi and
1.53% local population suffered due to AGI at Dehu. Various
health disorders such as skin itching, ear pain, throat irritation,
nausea etc were reported in the pilgrims. Multi-criteria
approach is used to evolve composite quality index (CQI). The
impact due to occurrence of AGI for various factors calculated
using a parameter called as Odd Ratio (OR). It is observed that
the odd ratio (OR) has decreased by 28% and 32% in Dehu and
by 49% and 63% at Alandi during pilgrimage periods of Ashadi
and Kartiki respectively, thereby indicating increased trend of
number of people suffering from AGI due to pilgrim activities
during pilgrimage period in comparison to non pilgrimage
period.
Keywords-Sewage pollution, Pilgrimage activities, Composite
Quality Index, Odd Ratio, Skin diseases, Solid Waste
I. INTRODUCTION
Much of the world’s population remains without access to
potable water supplies and adequate methods to dispose of
human fecal waste [1] . Population growth and anthropogenic
activities along the banks of river is causing pollution of water,
air and soil and are contributing to the increasing number of
human diseases worldwide. As per WHO estimates 1.1 billion
people lack access to an improved drinking water supply;
many more drink water that is grossly contaminated.
There are 4 billion cases of AGI (Acute Gastro Intestinal
disease) worldwide occurring annually, of which 88% is
attributable to unsafe water, and inadequate sanitation and
hygiene. 1.8 million People die every year from AGI related
diseases out of which vast majority are children under five
years of age. It is estimated that 94% of diarrhoeal cases are
preventable through interventions such as increasing the
availability of clean water, improved sanitation and hygiene
[2]. Water-related diseases caused by inadequate water supply
and sanitation impose an especially large health burden in
Africa, Asia, and the Pacific region. In India alone, over
700,000 children under 5 die annually from diarrhea [3].
Several possible causes of outbreaks and endemic
transmission associated with surface water were reported
worldwide [4], [5]. A number of chemicals present in food
substances such as monosodium glutamate, organic mercury,
and antimony and copper can also induce gastrointestinal
symptoms [6]. Disease transmission is also affected by host
characteristics and behavior including immunity, nutritional
status, health status, age, sex, personal hygiene, food hygiene
[7] etc. Although the entire solution may lie in a multi-
sectoral approach and achievements including overall socio-
economic development, provision of safe and adequate water
and sanitary facilities in the built up areas on river banks and
effective wastewater management seems among major issues
of immediate concern for reducing the burden of such
diseases and consequent impairments [8].
Environment to person transmission of AGI is often
associated with sources of external contamination due to
various issues on the population under study [9]. Model based
understanding the patterns of infectious disease and
developing appropriate implementable treatment requires
acquiring knowledge on biological, physical, and social
sciences along with the ability to integrate this information
into an effective response [10]. The identification of pollution
sources is required for the protection of water resources, and
for the necessary pollution control [11]. In developing
countries, treatment of water and wastes is often nonexistent
or grossly inadequate and until sanitation is improved it will
be impossible to impact greatly on the level of waterborne
disease [6].
In less developed countries, poor nutritional status and
poverty exacerbate morbidity and mortality with excreta
related diseases. The behavior modifications as well as
technical sanitation solutions are necessary to reduce the
transmission of excreta-related disease [7]. A strong
correlation was found between AGI diseases, faecal coliform
contamination in drinking water and other water quality
parameters such as BOD, TSS, DO and TVC for the study
area. A questionnaire carried out for the local people in the
International Journal of Environmental Protection IJEP
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two locations of Dehu and Alandi in the study area revealed
that diarrheal diseases were the most common self-reported
disease. The implementation of locally appropriate point-of-
use disinfection and safe household storage practices in
developing countries is an urgent need to ensure a safe,
reliable year- round supply in areas where clean water is not
available [12].
People and pilgrims bathing in polluted waters; suffer
more from gastro-intestinal diseases then others [13]. As per
2001 Census only 36.4% of the total populations have latrines
within/attached to their houses. However in rural areas, only
21.9 percent of population has latrines within/attached to their
homes. As on November 2007 sanitation coverage in the
country has reached to 49% because of total sanitation
campaign programme [14]. Increased water availability and
quantity, associated with improved hygiene, may reduce fecal
contamination of the hands. Proper cleaning of utensils, food
and home environments is also likely to reduce transmission
of fecal matter. All the major infectious agents of diarrhea are
shed by infected persons via the faeces, and therefore hygienic
disposal of human excreta plays a role in controlling them.
Use of toilets by all members of the community should reduce
fecal contamination [1].
The Hindu pilgrimage has gone through an unprecedented
expansion with the modernization of transport infrastructure,
the modification of the conditions of access to the site and the
introduction of new modes of management of temple space by
the government of India. The Pilgrimage to Dehu and Alandi
located along River Indrayani in Pune district of Maharashtra,
in the study area attracts on an average of 10,000 people to
20,000 people daily and this reaches to 4 to 4.5 lacs during
pilgrim period of Ashadhi,(June) and Kartiki (November)
Ekadashi. Pilgrims and devotees produce most of the
environmental degradation in these pilgrimage areas.
The present paper deals with the issues on deterioration of
water quality due to the current practices of pilgrims and
local population causing environmental degradation of the
River basin, waterborne diseases, and associated health
hazards amongst the local population and pilgrims using
regression models that relates the composite water quality
index (CQI) with health parameter called as odd ratio [4] (OR)
associated with various factors in the pilgrimage towns of
Alandi and Dehu located in the study area along the banks of
river Indrayani.
II. THE STUDY AREA
The River Indrayani, a tributary of River Krishna has its
source in the Maval Taluka of Pune District of Maharashtra
state. It originates on the crest of the Sahyadris hills of
Western GhatsRiver Indrayani carries both industrial and
urban effluent. The River does not flow for at least seven to
eight months. The river water is so polluted that it is
considered as a danger to the health of inhabitants and
millions of pilgrims visiting the pilgrimage towns of Dehu
and Alandi located on its banks. Dehu is located at
18º43’N73º46’E. It has an average elevation of 594 meters
(1948 feet). As of 2001 India census, Dehu had a population
of 5340. Alandi is located at 18º 40’37.42”N 73 º 53’47.76’’E
and lies 25km east of Pune city. It has an average elevation of
577metres (1893b feet). As of 2001 census Alandi had a
population of 17,561.
Fig-1 depicts the study area comprising of the river, the
two pilgrim towns of Alandi and Dehu along with the
locations of water quality sampling stations. The main causes
of pollution in the river water are due to rapid urbanization
and direct uncontrolled discharge of household and industrial
wastes and sewage. It was observed that residents of Dehu
and Alandi and other residents along river Indrayani and
millions of pilgrims visiting these places are continued to be
exposed to unsafe water and associated health risks. This
paper presents a summary and discussion of the water quality
data of river Indrayani for the year 2008-2009 and results and
analysis of a health survey conducted during January-March
2009 in the study area.
III. METHODOLOGY
A. Water Quality Testing
In order to understand the effects of pollution, a 24 km
long stretch of the river, extending from Bodakewadi to
Charholi were selected for sampling. A total of 7 locations
were selected along river Indrayani in Pune District as in
Fig.1. Three sampling stations are located in the upper reaches
of the river basin lying in and around boundaries of village
Dehu. This stretch of the river network drains mostly
thoroughly agricultural areas.
Dehu an important pilgrimage area is located in this
stretch. Four sampling stations were selected in the lower
reaches viz. Chikhali, Dudulgaon, Alandi Ghat, and Charholi.
At Chikhali municipal sewage is discharged in the river.
Anthropogenic activities such as open defecation, industrial
discharge, and residential sewage are major causes of water
pollution. At Alandi where 25,000 visitors visit daily and on
an average 600 pilgrims take bath in river daily, sewage
discharge, open defecation along river by visitors and local
residents are the major sources of pollution.
International Journal of Environmental Protection IJEP
DOI 10.5963/IJEP0201002
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Fig. 1: Location and distribution of sampling sites along the Indrayani River
Charholi is downstream of Alandi and there is no major
source of pollution except agricultural runoff. In order to
understand the water quality of river Indrayani the water
samples were collected and analyzed seasonally as well as
before, on and after important pilgrimage days, such as
Ashadhi Ekadashi (June) and Kartiki Ekadashi (November) as
per the standard guidelines [15] (APHA, AWWA, WPCF,
1998). Water samples were collected in the month of March,
July, and November for seasonal analyses. For pilgrimage
period sampling, three samples were collected 1) three days
earlier, 2) on the pilgrimage day and 3) three days later of the
pilgrimage day. The water samples were collected during the
period from March 2007 to April 2008.
For assessment of river water quality parameters such as
pH, Turbidity, TDS, DO, BOD, COD, E.coli (cfu/100 ml) and
Total Viable Count- TVC (cfu/100ml) were selected. The
range of variation of water quality parameters for different
temporal periods covering the two pilgrim periods and
seasonal non pilgrim period were assigned subjective weights
to evolve composite water quality index (CQI) for the
different temporal periods and in the two zones of the study
area. The range of subjective weights varied from 1 to 9, a
weight of 1 indicates good water quality and range of 9 means
highly polluted water quality (Table-1). The permissible CQI
Values in excess of 25 means that the water is polluted
beyond the permissible limit. The CQI values were computed
for the three zones of the study area covering three temporal
period combinations, viz; Combination-I seasonal,
Combination-II Ashadhi and Combination-III Kartiki). The
details are given in Table 2, 3 and 4 respectively.
The CQI values were designed to range from 5 to 45, the
values of 5 was for very low water pollution that gave very
less water quality parameter values and the value is 45 for
highly polluted water with high values of water quality
parameters exceeding the permissible limits.
TABLE 1: RANGE OF WEIGHTS AND ASSIGNED WEIGHTINGS BASED ON STRENGTH OF WATER QUALITY PARAMETER VALUES
Range of BOD
(mg/L)
Wt
Range of DO
(mg/L)
Wt
Range of
TDS(mg/L)
Wt
Range of E-Coli
(cfu/100mL)
Wt
Wt
1-6 1 8.5-9 1 0-25 1 0-100 1 0-500 1
6-12
2
8.0-8.5
2
25-50
2
100-200
2
2
12-18
3
7.5-8.0
3
50-100
3
200-300
3
3
18-24
4
7.0-7.5
4
100-200
4
300-400
4
4
24-30
5
6.5-7.0
5
200-500
5
400-500
5
5
30-36
6
6.0-6.5
6
500-600
6
500-10000
6
6
36-42
7
5.5-6.0
7
600-700
7
10000-60000
7
7
42-48 8 5-5.5 8 700-800 8 60000-90000 8 300000-500000 8
48-54
9
4-4.5
9
>800
9
>90000
9
9
Permissible limit for BOD
=30mg/L is given a
weight 5
Permissible limit for DO
=5mg/L is given a weight of
5
Permissible limit for
TDS
=250mg/L is given a
weight of 5
Permissible limit for
E.coli=10mg/L is given a
weight of 5
Permissible limit for TVC
=10
0mg/L is given a weight of 5
TABLE 2: MULTI-CRITERIA WATER QUALITY MATRIX FOR WATER QUALITY PARAMETERS FOR SEASONAL PERIOD
Temporal period
Pre-monsoon Monsoon Post-monsoon
Water quality
parameter
Zone I
Zone II
Zone III
Mean
Wt
Zone I
Zone II
Zone
III
Mean
Wt
Zone I
Zone II
Zone
III
Mean Wt
BOD (mg/L)
1.33
5.5
5.5
4.11
1.33
4.5
4.5
3.44
1
4
4
3
DO (mg/L)
3
5.5
5.5
4.66
2.33
4.5
4.5
3.77
1.66
4
4
3.22
TDS (mg/L)
1.33
4
4
3.11
2
4
4
3.33
1.33
3.5
4
2.96
E. coli
(cfu/1100ml)
6
6
7
6.33
6.66
7
7
6.88
6.33
6
7
6.44
TVC (cfu/110ml)
6.33
7
7
6.77
7
7
7
7
6.66
7
7
6.88
*CQI 17.99 28.00 29.00 24.98 19.32 27.0 27.00 24.42 16.98 24.5 26 22.5
Overall CQI
23.97
*CQI=sum of weights of individual water quality parameters
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TABLE 3: MULTI-CRITERIA WATER QUALITY MATRIX FOR WATER QUALITY PARAMETERS FOR ASHADHI PERIOD
Temporal
period
Pre-ashadhi Ashadhi Post-ashadhi
Water quality
parameter
Zone I
Zone II
Zone III
Mean
Wt
Zone I
Zone
II
Zone
III
Mean
Wt
Zone I
Zone
II
Zone
III
Mean Wt
BOD (mg/L)
1.66
4.5
4.5
3.55
1.66
5
4
3.55
1.66
4.5
5
3.72
DO (mg/L)
2
4
5.5
3.83
2
4
5
3.66
2
4
5.5
3.83
TDS (mg/L)
1.66
3
3.5
2.72
2
3
3.5
2.83
2
3
3.5
2.83
E. coli
(cfu/1100ml)
6.66
7
7
6.88
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
TVC
(cfu/110ml)
6
6
7.5
6.5
6
6.5
6.5
6.33
6
6.5
6.5
6.33
*CQI
17.98
24.5
28
23.48
18.66
25.5
26
23.37
18.66
25
27.5
23.71
Overall CQI
23.53
*CQI=sum of weights of individual water quality parameters
TABLE 4: MULTI-CRITERIA WATER QUALITY MATRIX FOR WATER QUALITY PARAMETERS FOR KARTIKI PERIOD
Temporal
period
Pre-kartiki Kartiki Post-kartiki
Water quality
parameter
Zone I
Zone II
Zone III
Mean
Wt
Zone I
Zone
II
Zone
III
Mean
Wt
Zone I
Zone
II
Zone
III
Mean Wt
BOD (mg/L)
1.66
5
6
4.22
1.66
5
6
4.22
1.66
5
6.16
4.27
DO (mg/L)
2
4.5
6
4.16
1.66
4
6
3.88
1.66
4
5.5
3.72
TDS (mg/L)
2
3.5
4
3.16
1.66
3.5
4
3.053
2
3.5
3.5
3
E. coli
(cfu/1100ml)
3
6
5
4.66
3
4.5
7
4.83
4.33
7.5
6
5.94
TVC
(cfu/110ml)
6 6.5 7 6.5 6 6 6.5 6.16 6 7.5 7 6.83
CQI 14.66 25.5 28 22.7 13.98 23 29.5 22.143 15.65 27.5 28.16 23.76
Overall CQI
*CQI=sum of weights of individual water quality parameters 22.87
B. Health Survey
A survey of resident users of the Indrayani River was
conducted in between January-March 2008. Questionnaire
was used for the household health survey conducted at
Bodakewadi (control station), Dehu and Alandi. The head of
the family was interviewed and asked to provide information
for all members of the family. All family heads surveyed at
Bodakewadi, Dehu and Alandi were confirmed to be residents
of these places. For the religious bathing sites of Dehu and
Alandi Ghat religious bathers and other water users were
approached and questioned directly on the river bank.
Questionnaires were prepared for both local residents and
pilgrims asking specifically about their association with river
ecosystem, water use practices, health impacts and overall
health consequences before, during and after pilgrimage. The
details of health survey were evaluated for the water borne
disease of AGI having a predominant level of occurrence in
the study area. The evaluation of occurrence of AGI disease
amongst the local residents in Alandi and Dehu has been
linked with various parameters compiled in the questionnaire
on health survey by computing a parameter called as Odd
Ratio (OR) for those parameters. The OR value gives an
inference about the relative disease risk for an exposure factor.
Relative disease risk for an exposure factor is calculated
using the formula: P=pe/pu
where, pe = number of exposed people with disease/total
number exposed to a factor and pu = Number of unexposed
people with disease/total number unexposed to a factor. The
odds ratio (OR), which is the odds of disease in exposed
people divided by the odds of disease in unexposed people, is
closely related to relative risk. The value of OR for the two
pilgrim towns of Alandi and Dehu was computed for various
factors causing the Acute Gastrointestinal Infection (AGI). It
is observed that with increase in occurrence of AGI disease
for a given factor, there will be reduction in the value of OR
and also there is a negative correlation between CQI and OR.
This will mean that an increase in value of CQI is
associated with higher pollution of water due to higher values
of water quality parameters along with more impact for
occurrence of AGI indicated by lower values of OR. The
various factors considered for computing OR values for AGI
disease are the factors responsible for causing AGI. These are
educational background, economic status; behavioral practices
such as open defecation, personal hygiene, washing of clothes
and utensils in river and poor sanitary conditions. The OR
values responsible for causing AGI pertaining to different
parameters for the data collected during sampling are given in
Table 5 for both Alandi and Dehu. Figure 2 gives the
details of OR in respect of various factors for the towns of
Alandi and Dehu for the sample data.
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TABLE 6: ODDS RATIO (OR) FOR DIFFERENT PARAMETERS AT DEHU AND ALANDI
Sr. No. Parameter/factor Dehu (OR) Alandi (OR)
1 Exposed to garbage 0.44 0.42
2 Exposed to wastewater 0.55 0.58
3 Lower Education 0.63 1.21
4 Lower occupation 0.70 0.59
5 Toilet to pilgrims 0.73 0.77
6 Lower income 0.93 0.77
7 Higher Education 1.18 2.20
8 No water sufficiency 1.34 0.72
9 Exposed to bad water quality 1.34 0.66
10 Higher income 1.39 1.52
11 Poor sanitary conditions 1.55 1.15
12 Shelter to pilgrims 1.68 1.68
13 No hygiene 1.94 1.58
14 Higher occupation 2.12 1.81
15 Rented house 2.43 1.12
TABLE 7: RESIDUAL ERROR, CQI AND OR FOR THE FITTED EQUATION
Sampling Stations
Dehu
Alandi
CQI
OR computed
OR estimated
Residual error
CQI
OR computed
OR estimated
Residual error
29
0.42
0.379
0.041
29
0.42
0.992
-0.572
28.16 0.51 0.58564 -0.07564 28.16 0.51 1.171894 -0.66189
28.16 0.51 0.58564 -0.07564 28.16 0.51 1.171894 -0.66189
28 0.66 0.625 0.035 28 0.66 1.206 -0.546
28 0.66 0.625 0.035 28 0.66 1.206 -0.546
27.5 0.77 0.748 0.022 27.5 0.77 1.31225 -0.54225
27 0.77 0.871 -0.101 27 0.77 1.418 -0.648
26 1.12 1.117 0.003 26 1.12 1.628 -0.508
26 1.12 1.117 0.003 26 1.12 1.628 -0.508
25.5 1.21 1.24 -0.03 25.5 1.21 1.73225 -0.52225
25
1.52
1.363
0.157
25
1.52
1.836
-0.316
24.5
1.58
1.486
0.094
24.5
1.58
1.93925
-0.35925
23
1.68
1.855
-0.175
23
1.68
2.246
-0.566
22.7
1.81
1.9288
-0.1188
22.7
1.81
2.30681
-0.49681
22.14
2.2
2.06656
0.13344
22.14
2.2
2.41984
-0.21984
IV. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
It was observed that temporal CQI variation for
combination period I, II, III for Alandi and Dehu area varies
temporally. Accordingly the temporal CQI value variation
occurring during pilgrimage periods and non pilgrimage
periods has been correlated with OR associated with AGI
disease computed for various factors to assess the likely
impact of water quality parameters converted as a composite
quality parameter (CQI) with occurrence of AGI indicated as
value of OR and also to analyze the increase in impact of AGI
due to pilgrim activities during pilgrim periods indicated by
reduction in OR value. Table 6 provides Odds Ratio (OR)
values for different parameters where as Fig. 3 illustrates the
variation of CQI with OR for Alandi and Dehu along with the
equation for best fit curve.
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There is a negative correlation between CQI and OR with
the Pearson’s correlation coefficient being 0.958 for Alandi
and 0.964 for Dehu. Curve fitting between CQI and OR was
carried out and the results gave less residual errors between
the observed and estimated values for first order equation in
Alandi while the fitted curve of second order gave least
residual error between the observed and estimated values for
Dehu. Table 7 gives details of residual errors for the fitted
curves in Alandi and Dehu along with their respective
variance and standard deviation values. The residual errors are
observed to be within the permissible limits and are having a
variance of 0.015761 for Alandi and 0.008787 for Dehu
respectively and Standard Deviation of 0.1255 and 0.09374
for Alandi and Dehu respectively.
This implies that the fitted curve can be reliably applied to
assess the likely impact of pilgrims during the pilgrim periods.
It is observed that there is a trend of increase in the value of
CQI from 24 during non-pilgrim period to 26 during the
pilgrim period of Ashadi and between 26 during non pilgrim
period to 28.16 during the pilgrim period of Kartiki in Alandi.
OR
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35
CQI
Y=-0.1039x +3.4941 R
2
=0.9194
CQI
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35
OR
EQUATION FOR ALANDI
Y=-0.003x2 -0.235x+4.8452 R2=0.9318
EQUATION FOR DEHU
Fig 3: Variation of CQI with OR for Alandi and Dehu along with the equation
for best fit curve
There is a negative correlation between CQI and OR with
the Pearson’s correlation coefficient being 0.958 for Alandi
and 0.964 for Dehu. Curve fitting between CQI and OR was
carried out and the results gave less residual errors between
the observed and estimated values for first order equation in
Alandi while the fitted curve of second order gave least
residual error between the observed and estimated values for
Dehu. Table-7 gives details of residual errors for the fitted
curves in Alandi and Dehu along with their respective
variance and standard deviation values.
The residual errors are observed to be within the
permissible limits and are having a variance of 0.015761 for
Alandi and 0.008787 for Dehu respectively and Standard
Deviation of 0.1255 and 0.09374 for Alandi and Dehu
respectively. This implies that the fitted curve can be reliably
applied to assess the likely impact of pilgrims during the
pilgrim periods. It is observed that there is a trend of increase
in the value of CQI from 24 during non-pilgrim period to 26
during the pilgrim period of Ashadi and between 26 during
non pilgrim period to 28.16 during the pilgrim period of
Kartiki in Alandi. In the same manners it is observed that
there is a trend of increase in CQI value from 26 to 28 during
pilgrim period of Ashadi and 28 to 29.5 during the pilgrim
period of Kartiki in Dehu.
This trend of increase in CQI values has resulted in
reduction of OR values during pilgrim periods in comparison
with non pilgrim periods and therefore the reduction of OR
value can be an assessing factor in arriving at the percentage
increase in impact of occurrence in AGI disease amongst the
local population at both Alandi and Dehu. In terms of impact
for AGI disease expressed as a percentage increase during
pilgrim periods, it is observe that there is 49 to 63 percent
reduction in OR values during Ashadi and Kartik pilgrim
periods at Alandi indicating an increase in number of cases of
AGI associated with various factors considered in the study.
In the same manner the percent reduction in OR values are 28
and 32 for the two pilgrim periods at Dehu, which means that
there is same trend of increase in AGI occurrence due to
various factors during pilgrimage at Dehu also. The various
issues pertaining to deterioration of water quality due to
activities of pilgrims and local residents has resulted in
various health disorders to both the local residents and to
pilgrims.
Some symptoms observed in the regular and irregular
bathers at the Ghats of Dehu and Alandi are: 32% regular
bathers complained about skin irritation problems at Alandi
Ghat while 16.36% bathers at Dehu Ghat complained about
skin irritation. At the Ghats of Alandi 27.07% complained
about quality of water and felt awkward while taking bath.
Subsequently 10.81%, 5.4%, 10.81%, 27.07%, 2.75% and
regular bathers at the ghats of Alandi complained about
toothache, ear pain, throat irritation, feeling of vomiting and
stomachache respectively in comparison with 7.14%, 7.27%,
3.62%, 1.81% and 0% respectively at Dehu. The tap water
quality at Alandi was bad due to foul smell, color in water and
presence of colloidal impurities which has been reflected in
household health survey response in which 44% population
complained about bad water quality. This has been attributed
to the excessive environmental degradation in the study area
International Journal of Environmental Protection IJEP
DOI 10.5963/IJEP0201002
IJEP Vol.2 No.1 January 2012 PP.8-14 www.ij-ep.org
C
World Academic Publishing
- 14 -
leading to ineffective water treatment process, improper solid
waste management and untreated disposal of sewage into the
river water.
V. CONCLUSION
Environmental degradation due to various activities of
pilgrims and local population, untreated disposal of domestic
and industrial effluents at Alandi and Dehu towns locate on
the banks of River Indrayani has resulted in deterioration of
water quality in River Indrayani. This has resulted in increase
in occurrence of waterborne diseases amongst the local
population of both the towns especially AGI and other health
hazards for pilgrims and visitors. The deterioration of water
quality due to various causative factors can be associated with
outbreak of AGI disease by establishing relationships between
quantified water quality factors with quantified health related
parameters for AGI evolved from various factors responsible
for occurrence of AGI. This can be useful in assessing the
likely increase in impact of waterborne diseases including
AGI during pilgrimage period caused due to activities of
pilgrims.
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Sanjay M. Marale born at Palus in Sangli
District of Maharashtra (India) on March, 20
th
1976. He completed his post graduation in
Environmental Science from Shivaji University
Kolhapur in 1999. He received his Ph.D degree in
September, 2011 from University of Pune (India).
His major field of study is Environmental Science.
Earlier he was working as a Research
Associate at the Department of Environmental
Sciences, University of Pune. Currently he is
working as a Research Assistant at Society of Integrated Coastal Management
(SICOM), New Delhi. His previous publications include 1. Multi-criteria
assessment of different temporal water quality changes causing impact on
public health and environmental degradation Int. J. Integ. Biol., 2010, 9(3):
123-127 2. Status of coastal habitats and its management in India IJEP
(1)1:2011; 31-45 and 3: Comparative analysis of noise pollution in
pilgrimage places from Maharashtra, India, Enrich Environment, Multi. Int.
Res. J. His research interests lie in Ecosystem Based Management and
Environment Education.
Dr. Marale has recently qualified State Eligibility Test (SET) conducted
by University Grants Commission (UGC) in India for lectureship in the
subject of Environmental Science.
Dnyaneshwar M. Mahajan completed his post graduation in Botany from
Universty of Pune. He received Ph.D in Environmental Sciences, from
Department of Environmental Sciences University of Pune. Presently he is
Associate Professor at Waghire College, Saswad, Pune. He is a visiting
faculty at Department of Environmental Science, University of Pune.
Ravindra S. Gavali received Ph.D from Jawaharlal University, New Delhi.
He was working as Assistant Professor at University Of Pune. Presently he is
working as Associate Professor at University of Solpaue (India).
Kumar R. Rao has received two Ph.D degrees, one from India and other
from U.S.A. Presently he is working as a Professor at College of Military
Engineering Khadaki, Pune (India). He is a visiting faculty at University of
Pune.
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... Scanty rainfall leads to less dilution of pollutants whereas frequent heavy spells of rainfall produces more pollution and sedimentation in river due to surface runoff. Additionally, anthropogenic and animal activities affect water quality [1][2][3]. Furthermore, the geology of the area, the soil condition, and contamination through seepage also contribute to alterations in the quality and availability of water [1,4]. ...
... Additionally, anthropogenic and animal activities affect water quality [1][2][3]. Furthermore, the geology of the area, the soil condition, and contamination through seepage also contribute to alterations in the quality and availability of water [1,4]. ...
... The impact of seasonal change on water quality has been extensively documented and has attracted widespread attention in recent years [1,2]. Seasonal changes like rising temperatures reduce dissolved oxygen levels in surface water. ...
... Scanty rainfall leads to less dilution of pollutants whereas frequent heavy spells of rainfall produces more pollution and sedimentation in river due to surface runoff. Additionally, anthropogenic and animal activities affect water quality [1][2][3]. Furthermore, the geology of the area, the soil condition, and contamination through seepage also contribute to alterations in the quality and availability of water [1,4]. ...
... Additionally, anthropogenic and animal activities affect water quality [1][2][3]. Furthermore, the geology of the area, the soil condition, and contamination through seepage also contribute to alterations in the quality and availability of water [1,4]. ...
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Epidemiological evidence for health benefits from improved water and sanitation in developing countries
  • S A Esrey
  • J-P Habichat
Esrey S.A. and Habichat J-P. Epidemiological evidence for health benefits from improved water and sanitation in developing countries. Epidemiological Reviews Oxford University Press, 8, pp. 117-128, 1986.
Combating waterborne disease at the household level / International Network to Promote Household Water Treatment and Safe Storage, World Health Organization, NLM classi fication: WA 675
WHO, Combating waterborne disease at the household level / International Network to Promote Household Water Treatment and Safe Storage, World Health Organization, NLM classi fication: WA 675, pp 7-34, 2007.